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A paper on


Submitted by

• Miss.Komal P. Banne.


• Miss.Ashwini G. Hingmire


Submitted to





• Abstract

• Introduction

• FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems)

• Shunt compensation

• SVC(Static Var Compensators)

• STATCOM(Static Synchronous Compensator)

• Series compensation

• TCSC(Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator)

• SSSC(Static Synchronous Series Capacitor)

• UPFC(Unified Power Flow Controller):

• HVDC(High Voltage Direct Current Transmission )

• Rectyfing/inverting system

• Compotents of rectyfing/inverting systems

• Key Benefits

• Disadvantages

• Applications

• Conclusions

• References



Submitted by
Miss.Komal P. Banne. Miss.Ashwini G. Hingmire.
T.E.( Electrical)
RIT Institute of technology, Rajaramnagar ,
Incorporation of power electronics in the power system gives out two important applications in
the transmission system, like FACTS & HVDC technology. This increases efficiency and reliability of
the transmission system with improvement in power system stability. This paper focuses on the issues
and benefits of applying FACTS & HVDC to AC power systems. An overview of how series connected
and combined Series/shunt connected FACTS configurations are studied in an ac system is presented.
Introductions to the basic circuits of several FACTS controllers are provided with a focus on their
system performance characteristics. Specifically, the TCSC, SSSC, and UPFC (or CSC) is presented.
The basic performance attributes of several FACTS controllers are presented. There is introduction to
HVDC transmission system with its benefits & limitation. Introductions to various configuration of
HVDC transmission like monopolar, bipolar,tripole & back to back coupling system & its application to
AC network.

Keywords: FACTS, Shunt compensation device, SVC, STATCOM, Series compensation device, TCSC,
SSSC, UPFC, HVDC, Monopolar, Bipolar, Back to Bac, tripole.

Objective functions of power sector are to generate at minimum cost & to transmit at minimum
losses So, the use of flexible ac transmission system (FACTS) devices to improve the power transfer
capability in a high voltage transmission line is of greater interest these days. With the development of
modern power systems, it becomes very important to control power flow along transmission corridor.
The encient practices are replaced by more recent developments in electric power industry. The desire
to find solution in power transmission problems & limitation led to focuss technological developments
under the flexible AC transmission system(FACTS).


Improved utilization of the existing power system is provided through the application of
advanced control technologies FACTS & HVDC; provide proven technical solutions to address these
new operating challenges being presented today. Basic types compensation techniques included are
series compensation, shunt compensation & series- shunt compensation. FACTS devices has the ability
to improve the utilization of the existing transmission system. the earlier generation of power electronics
systems that utilize line-commutated thyristor technology for Static Var Compensators (SVC) and
Thyristor Controlled Series Compensators (TCSC). Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC),
Unifiled Power Flow Controller(UPFC) are also more advanced controllers included in FACTS
HVDC technology is now mature, reliable & accepted all over the world. This technology
provide advanced solutions as cost-effective alterative to new transmission line construction.It has been
proved that AC is better from generation & utilization point of view while DC is preferable for
transmission over long distances. For long-distance distribution, HVDC systems are less expensive and
suffer lower electrical losses. For shorter distances, the higher cost of DC conversion equipment
compared to an AC system may be warranted where other benefits of direct current links are useful.
Practical manipulation of DC voltages only became possible with the development of high power
electronic devices such as mercury arc valves and later semiconductor devices, such as thyristors,
insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), high power capable MOSFETs(power metal–oxide–
semiconductor field-effect transistors) and gate turn-off thyristors (GTOs).Different configurations used
in HVDC technology discussed here are monopolar link, bipolar link, back-to-back etc.

FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems) :

At present, power systems are highly complex and are typically composed of thousand of buses
and hundreds of generators. New installations of power system equipment and facilities are primarily
determined based economic and environmental considerations. In addition, new transmission lines are
expensive and take considerable amount of time to build and put in operation. Given these conditions, in
order to meet ever increasing power demands, electric utilities must rely on power export/import
arrangements through existing transmission system. The current market environment also promotes the
maximum utilization of existing facilities and favors power exchange from neighboring countries. These
situations have resulted in an increased possibility of transient, oscillatory and voltage instability, which
are now brought into concerns in many utilities both in planning and operation states. Moreover, the


trend of the re-regulated power system operation has caused some other problems, such as congestion of
transmission line corridors.
The recent development and use of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) in power
transmission system have led to many applications not only to improve the stability of the existing
power network but also to provide operating flexibility to the power system. FACTS controllers,
developed by Electric Power Research (EPRI) and Westinghouse Electric Corporation (Westinghouse),
help utilities meet both the growing demand for electric power and the emerging challenges of open
transmission access. The new devices, coupled with better computer and communications technology,
offer the potential for enhanced system control both during the steady state operation and especially
following system disturbance.
A Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) is a system composed of static
equipment used for the AC transmission of electrical energy . It is meant to enhance controllability and
increase power transfer capability of the network. It is generally a power electronics based system.
FACTS devices are defined by the IEEE as “alternating current transmission system
Incorporating power electronic-based and other static controllers to enhance controllability and
increase power transfer capability”.
Main objectives of such devices can be restated as follows:
- To increase the power transfer capability of the transmission networks
- To provide direct control of power flow over designated transmission routes.
- To improve the power system stability (Voltage, transient, dynamic stability)
Applying Flexibility to the Electric Power System,the power industry term FACTS covers a
number of technologies that enhance the security, capacity and flexibility of power transmission
systems. FACTS solutions enable power grid owners to increase existing transmission network capacity
while maintaining or improving the operating margins necessary for grid stability. As a result, more
power can reach consumers with a minimum impact on the environment, after substantially shorter
project implementation times, and at lower investment costs - all compared to the alternative of building
new transmission lines or power generation facilities.
The two main reasons for incorporating FACTS devices in electric power systems are:
- raising dynamic stability limits
- provide better power flow control.
There are many FACTS controllers currently available in utilities. Generally, FACTS devices are


divided into three categories:

1.Shunt devices: SVC and STATCOM
2.Series devices: TCSC & SSSC
3.Shunt-series devices: UPFC
Dynamiv shunt compensation:

fig1: Shunt compensation

Shunt compensation is of two types:

Shunt capacitive compensation:

This method is used to improve the power factor. Whenever an inductive load is connected to the
transmission line, power factor lags because of lagging load current. To compensate, a shunt capacitor is
connected which draws current leading the source voltage. The net result is improvement in power

Shunt inductive compensation:

This method is used either when charging the transmission line or when there is very low load at
the receiving end. Due to very low or no load –very low current flows through the transmission line.
Shunt capacitance in the transmission line causes voltage amplification (Ferranti Effect). The receiving
end voltage may become double the sending end voltage (generally in case of very long transmission
lines). To compensate, shunt inductors are connected across the transmission line.


FACTS in transmission systems involves dynamic devices of SVC and STATCOM type. Both
use power semiconductors to control the exchange of Mvar over a shunt connection with the grid. They
can counteract event the most rapid voltage transients that will appear in the grid and consequently
reduce the risk of serious voltage depressions and/or voltage collapse.

SVC(Static Var Compensators):

Shunt-connected static var compensators (SVCs) are used extensively to control the AC voltage
in transmission networks. Power electronic equipment, such as the thyristor controlled reactor (TCR)
and the thyristor switched capacitor (TSC) have gained a significant market, primarily because of
well-proven robustness to supply dynamic reactive power with fast response time and with low
The purpose of the SVCs is to provide the AC transmission system with very fast and accurate
reactive power compensation. This will improve the transient as well as steady state voltage
control in the system.

fig 2 : SVC fig 3: operation of SVC

Prior to development of SVC, the adjustment of voltage in transmission system, other than
generator and synchronous compensator, was made possible only by mechanically switched shunt
reactors and capacitors. The switching of shunt reactors and capacitors is normally crude, causing abrupt
voltage changes along with voltage and current transient. The SVC, on the other hand, provides rapid
and fine adjustment of voltage, which is desirable in power system control and operation. From the
system point of view, SVC is a shunt connected static Var generator/load whose output is adjusted to
exchange capacitive or inductive current so as to maintain or control specific power system variables.
SVC is similar to a synchronous compensator in that it is used to supply or absorb reactive power but


without rotating part. It operates similar to an automatic voltage regulator system to set and maintain a
target voltage level.
Typically, the power system control variable controlled by SVC is the terminal bus SVC is
composed of a controllable shunt reactor and shunt capacitor(s), as shown in Figure.Total susceptance of
SVC can be controlled by firing thyristors in an appropriate angle range, typically 900~1800.
Consequently, it represents the controller with variable impedance that is changed with the firing angle
of TCR. The Terminal or V-I Characteristics of SVC is illustrated in Figure 4.

fig 4 :V-I characteristics of SVC

During the normal operation, SVC can control the total susceptance according to the terminal
voltage. However, at limits, minimum or maximum susceptance, SVC behaves like a fixed capacitor or
fixed inductor. At point Bmax, all thyristor switched capacitor are switched on, with SVC providing
rated capacitive current at specified voltage. At point Bmin, the thyristor-controlled reactor is fully
switched on, and all thyristor switched capacitor off to give inductive current at a defined voltage. SVC
can immediately provide reactive power support when the system has voltage problem due to a trip of an
important generator or transmission line. In some applications, it can be used as an aid to improve
stability; SVC can perform the duty of providing rapidly controlled Var’s more appropriately during the
first angle swing and thus, by maintaining the voltage, inherently improve transient stability. Static VAR
compensator (SVC). Most common SVCs are:

o Thyristor-controlled reactor (TCR): reactor is connected in series with a bidirectional

thyristor valve. The thyristor valve is phase-controlled. Equivalent reactance is varied
o Thyristor-switched reactor (TSR): Same as TCR but thyristor is either in zero- or full-
conduction. Equivalent reactance is varied in stepwise manner.
o Thyristor-switched capacitor (TSC): capacitor is connected in series with a bidirectional
thyristor valve. Thyristor is either in zero- or full- conduction. Equivalent reactance is
varied in stepwise manner.

o Mechanically-switched capacitor (MSC): capacitor is switched by circuit-breaker. It aims

at compensating steady state reactive power. It is switched only a few times a day.

STATCOM(Static Synchronous Compensator):

The steady-state characteristics of the STATCOM are similar to those of a rotating synchronous
compensator but with no inertia, so that its response is basically instantaneous and it does not
significantly alter the existing system impedance; the latter is an advantage over Static var
Compensators (SVCs). In its simplest form, the STATCOM is made up of a coupling transformer, a
voltage-sourced inverter and a dc capacitor. In this arrangement, the steady-state power exchange
between the device and the ac system is mainly reactive.

The static synchronous compensator (STATCOM), previously referred to as a Static

Synchronous Condenser (STATCON) is based on a solid state synchronous voltage source that is
analogous to an ideal synchronous machine without rotating mass. It generates a balanced set of
sinusoidal voltages at the fundamental frequency with rapidly controllable amplitude and phase angle.
As shown in Figure 4, STATCOM is the voltage-source converter, which converts a DC input voltage
into AC output voltage at fundamental frequency in order to compensate the active and reactive power
needed by the system. The reference signals Qref and Pref can control the amplitude V and phase angle
β of output voltage, respectively Varying the amplitude of output voltage can control the reactive power
exchange between the inverter and the AC system.

Figure 6:Generalized synchronous voltage source fig 5 : A functional model of the

If amplitude of output voltage is increased above that of AC system voltage, the inverter
generates reactive power for the AC system. If amplitude of the output voltage is decreased below that


of the AC system, the inverter absorbs the reactive power. If output voltage is equal to the AC system
voltage, the reactive power exchange is zero. The real power exchanges between the inverter and the AC
system can be controlled by altering the phase angles between the inverter output and the AC system
voltages. The inverter supplies real power to the AC system if the inverter output voltage is made to lead
the corresponding AC system voltage. Conversely, the inverter absorbs real power from the AC system,
if the inverter output voltage is made to lag the AC system voltage.

fig 7: V-I characteristic of STATCOM

The controller can provide both capacitive and inductive compensation and is able to control
output current over the rated maximum capacitive or inductive range independent of the AC system
voltage. It can provide full capacitive output current at any practical system voltage. This is in contrast
to the SVC which can supply only a diminishing output current with decreasing system voltage as
determined by the designed maximum equivalent capacitive admittance. This type of controller is,
therefore, more effective than the SVC in providing transmission voltage support and the expected
stability improvements. In general, a reduction of more than 50 % in the physical size of installation can
be expected from STATCOM compared to SVC. Also, for steady state reactive support, a STATCOM is
capable of supporting higher loads than what would be possible with a SVC of comparable MVar rating.
A capacitor is used to maintain dc voltage to the inverter. The inverter itself keeps the capacitor
charged levels. Thus, by controlling the inverter output voltage lead or lag with respect to the ac system
voltage, the capacitor voltage can be decreased or increased, respectively, to control the reactive power
output of the device. When the inverter voltage leads the bus voltage, the capacitor supplies active
power to the system, reducing its voltage; on the other hand, when the inverter voltage lags the bus
voltage, the capacitor is charged by consuming active power from the system. In steady-state, the output
voltage of the inverter slightly lags the ac system voltage, so that the inverter absorbs a small amount of
real power from the ac system to replenish its internal losses and, thus, keep the capacitor voltage


Series compensation:
Series Compensation is a well established technology that primarily is used to reduce transfer
reactances, most notably in bulk transmission corridors. The result is a signifcant increase in the
transmission system transient and voltage stability. Series Compensation is self regulating in the sense
that its reactive power output follows the variations in transmission line current, a fact that makes the
series compensation concept extremely straightforward and cost effective. In series compensation, the
FACTS is connected in series with the power system. It works as a controllable voltage source. Series
inductance occurs in long transmission lines, and when a large current flow causes a large voltage drop.
To compensate, series capacitors are connected. Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitors adds another
controllability dimension, as thyristors are used to dynamically modulate the ohms provided by the
inserted capacitor. This is primarily used to provide inter-area damping of prospective low frequency
electromechanical oscillations, but it also makes the whole Series Compensation scheme immune to
Subsynchronous Resonance (SSR).

fig8:nolosstransmission Line fig 9 : Series compensation

Examples of FACTS for series compensation (schematic)

• Static synchronous series compensator (SSSC)

• Thyristor-controlled series capacitor (TCSC)
• Thyristor-controlled series reactor (TCSR)
• Thyristor-switched series capacitor (TSSC)
• Thyristor-switched series reactor (TSSR)


TCSC(Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator):

TCSC controllers use thyristor-controlled reactor (TCR) in parallel with capacitor segments of
series capacitor bank. The basic structure and stability model of the device are shown in Figure 10 and
11, respectively. The combination of TCR and capacitor allow the capacitive reactance to be smoothly
controlled over a wide range and switched upon command to a condition where the bi-directional
thyristor pairs conduct continuously and insert an inductive reactance into the line. For operation in the
capacitive region, the maximum voltage constrains operation, whereas inductive operation is limited by
the maximum firing delay (α). Between these constraints is an additional limiting characteristics related
to harmonics, which can cause additional heating in the surge reactor and thyristors.

Figure10 : Basic structure of TCSC Figure 11 :Stability model of TCS

SSSC(Static Synchronous Series Capacitor):

The solid-state synchronous voltage source employing an appropriate DC to AC inverter with
gate turn-off (GTO) thyristor can be used for series compensation of transmission lines. One of the
equipment that can achieve this task is SSSC. The SSSC is similar to the STATCOM as illustrated in
Figure 12, as it is based on a DC capacitor fed VSI that generates a three-phase voltage at fundamental
frequency, which is then injected in a transmission line through a transformer connected in series with
the system.


Figure 12 :Basic structure of SSSC

The main control objective of the SSSC is to directly control the current, and indirectly the
power, lowing through the line by controlling the reactive power exchange between the SSSC and the
AC system. The main advantage of this controller over a TCSC is that it does not significantly affect the
impedance of the transmission system and, therefore, there is no danger of having resonance problem.
To understand the device more, some explanations are expressed related to its main concept and
fundamentals. From the Figure 12, the solid-state voltage source produces an appropriate voltage at the
fundamental AC system frequency, in series with the line to partially cancel the voltage drop. The output
of the solid-state synchronous voltage source is locked with a lagging relationship to the line current and
injected in series with the line. If the magnitude of the injected voltage is made proportional to that of
the line current, a series compensation equivalent to that provided by a series capacitor at the
fundamental frequency is obtained.

UPFC(Unified Power Flow Controller):

It is well known that UPFC is a powerful and versatile concept for power flow control that has
capability of changing power flow. The rapid and almost instantaneous responses make it suitable for
many applications requiring effective steady-state power flow control and/or transient and dynamic
stability improvement. The UPFC consists of two identical voltage-source inverters: one in shunt and
the other one in series with the line; the general scheme is illustrated in Figure 10 Two inverters, namely
shunt inverter and series inverter, which operate via a common DC link with a DC storage capacitor,
allow UPFC to independently control active and reactive power flows on the line as well as the bus
voltage. Active power can freely flow in either direction between the AC terminals of the two inverters
through the DC link. Although, each inverter can generate or absorb reactive power at its own AC
output terminal, they cannot internally exchange reactive power through DC link. The VA rating of the
injected voltage source is determined by the product of the maximum injected voltage and the maximum
line current at which power flow is still provided.


Figure 13 :UPFC configuration

The shunt inverter provides local bus voltage control when operated by itself as a STATCOM.
When operated in conjunction with the series inverter, the shunt inverter has two functions:
− To control bus voltage by reactive power injection to the power system
− To supply active power to the series inverter via the DC link for series flow control.
HVDC(High Voltage Direct Current Transmission ):
The fundamental process that occurs in an HVDC system is the conversion of electrical current
from AC to DC (rectifier) at the transmitting end, and from DC to AC (inverter) at the receiving end.
The most popular way to transmission energy are AC transmission lines. Despite many
advantages of AC transmission, in some conditions better is DC transmission, which demand presence
of high-voltage
Power does not rely only from voltage, but is equal of voltage times current.
For a given power a low voltage require a higher current and a higher voltage requires a lower
current. However, since metal conducting wires have a certain resistance, some power is wasted, and
transfer as heat. The power losses in a conductor are proportional to the square of current and resistance
of conductor.
Power is also proportional to voltage, so for given power level, higher voltage let decrease a
current level. Higher level of voltage, give us also lower power loss. Power loss can be also reduced by
decreasing resistance e.g. by increasing diameter of conductor, but it’s demand higher economical High
voltage transmission is used to reduce lost of power, but it cannot be used for lightning system and
supplying motors. High voltage level has to be adjust to receivers. In AC are using transformers which
decreasing or increasing voltage to required level. In DC does not exist such possibility.
In AC voltage conversion is simple, and demand little maintenance. Further three-phase
generator is superior to DC generator in many aspects. Those reasons causes that AC technology is
today common in production, transmission and distribution of electrical energy. However alternative
current transmission has also drawback which can be compensate in DC links. It’s the main reason why
DC technology is chosen instead AC:


- inductive and capacitive elements of lines put limits to the transmission capacity and transmission
is not possible transmission between two points of different current frequency Therefore electrical
engineers research and applied DC technology which doesn’t have such limitation.
Rectyfing/inverting system:

fig14: rectyfing/inverting system

There are three ways of achieving conversion
1.Natural Commutated Converters Natural commutated converters are most used in the HVDC
systems as of today. The component that enables this conversion process is the thyristor,
which is a controllable semiconductor that can carry very high currents (4000 A) and is able
to block very high voltages (up to 10 kV). By means of connecting the thyristors in series it is
possible to build up a thyristor valve, which is able to operate at very high voltages (several
hundred of kV).The thyristor valve is operated at net frequency (50 hz or 60 hz) and by means
of a control angle it is possible to change the DC voltage level of the bridge. This ability is the
way by which the transmitted power is controlled rapidly and efficiently.
2.Capacitor Commutated Converters (CCC).:An improvement in the thyristor-based
commutation, the CCC concept is characterised by the use of commutation capacitors inserted
in series between the converter transformers and the thyristor valves. The commutation
capacitors improve the commutation failure performance of the converters when connected to
weak networks.
3.Forced Commutated Converters. :This type of converters introduces a spectrum of
e.g. feed of passive networks (without generation), independent control of active and reactive
power, power quality. The valves of these converters are built up with semiconductors with
the ability not only to turn-on but also to turn-off. They are known as VSC (Voltage Source
Converters). Two types of semiconductors are normally used in the voltage source converters:
the GTO (Gate Turn-Off Thyristor) or the IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor). Both of


them have been in frequent use in industrial applications since early eighties.

Compotents of rectyfing/inverting systems:

HVDC using mercury arc rectifiers but the most modern way are thyristors. Thyristor is a
solid- state semiconductor, similar to the diode, but has particular property in control of AC
cycle. The insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) is simpler and cheaper way of control.
Rectifying and inverting systems usually use the same devices. At the AC end a set of
transformers, often three physically separate single-phase transformers, isolate the station from
the AC supply, to provide a local earth, and to ensure the correct eventual DC voltage. The
output of these transformers is then connected to a bridge rectifier formed by a number of valves.
The basic configuration uses six valves, connecting each of the three phases to each of the two
DC rails. However, with a phase change only every sixty degrees, considerable harmonics
remain on the DC rails. An enhancement of this configuration uses 12 valves (often known as a
twelve-pulse system). The AC is split into two separate three phase supplies before
transformation. One of the sets of supplies is then configured to have a star (wye) secondary, the
other a delta secondary, establishing a thirty degree phase difference between the two sets of
three phases. With twelve valves connecting each of the two sets of three phases to the two DC
rails, there is a phase change every 30 degrees, and harmonics are considerably reduced.[1]. In
elements which take share in conversion, are applied filters which limit harmonic in DC cycle.

fig 14 :Monopolar
In the most popular configuration - monoplar, one terminal of rectifier is connected with
the ground. Second terminal with potential another than ground, is connected with transmission
line. Current flows in the earth between electrodes two stations when not metallic conductor is


installed. It’s a single wire earth return type of configuration. If not exist return conductor,
configuration may gives such problems:
- corrosion because long underground objects (e.g. pipelines),
- submerged return electrodes may participate in chemistry reaction
- unbalanced current may disturbed magnetic field and influent on navigations ships equipment.
Presence of return wire can eliminate such effects. Those line has to be connected between two
ends of monopolar transmission line. Second conductor is applied in depending on economical,
technical and environmental factors. In the future will spread bipolar systems. Modern
monopolar systems for pure overhead lines carry typically 1500 MW. If underground or
underwater cables are used the typical value
is 600 MW

Modern HVDC links are as a rule, bipolar.In this configurations, is used two wires with
the same potential as ground, and opposite polarity The convertors valves at each terminal are
connected in series. The mid point at each end is grounded. Convertors act for conversion from
AC to DC or from DC to AC. In bipolar transmission a pair of conductors is used, each at a high
potential with respect to ground, in opposite polarity. Since these conductors must be insulated
for the full voltage, transmission line cost is higher than a monopole with a return conductor.

Figure 15 : Bipolar HVDC Systems

There are a number of advantages to bipolar transmission which can make it the attractive


1) Under normal load, negligible earth-current flows, as in the case of monopolar

transmission with a metallic earth-return. This reduces earth return loss and
environmental effects.

2) When a fault develops in a line, with earth return electrodes installed at each end of the
line, approximately half the rated power can continue to flow using the earth as a return
path, operating in monopolar mode.

3) Since for a given total power rating each conductor of a bipolar line carries only half the
current of monopolar lines, the cost of the second conductor is reduced compared to a
monopolar line of the same rating.

4) In very adverse terrain, the second conductor may be carried on an independent set of
transmission towers, so that some power may continue to be transmitted even if one line
is damaged.

5) A bipolar system may also be installed with a metallic earth return conductor.

6) Bipolar systems may carry as much as 3000 MW at voltages of +/-533 kV. Submarine
cable installations initially commissioned as a monopole may be upgraded with
additional cables and operated as a bipolar.

Back to back:

The configuration of a back to back HVDC coupling system is illustrated in figure. The two ac
networks are coupled by a back to back convertor. The rectifier & inverter are connected to form
a dc loop. There is no dc transmission line. A dc smoothing reactor is connected in the dc loop.
Back to back coupling stations are generally designed for bipolar operation only & the return
earth is, therefore, not provided. In such cases, the main dc loop is earthed at a single point
between the rectifier & the invertors to provide a reference earth on dc side.


System with transmission line is the most common configuration. In this structure two inverter or
stations are connected by powerline. This system is applied in long lines, unsynchronized grids
and underwater connections.
current modulating control. It’s new idea of transmission DC (since 2004). This structure
based on two circuit which work as bipole and third wire which operate as parallel monopole.
Parallel monopole relive current in periods from other pole. Bipole wires are loaded for few
minutes. In tripole system can be carry higher current. Tripole system let
pick up about 80% transferred power than AC lines.
Key Benefits:

• Independent control of the AC voltage and frequency in the two interconnected AC

• Fast, accurate, fully-controllable Power Flow.
• The Operator or automatic controller determines how much power flows via the link.
• Can be used to assist one (or even both) of the ac networks (e.g. power system damping).
• No increase in the system’s short circuit level. .
• Eliminates the need to build new plants and reduces environmental impact.
• Improves optimization of daily and seasonal costs.
• return losses and environmental effect are reduced.
• under sea connections, stabilizing AC grid
• power transmission and stabilization between unsynchronized AC distribution system
• connection generating plants remote from power grid
• connection between countries with different current frequency/voltage
• synchronize AC produced by renewable energy sources
• Long underwater lines have a high capacitance. In AC transmission is required process of
charging and discharging,
• what is causes of power losses. HVDC has minimize this effect. In AC lines occurs also
dielectric losses.


Disadvantages :
• disadvantages HVDC we can include conversion, switching and control. Static
converters are expensive. In short distances losses in static inverter may be even bigger
than in AC transmission. In the future static converters will be replaced by thirystors.
• In DC system controlling of multiterminal configuration is quite hard, because required
good communication between terminals. Also circuit-breakers are difficult than AC.

HVDC system can connected unsynchronized grids, therefore such lines very often are
natural boundaries between countries. DC line is also meeting in places where is require
undersea transmission (e.g. wind farm) and between two long distant points. From such reasons
was built grids e.g. in Siberia, Canada, Australia or Scandinavia. Problem of synchronized AC
because of different frequency system occur e.g. in Japan, North America, South American
(enormous hydroelectric power plant) – between Brazil and Paraguay In Europe the most lines
are between UK, Scandinavia and continental Europe.
With the history of more than three decades and widespread application in recent years,
FACTS & HVDC has established itself as a proven and mature technology. The operational
flexibility and controllability that, they have offer will be one of the most important tool for the
system operator in the changing utility environment. In view of the various power system limits,
FACTS & HVDC provides the most reliable and efficient solution. Application of FACTS for
stability improvement will be of great concern because of the series of blackouts that has
occurred in recent years. FACTS also help to better utilize the existing transmission resources,
where the utilities are facing the problem of transmission expansion because of the strict
environmental constraints. This all indicates that there is a great potential for its application in
the years to come. On other hand, HVDC is key option for long bulk power transmission, for
interconnection between two or more ac system, for asynchronous tie substation & also for
submarine as underground cable transmission. The modern HVDC replaces many EHV AC
transmissions having lot of advantages. HVDC provide superior control & can be modified for
frequency control of ac network & damping control for improved stability of ac networks


1.Power System Analysis by Ashafaqu Husain.
2.Comparison of shunt capacitor, SVC and STATCOM in static voltage stability margin
3.How FACTS Controllers Benefit AC Transmission Systems
John J. Paserba, Fellow, IEEE