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SPRINKLER DESIGN COURSE 01 NOT! ‘SWINBURNE COLLEGE OF TAFE in conjunction with RICHARD OLIVER RISK MANAGERS PTy Ltp Incorporated in Victoria PRINCIPAL The principal capable of ¢ carrying out set out in vai on similar fir} as AS 2118. hand books. DESIGN OBJECTIVES )BJECTIVES objective of the sprinkler designer is to produce a design which is pntrolling a foreseeable fire until the public fire service arrives. In is objective the designer needs to use the principles of fire engineering lious text books and the results of fire tests which had been carried out loads. These are often summarised in the relevant design codes such It must be remembered that design codes are not intended as design In the same way that a person with a thorough knowledge of the road ules would Rot be capable of driving a vehicle, the sprinkler designer cannot rely simply on a gl ‘The general 1. Suffici This i report NFPA| standa} occupa publis! New These param using is not the st such even pi by all areas the sp) design| od knowledge of the Australian Standard. riteria for meeting the principal objective are as follows; nt Water To Control The Fire formation can be obtained from sections 9.1, 10.1 and 11.1 of AS 2118, of actual fire tests, overseas standards such as NFPA 13, NFPA 231, 23lc, other NFPA standards relating to specific occupancies, FM ‘ds such as Data Sheet 3-26 or other data sheets referring to specific Incies, other American insurance company literature such as produced by ed by the Loss Prevention Council and rules 701, 801 and 901 of the lealand Sprinkler Code NZS 4541. IRI : Kemper insurance companies, rule 1123 of the British FOC rules are just some of the sources which can be used to establish design ters for controlling a fire in a given commodity. The problem with he list given in the Australian Standard is that sometimes a commodity |classified and therefore a density cannot be established. Alternatively, rage arrangement is one not covered in the Australian Standard. In ses it is quite satisfactory to go to an accepted overseas standard or frivate industry standard providing that agreement to using this standard arties concerned can be obtained. f operation than those set out in the Australian Standard, This leaves inkler designer in a dilemma, Where this becomes apparent to the r there is a moral and ethical obligation to try to establish the reasons It a be noted that some overseas standards require higher densities and why the overseas standard requires a higher water application rate than that in the Ai adopti be ad CD\SWINOTES-w7] stralian Standard. If there appears to be sound technical reasons for ig the higher water density, the client and regulatory authorities should ised and their input obtained. 2. Servicpability Requirements ‘The design adopted should fit in with the use of the building. For instance there South¢ when s little point in designing a sprinkler system in a building where say the mn half is Extra High Hazard and the Northern half is Ordinary Hazard lit is possible that in the future, the occupancy may change in the northern half to Extra High Hazard. Similarly it would be foolish to design the pi is kn es and pumps for a sprinkler system on an open floor plan basis when it m that partitions are likely to be installed in the future which will requirt the whole system to be re-calculated resulting in greater water demands than originally proposed. Under these circumstances larger pipes and bigger|water supplies can be specified at design stage even though the ultimate design|of the system is not known. 3. Allowance for Deterioration The calculation method for determining friction loss in pipes (the Hazen- Willia In sp Williat work the fi practi or 80 In the| greatly formula) is based on knowing the roughness co-efficient of the pipe. inkler work typically ordinary black steel pipe is used and a Hazen- s co-efficient of 120 is assumed for calculation work, Experimental as been carried out to determine the true values of this co-efficient and e of 120 represents an average for pipes about five years old. In fe the co-efficient varies from as high as 150 for new pipe to as low as 60 for very old pipe. Hazen-Williams formula, the factor C is raised to the power 1.85 which exaggerates any error in estimating the C co-efficient. It is well known from ¢xperimental work that the value of C declines with age of the pipe resultil needs the bul 4. Chany The height] note of the of the| g in increased friction losses. Therefore at design stage some allowance 10 be made for future deterioration unless it can be safely assumed that Hlding will be demolished after about five years. s in Storage Height stralian Standard AS 2118 makes reference to future changes in storage in a footnote to Table 11.3.2 A and B. This footnote is an advisory ly and does not form part of the standard. It suggests that regardless Istorage height proposed, the designer should assume that the full height building will be used for storage and increase the sprinkler densities accordingly. Over the life of the building this is invariably more economical than down Remember, Australian Standard is not sufficient o1 CD\SWINOTESny wing to make a major alteration to the pipes and the pumps ten years he track. fhe system MUST work. Simply conforming to the letter of the own. It is quite pr Standard and sible to design a system which complies totally with the Australian et does not meet any of the criteria of the principal objective on the preceding pagb. Many such systems have been constructed. Successful op¢ration of the sprinkler system is an assumption which is often made when negotiating trade-offs with building authoritie: Where life safety is involved there is no ropm for cost cutting and working to minimum requirements in the hope that a worst c4se scenario will never eventuate. SECONDAR' There are a "laws of the be met by th not take prec OBJECTIVES umber of secondary objectives which are forced on the designer by the land" and normal commercial requirements. These objectives must also designer in addition to the principal objective. However they should idence over the principal objective. 1, Regulaory Compliance ‘The Ahstralian Standard AS 2118 is called up in most of the State building codes. be not an out In Victoria it is called up under Regulation 2710. However it should Jd that at the time of writing the Victorian Building Regulations calls up (dated version of AS 2118 ie. the 1982 edition as revised up to amendment number 2. A strict interpretation of the building regulations means the cui ‘There that any sprinkler system installed in the building cannot comply with ‘ent standard which is now on amendment 3. is little point in designing a sprinkler system which cannot be built. Therefpre acceptance by the regulatory authorities of the ultimate design is essentipll. 2. Minimhm Cost Someohe must pay for the sprinkler system to be built. will n the sp satisfa the for If it is too expensive it be built. There is little point in unnecessarily increasing the cost of finkler system where it is known that a cheaper alternative will perform ‘orily. Such additional costs are invariably passed on to consumers in of increased costs and we all wind up paying. There are a number of ways of legitimately reducing the cost of the sprinkler system, such as going to a grid pressu sharin} water CD\SWINOTES ied sprinkler system instead of a tree system, by making use of the jes available in the town mains rather than installing pumps and by the water supplies with other fire services instead of providing separate upplies. 3. Appeal rance ‘A number of commercial projects have to meet appearance objectives set by the art the ars hitect. Some examples are the type of sprinkler head involved where fhitect has selected a sprinkler head based on its appearance rather than its performance, sprinkler heads being mounted in the middle of ceiling tiles which lresults in sprinkler heads being spaced more closely and hence wasting some money. work pipe t pipe 4. Additif here it was exposed in the driveway to a car park. This required every be individually bent on a pipe bending machine so that the sprinkler lork would follow the curved layout of the driveway. In a fe known to the writer, the architect influenced the layout of the pipe nal Authority Requirements In some cases the Regulatory Authority imposes an extra requirement beyond that in| the code. One example would be where the authority is granting some trade Grade| trade fis. ‘They may require a better grade of water supply ie. going from a III to a Grade II water supply. If this is part of a legitimate life safety ff where safety features are being downgraded in some other area, the reliability of the sprinkler system must be increased. Another authority trade off is water The secondd monitoring of water supply valves, again to increase the reliability of the supply. ry objectives given above are always subordinate to the principal objective tha the system must work. However secondary objectives must also be complied wit CD\SWINOTES in full. STEP 1 - CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPANCY INTRODUCTION Before design work can commence on a sprinkler system, it is necessary to evaluate the level of to discharge minute. So suit the lazard that will exist in the building. Sprinkler systems can be designed ater at densities as low as 2.25 mm per minute to as high as 30 mm per fewhere within this range there is an adequate water application rate to 1d for the particular building involved. ‘The classification of occupancy is the first step in determining what water application rate is required. Sprinkler cofies typically group numbers of similar occupancies together into a particular cl4ss of hazard. All the occupanci treated the same way in re; in that particular class are then 1d to water application rates, spacing of sprinkler heads etc. The origin of the classification groupings in the Australian Standard are a bit of a mystery. it is thought that they are based partly on fire tests, partly on the judgement of the members of the standards committee and partly on tradition. It ‘must be renlembered that the first commercial sprinkler systems were constructed we per 120 years ago. Many of the classification groupings in the standards were prepar thirty or forty years ago and the reasons for these groupings have been lost over tim¢. AS 2118 CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPANCIES The Australian Standard breaks building occupancies into three main groups, these are; Extra Light Ordinary Hi Extra High ‘These three a) Extra This states, than jazard (ELH) rard (OH), and fazard (EHH) main hazard groups are further sub-divided as follows; Light Hazard Occupancies fategory is not sub-divided however a note at the bottom of the code that these classifications only apply where compartment sizes are less 26 sq. metres, Where compartment sizes exceed this amount, these occuphneies are considered Ordinary Hazard Category I. (CP\SWINOTES Db) Ordinjary Hazard Occupancies This Grou Grou Grouy Grouy lassification is broken into four main sub groups; I I rite III Special ‘The group number reflects the increasing degree of fire loading. co) — Extra| There Extra) Extra] The 11.1.3] Piled back High Hazard Occupancies are five sub categories in this class; IHigh Hazard - Process Risks High Hazard - High Piled Storage Risks of four types; Category I Category II Category III Category IV High Piled Storage Risks are subject to notes at the bottom of tables 2 (A) and 11.132 (B). Effectively these notes state that where High Storage is below a certain height then the occupancy classification reverts fo Ordinary Hazard Group III. The procedure for using the list of occupancies is to find an appropriate description of what goes section 2 of in the buildi purposes. OCCUPANG Sometimes 1 This applies| twenty years needs to be determining the authority cD \SWINOTES: on in the building and then search through the list of activities given in AS 2118 until one is found which matches exactly the activity taking place ig in question. This determines the classification of occupancy for design IES NOT LISTED IN SECTION 2.2 OF AS 2118 1e occupancy under consideration is not listed in the Australian Standard, to many industrial processes which have been developed in the last land some types of storage systems. In such cases, engineering judgement lused to determine the occupancy classifications. Where this method of Ithe occupancy classification is used it is essential that the agreement of having jurisdiction is obtained prior to commencing the design. As a basis fo -T- exercising engineering judgement, other similar standards can be used. ‘The Australiah Standard AS 2118 is based on British F.O.C. standards. Also the New Zealand Standard 4541 is based on the F.O.C. standard. Therefore when the occupancy is New Zealand] having jurisd| Occupancy ch of NZS 4541. If either the then a secon some occupa occupaney bal problem wit sounding sim “High Hazar Australian St Australian O roughly equi on. Where t next step ani ot listed in AS 2118, reference to the British F.O.C. standard or the Standard 4541 would probably be sufficient to convince the Authority lction to accept the occupancy classification given in those codes. assifications are listed in section 1200 of the F.O.C. code and part 201 .O.C. code or NZS 4541 do not list the occupancy you are looking for alternative is the American NFPA Standard 13. “This standard lists cies by a process description and also gives a method to classify the ‘ed on the type of goods stored and the storage heights involved. The using NFPA 13 is that the American occupancy standards, although lar to the Australian ones, re "Light Hazard’, "Ordinary Hazard” and ' with similar sounding sub-groupings, do not exactly match those of the ndard. As a guide, American Light Hazard is roughly equivalent to ldinary Hazard I or Ordinary Hazard Il, American Ordinary Hazard 1 is falent to Australian Ordinary Hazard Il or Ordinary Hazard III and so e American Code is used to determine occupancy, it pays to go to the determine the sprinkler operating area and design density as per the ‘American Cole and then check that against the design area and water density given in the Austral lian Code for the occupancy classification selected. If both densities and operating artas are similar, then there is no problem in using the American occupancy cl sification. UNUSUAL GASES, SPECIAL HAZARDS AND OCCUPANCIES NOT LISTED IN ANY CODE, In these case} an American technical maj publications reports are li Data sheets also a useful Kemper. In classification CD\SWINOTESi«4 , it may be necessary to resort to a fire test report or a data sheet from Insurance company. Fire test reports can be obtained by inspecting the pazines such as Fire Technology, published by the NFPA or various from the building research station in North Ryde, Sydney. Other fire test ted on data bases published by the US Bureau of Standards and others. for particular hazards published by American Insurance companies are ‘ource of information. Such companies include Factory Mutual, IRI and such cases there is no classification of occupancy as such, the occupancy is effectively the special hazard referred to in the data sheet. One proble: office is that that of an occupancy chessification, not yet co undertaking over the fro] superficially plastic milk| requiring th assessed by lift heights f¢ FUTURE C1 CONFIRMATION OF OCCUPANCY h which can arise if the design brief is given over the telephone or in the the client’s idea of the occupancy in his factory, may not be the same as Ixperienced fire engineer. Therefore before committing yourself to the is essential to visit the operation to be protected, or if it is cted, to visit a similar operation and confirm for yourself the type of lcarried out. It is quite common to arrive at a building with a large sign tt door indicating that it is a dairy products manufacturer (which would lindicate a very low hazard) only to walk inside and find a huge storage of crates which immediately indicates an Extra High Hazard potential maximum available sprinkler density. Similarly storage levels should be looking around the building and making inquiries about the capability of the forklifts rather than taking the plant manager’s word for it. HANGES It is worthwhile to sit down with the management of the organisation proposing to install the instance, in occupancy ¢| changing th piled rack st High Hazar| prinkler system to find out what are their plans in the future. For falling a shop in a high rise office building is sufficient to move the assification from Ordinary Hazard I to Ordinary Hazard Ill. Similarly, storage arrangements from on the floor storage in the factory to high rage could change the classification from Ordinary Hazard III to Extra Hl - Category 1 - 4 (depending on the material involved). As the occupancy classification is fundamental to designing the sprinkler system it is better to take into ac jount such changes at this stage rather than involve the owner in a costly alteration arjother year down the track. CD\SWINOTES+} ‘The building| pharmaceuti. EVIEW EXERCIS| for which you have received drawings is a distribution warehouse for a iil company. There is a small office section at the ground floor front. At least 50 p§reent is high bay double row rack storage to 6.0 metres. The remaind operation usil There are al high and 0.9 +t of the ground floor and all the mezzanine floor is the distribution ing flow through racks to 4.0 metres and block stacking to 2.4 metres. io a large number of metal shelf storage units approximately 2.4 metres metres wide on the mezzanine. Products storpd include paper products (nappies, sanitary pads, tampons) cardboard boxes contairjing drugs in small P.E. plastic bottles, plastic toys, cosmetics (no spray cans), giftwar Your task is (CD\SWINOTES mr and other chemist shop items. identify the occupancy classification for each section of the building. -10- STEP 2 - OBTAINING WATER SUPPLY DATA INTRODUCTION The comparison of sprinkler water demand with flows and pressures available from the public due to the t and receiving involves mal that the sup] rates require} ins is a step much further down the sprinkler design process. However ime lag between requesting information from the water supply authority it this step is usually considered early in the sprinkler design process. It fing an estimate of the likely water demand for the sprinkler system so ly authority can be requested to provide residual pressures at the flow PH. PUBLIC MAIN RETICULATION DRAWINGS Any request mains needs| important in supply for t mains. Son) individual pi trunk mains area in the to be made under consi photocopy o the most cor supply to th to the water supply authority for flows and pressures from the towns to be accompanied by some information to the authority. The most formation they need is which public mains you propose to take the water je sprinkler system from. In a public street there may be several town le of these mains may be general reticulation mains from which every perty will have a tapping for domestic purposes. Other mains may be hhich are for the purpose of moving large quantities of water from one ity to another. Often the water supply authority will not permit tapings from these trunk mains. To find out what the town mains are in the area jeration the water supply authority can be approached to provide a their reticulation plans for the area. It is usual in such cases to select venient street mains ie. the closest for consideration as a potential water sprinklers, However in the event that the nearest towns mains are too small (usually we would be looking for at least 150 mm diameter main), is may be necessary to (consider installing a private water main. REQUEST JO WATER SUPPLY AUTHORITY Most water The Metropy the appropri the speed authority th: is as a result of furnishin| requirement cp\swinores: supply authorities charge a fee to provide information on water supplies. itan Board of Works has a special form which is filled in and faxed to te one of four regional offices. A different fee is charged according to if response required. It is important to specify to the water supply t the flows and pressures under minimum conditions are required. This of Clause 4.10.1 (A) of AS 2118 which requires the main to be capable at all times of the day and night, the minimum pressure flow laid down for the system. To get some| hazard classi “le idea of the water flow rates at which residual pressures are required the ication can be used to obtain the flow rate for pre-calculated systems given in tabJes 9.2.1, 10.2.1 and 11.2.1 of the standard. These are the flow rates required for pre-calculated system as distinct from a full hydraulic system. PROOF TESTING OF WATER SUPPLIES Usually wate| mains. This various point} Sometimes pressures ard be extremel based on wat} supply authorities have a fair idea of residual pressures in their towns information is usually obtained by placing data logging equipment at in the town main network and then interpolating between these points. ever the public water supply authority gets it wrong and minimum in fact less than those quoted by the water supply authority. This can embarrassing if, for instance, pumps have been sized and purchased + authority information which is found to be wrong. The easiest way to check the water authority information is to conduct a flow test yourself. Us sometimes b such as the Fi hydrant on a quote the lod over the last are fairly co- in question 4 hially it is illegal to flow water from a public hydrant however this can done with the co-operation of an authority which does have permission, lire Brigade. In some parts of the world, fire authorities check every fire yearly basis, and it is possible to simply ring up the local Fire Brigade, nition of the fire hydrant and they can give the flows and pressures tested several years. If this information is not available most fire authorities pperative and will, on request, send the local brigade around to the site nd flow test the hydrant for you. If this approach is adopted, don’t forget to Adve the owner ofthe building that the Fire Brigade will be coming to the it premises as flee thinking If it is not pe question may can lead to a loss of production when all the employees down tools and here is a fire. ssible to test the public street hydrants in this manner, the property in have an internal hydrant system which, although illegal to operate, is better concealed from public view whilst illegal testing takes place, WHERE NO PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY EXISTS When there & no public water supply, water must be obtained from whatever is at hand. Under shores of a Standard sets| permanent w| prevent debri item of the introducing a these are cove CDSWINOTES wr some fortuitous circumstances the premises in question may be on the lake or a permanent river. Under these conditions the Australian lout the construction of pumping chambers in section 4.8.3. Use of such ter bodies is subject to the potential problem that screens used to being drawn into the pump can become blocked by rubbish etc. This fire protection equipment then becomes a maintenance problem {degree of unreliability. Another potential source of water is bore holes, ed in Appendix F to Australian Standard 2941. Again, bore hole nearby longer suitab -12- joles have the potential problem that someone else could drill a bore dnd depress the water table making the bore hole you have chosen, no Ip as a water supply SPACE FOR |TANKS If all else fails in the search for a water supply, you will have to resort to tanks. In this case you| should check out the site to see if there is a spot available to place tanks. This can cause problems in many types of buildings particularly where there is a council plahning requirement to provide a certain number of car parking spaces. You should t assume that because there is a large site with a relatively small building on it that there is plenty of room for a tank. Other potential problems are poor foundatipn conditions (a tank is a rather heavy item) and how the tank is to be filled. (CD\SWINOTES vo} -13- STEP 3 - PLOT SPRINKLER HEAD LOCATIONS SELECT SPRINKLER SPACING AS 2118 sels out the maximum floor area which can be covered by an individual sprinkler head. These limits are given in section 9.3 (Extra Light Hazard), 103 (Ordinary Hazard) and 11.3 (Extra High Hazard). These are nominally based on the water distritfution pattern of standard commercial sprinkler heads. It should be noted that the Ordinary Hazard area coverage limit is based upon the use of a conventional sprinkler hefd ie. one which places water on the ceiling as well as on the floor. Spray pattern spri}kler heads which are far more common than the conventional variety are capable of dovering a much larger area. In the U.S. where only spray pattern heads are permitt¢d to be used, the spacing per head for an Ordinary Hazard sprinkler system is infreased to 21 sq. metres whereas the Australian Standard only permits a maximum of 12 sq. metres. ‘The corresponding limits for the other hazard classes are 21 sq. metres for Extra Light Hazarfi and 9 sq. metres for Extra High Hazard, SELECTING ORIENTATION FOR RANGE PIPES In order to commence laying out the sprinkler heads it is necessary to decide which way the range pipes will run (either along or across the building). The reason is that sprinkler hefids are often layed out on a rectangular pattern rather than a square pattern. This leaves the choice of whether to put the range pipes close together and the sprinkle} heads further apart on the range pipes or the opposite. In Australialwhere a large proportion of the cost of installing a sprinkler system is on site labour fosts, it is usually more cost efficient to install the minimum number of range pipes| This will involve placing the sprinkler heads closer together on the range pipes| but fabrication of range pipes is done off site where machinery is available to|minimise the amount of man-time involved. On site fabrication work is extremely expensive. In deciding|which way the range pipes will run, knowledge of the outline of the building and the location of the sprinkler valves is required. Usually the sprinkler valves are Ipeated at the front of the building with the feed mains from the valves running doyn the building to the rear. ‘This means that the range pipes will be at right angles|to these feed mains. However other factors may influence the design. The location of sprinklers is strongly dependent upon the arrangement of structural members in|the roof. (CD\SWINOTES fe -14- It is often nefessary to run the range pipes parallel to the roof beams because the distribution of water from a sprinkler head can be influenced by the presence of beams close {o the head. Therefore sprinkler heads need to be kept away from beams. With|a little practice it usually becomes obvious fairly quickly which way the range pipes ‘will need to run, ‘The orientatidn of the range pipes is usually not influenced by the need to install the tree system of a gridded system. SPACING THE RANGE PIPES This is a simple process and involves taking the largest fire compartment dimension at right anglek to the orientation of the sprinkler range pipes and dividing it by the maximum spr|nkler spacing given in the code ie. 4.6 metres for Extra Light Hazard, 4 metres for Ordinary Hazard and 3.7 metres for Extra High Hazard, This usually works out to | number involving a fraction so the number of range pipes should then be rounded divided by t ARP {2 the nest whole number. The compartment dimension is then is number and this gives the actual range pipe spacing on the job ie. some number|slightly less than 4.6 metres, 4 metres or 3.7 metres. SPACING O! SPRINKLERS ON THE RANGE PIPES With the spafing of the range pipes known and the maximum permitted floor area coverage by ny individual sprinkler head known. It is possible to divide the sprinkler area coverage by the range pipe spacing to produce the maximum spacing on the lines, This then determines the number of sprinkler heads across the range pipes. Again this is psually a number with a fraction on the end so this must be rounded out to the next highest number. Dividing this number by the remaining dimension of the building gives the actual sprinkler spacing on the range pipes. MINIMUM. PRINKLER SPACING The code plapes a limit on the minimum spacing between sprinkler heads. This is to prevent a pl water spray adjacent heai instead of ev hpnomenon known as "skipping". "Skipping" occurs when, during a fire, from one sprinkler head prevents enough heat being built up at an i to stop that head activating. The result is every second head going off ry head, hence the terminology "skipping" where every second sprinkler head is skipped. The minimum sprinkler head spacings are given in Clause 5.3 of AS 2118 as 2 métres for all classes of occupancy. It should be noted that the spacing rules are sunmarised in two diagrams Fig. 5.1 and Fig. 5.2 of AS 2118. (CD\SWINOTES: SUPPLEME} Where build! head must bj 5.4.5. Also the roof at -s- NTARY HEADS Ing columns come within 600 mm of any sprinkler head, another sprinkler placed on the opposite face of the column. This is set out in Clause supplementary heads may be required in concealed spaces such as the jause 5.6. This e. The rules and requirements for this are set out in cavity see the ceiling and the floor above or the cavity between the ceiling and clause gener The only thi are overridd} requirement contains not non combu: consultants lly permits increased spacing of sprinkler heads in cavities. ig to watch out for when applying the rules in Clause 5.6 are that they n for Ordinary Hazard systems by Clause which modifies the of Clause 5.6 under the circumstances where the concealed space jing but water pipes, electric wiring, air conditioning trunking or other ible material. This is sometimes a cause of arguments between Ind contractors depending on who stands to gain financially by installing more sprinkler heads. Where the contractor is in line to obtain a variation to install additional combustible” the authority contained in sets out the cp\swinores: rinkler heads, sometimes an uncharitable interpretation of "non is used to justify the additional heads. If Clause is being used, having jurisdiction should make the interpretation on whether the items the concealed space are non combustible or not. The following example, rocess in a typical building for setting out sprinkler heads. -16- REVIEW EXERCISE - 2 Locate the sprinkler heads (ceiling only) on the drawings you have been given. (CD\SWINOTES | Industrial bu} i tad In this case purlins ie. AT EXAMPLE OF SPRINKLER LOCATION ilding 153.5 metres x 42 metres. Extra High Hazard. my) , | n 4 e2 i Typ S20 NK - it is easier to run ranges East-West as they can be clipped to building a i =] i | | sp wk lee rasp s 0 cD\SWINOTES: “18. 1. Range Pipe Spacing Buildirlg dimension at right angles to sprinkler lines = 153.5 metres Maximlim sprinkler spacing = 3.7 metres (11.3.2) No ranges = 153.5/3.7 = 41.48 - round off to 42 Range [pipe spacing - 153.5/42 = 3.65 metres 2. Head Spacing on Ranges Building dimension parallel to sprinkler lines = 42 metres Maximhim area coverage/head = 9 m? (11.3.1) Spacing on lines - 9/3.65 = 2.46 2.46 >/20 OK. 3. Adjustments According to the beam rules where beam depth exceeds 450 mm (5.4.4 para, 3) bealns are treated as walls. Try calculation based on compartment size 19.18 x1 42 m. 19.18 + 3.7 = 5.18 ranges round pff to 6 ranges range spacing = 19.18 + 6 = 3.2 metres approximately spacing on ranges = 9 + 3.2 = 2.81 metres 42 + 481 = 14.94 round pff to 15 heads exact spacing on ranges = 42.15 + 2.8 metres 28>20 OK. ‘Typical head layout per bay CD\SWINOTES wr -19- STEP 4 - PIPE WORK LAYOUT Although thd layout of the pipe work is often seen as being the design of the sprinkler sys the heads. governed by bm, in fact most of the design work has already been done in laying out Phe layout of the pipes feeding the heads is usually to a large extent, fhe requirement to fit in with the structure of the roof or ceiling and by the requirempnt of the code to limit the number of heads on any one system to less than 1000 fof an Ordinary Hazard or Extra High Hazard system or 500 for a Light Hazard Syst taken into Where there is any choice left in the matter after these items are Insideration, the objective of the designer is use a minimum amount of pipe and the fninimum amount of labour. FLAT ROOFED BUILDINGS Most industrial and commercial buildings fall into this category. These buildings use rib metal detk roofs typically with slopes of 1 or 2 degrees. As there is a certain amount of end in a sprinkler pipe, these sort of slopes are as good as flat. Currently, the most economical form of construction for these types of systems is a grid however| this only becomes economical when the width of the building is going to involve in e3 pipe diamet. make worthy {cess of 16 to 20 sprinkler heads. Above these limits the reduction in irs available through the inherently good hydraulic qualities of the grid hile savings in the cost. At around this width of the building and below, it is usually easier to build a tree system even though pipe diameters may be larger. ‘The most cofmmon form of tree system in a straight forward flat roof is a centre end feed system fe. fed from one end with the distribution pipe running down the centre of the building and range pipes of either side. It is also possible to have an end side arrangement|with a distribution pipe running down each side of the building and the range pipes pipes at the running towards the centre but with no connection between the range idge. This tends to be uneconomical on a flat roof building SLOPING ROOFED BUILDINGS These fall irfto two categories, the standard hip or gable roof and the south light or sawtooth r¢ difficult to done using the gable oi centre bene: . For these layouts the grid system is usually uneconomical because it is rap the range pipes around the ridge of the roof (although this can be |&F couplings). Where the roof is a straight forward single ridge roof of hip type it is usually most economical to run a range pipe down the th the ridge and drop the range pipes back towards the eaves. Where there is a lafge ridge vent such as in hot climates, a side feed arrangement may be more econofnical. This involves running distribution pipes down each side of the building and|running the range pipes up towards the ridge vent. (CD\SWINOTES og. With a sawto -20- th roof arrangement there are two possible sprinkler layouts. Both can be seen in ex{sting buildings around Australia so I assume they are both equally cost effective. Th first involves running a distribution pipe at the base of the sawtooth ie. below the valley gutter. The range pipes run up the slope of the roof and then terminate at fe peak above the south light window. With a building having a large number of along the bui fooths, this might mean 10 or 20 distribution pipes running parallel ing. Another arrangement is to run several distribution pipes at right angles to the line of sawtooths. S| cord of the underside of by risers of because of t purpose of in are common| warehouses i SUPPORT F In setting out layout of the building stru the roof purl anything up 1 significant. metres betwe| are usually distribution pport for these distribution pipes can usually be found on the bottom lsawtooth trusses. The range pipes are then clipped direct to the fhe roof ie, to the purlins and these are fed from the distribution pipes ying heights. Of the two types my preference is for the first which, fe shorter range pipe lengths is more amenable to alteration for the sreasing its density should the occupancy change. Such sprinkler systems ly considered in refurbishment projects such as turning old wool to offices ete. R PIPE WORK the distribution pipes which, to a large extent are, independent of the ange pipes, attention needs to be paid to the support available from the ture. With range pipes it is usually quite acceptable to attach them to ins as they weigh very little. With distribution pipes which could be 150 mm in diameter the weight of the pipe plus water becomes quite fodern industrial buildings typically involve large spans of over 15 to 20 -n stee! portal frames. ‘The light section rolled steel Z or C roof purlins juite heavily stressed. The Australian standard requires support for pe at between 5 & 6 metre intervals (7.15.6). Support for the distribution pipes can usually be achieved at the steel portal frames but these are too far apart to needs to be inserting addi In older buil often as the may also be| distribution damage. CD\SWINOTES wf ldequately support the pipe in total. Between the steel portals the pipe supported off the roof. This may involve the structural contractor in ional purlins specifically to support the distribution pipe. ings, roof and floor supports are usually closer although not always as or 6 metres required by the Code so supplementary support systems required in this type of building. Other constraints on support for ipe work systems are minimum head height and resistance to impact PIPE SIZINt 2 At this stage jin the design the pipe sizes are fairly irrelevant. Alll that is important is to make surp that every sprinkler head is connected to a pipe which is in turn connected to/a water supply. Sizing of the pes is done at the time of carrying out the hydraulic| calculations and is as simple as guessing the sizes totally. Some typical pipe work la (cD\SWINOTES» louts are attached in the following diagrams. Grid Tree Southlife roof ete thst Grid with outriggers Side feed tree ELT Typical high rise -22- REVIEW EXERCISE - 3 Decide on a bprinkler valve location and draw in the pipe layout on the sprinkler layout you haye done in exercise 2. CD\SWINOTES 7} 2B. STEP 5- HYDRAULIC CALCULATIONS INTRODUCTION Statistics have shown that most sprinkler systems which control fires, do so with one to two hea applications, is operating, In the design of sprinkler systems for industrial type it is usual to design the system for 18 to 30 heads in simultaneous operation, ‘The minimum design densities areas are specified in sprinkler codes such as AS 2118 testing or hil NFPA 13. These minimum areas have been established from full scale torial data. Aside from the size of the design area, there is also the question of shape and location. The required shape is generally rectangular however certain parameters usually apply. The location of this design area is based upon the hydraulically All sprinkle operation. application. square foot imost remote area. systems are designed upon a nominal density and area of sprinkler [This area of operation is known as the design area or the area of The sprinkler density , usually measured in gallons per minute, per f floor area or millimeters per minute per sq. metre is the flow required from a sprinkler head per unit area, For example if the sprinkler heads are spaced 3 metres x 3 metres, the area covered by each head is 9 sq. metres and the flow per sprinkler is 7.5 then the density per head is 7.5 mm. It is important to realise that what we are actually calculating is the flow from the most remote| the initial h This is due more heads sprinkler heads in our design area. It should be realised therefore that ads that open will deliver more water than our actual design density. the decaying characteristic of our water supplies which means that as jin the design area open, the friction loss through the system increases thus resulting in lower pressures and flows at the sprinklers until we achieve our design density over the operating area. It can be se sprinkler sys n from the above that neglecting friction losses, the water supply to a jem designed to give a given density over a specified area is simply the density multiplied by the design area. In real life, friction losses reduce the amount of water thal output over of water out the input po! design area. this uneven! water dema were shar} have about CD\SWINOTES +} can actually flow through the system and therefore to achieve a given he design area, more water is needed. As we must get the same amount lof the system as we put into it, the sprinklers in the design area closer to int, will discharge more water than those at the most remote ends of the This results in an uneven density over the design area. A measure of ss is the hydraulic imbalance. This is calculated by dividing the actual for the design area by the theoretical water demand assuming all heads ed at the minimum design density. ‘Typically most average installations yy, 20 percent efficiency. DISCHARGE 24. IFROM A SPRINKLER HEAD Discharge from a sprinkler head is a function of the sprinkler orifice, the physical characteristics|of the opening and the pressure at the sprinkler head. The theoretical flow through {n orifice can be expressed in terms of velocity and cross sectional area. ie. Q-= AW. Where |Q is flow A is cross sectional area v is vel Ipcity of the stream Converting tht cross sectional area and the stream velocity into equivalent formula ie, Area 2H Velocity head = 4 v2 3 The following equation is derived Q = 29.84 d{P" , where Q = USGPM d = inches & P = psi or Q = 01066 dyP" , where Q = Ipm d= mm & P = Kpa Since actual,| as opposed to theoretical, discharge from an orifice is affected by friction, turbi must be addejl; therefore Q Regardless of to the formulh; Q=KP CD\SWINOTESs lence and contraction of the water stream, a discharge co-efficient "C’ = 29.84 cd? YP’ (U.S. units) or Q = 0.066 cd*¥P" (metric units). the units used , for a given sprinkler head, this equation can be reduced Strictly speal normally be about in the increase in 25. jing the "K" varies slightly with the pressure at the outlet, but this can ignored. As a matter of interest the published "K" for a sprinkler head is ange of 275 to 300 kPa (40 - 45 psi). The actual "K" of a sprinkler head fhe "K" factor yields a higher flow but lower pressure. Conversely, is slightly te at lower pressures and slightly lower at higher pressures. An decreasing t FRICTION Friction loss have been different cha| is the Hazen} = 6.05 Q" Cs git Where As mention: happens _wh| turbulent flo} the Hazen- interior wall of "C" the | values are gi Unlined, cas Black steel Listed plasti "K" results in a lower flow and higher pressure. OSS OF WATER FLOWING IN THE PIPE lequations have been developed since the early 1700's. These equations ased upon imperical studies of pressure troughs through pipes with acteristics. The generally accepted friction loss equation in current use Williams formula; x10" P = _ loss of pressure per metre of pipe kPa/m. Q = flow rate Ipm d= pipe diameter ¢ = roughness co-efficient \d above this imperical formula has been shown to approximate what n fresh water flows through pipes at temperatures, pressures and rates normally experience in fire protection systems. In this equation, illiams co-efficient "C’, is a measure of the surface roughness on the lof the pipe. As can be seen from this relationship the higher the value er the friction loss. For the purpose of calculations, the following "C" Inerally used for pipe. iron or ductile iron 100 120 Cement lined cast iron or ductile iron 140 tube 150 150 Copper tube ‘These "C" values are one of the many approximations in a calculated system. The actual "C" vd ue of a new sprinkler system constructed with black steel is about 140 but with timg it may deteriorate to 120 or lower. cp\swinoTes: ELEVATION Changes in system. An column, As holding the water or 9.8 26- CHANGES levation must always be taken into account in calculating a sprinkler increase in elevation requires additional pressure to raise the water p head of water is developed the pressure at the base of the container fater increases, This increase in pressure is due to the weight of water ’4 per metre. When all sprinkler heads are assumed to be discharging above the rte in question, The rate of this increase is 0.433 psi for every foot of at the same sprinkler rise| When sprinkl under a pitcl in the calcula ALLOWANC| When water change in dit hydraulic cal an equal fric for normal ¢: losses have been documented by a number of authorities. standard fitti TYPES OF wel it is possible to ignore elevation changes until you reach the main Elevation changes can then be accounted for in the calculation. ler heads are discharging at different elevations, however (for example d roof), it is necessary to adjust the pressure for elevation at each step ion. E FOR FITTINGS is flowing through a pipe and encounters a restriction or significant lection, there is an associated loss of pressure. This is included in the ulations by allowing for an equivalent length of pipe which would cause ion loss. ‘Theoretically, this loss is dependant upon the rate of flow but culations it is reasonable to ignore this fact. Standard tables for fitting For Australian pipes g losses are given in Australian Standard 2118. table 12.10.1 SPRINKLER LAY OUTS Sprinkler systems are either constructed in a tree type layout, looped configuration or gridded syste| the selection In. Standard pipe size specifications are given in the sprinkler code on lof pipe sizes for pre-calculated systems however these are only used for tree type systems. Looped and gridded systems are becoming more popular. These systems must be hydraulically calculated to determine the actual density in the design area. The following are examples of tree, looped and gridded systems. a » wt * je _—* : pee eae pee al | |x» x wow A a - - — _ ew fe mt e a aa CD\SWINOTES -27- THE DESIGN AREA In the design|of a sprinkler system to Australian Standards the design density criteria must be satisfied in two areas , namely the most remote and the most favourable. ‘These two arpas are analysed to determine the limits of the k factor for the system and ensure that the water supply will meet both limits. The hydrauligally most remote area is analysed to determine the demand with the largest possitile frictional loss. This analysis is also used to determine the greatest output from the system at its futhest point. In a tree type system this is physically at a point furthes| from the supply however in a grid or looped system this may not necessarily bd the case. The hydrauligally most favourable area is much simpler to establish regardless of the type of systerh. This area is usually located directly adjacent to the sprinkler control valve and repfesents the area where the system will discharge the greatest flow. The Australiq Standard 2118 gives guidelines as to the shape of the assumed area of operation. Whether the sprinkler system is a tree or gridded layout the area should be as close ag possible to rectangular in shape. The Australian Standard also requires that the full length of range pipes on a tree system be included in the design area. For gridded }ystems the shape of the area should be rectangular with a length "L" greater than]or equal to twice the square root of the area (For more detailed information rpfer to AS 2118 section 12.6). It is important however to conservatively; include all operational sprinklers in your area. CD\SWINOTES EXERCISE REVIEW - 4 Consider the sprinkler layout completed earlier, assuming in-rack sprinklers are provided to 4 height of 3.0 metres in the flow through racks and 4.5 metres in the double row racks model your sprinkler design on Hyena and calculate the demands of the ceiling sprinkler system. Assume 15 mm orifice sprinklers (k = 8.0) are provided under a flat rpof 8.5 metres high. JD\LECTURE-wr -29- STEP 6 - PUMP SELECTION INTRODUCTION Before select unfavourable operation. selection of “tombstone curves for thi performance at a given pu correspondin; vast majority locating the selecting the Ing pumps it is necessary to know the design duty points for the most area of sprinkler operation and the most favourable area of sprinkler hitially we use the design point for the most unfavourable area. The bumps is made much easier by the provision of pump manufacturers harts. ‘The "tombstone" chart is simply a compilation of all the pump various pumps offered by that manufacturer. In the pump industry, the f an individual pump is represented by a graph of flow versus pressure inp speed. ‘The most common pump speeds are 1450 rpm and 2900 rpm to two pole speed and four pole speed of an electric motor. In fact the lof fire pumps run at 2900 rpm. ‘The pump selection process consists of lesign point for the most unfavourabl mn the “tombstone” chart and .ppropriate pump. The pump curve corresponding to that pump is then obtained and] the design selection checked, USING THE For any giv design point. "TOMBSTONE" CHART in pump duty there are probably several pumps which will meet the ‘The art in selecting a fire pump is to pick the pump which will meet the duty using the lowest amount of power. The "tombstone" chart usually only shows the area of 1 “tombstone” }¢ pump curve in the vicinity of its most efficient point and indeed some tharts actually show the most efficient point of that particular pump. Ideally the duty point would lie vertically underneath the most efficient point of a pump in the| usually find one of the p largest sized Choosing the| CHECKING Once an ind “tombstone” chart. Unfortunately, as Murphy's Law has it, you will at your duty point does not lie directly under the most efficient point of mps in the pump chart. In this case you will be forced to go to the next pump or try to squeeze the performance out of a smaller pump. next largest size pump is probably the most ethical solution. (THE DUTY POINTS ON THE PUMP CURVE cative pump selection has been made the pump curve is obtained for that pump. Path the duty point for the most unfavourable area of operation-and for the most favgurable area of operation are then marked on the curve. Demand curves are then plot} the relevant, required at building. SD\LECTUREwr ‘ed by joining the pressure required at zero flow rate by a straight line to most favourable and most unfavourable duty points. The pressure his zero flow rate is the elevation head of the highest head in the -30- ‘The first thing to check is that the demand curve for the most favourable area of operation intersects the pump performance curve. The next step is to look at the family of cumves given to the various impeller sizes and select an impeller size with some reserve] capacity left in so that the pump can be uprated if needed at a later stage. My pipference is to allow at least 10 percent reserve on pressure and this is in fact mandated in the pump standard AS 2941. If this can be done and the most favourable d¢mand curve intersects the pump curve, then this pump will do. The next step is to sizb the electric driver for this pump. Electric drivers are commonly sized on the maxinjum non overloading horsepower requirement of the pump. POWER REQUIRED FOR PUMP DRIVER The maximuin non overloading horsepower of a pump is the maximum horsepower which can He drawn by the pump for a given impeller size. The horsepower requirement |to drive a pump generally increases as the flow rate of the pump increases thig state does not go in indefinitely as all pumps reach a stage where they can no longer flow any more water. This point produces the maximum non overloading horsepower requirement. The trick in selecting an electric driver is to ensure that the horsepower curve for the maximum impeller size available for that casing is selected. This will ensure that should a larger impeller be fitted at a later stage, no chpnges will be required to the driver. This is particularly important because when the pump base is being built, it will be arranged so that the centre line of the drive matches the centre line of the pump. Often if a larger horsepower motor needs ko be retro-fitted, the distance between the base plate and the centreline of the motot will not be the same as the motor being replaced. This will entail expensive alferations to the pump base plate. Therefore to ensure maximum flexibility, it pays to install the largest motor which can be required for a particular sized pump. SIZING THE DIESEL DRIVER Unlike electijc drivers diesel drivers have the capacity to vary their speed. Choice of 2900 rpm and 1450 rpm for electric drivers causes some difficulty in choosing a diesel driver to majch the electric. 2900 rpm is a little on the high side to run a diesel motor continuously, particularly from cold, Similarly most diesel motors develop insufficient ppwer at 1450 rpm. Most diesel |driver manufacturers specify power produced curves for their units. ‘There are usually several such curves with at least one designated intermittent and another continuous. Some manufacturers go further and produce a fire pump power curve. All df these curves are different_and s Seveloped anki speed of the motor. SD\LECTURE‘wr ‘There is mu intermittent intermittent For reasons 31 h debate amongst the pump manufacturers and users about whether br continuous rating curves should be used for diesel drivers. ‘The sve usually shows more power from the driver than the continuous one. If economy most pump manufacturers decide that the intermittent duty is satisfactory fdr_a fire pump. As an exercise, I suggest that you contact a diesel engine manufacturer and ask the technical staff an intermitte} continuous di Although the| and whether| satisfactorily whether operation under full power for 90 minutes is considered to be nt duty. Most manufacturers would advise that this is considered a jty and that the motor both be de-rated and slowed down. ‘maximum speed of a diesel driver varies according to the manufacturer it is rated for intermittent or continuous duty, most drivers can e run at around 2500 rpm on a continuous basis. As experienced fire engineering practitioners I would assume that the affinity laws are known to you. In summary, the! to the squar proportional down from 24 affinity laws state that the pressure produced by a pump is proportional of the speed and that the flow rate produced by a pump is directly 10 the speed, From this it can be deduced that if the pump is slowed rpm to 2500 rpm to match the speed of the diesel driver then both the pressure and the flow rate as shown in the standard pump curve for 2900 rpm will be reduced. The easiest that a differe| for the eles the same mal should be ch favourable at y to overcome this problem is to go to the next size pump. This means t pump unit will be required for the diesel driven unit than is required lc driven unit. There is no requirement in the codes that both pumps be e and model. Therefore to select the diesel driver the next size pump en and new pump curves prepared using the affinity laws. ‘The most id most unfavourable demand points can then be marked on this family of curves and checked in the same way as for the electric driven pump. It is not necessary to lise a reduced sized impeller for a diesel as in the future the diesel can be speeded u If it is absoh to produce the desired improvement in flow and pressure. tely essential that both diesel and electric pump units be identical the electric pump unit can be upgraded to the same type of pump as the diesel using the smallest imp has the same ler capacity available for that pump. Reducing the impeller diameter leffect as reducing the speed. ‘The above mbthod will ensure that at least 10 percent spare capacity on pressure has been allowed is essential t duties. Ano tender prices| for in sizing the pumps. If you are in a competitive bidding situation, it advise the client that allowance has been made for additional future ther tenderer may not allow this safety margin in his price. However are usually balanced at tendering stage to ensure that everything is on an equal basis therefore you should not be on any worse basis than a competitor providing the SD\LECTURE.we lspare capacity is made known to the client. -32- ADDITIONAL CONSTRUCTION FEATURES. AS 2118 and pump and dri the method o} a) direet b) radiate ©) heat e Direct cooled] IAS 2941 both specify most of the required construction features for fire fer units. One point which is often left to the choice of the designer is cooling system for the diesel driver. ‘This can take three forms; ooled ir cooled Ichanger cooled pumps take water from the fire pump discharge and run it through the cooling jacket of the diesel motor, sometimes but not always using a pressure reducing devi is the crudest contaminatio be so that excessive pressures are not placed on the engine block, This land simplest form of cooling, It has the disadvantage that any debris or of fire pump water can build up in the cooling jacket of the diesel driver. However by virtue of its simplicity and crudity, it is usually very reliable. The second ethod, radiator cooling is often the cheapest. This is because diesel driver units afe usually not manufactured specifically for fire pump duty but instead are just a stay generation, di normally pro\ of cooling i manufactured] pump which successfully w} and outlet ve omitted as tht contractor. precaution aghii diesel driver belt to be uss is that the ré form of coolis wndard stationary engine set intended for many uses such as electricity illing platforms, power units for earth moving equipment etc. These are ided with a radiator as manufactured which means that if this method adapted, the driver unit can be pulled straight off the shelf as The problem with radiator cooling is that it is dependent on a water lis usually driven by fan belts. Also radiator cooling will only work here the pump room is well ventilated ie. provided with inlet ventilation tilation. All too often this essential requirement for a pump house is pump house is the responsibility of the builder not the fire protection ¢ Australian Standard 2941 requires duplicate belt drives as a st a broken belt driving a water pump. However at least one major anufacturer has lodged an application to allow a special type of rubber d singularly ie. not duplicated. Another problem with radiator cooling liator needs to be topped up regularly. Radiator cooling is the only ng that does not require a solenoid valve to shut off the coolant supply when the pump is not running. The third alternative is heat exchanger cooling. This is a combination of the first two methods exce directly into block cooling cooling water| water pump, topped up. method has t house. JD\LECTUREwr t that instead of the water from the main fire pump being circulated the engine block, it is run into a heat exchanger from which the true water is run in tubes. The engine cooling water and the heat exchanger are kept separate at all times. Again, there is a requirement for a hisually belt driven and the requirement for the heat exchanger to be As this is not as obvious as the radiator, it is often forgotten. This fe advantage that no special cooling provisions are required in the pump -33- My personal ffreference is to go for direct cooling firstly, as a second preference heat exchanger codling and as a third preference radiator cooling. However others may strongly disagiee. JD\LECTUREwr The Ajax to demand is th Referring to 80-20. The We now go t highest head 1/see @ 300 -34- EXAMPLE I extra high hazard system 7.5mm/min at roof over 260 m? plus 6 jers at 115 l/min @ 200 kPa. Say 3000 I/min @ 350 kPa. \bstone chart is calibrated in metres head and I/sec flow rate. Our in 50 1/sec at 36 metres head. the tombstone chart we just miss out on the E80-16 but fit easily into the 100-20 will also do this duty but won’t be very efficient. the E80-20 family of curves for 2900 rpm. We also need roof height of say 8.0 metres) and the duty point for the most favourable area - say 56 {Pa. In this case if can be seen that an 185 mm impeller will meet the duty. As safety margin, allow\at least another 10 percent ie. go to 195 mm impeller. From the power curves on the same chart, the maximum non overheating power is about 32 kW. Note that the| most favourable demand curve intersects the pump curve. For the diesql could either go up to next size pump at 2500 rpm or stick with this pump and gq to an even larger impeller. First must produce pump curve at 2500 rpm. In this size impeller. As can be se The specifica Electric drive| Diesel driver In this case ase Ajax has already produced a variable speed curve for the maximum in the same pump with full size impeller can be used at 2500 rpm. tion becomes:- 180-20 195 mm impeller at 290 rpm 32 kW driver 580-20 214 mm impeller at 2500 rpm 32 kW driver Je could use the same pump. This was because the duty point was close to the bottom. of the pump curve. Where the duty point is closer to the top, two different pui SD\LECTURE-wr sizes would be required. ny|2008 1onpove Rely UaUUEO|aNED PUR: (sn) GNOoaS/S3Y¥LT = 3LV¥ MOT4 0001 008 009.09 007 09e Ow ool oe 090s o7 cc oe 9s 7 € a0 T TTT imal el T LL] CTI I L| or cl | | | r se ainpon + +t t r a our seanoon fi { + °° Twos Aovorouia sea —@— [| 7 | | | _ [ + | g = t = I a — > a 3 i 2 Hi tat z — q 3 7 i i am Geog a es or [0e- 7 ro Spas] ds os — 03. BNE 3) jor oS geass = ore T f [ TT I 7 rit r { ie LL | | ae y TT T T TT 1 ‘ = : 7 1 7 T T 7 Wd! odyi 001 0d@ Ob9 00 coe ode St 001 08 09 oP Of 02 Wd ¥ 006% LUVHO NOILO313S SONVH .3. ‘pIT Aid sdwing xelyS WW My eg “Rv OY sod cinq 4 Tanssi] e9-8-9% _aiva 02-083 O86t-OsseID z Hed LiDzSy 03 3801 adhy Wat 0062 03345 WNIWON ‘GNODAS/3U1N — MOTS OTNLIWNTOA oe 09 os oF oc oz T | a | El TIWMOTD — HSMOd IRANI aWnd “ansat ~ | o%ot ai aULaW ~ avaH TOL 1004-4v3H Wi0L xawn sin pe Aig SGuund aclyu Oz-0085, Tans] e721 sive n OSEC- 3d SNOLWA Fea ON aAuno BONVY «3 XvPV 03348 WNIWON | ewe ea aowauasau 9 ananio Teese Tem 8 ernment GNODES/SELIT — MOT DINLBWMTOA Fou FenimmmaoL BDH vave 01 06 98 6 L 0s 0 ov oe oz of 2 regees! 3 z { a 2 1000 kPa - not ok 7. Try again using first stage Can feed up to 17th floor using this pump Now check pressure on lowest head under churn conditions 1050 - 270 = 780 kPa - ok First stage injpeller on this pump is ok, however this is not a good example because this pump is which would riser. JD\LECTUREt lway too large. Note that we have ignored friction in the riser main lpush the MUF demand point up another 60 kPa for an 80 diameter 44. STAGING EXERCISE - 6 Sort out the pressure staging for the following high rise building - 4 metres floor/floor height:- Typical floor sprinkler demand at the riser take off:- 400 1/min @ 150 kPa most unfavourable} 435 I/min @ 125 kPa most favourable. The towns mains are capable of a minimum static pressure of 700 kPa with 500 I/min residual pressure at 685 kPa. ‘The building |is 33 storeys. Assume that} if more than one pumped stage is required, separate pumps will be installed for gach stage. Use Ajax E range pumps. Assume at 150 mm diameter riser with negligible friction loss at 500 1/min. JD\LECTUREwr -45- UPGRADING EXISTING SYSTEMS INTRODUCTION knowledge it the fire protection world increasing and leaving behind the design Upgrading { an existing sprinkler system is the result of either the level of i parameters system desig later change need to upg} yesteryear (the most charitable interpretation) or because the original ler did not leave enough spare capacity in the system to accommodate a lin occupancy (the most uncharitable interpretation). Unfortunately the ade existing systems is all too common, yet the design of sprinkler sjsems is sil generally based on financial considerations rather than serviceability consideratio: the upgradin| . When a sprinkler system is upgraded, it is rarely possible to carry out in such a way that total compliance with the sprinkler code can be achieved. In] particular any upgrading of an ordinary hazard system to an extra high hazard capa Whilst the s| ity we usually leave the sprinkler head spacing still at 12 sq. metre jandard covers this situation by making allowance for the authorities having jurisdiction to permit this situation, it is nonetheless undesirable. Another common problem is that water velocities wind up exceeding those limits set out in the st use for comy second. Thi Manning met INITIAL CAI Where it is first step is ndard. The problem with this is the Hazen-Williams formula which we luting hydraulic losses is not valid at velocities exceeding 8 metres per can be rectified by using alternative hydraulic formulae such as the 1od. LCULATIONS {nown or suspected that the design of the system will be inadequate, the o carry out full hydraulic calculations even though the answer will be ridiculous. Ih carrying out the calculations we can gain some idea of the velocities in the pipes an The first thi metres per unlikely that is that when the whole of| modification where the losses are occurring. g to look for is the velocities in the range pipes. If these exceed 8° cond and there are large pressure losses in this area of the system, it is upgrading will be economically possible satisfactory. The reason for this , we run into problems with the range pipes, extensive modifications over ithe system will be required. As the cost of the range pipes is probably ecomes too great and it is more economic to rip the whole system out around 90 "hn of the cost of the complete sprinkler system, the amount of and put in a feed systems a solution f proposition. JD\LECTUREr rand new system. The only exception to this is where we have two side Irunning up towards the ridge but not connected in the middle. There is r this type of problem however, it is only a borderline economic NEW PIPE 46- (ORK Where the pressure losses are occurring in the distribution pipes, these losses can sometimes by reduced by connecting adjacent distribution pipes to loop the feed system, This will reduce pressure losses by as much as 75 percent. If this is not feasible, the feed main p Again this b: diameter of old one. In the case o| sometimes b connecting it fiddley work countries wh the existing distribution pipes can be re-inforced by running another hrallel to the existing distribution pipe ad connecting it at intervals. the potential to considerably reduce pressure losses depending on the the new main. Often the new main is of much larger diameter than the the two side feed systems not being joined at the ridge, the system can re-inforced by installing a brand new supply main at the ridge level and on both sides to the ends of each range pipe. This involves a lot of involving on site welding which in itself is a fire hazard. However in re labour is cheap such as in Asia, this is quite viable. LARGE ORIFICE HEADS Where exces head pressur large orifice paps on an manufacture heads can dr INSTALLIN Where the p fitted with ive pressures are required at the valve as a result of high sprinkler end s, it may be possible to reduce the pressure requirement by going to Iheads (17/32 inch). These will not normally screw into the half inch |Ordinary Hazard system, however special conversion heads are now with a ¥ inch base and a 17/32 inch orifice. At high flow rates, these \p the pressure requirement at the valve quite considerably. IN-RACKS ‘oblem is caused by the presence of rack storage systems in a building, in Ordinary Hazard sprinkler system, it is possible to install in-rack sprinkler heafis. These are a cheap way of reducing the ceiling water demand. This still leaves ar| Ordinary Hazard system at the roof when the minimum ceiling demand for in-racks available fror Ordinary Hagard systems with in-rack sprinkler heads is made in the F.O. js 7.5 mm per minute over 260 sq. metres. A concession is usually the authority having jurisdiction to allow this. Also specific mention of code. IF ALL ELSE FAILS If all of the above solutions are not feasible, then there is one solution which always works. The bottom of tal solution is indicated in section 11.1 of the code in the notes at the les A and B. This gives the maximum storage heights which are considered suitable for an Ordinary Hazard system. SD\LECTURE-wr When all els -47- fails, the storage height in the building can be reduced to the levels given in these tables. Many building owners would rather reduce their storage heights than ij WATER SUP} It is quite ral existing water pumpset with| additional di However it is indicated in increase the pumps are th water supply enough water| ‘The cost of i a new systet proposition. JD\LECTURE-wr west the large amount of money in a new sprinkler system. LIES: that where some upgrading of the sprinkler system is required, the supplies will be adequate. Where there is a diesel and an electric drive a reasonably high pressure rating, it may be possible to purchase an el and augment the flow rate by running two pumps in parallel. usual to find that existing pumps will not put out enough pressure. As previous section, it is extremely bad practice to series stage pumps to ressure So this solution is not on. The usual result is that the existing ywn out and new pumps installed. A similar problem occurs with the if there is tank storage. Invariably the storage tanks do not contain and must be augmented. proving water supplies along can often be as much as 2/3 of the cost of m thereby making upgrading of existing sprinklers an uneconomic Pp [ ~ Rugicx loca Flext Exanph. > Raniog ~ Ma. 1 S @ L 4 Bye & 9 4 £ ° g 4 5 ea & Gj 4 a myer ~ Ley adi — ann 60g M3aN -48- RAD) Using the attached sprinkler drawing, come up with modifications to allow 125 mm/min over 260 m2. Existing water supply will provide 4000 I/min at 700 kPa. The highest head js 6 m above the sprinkler valve. JD\LECTURE wr ollfs 4 A 7 read aynuw / saat MO1S ove ooze oooe ooez 0092 += 0hz_~—«wOZZ_—«s000Z DOB! ors oot looor oot oozs oot (Cees ~ 8) By RAG Spry sve SAYA em TE NOWLYOOT “trbsy VER — PISTSAT ANYANOO SISATVNVY MO1SHSLVM B aynuiw / sey MO13 cove ooze oooe cove oooz o0rz ooze 00z cos oop: — 0008_-~— Oo ooo oot oozs ooet sy 4d) jy aam) peng siva NOILVOO1 ANWdWOO SISAIVWNVY MO1SHSLVM r anssi] ava bx Ssexs SSExI‘SS «1 | yyy, ~ volexe ~sxarzzawr |" gost on sauna | * PA/OS/ MTH = /H1S | 03345 WNIWON = > QW HEAD — § merRes. & s bd7 x = = § S OS o#& ¥ ie z + x He] OS et rsp f 5 *y * its < q 3 ae x 3 Rucnarp OLiver BOARD OF FIRE UNDERWRITERS OF THE PACIFIC Approximate Carrying Capacity of Comparative Pipes of Di. Q=V 56 Q = Gallons per minute D = Diameter ilar Diameters Under Identical Head Examples: An 8-inch pipe is equal to 5.7 4-inch pipes. A 10-inch pipe is equal to 9.9 4-inch pipes. 18 2101 02 103 704 2108 198 .707 708 709 10 am m2 am13 14 ns 118 a7 18 119 1720 ar m2, 73 4 75 % ™ 78 79 730 a 7 iT TH ins 786 1731 138 78 ar mM m2 amy .M m5 Mb ay 78 ar 750 Ratio “379 “5477 S475 “M3 “a7 +09 +67 +85 +483 5462 +5440 5458 +5 4 +452 +450 1548 ry 5S M3 SAL 1509 +3437 +585 S33 +5432 +430 5428 15126 +3424 5422 +421 og “M7 “SMS M3 sat -sat0 3408 +3406 +404 +5402 01 +5399 +5397 5395 5093 +392 25310 +5388 una 151 752 155 14 155 788 “57 738 759 780 Th 182 83 184 15 186 Te 188 189 710 m1 mm a1 am m5 1 78 79 780 TB 782 784 1785 788 781 788 789 2730 “mH 192 193 4 195 6 7 798 199 SIMPLE LOOFS SEE PAGE P-1 aaTtO 5199 5298 598 5298 2383 “S291 5289 5288 524 5286 5283 5281 5279 5278 5216 15205 “5273 “S71 +5270 5268 +5268 5265 5263 5261 +5240 528 15258 5255 5253 5282 5250 er) 5247 5245 SUS 1522 1520 15259 “3207 155 504 +5202 5231 5209 “9227 15228 5224 “3 15221 09 uz Ratio BSL 852 85.5215 84 S213 83.3212 858.5210 857.5208 858.5207 859.5205 860.5204 Bb .5202 862.5201 863.5199 864.5197 18655196 B66 5194 867.5193 868.3191 189 «5190 70 «5188 aT ,5187 872.5185 a7 .5183 +5182 +5180 S179 5177 317 574 “5173 5171 900.5142 una 901 102 303 304 +305; 508 “307 908 409 a) ou 312 3 214 415 118 217 318 19 920 921 “2 ara ary 05 928 37 928 29 930 3 72 2183 “4 “5 338 “0 938 339 40 a <7 uy “Mt ty ay a 48 948 350 ELIT THROUGH FOR EXPLANATION nario uaa saTiO 51951 522.952 518.950 5138954 15135955 sIS 956 “132.957 5130958 178.959 “S177 960 25126961 5174.62 SIZ) .965 1512164 15120465 sSUT 366 “57.967 Sb 968 SULA 69 “S390 “S971 sSu0 972 151084973 S107 974 15105975 5108976 5102.97 101.978 15100979 +5098 980 15097981 +5095 962 +5094 983 15082904 0.985 +5089 986 $008 .987 +5086 988 5085989 5084.90 5082.91 +5081 992 5079.99 5078.94 5078993 SOS 998 “507997 +5072 .998 S071 999 +5069 1,000 PAGE 5088 5066 +5085 5084 +5062 5061 5059 +5058 5057 +5055 +5054 5052 +5051 +5050 +5048 +5047 +5045 5044 +5043 5041 5040 5038 5037 +5036 +504 +5033 +5031 500 5029 5027 15026 +5025 +5023 +5022 15020 +5019 +5018 5016 5015 5014 5012 +501 5009 5008 +5007 5005 5004 +5003 +5001 +5000 raH4 Ps 353 24 3S 2358 a7 158 1359 a) Sil 2 33 364 105 388 30 38 69 370 an am 30 m4 “v5 ay aw 78 a9 380 an 382 ary santo 6378 6375 “871 16348 O64 A381 8357 6354 +8350 17 133 4840 8336 6333 8329 8326 18322 4319 A316 18312 18309 14305 18302 14299 16295 8292 4289 8285 +6282 1879 4775 4072 +4269 4245 4262 8258 14255 +4252 1249 ary 8202 828 8238 6233 +4230 8226 8223 16220 2217 6214 SIMPLE LOOFS uaz sano a ‘ao ‘e207 “aos “A204 Shoe e201 “as “8198 0g Sais oT “191 408.6188 “aot ates 410 6182 “aut “a078 cuz ‘site a3 a7 fae stare ais “ener Rrarer sa “etao Lie saisr Lag “aise 420.6151 beat “aut aa “ais 423.6142, er! 425.6136 426 B13 Lezr 428.6127 ay si 430 121 ATL OLB 432.115 as oun merc 435. 08 6 05 (fara T8607 39 Leos mo “ora sa, 088 442.6086 408s, rears us “or as “sors ar eon fas ‘ess as eous eso onus SEE PAGE P-1 uu 451 492 453 454 455 436 a7 458 459 460 Abt 482 483 464 M5 ary 487 468 ar) 470 at An ATS m4 75 ary an 478 49 480 81 482 483 494 aS 486 487 488 489 490 At 492 49 49 495 496 ai 498 499 500 aro 4080 +8057 8054 +4051 6048 8048 bOKd $040 +4097 8004 4031 8028 +8028 +4023 +8020 8017 8015 +6012 $009 +6006 +8004 +4001 5998 +5995 5993 +5990 +5987 5904 5982 15979 “S978 4 “971 +5968 15966 +5963 er) 5958 5955 +5992 5350 5947 5944 5942 5909 +5936 59M 931 5928 15908 una +01 +502 2503 +504 +505 +506 507 +508 +509 510 SIL 512 +313 4 +35 1518 517 2318 319 +520 +521 1522 523 15 1525 15% “30 +528 +529 530 S31 +32 153 4 +535 +536 57 58 539 0 Mt 2 ry 1M SHS 546 547 548 9 550 +5801 582 2353 4 555 386 37 558 559 +580 158 582 +583 Sb 585 +588 +587 568 569 70 a7 “372 a3 “574 “a5 158 377 378 9 +580 +581 582 583 304 385) 56 +587 +588 +589 590 291 52 9 +594 +595 596 +597 598 399 +800 Low SPLIT THROUGH FOR EXPLANATION 3798 251% 25794 5791 5789 5787 5784 5782 +5780 “a7 3505 3972 570 5788 +5785 5763 S761 57538 +5736 5734 +5752 S78 Sm oS 512 5740 538 5735 5133 eat 5728 15028 “574 1772 m19 ssn? “5115 “S13 “5710 5708 +3706 5708 +5702 +5499 +5897 £5655 +5895 5690 5688 5886 350 FAGE +5882 25879 5677 5875 +5673 “5671 5688 5686 +5864 5862 a) 5858 5855 5653, +5851 549 -5b47 SEAS sb? 5B0 5838 15636 5634 5832 5830 5627 5625 15823 5621 5819 5617 S815 5613 Sb +5809 +5406 +5h04 +5802 400 5598 559% 3594 5592 eo) 5588 5586 3584 3582 +5580 1882 1955 354 455 1856 357 $58 459 +480 abt 882 883 864 865) 886 887 408 468 870 an 12 873 878 “875 818 “877 478 879 680 $81 682 1483 084 885 +886 887 888 889 490 691 992 88 84 1885; 896 497 898 899 700 oot 002 003 004 005; 08 007 008 009 2010 oul 012 O13 ou 2015 018 017 018 019 820 4021 02. 023 024 025 0% 027 028 029 030 031 032 2033 2034 035 1036 037 038 039 040 oo 2042 20S 044 045; 046, 107 08 2049 050 Usa pari lina 051 052 053 054 055 1986 057 058 059 060 +061 082 FLOW SFLIT THROUGH SIMPLE LOOFS RattO 8322 8318 8303, +8289 8275, 8261 8147 +8233 +8220 +8207 A193 +8180 8187 8155 18142 8129 B17 8105 8093 8081 +8089 8057 8045 8034 8022 8011 7999 +7988 a0 7966 1955 74 794 1193 “TAS 7302 7892 SEE PAGE P~1 uaz 101 1102 3103 1104 1105; +108 107 +108 1109 ar) ol M2 aly a as M6 a7 M8 ld 120 Ad AD AD 1m 15 1% 7 128 29 130 AM 1132 As ss 35 A136 137 2138 17 +0 aM +42 1 4 ods Ag a7 28 2H 10 fara 754 TMS AT mm -78 +7109 7100 781 7682 TST Tes 7856 “WT 7838 7830 7824 7813 78S 7386 7588 7580 7372 7883 7585 TST 7539 7581 7524 7316 +7508 7500 7492 7485 <7 7470 14a A184 aT TO 72 15 7818 7410 7403 1396 7389 7382 TH -T361 7360 151 A as 1s SS 156 AST 138 189 +160 Hlbt 162 183 164 185 1186 “187 168 +169 170 AT an an 374 a5 218 a 3178 79 180 181 182 183 184 185 at a7 186 189 2190 At 192 A193 194 1195 119% un 1 19 200 Liz RATIO 73 sTH6 THO 733 738 9 72 7305 7298 7292 +785 103 772 T2b6 1258 7253 Bry 70 7233 27 7220 74 17208 7202 1198 7188 7183 m7 m0 7164 158 itd ATU 740 ani .7138 Bite m7 Tu 7105 1099 1093 1087 7082 1078 7070 17084 17058 7053 7047 FOR EXPLANATION ula patos? 202.7036 203.7081 208.7025 +205 7020 208.7014 207.7009 208.7003 209.4998 -210 6992 sD 6987 212.6981 213.6978 -24 897 sUIS.6965 2188960 +217 46955 218.6950 A217 6944 20.899 sO 6934 22.8929 23.4923 248918 125.803 2268908 227.6903 228.6898 29,6893 730 «6088 SL 6883 22.4878 s2S 8873 DM 6868 sBS 4863 238.0858 237.8853 BB 888 239 88S 240.6838 2A .8833 22.0829 sas 4824 268819 sUS88L4 248.6809 1-247 6805 248.6800 9.6795 280.8790 FAGE 233 304 2305 306 307 308 08 Ho wu 312 us ary Us ue Ww 38 a 320 321 2 ry wu WS 23% “a 328 32 30 eat “32 AD 3M BS 136 37 8 9 Mo aM 02 Wy ou us te “0 He ug 380 raT10 c 0586 8580 8558 18582 20548 ats 0540 1358 8502 9528 18528 19520 8518 8512 $508 8504 +8501 S497 8453 8489 B48 8481 0478 4478 +3470 bh 8482 8459 1855 8451 0M ots cog oA 2033 ard +8425 922 ane okt vsti 0407 0403 e400 8386 893 8389 6385 0382 Table 5.4. Comparative Friction Loss Formulas* aa FORMULA NOMENCLATURE Hazen-Williams p= 452 Q's P = friction loss, psi/ft of tube , © CNS gt Q = flow, gpm d = average inside tube diameter, in C = dimensionless constant Fair, Whipple, and Hsai 0.000307L V'"* —H = friction loss, feet of head Dre L = length of tube in ft = 1 ft V = velocity of flow, fps D = average inside tube diameter, in H= i D‘Arcy-Weisbach 0.08078 V2 F P = friction loss, psi/ft of tube Oo F = friction factor, dimensionless V = velocity of flow. fps P= diameter, in +The loss of head, H, must be converted to friction loss in psi by multi- plying H by 0.433. Velocity must be converted to flow in gpm. CRANE ‘The Bernoulli theorbm is a means of expressing the application of the law of conservation of energy to the flow of fluids in a chnduit, The total energy at any par ticular point, above] some arbitrary horizontal datum (CHAPTER 1 — THEORY OF FLOWIN PIPE General Energy Equation Bernoulli's Theorem plane, is equal to the sum of the elevation head, the pressure head, and the velocity head, as follows Pio 2° en * 2h If friction losses are neglected and no energy is added to, cr taken from, a piping system (ie., pumps or turbines), the total head, #, in the above equation will be a constant for any point in the fluid. However, in actual practice, losses or energy increases or decreases are encountered land must be included in the Bernoulli equation. Thus, an energy balance may be written for two points in a fluid, as shown in the example in Figure I-4 H Note the pipe friction loss from point 1 to point 2 (h.) may be referred to as the head loss in metres of fluid ‘The equation may be written as follows: Equation 13 Arbitrary forizontal Oatum Plane 2 Paes, c z = z+ Baz + eB thy Prk 2 Pin 2a Figure 1-4 Energy Balatee for Two Points ina Fld [Adapted from Fluid Mechonies'* by R. A. Dodge and MJ. Thompson. Copyright 1937: Mi Hill Book Campy, ine Figure 18 AAll practical formulas for the flow of fluids are derived from Bernoulli's theorem, with modifications to account for losses due to friction, Measurement of Pressure Figure 1-5 graphically illustrates the relationship between ‘gauge and absolute pressures, Perfect vacuum cannot exist, ‘on the surface of the earth, but it nevertheless makes a convenient datum for the measurement of pressure Barometric pressure isthe level of the atmospheric pressure above perfect vacuum “Standard” atmospheric pressure ig 1.013 2S bar (14.6959 tbffin*) or 760 millimetres of mercury. Gauge pressure is measured above atmospheric pressure, while absolute pressure always refers to perfect vacuum asa base Vacuum is the depression of pressure below the atmo: spheric level, Reference to vacuum conditions is often ade by expressing the absolute pressure in terms of the height of a column of mercury or of water. Millimetre of mercury, micromette (micron) of mercury, inch of water and inch of mezcury, are some of the commonly used conventional units. “All superior figures used az reference marks refer tothe Bibliography