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Contents / Table des matières

Foreword 1
Avant-propos 2
ISSMGE – The State of the Society (2009-2013) 5
SIMSG – État de la Société (2009-2013)
Briaud J.-L.
Honour Lectures / Conférences honorifiques
8th Terzaghi Oration - Protecting society from landslides – the role of the geotechnical engineer 15
8e allocution Terzaghi - La gestion de l’aléa glissements de terrain et le rôle de l’ingénieur géotechnicien
Lacasse S.
Bishop Lecture - Advanced laboratory testing in research and practice 35
Conférence Bishop - Les essais en laboratoire avancés dans la recherche et dans l’industrie
Jardine R. J.
Ishihara Lecture - Soil–Foundation–Structure Systems Beyond Conventional Seismic Failure Thresholds 55
Conférence Ishihara - Les systèmes sol-fondation-structure qui dépassent les limites de la rupture parasismique
conventionnelle
Gazetas G.
Kerisel Lecture - The role of Geotechnical Engineers in saving monuments and historic sites 71
Conférence Kerisel - Le rôle des ingénieurs géotechniciens dans la sauvegarde des monuments
et des sites historiques
Calabresi G.
McClelland Lecture - Analytical contributions to offshore geotechnical engineering 85
Conférence McClelland - Contributions des méthodes analytiques à la géotechnique offshore
Randolph M. F.
Ménard Lecture - The pressuremeter test: Expanding its use 107
Conférence Ménard - L’essai pressiometrique : élargissement de son utilisation
Briaud J.-L.
Rowe Lecture - The role of diffusion in environmental geotechnics 127
Conférence Rowe - Le rôle de la diffusion en géotechnique environnementale
Shackelford C.
Schofield Lecture - Centrifuge modelling: expecting the unexpected 151
Conférence Schofield - Modélisation physique en centrifugeuse : prévoir l’imprévisible
Bolton M. D.
Special Lectures / Conférences spéciales
Enjeux géotechniques pour la construction du métro automatique « Grand Paris Express » 155
Geotechnical issues for « Grand Paris Express » automatic metro
Fluteaux V.
Innovations françaises en géotechnique: les projets nationaux de recherche 163
French Innovations in Geotechnics: the National Research Projects
Schlosser F., Plumelle C., Frank R., Puech A., Gonin H., Rocher-Lacoste F., Simon B., Bernardini C.
The new Bugis Station and associated tunnels for the Singapore MRT 183
Métro de Singapour : nouvelle station Bugis et tunnels associés
Sim A.
Technical Committee 101
Laboratory Stress Strain Strength Testing of Geomaterials
Session I - Time effects and other peculiar observations
Comité technique 101
Caractérisation en laboratoire du comportement des géomatériaux
Session I - Effets du temps et autres aspects
General Report of TC 101 - Session I - Laboratory testing of geomaterials: Time effects and other peculiar
observations 191
Rapport général du TC 101 - Session I - Essais de laboratoire sur les géomatériaux : effets du temps
et autres observations spécifiques
Ibraim E.
Engineering properties of an expansive soil 199
Propriétés mécaniques d’un sol gonflant
Azam S., Ito M., Chowdhury R.

III
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Methods of determination of K0 in overconsolidated clay 203


Méthodes de détermination de K0 dans une argile surconsolidée
Boháč J., Mašín D., Malát R., Novák V., Rott J.
Stress-path effects on the grading of an artificial material with crushable grains 207
Stress-trajectoire effets sur le granulométrie d’un matériau artificiel avec des grains déformables
Casini F., Leu J., Low B., Wanninger F., Zimmermann A., Zwicker P., Springman S.M., Viggiani G.M.B.
Characteristics of structure evolution of expansive soil and loess during loading and wetting 211
Caractéristiques de l’évolution structurale du sol expansif et du loess lors du chargement et du mouillage
Chen Z.
Misconceptions about experimental substantiation of creep hypothesis A 215
Les idées fausses justifiant l’hypothèse A de fluage au laboratoire
Degago S.A., Grimstad G., Jostad H.P., Nordal S.
The relationship between swelling and shear strength properties of bentonites 219
La relation entre les propriétés de résistance au cisaillement de l’enflure et des bentonitiques
Domitrović D., Kovačević Zelić B.
Reappraisal of Surcharging to Reduce Secondary Compression 223
Remise en cause de l’imposition de frais supplémentaires pour réduire la Compression secondaire
Feng T.W.
Effets d’échelle dus à la rupture des grains sur la résistance au cisaillement d’enrochements 227
Size effects due to grain crushing in rockfill shear strength
Frossard E., Ovalle C., Dano C., Hicher P-Y., Maiolino S., Hu W.
Electro-osmotic consolidation: Laboratory tests and numerical simulation 231
Électro-osmotique de consolidation : les tests de laboratoire et simulation numérique
Hu L., Wu H., Wen Q.
Creep characteristics of clay in one-dimensional compression with unloading/reloading cycles 235
Propriétés de fluage des argiles en compression unidimensionnelle avec cycles de charge/décharge
Kawabe S., Tatsuoka F.
Comparison of the geotechnical properties of pumice sand from Japan and New Zealand 239
Comparaison des propriétés géotechniques de sables de pierre ponce du Japon et de Nouvelle-Zélande
Kikkawa N., Pender M.J., Orense R.P.
Evaluation of Consolidation Behavior of Soils under Radial Drainage Condition Using Digital Image Analysis 243
Évaluation du comportement de consolidation des sols sous des conditions de drainage radial
à partir de l’analyse d’image numérique
Kim J.-Y., Chung C.-K., Cho N.-G., Yune C.-Y.
Mise au point d’un dispositif expérimental pour l’analyse du retrait-gonflement des sols argileux 247
Development of an experimental device for swelling-shrinkage analysis of clayey soils
Maison T., Laouafa F., Delalain P.
Residual shear strength behavior of swelling soils 251
Comportement de force résiduelle de cisaillement des sols gonflants
Markou I.N.
Rational expression of time-dependent behavior from normally consolidated soil to naturally deposited soil 255
Expression rationnelle du comportement dépendant du temps des sols normalement consolidés
et déposés naturellement
Nakai T., Shahin H.M., Kyokawa H.
Quantification des gonflements des sols surconsolidés en fond de déblai 259
Swelling quantification of overconsolidated soils at excavation base
Petit G., Virollet M., Bernard Ph.
Rate effects at varying strain levels in fine grained soils 263
Effets de vitesse de déformation à niveaux de déformation variant en sols à grains fins
Robinson S., Brown M.J.
Comparison of Stress-Strain Behaviour of Carbonate and Silicate Sediments 267
Comparaison de la réponse contrainte-déformation de sédiments carbonatés et siliceux
Safinus S., Hossain M.S., Randolph M.F.
A new test field in sulphide clay with test embankments for study of compression properties 271
Un nouveau essai sur le terrain d´argile sulfaté en mettant en place des remblais d´essai pour l’étude
des propriétés de compression
Westerberg B., Andersson M.
Laboratory testing issues related to crushable sands 275
Questions concernant des essais de laboratoire sur les sables écrasables
Wils L., Van Impe W.F., Haegeman W., Van Impe P.O.

IV
Contents / Table des matières

Non-coaxial behaviour of sand in drained rotational shear 279


Comportement non-coaxial de sable drainé en cisaillement rotationnel
Yang L.-T., Yu H.-S., Wanatowski D., Li X.
Test study and constitutive modelling of the time-dependent stress-strain behavior of soils 283
Test et modélisation du comportementen fonction du temps de contrainte-déformation comportement des sols
Yin J.-H., Tong F.
Special Features of Creep of Clayey Soils 287
Particularités du fluage des sols argileux
Zhakulin A.S., Zhakulina A.A., Orazaly E.E., Orazalin Z.Y.
Technical Committee 101
Laboratory Stress Strain Strength Testing of Geomaterials
Session II - Strength properties and treated soils
Comité technique 101
Caractérisation en laboratoire du comportement des géomatériaux
Session II - Propriétés de résistance et sols traités
General Report - Session II - Laboratory Testing of Geomaterials: Strength Properties and Treated Soil 293
Rapport général - Session II - Essais de laboratoire des géomatériaux : propriétés mécaniques et sols traités
Kim D.-S.
Triaxial testing of asphalt 301
Essais triaxiaux de l’asphalte
Airey D., Prathapa R.
Bounding surface plasticity model parameters for Bagdad soils 305
Paramètres du modèle de plasticité de surface de délimitation pour les sols de Bagdad
Al-Farouk O., Al-Damluji S., Al-Shakarchi Y.J., Albusoda B.S.
The December 29th 2010 Xerolakka Municipal Solid Waste landfill failure 309
29 décembre 2010 : l’échec d’enfouissement Xerolakka
Athanasopoulos G., Vlachakis V., Zekkos D., Spiliotopoulos G.
Shear Strength and Deformation Modulus of Tailing Sands under High Pressures 313
Résistance au cisaillement et module de déformation de sables de rejets sous hautes pressions.
Campaña J., Bard E., Verdugo R.
A Comparison Between the Shear Strength Measured with Direct Shear and Triaxial Devices on Undisturbed
and Remolded Soils 317
Une comparaison entre la résistance au cisaillement mesurée avec appareils de cisaillement direct et triaxiaux
sur les sols non remaniés et remoulés
Castellanos B.A., Brandon T.L.
Experimental analysis of the mechanical properties of artificially cemented soils and their evolution in time 321
Analyse expérimentale des propriétés mécaniques des sols cimentés artificiellement et leur évolution
dans les temps
Consoli N.C., Fonini A., Maghous S., Schnaid F., Viana da Fonseca A.
Influence of diatom microfossils on soil compressibility 325
Influence des microfossiles de diatomées sur la compressibilité des sols
Díaz-Rodríguez J.A., González-Rodríguez R.
Strength properties of densely compacted cement-mixed gravelly soil 329
Ppropriétés de résistance des graves cimentées fortement compactées
Ezaoui A., Tatsuoka F., Furusawa S., Hirao K., Kataoka T.
Tensile Strength of Lightly Cemented Sand through Indentation Tests 333
Résistance à la traction de sable légèrement cimenté par des tests d’indentation
Ge L., Yang K.-H.
Mechanisms During Formation of Ice Lenses and Suction in Freezing Soils 337
Les mécanismes de la formation des lentilles de glace et de succion au cours de la congélation du sol
Herzog F., Boley C.
Comportement en petites déformations d’un sol traité à la chaux 341
Small strain behavior of a lime-treated soil
Hibouche A., Taibi S., Fleureau J.-M., Herrier G.
A Key Parameter for Strength Control of Lightweight Cemented Clays 345
Un paramètre clé pour le contrôle des forces de légères argiles cimentées
Horpibulsuk S., Suddeepong A., Chinkulkijniwat A.
Some notes concerning the dry density testing standards 349
Quelques remarques concernant les descriptions relatives aux essais de densité sèche
Imre E., Lőrincz J., Gerendai E, Szalkai R, Lins Y., Schanz T.

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Interpretation of stress-dependent mechanical behaviour of rockfill materials 353


Interprétation de stress-dépendante et comportement mécanique de matériaux enrochement
Jannati Aghdam R., Soroush A.
Effects of Freeze-Thaw History on Deformation-Strength Properties and Permeability of Fine-Grained Soil 357
Effets de l’historique du gel-dégel sur les propriétés de résistance à la déformation et de perméabilité
des sols à grains fins
Kawaguchi T., Nakamura D., Yamashita S., Yamasaki S., Ishikawa T.
Characterization of geomechanical and hydraulic properties of non-wettable sands 361
Caractérisation des propriétés géomécaniques et hydrauliques des sables non mouillants
Kim D., Yang H.-J., Yun T.S., Kim B., Kato S., Park S.-W.
The strength change characteristics of weathering soil due to repeat freezing-thawing and drying-wetting 365
Les caractéristiques de changement de résistance du sol aux intempéries suite aux répétitions
de la congélation-décongélation et du séchage-amortissement
Kim Y.S., Seong J.H., Kim S.S
Soil structure in gravel-mixed sand specimen and its influence on mechanical behavior 369
Structure du sol des échantillons de sable avec gravier et son influence sur le comportement mécanique
Kodaka T., Cui Y., Mori S., Kanematsu Y., Lee K.-T.
The expansive properties of Poland’s clay subsoil 373
Propriétés de l’argile expansive de substrat de la Pologne
Kumor M. K.
Effect of Particle on K0 Behaviour for Granular Materials 377
Effet des caractéristiques particulaires sur le comportement des matériaux granulaires K0
Lee J., Park D., Kyung D., Lee D.
Duncan-Chang - Parameters for Hyperbolic Stress Strain Behaviour of Soft Bangkok Clay 381
Duncan-Chang - Paramètres de comportement contrainte-déformation hyperbolique d’argile molle de Bangkok
Likitlersuang S., Surarak C., Balasubramania A., Oh E., Syeung Ryull K,. Wanatowski D.
Laboratory investigation of seismic effects of nanoparticle dispersions in saturated granular media 385
Étude en laboratoire des effets sismiques des dispersions de nanoparticules dans les milieux granulaires
Luke B., Werkema D., Andersen S.
The SCS Double Hydrometer Test in dispersive soil identification 389
Essai SCS de double hydrométrie pour l’identification des sols dispersifs
Maharaj A., Paige-Green P.
Correlation between deflections measurements on flexible pavements obtained under static
and dynamic load techniques 393
Corrélation entre les déflexions de revêtements flexibles mesurées sous chargement statique et dynamique
Murillo Feo C.A., Bejarano Urrego L.E.
Comparison of permeability testing methods 399
Comparaison des différentes méthodes sur les tests de perméabilité
Nagy L., Takács A., Huszák T., Mahler A., Varga G.
Oscillation of Acceleration Accompanying Shear Band and Subsequent Time-Dependent Behavior
in Overconsolidated Clay under Undrained Plane-Strain Conditions 403
Oscillation de l’accélération accompagnant la formation de bandes de cisaillement et comportement dépendant
du temps dans une argile surconsolidée en déformations planes et conditions non drainées.
Noda T., Xu B.
Behavior of fine-grained soils compacted with high shear stresses 407
Comportement des sols fins compactés avec des niveaux de cisaillement élevés
Perez N., Garnica P., Mendoza I., Reyes M.A
Influence of Minerals on the Elastic Behaviour of Cohesive Soil 411
Influence des minéraux sur le comportement élastique des sols cohésifs
Sarma D., Sarma M.D.
Experimental Analysis on the Influence of Surcharge Filters on Safety Against Hydraulic Heave 415
Analyse expérimentale de l’influence d’un filtre de surcharge sur la stabilité contre des soulèvements d’eau
d’une fouille de construction
Schober P., Boley C.
Coupled THM mechanical model for porous materials under freezing condition 415
Couplé THM modèle mécanique pour les matériaux poreux dans des conditions de congélation
Shin H., Ahn J.-H., Kim Y.-T., Lee S.-R.
Correlation between drained shear strength and plasticity index of undisturbed overconsolidated clays 423
Corrélation entre la résistance au cisaillement des sols drainés et l’indice de plasticité des argiles surconsolidés
non perturbées
Sorensen K.K., Okkels N.

VI
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Mechanisms of binder interactions and their role in strengthening Kuttanad clay 429
Mécanismes d’interaction des liants et leur rôle dans le renforcement de l’argile de Kuttanad
Suganya K., Sivapullaiah P.V.
Hardening process of clayey soils with high water content due to thixotropy effect 433
Processus de durcissement des sols argileux à forte teneur en eau causé par un effet thixotropique
Tanaka H., Seng S.
Comparative study of long-term consolidation for subsoils under Kansai Airport and Pisa Tower 437
Étude comparative de la consolidation à long terme pour les sous-sols d’aéroport de Kansai et de tour de Pise
Watabe Y., Sassa S., Udaka K.
Settlement and shear strength of uncemented coal mine overburden materials placed loose under dry
and wet conditions 441
Tassement et résistance au cisaillement de matériaux de couverture non cimentés extraits de mines de charbon
et mis en dépôt en vrac dans des conditions sèches et humides
Williams D.J., Kho A.K.
Anisotropic strength ratio and plasticity index of natural clays 445
Étude de la relation entre l’anisotropie et l’indice de plasticité des argiles naturelles
Won J.Y.
Hydraulic Heave in Cohesive Soils 449
Rupture hydraulique du sol en terrain cohérent
Wudtke R.-B., Witt K.J.
Evaluation of sample disturbance due to the exsolution of dissolved gas in the pore water of deep lake
bottom sediments 453
Évaluation du remaniement des échantillons dû à l’exsolution de gaz dissous dans les eaux interstitielles
des sédiments de fond de lacs profonds
Yamashita S., Miura R., Kataoka S.
Fabric and critical state of granular materials 457
La structure et l’état critique des matériaux granulaires
Yan W.M., Zhang L.
Study on New Method of Accelerated Clay Creep Characteristics Test 461
Étude d’une nouvelle méthode d’évaluation accélérée des caractéristiques de fluage des argiles
Ye Y., Zhang Q., Cai D., Chen F., Yao J., Wang L.
Constitutive model and simulation of non-segregation freezing and thawing in soils 465
Modèle de comportement et simulation du gel et le dégel des sols sans ségrégation
Zhang Y., Michalowski R.L.
Technical Committee 102
Ground Property Characterization from In-Situ Tests
Comité technique 102
Caractérisation des propriétés des terrains par essais in situ
General Report for TC102 In-Situ Testing 471
Rapport général du TC102 Essais in-situ
Giacheti H.L., Cunha R.P.
Challenging Problems of Gypseous Soils in Iraq 479
Des problèmes difficiles des sols gypseux en Irak
Al-Saoudi N.K.S., Al-Khafaji A.N., Al-Mosawi M.J.
Site characterization by seismic dilatometer (SDMT): the Justice Court of Chieti 483
Caractérisation du site par dilatomètre sismique (SDMT) : la cour de Justice de Chieti
Amoroso S., Totani F., Totani G.
Détermination du coefficient rhéologique a de Ménard dans le diagramme Pressiorama®. 487
Obtaining the Ménard a Rheological Factor in a Pressiorama® Diagram
Baud J.-P., Gambin M.
Courbes hyperboliques contrainte-déformation au pressiomètre Ménard autoforé 491
Stress-Strain Hyperbolic Curves Obtained With a Selfboring Ménard PMT
Baud J.-P., Gambin M., Schlosser F.
Quality control of Cutter Soil Mixing (CSM) technology – a case study 495
Contrôle de la qualité des la technologie Cutter Soil Mixing (CSM) – une étude de cas
Bellato D., Simonini P., Grisolia M., Leder E., Marzano I.P.
Mesures dynamiques lors du battage pénétromètrique – Détermination de la courbe charge-enfoncement
dynamique en pointe 499
Dynamic measurements of the penetration test – Determination of the tip’s dynamic load-penetration curve
Benz M.A., Escobar E., Gourvès R., Haddani Y., Breul P., Bacconnet C.

VII
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Performance of a deep excavation in downtown Toronto 503


Performance d’une excavation profonde au centre-ville de Toronto
Cao L.F., Peaker S.M., Ahmad S.
Permeability scale effect in sandy aquifers: a few case studies 507
Effet d’échelle et perméabilité des aquifères sableux : quelques études de cas
Chapuis R.P.
A Study of Cuttability Indices for Tunnel Penetration 511
Étude sur les indices d’aptitude à la coupe pour la pénétration de tunnels
Chen L.-H., Chen Y.-C., Chen W.-C., Liu H.-W.
Survey results of damaged areas in flood disaster of typhoon Morakot and suggestions for restoration projects 515
Résultats des investigations sur les zones ravagées et inondées par le typhon Morakot, propositions
de projets de restauration
Chou J.C., Huang C.R., Shou K.J.
Stability of chilean’s tailings dams with the Panda® penetrometer. Experiences of the last 10th 519
Dix ans d’études de la stabilité des barrages de résidus miniers chiliens à l’aide du pénétromètre Panda®
Espinace R., Villavicencio G., Palma J., Breul P., Bacconnet C., Benz M.A., Gourvès R.
Site Sampling: Assessing Residual Uncertainty 523
Échantillonnage du site : évaluation de l’incertitude résiduelle
Fenton G.A., Hicks M.A.
Multi-Sleeve Axial-Torsional-Piezo Friction Penetration System for Subsurface Characterization 527
Système de pénétromètre à friction axial-torsional-piezométrique à manchons multiples
pour la reconnaissance des sols superficiels
Frost J. D., Martinez A.
Hydraulic Properties of Glacial Deposits Based on Large Scale Site Investigation 531
Les propriétés hydrauliques des dépôts glaciaires basées sur une enquête de chantier à grande échelle
Galaa A., Manzari M., Hamilton B.
The seismic SPT test in a tropical soil and the G0/N ratio 535
L’essai SPT sismique pour le sol tropicaux et la relation G0/N
Giacheti H.L., Pedrini R.A.A., B.P. Rocha B.P.
Compressibility Parameters of Cohesive Soils From Piezocone 539
Paramètres de compressibilité de sols cohésifs au piézocône
Hamza M., Shahien M.
Comportement de la structure de sol amélioré par inclusions rigides, supportant une éolienne 543
Behaviour of soil foundation improved by rigid columns, supporting a wind turbine
Haza-Rozier E., Vinceslas G., Le Kouby A., Crochemore O.
Seismic Response of Superstructure on Soft Soil Considering Soil-Pile-Structure Interaction 547
Influence de l’Interaction sol- pieu- structure sur la réponse sismique de la superstructure sur sol mou
Hokmabadi A.S., Fatahi B., Samali B.
Applicability of the RNK-method for geotechnical 3D-modelling in soft rocks 551
Applicabilité de la RNK-méthode pour la modélisation géotechnique en 3D en roches tendres
Ivšić T., Ortolan Ž., Kavur B.
Une nouvelle sonde permettant de mesurer sans extrapoler la pression limite pressiométrique des sols 555
A new probe for measuring the pressuremeter limit pressure of soils without extrapolation
Jacquard C., Rispal M., Puech A., Geisler J., Durand F., Cour F., Burlon S., Reiffsteck P.
Long-term Deformation of the Reclaimed Pleistocene Foundation of the Offshore Twin Airport 559
Déformations à long terme d’une fondation de remblai pléistocène récupéré sur mer pour un projet
d’aéroport jumelé
Jeon B.G., Mimura M.
Assessment of Scour Potential of a Circular Pier in Silty Sand Using ISEEP 563
Caractérisation par ISEEP du potentiel d’érosion d’une pile circulaire dans un sable silteux
Kayser M., Gabr M.
Practical Reviews on CO2 Sequestration in Korean Sedimentary Basins and Geophysical Responses
of CO2-injected Sediments 567
Le comportement pratiques sur la séquestration du CO2 dans les bassins sédimentaires coréens
et réponses géophysiques de CO2 injectées sédiments
Kim A.R., Cho G.C., Kwon T.H., Chang I.H.
Using Multi-scale Sediment Monitoring Techniques to Evaluate Remediation Effectiveness
of the Tsengwen Reservoir Watershed after Sediment Disasters Induced by Typhoon Morakot 571
Utilisation des techniques de surveillance des sédiments mulit-échelles pour évaluer l’efficacité d’assainissement
du bassin hydrographique du réservoir Tsegwen après les catastrophes de sédiments induites par le typhon Morakot
Lin B.-S., Ho H.-C., Hsiao C.-Y., Keck J., Chen C.-Y., Chi S.-Y., Chien Y.-D., Tsai M.-F.

VIII
Contents / Table des matières

Practice and development of the piezocone penetration test (CPTu) in geotechnical engineering of China 575
La pratique et le développement de pénétration au piézocône (CPTu) en Chine
Liu S., Cai G., Du Y., Puppala A.J.
The use of hydro test results for design of steel tanks on stone column improved ground - a case history 579
L’emploi des résultats des essais hydrauliques dans l’étude des réservoirs en acier sur le sol amélioré
par colonnes de pierre – histoire de cas
Matešić L., Mihaljević I., Grget G., Kvasnička P.
Interrelationship between deformation moduli from CPTU and SDMT tests for overconsolidated soils 583
La corrélation entre le module de déformation de CPTU et de tests SDMT pour les sols surconsolidés
Młynarek Z., Gogolik S., Sanglerat G.
Le Géomécamètre, un nouvel essai in situ adapté à la mesure des caractéristiques hydro-mécaniques du sol 587
The Geomechameter test, a new in-situ apparatus adapted to the measurement of the hydro-mechanical
characteristics of the soil
Monnet J.
Analytical approach for determining soil shear strength parameters from CPT and CPTu data 591
Approche analytique pour déterminer le cisailler du sol et son paramètre de la résistance de CPT et CPTu data
Motaghedi H., Eslami A., Shakeran M.
Use of penetration testing for determination of soil properties in earth dam 595
Emploi des essais de pénétration pour déterminer les propriétés de sol pour barrages en terre
Mulabdic M.
Diagnosis of earth-fills and reliability-based design 599
Diagnostic de remblais de terre et conception basée sur la fiabilité
Nishimura S., Shuku T., Suzuki M.
Correlation between cone penetration rate and measured cone penetration parameters in silty soils 603
Corrélation entre le taux de pénétration d‘un cône et des mesures de paramètres de pénétration au cône
dans les sols limoneux.
Poulsen R., Nielsen B.N., Ibsen L.B.
Sampling method and pore water pressure measurement in the great depth (-400m) 607
Méthode de mesure de pression interstitielle de l’eau d’échantillonnage en grande profondeur (– 400m)
Rito F., Emura T.
Une méthode de classification de la sensibilité des sols au moyen du piézocône 611
Soils sensibility classification method from piezocone data
Serratrice J.-F.
Correction of soil design parameters for the calculation of the foundation based on the results
of barrettes static load test 615
Correction des paramètres de conception du sol pour le calcul sur la base des résultats de test
de barrettes de charge statique
Shulyatiev O., Dzagov A., Bokov I., Shuliatev S.
Characterization and Settlement Modeling of Deep Inert Debris Fills 619
Caractérisation et modélisation du tassement de dépôts épais de gravats inertes
Somasundaram S., Khilnani K., Shenthan T., Irvine J.
Site Characterization for the HZM Immersed Tunnel 623
Caractérisation du site pour le tunnel immergé HZM
Steenfelt J.S., Yding S., Rosborg A., Hansen J.G., Yu R.
Controversial and Contradictory Evaluations in Analyses of Ground Vibrations from Pile Driving 629
Évaluations controversées et contradictoires dans l’analyse des vibrations de terre
par suite de l’enfoncement de pieux
Svinkin M.R.
CPT/PCPT- Based Organic Material Profiling 633
Matière organique - Le profilage basé sur le CPT/PCPT
Tümay M.T., Hatipkarasulu Y., Marx E.R., Cotton B.
Geotechnical Challenge for Total Cost Reduction related to Construction of Connecting Bridge
with Pile Foundations 637
Défi géotechnique pour la réduction totale des coûts liés à la construction du pont de liaison
avec les fondations sur pieux
Yasufuku N., Ochiai H., Maeda Y.
Dynamic CBR as a method of embankment compaction assessment 641
Dynamique CBR comme une méthode d’évaluation de compactage du remblai
Zabielska-Adamska K., Sulewska M.J.

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Technical ComitteeC103
Numerical Methods in Geomechanics
Comité technique 103
Méthodes numériques en géomécanique
General Report of TC103 Numerical Methods 647
Rapport général du TC103 Méthodes numériques
Chau K.T.
Equivalent pier theory for piled raft design 655
Équivalence de la théorie de la jetée pour la conception de radeau empilé
Balakumar V., Huang M., Oh E., Balasubramaniam A.S.
Interprétation d’essais d’extraction de renforcements métalliques haute adhérence dans un massif
en Terre Armée® soumis à un chargement dynamique cyclique 659
Interpretation of pullout tests of high adherence steel reinforcements in a Reinforced Earth® structure
under a cyclic dynamic loadin
Bennani Y., Soyez L., Freitag N.
On non-coaxial stress-dilatancy theories 663
Sur les théories de non co-axialité contrainte/dilatance
Biru A., Benz T.
On the geometry of plastic potential surfaces and isochoric stress paths 667
Sur la géométrie des surfaces potentielles plastiques et des chemins de contraintes isochores
Biru A., Benz T., Nordal S.
Modélisations de l’interaction sol-pieux pour le calcul d’impédances dynamiques 673
Numerical modelling of soil-pile interaction and evaluation of dynamic impedances
Breugnot A., Allagnat D., Baguelin F., Schlosser F., Osmani E., Servant C.
Validation of geotechnical finite element analysis 677
Validation d’analyse par éléments finis pour la géotechnique
Brinkgreve R.B.J., Engin E.
Evaluation of the efficiency of different ground improvement techniques 683
Évaluation de l’efficacité des différentes techniques d’amélioration des sols
Bryson S., El Naggar H.
Large deformation and post-failure simulations of segmental retaining walls using mesh-free method (SPH) 687
Simulations de grandes déformations et post-rupture des murs de soutènement segmentaires
utilisant la méthode des mailles-libres (SPH)
Bui H.H., Kodikara J.A, Pathegama R., Bouazza A., Haque A.
Comparative Study on EQWEAP Analysis with 2D/3D FE Solutions 691
Étude comparative sur l’analyse EQWEAP avec des solutions 2D/3D FE
Chang D.-W., Wang Y.-C., Wu W.-L., Chin C.-T.
Large-Scale Geotechnical Finite Element Analysis on Desktop PCs 695
Analyse par éléments finis de problèmes géotechniques de grandes dimensions sur ordinateur de bureau
Chaudhary K.B., Phoon K.K., Toh K.C.
Calibration of a modified hardening soil model for kakiritic rocks 699
Étalonnage d’un modèle modifié d’écrouissage des sols pour les roches kakiritiques
Dong W., Anagnostou G.
Numerical investigations of shear strain localization in an elasto-plastic Cosserat material 703
Investigations numériques sur les déformations en cisaillement dans un matériau élastoplastique de type Cosserat
Ebrahimian B., Noorzad A.
Effect of Excavation-induced Movements on Adjacent Piles 707
Effets des mouvements causés par une excavation sur les pieux voisins
Elkady T.
Finite Element Modelling of D-wall Supported Excavations 711
Modèle elément finis d’excavations soutenues par parois moulée
Everaars M.J.C., Peters M.G.J.M.
3D simulation of overtopping erosion on embankments by shallow-water approximation 715
Simulation en 3D d’une érosion par débordement sur des remblais, avec approximation en eau peu profonde
Fujisawa K., Murakami A.
Numerical Investigations on Vibratory Sheet Piling in Embankments using a Multi-Phase Material 719
Études numériques des effets de vibrofonçage sur les berges en utilisant une approche multi-phasique
Hamann T., Grabe J.
Combined computational-experimental Laboratory Testing for Soil Behavior Modeling 723
Combinaison d’essais numériques et expérimentaux pour la modélisation du comportement des sols
Hashash Y.M.A., Asmar R., Moon S.

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Contents / Table des matières

Numerical analysis on prediction for residual deformation of earth structure using rigid plastic dynamic
deformation analysis 727
Étude numérique pour prévoir la déformation résiduelle d’un ouvrage en terre à l’aide de l’analyse
de la déformation dynamique rigide plastique
Hoshina T., Isobe K.
Undrained bearing capacity of spatially random clays by finite elements and limit analysis 731
Capacité portante des argiles non drainées des champs aléatoires par éléments finis et analyse limite
Huang J., Lyamin A.V., Griffiths D.V., Sloan S.W., Krabbenhoft K., Fenton G.A.
On the use of waste rock inclusions to improve the performance of tailings impoundments 735
Sur l’utilisation d’inclusions de roches stériles pour améliorer la performance des parcs à résidus miniers
James M., Aubertin M., Bussière B.
Numerical modelling and control of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers 739
Modélisation numérique et contrôle des intrusions d’eau de mer dans les aquifères côtiers
Javadi A.A., Hussain M.S., Abd-Elhamid H.F., Sherif M.M.
Computer Simulation of Levee’s Erosion and Overtopping 743
Simulation numérique de l’érosion et de la surverse de digues
Kamalzare M., Zimmie T.F., Han T.S., McMullan M., Cutler B., Franklin W.R.
Using 3D numerical solutions for the simplified modelling of interaction of soil and elongated structures 747
Utilisation de solutions 3D numériques pour la modélisation simplifiée de l’interaction des sols
et des structures allongées
Kholmyansky M.L., Sheynin V.I.
3D Dynamic Numerical Modeling for Soil-Pile-Structure Interaction in Centrifuge Tests 751
Modélisation numérique dynamique en 3D de l’interaction sol-pieu en centrifugeuse
Kwon S.-Y., Kim M.-M., Kim S.-H., Choi J.-I
Two methods for estimating excess pore pressure in LEM 755
Deux méthodes pour estimer l’excès de pression interstitielle
Lehtonen V., Länsivaara T.
Comparison of 3D Finite Element Slopes Stability with 3D Limit Equilibrium Analysis 759
Comparaison de la stabilité des éléments 3D pente finie avec l’analyse limite d’équilibre 3D
Lu H.H., Xu L.M., Fredlund M.D., Fredlund D.G.
Modelling of soil-structure interaction for seismic analyses of the Izmit Bay Bridge 763
Modélisation de l’interaction sol-structure pour l’analyse sismique du pont de la baie d’Izmit
Lyngs J. H., Kasper T., Bertelsen K.S.
Numerical Analysis of a Tunnel Intersection 769
Analyse numérique de l’intersection de tunnels
Mayoral J.M., Román-de la Sancha A., Osorio L., Martínez S.
Numerical Evaluation of the Behavior of Reinforced Soil Retaining Walls 773
Simulation numérique du comportement de murs de soutènement en sol renforcé
Mirmoradi S.H., Ehrlich M.
Application of Genetic Algorithms with Hill Climbing Procedure to a Constitutive Model for Hard Soils
and Soft Rocks 777
Application des algorithmes génétiques avec la méthode de gradient à un modèle constitutif
pour sols durs et roches tendres
Pereira C., Caldeira L., Maranha das Neves E., Cardoso R.
Analytically and experimentally based resistance factors for “full-flow” penetrometers 781
Résistance-facteurs pour “full flow” pénétromètres, basé sur résultats analytiques et expérimentaux
Pinkert S., Klar A.
Analysis of ettringite attack to stabilized railway bases and embankments 785
Analyse de l’attaque chimique par ettringite de remblais et plateformes ferroviaires stabilisées
Ramon A., Alonso E.E.
The influence of buildings and ground stratification on tunnel lining loads using finite element method 789
L’influence des bâtiments et de la stratification du sol sur les charges de revêtement du tunnel utilisant
la méthode d’éléments finis
Rezaei A.H., Katebi H., Hajialilue-Bonab M., Hosseini B.
Numerical Investigation of The Mobilization of Active Earth Pressure on Retaining Walls 793
Enquête numérique de la mobilisation de la pression de la terre active sur les murs de retenue
Sadrekarimi A., Damavandinejad Monfared S.
Artificial intelligence for modeling load-settlement response of axially loaded (steel) driven piles 797
Application de l’intelligence artificielle à la modélisation de la courbe effort-tassement des pieux battus
(en acier) soumis à un chargement axial
Shahin M.A.

XI
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

A visco-elasto-plastic multi-surface cyclic model 801


Un modèle visco-élastoplastique de répétition de multi-surface
Siddiquee, S.A., Islam K.
The design and construction of temporary works for Limerick Immersed Tube Tunnel 805
Design et construction des travaux temporaires du tunnel-tube immergé de Limerick
Smith A.K.C., Thorup O., Hudson J.
The application of the Iwan soil model on a deep excavation 809
L’application du modèle de sol d’Iwan sur une excavation profonde
Sokolić I., Szavits-Nossan A.
Numerical modelling of desiccation crack induced permeability 813
Modélisation numérique de la perméabilité induite par la fissuration des sols
Stirling R.A., Davie C.T., Glendinning S.
The tip resistance in layered soils during static penetration 817
La résistance en pointe dans les sols stratifiés pendant une pénétration statique
Sturm H.
Measured and Simulated Interactions between Kenaf Geogrid Limited Life Geosynthetics (LLGs)
and Silty Sand Backfill 821
Interactions mesurées et simulées entre kénaf géogrille limitée Géosynthétiques vie (LLGs)
et de remblai de sable limoneux
Tanchaisawat T., Bergado D.T., Artidteang S.
Interaction between structures and compressible subsoils considered in light of soil mechanics
and structural mechanics 825
Étude de l’interaction sol- structures à la lumière de la mécanique des sols et de la mécanique des stuctures
Ulitsky V.M., Shashkin A.G., Shashkin K.G., Vasenin V.A., Lisyuk M.B., Dashko R.E.
Rapid Drawdown Analysis using Strength Reduction 829
Analyse d’abaissement rapide utilisant la force de réduction
VandenBerge D.R., Duncan J.M., Brandon T.L.
Validation of computational liquefaction in plane strain 833
Validation de liquéfaction simulée en déformation plane
Wanatowski D., Shuttle D.A., Jefferies M.G.
Analysis of Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Single Pile Using the Artificial Neural Networks Approach -
A Case Study 837
Analyse de la capacité portante ultime d’un pieu unique à l’aide de la méthode des réseaux de neurones artificiels :
une étude de cas
Wardani S.P.R., Surjandari N.S., Jajaputra A.A.
Simulation of Delayed Failure in Naturally Deposited Clay Ground by Soil-water Coupled Finite
Deformation Analysis Taking Inertial Forces into Consideration 841
Simulation de rupture différée d’un sol d’argile naturelle sédimentaire à l’aide de l’analyse des déformations
finies de squelette couplé eau-sol en tenant compte de la force d’inertie
Yamada S., Noda T.
An elastic-viscous-plastic modeling of time-dependent behaviors of overconsolidated clays 845
Un modèle élasto-visco-plastique pour les argiles surconsolidés
Yao Y.P., Kong L.M.
Failure Modes for Geosynthetic Reinforced Column Supported (GRCS) 849
Les modèles de rupture de massifs renforcés par colonnes sol-ciment et géosynthétiques (GRCS)
Yapage N.N.S., Liyanapathirana D.S., Leo C.J.
The Material Point Method: A promising computational tool in Geotechnics 853
La méthode du point matériel : un outil prometteur de calcul en géotechnique
Yerro A., Alonso E., Pinyol N.
Development of excess pore-water pressure in thawing process of frozen subgrade soils:
Based on analytical solutions and finite element method. 857
Dégel des sols et variation de la pression d’eau interstitielle: application de méthodes analytiques
et des éléments finis
Yesuf G.Y., Hoff I., Vaslestad J.
Prediction of stress and strain for the seabed and production well during methane hydrate exploitation
in turbidite reservoir 861
Prédiction de stress et déformation pour le fond de la mer et de puits pendant l’exploitation d’hydrate
de méthane dans le réservoir du turbidité
Yoneda J.

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Contents / Table des matières

Technical Committee 104


Physical Modelling in Geotechnics
Comité technique 104
Modélisation physique en géotechnique
General Report for TC104 - Physical Modelling in Geotechnics 867
Rapport général du TC104 - Modélisation physique en géotechnique
White D.J., Gaudin C., Take W.A.
Centrifuge model tests on foundation on geosynthetic reinforced slope 875
Essais en centrifugeuse d’une fondation sur une pente renforcée par géosynthétique
Aklik P., Wu W.
Loading behaviour of flexible raft foundations in full scale and centrifuge models 879
Comportement de radiers flexibles dans des essais grandeur nature et en centrifugeuse
Arnold A., Laue J.
Investigation on the dynamic properties of saturated sand-tire chips mixture by shaking table 883
Étude des propriétés dynamiques d’un mélange de sable saturé et de chute de pneumatiques sur table vibrante
Bahadori H., Manafi S.
The influence of the g-level for anchor tests in sand 887
L’influence du niveau de g pour les tests d’ancrage en sable
Bezuijen A., Zwaan R., Lottum van H.
An experimental study on the consolidation of soft clayey soils using electrochemical methods 891
Étude expérimentale de la consolidation des argiles molles avec des méthodes électrochimiques
Cardoso R., Nogueira Santos J.
Variation of Friction Angle and Dilatancy For Anisotropic Cohesionless Soils 895
Variations de l’angle de Frottement et de la Dilatance pour les Sols Anisotropes Sans Cohésion
Cinicioglu O., Abadkon A., Altunbas A., Abzal M.
Centrifuge Modeling of Seismic Soil-Structure-Interaction and Lateral Earth Pressures for Large Near-Surface
Underground Structures 899
Modélisation en centrifugeuse de l’Interaction sol-structure sismique et des pressions de terre latérales
pour les grands ouvrages souterrains proches de la surface
Dashti S., Hushmand A., Ghayoomi M., McCartney J.S., Zhang M., Hushmand B., Mokarram N., Bastani A.,
Davis C., Lee Y., Hu J.
Evaluation of Seismic Earth Pressure Reduction using EPS Geofoam 903
Évaluation de la réduction de la poussée sismique en utilisant du Polystyrène Expansé
Dave T.N., Dasaka S.M., Khan N., Murali Krishna A.
Analysis of an adaptive foundation system for embankments on soft soils by means of physical
and numerical modelling 907
Analyse d’un système de fondation adaptatif pour les remblais sur sols compressibles par modélisation physique
et numérique
Detert O., Alexiew D., Schanz T., König D.
Reliability analysis of empirical predictive models for earthquake-induced sliding displacements of slopes 911
Analyse de fiabilité des modèles empiriques de prédiction des déplacements sismiques de pentes
Fotopoulou S., Pitilakis K.
Development of pore water pressure around a stone column 915
Développement des pressions interstitielles autour d’une colonne ballastée
Gautray J., Laue J., Springman S.M., Almeida M.
Large scale 1-g shake table model test on the response of a stiff pile group to liquefaction induced lateral
spreading 919
Réponse d’un groupe de 3 × 3 pieux rigides sous l’action d’un écoulement latéral induit par liquéfaction
étudié à grande échelle sur table vibrante
Haeri S.M., Kavand A., Asefzadeh A., Rahmani I.
Dynamic centrifugal model test for unsaturated embankments considering seepage flow
and the numerical analysis 923
Expérimentation en centrifugeuse et modélisation numérique de la réponse aux séismes de remblais
non saturés en prenant en compte l’écoulement
Higo Y., Oka F., Kimoto S., Kinugawa T., Lee C.-W., Doi T.
Développement d’un modèle réduit tridimensionnel du renforcement des sols par inclusions rigides 927
Development of a three-dimensional small scale model to simulate soil improvement by rigid piles
Houda M., Jenck O., Emeriault F., Briançon L., Gotteland Ph.
Full-scale field validation of innovative dike monitoring systems 931
Validation de systèmes de surveillance innovants pour digues à grande échelle
Koelewijn A.R., Vries (de) G., Lottum van H.

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Physical modeling of the vibration mitigation by an isolating screen 935


Modélisation physique de l’atténuation des vibrations par un écran isolant
Masoumi H., Vanhonacker P.
The Drained Strength of Soft Clays with Partially Penetrating Sand Columns
at Different Area Replacement Ratios 939
La résistance drainée des argiles molles avec des colonnes de sable pénétrant partiellement
à différents taux de remplacement
Najjar S., Sadek S., Bou Lattouf H.
Physical modeling of arch action in undercut slopes with actual engineering practice to Mae Moh open-pit mine
of Thailand 943
Modélisation physique de l’effet de voûte dans les pentes en déblai en suivant la pratique de l’ingénieur
pour la mine à ciel ouvert à Mae Moh en Thaïlande
Pipatpongsa T., Khosravi M.H., Takemura J.
Critical State Modelling of Soil-Structure Interface for Advanced Design 947
Modélisation à l’état critique d’interface sol-structure pour la conception avancée
Sarma D., Sarma M.D
A Study on the Influence of Ground Water Level on Foundation Settlement in Cohesionless Soil 953
Étude de l’influence de la variation du niveau d’eau sur le tassement des fondations superficielles
reposant sur sol granulaire
Shahriar M.A., Sivakugan N., Urquhart A., Tapiolas M., Das B.M.
Water injection aided pile jacking centrifuge experiments in sand 957
Essais en centrifugeuse d’installation de pieux vérinés dans le sable avec injection d’eau
Shepley P., Bolton M.D.
Shear Behaviour of Rock Joints under CNS Boundary Conditions 961
Comportement en cisaillement de joints rocheux en condition de raideur normale constante
Shrivastava A.K., Rao K.S.
Experimental study on compaction grouting method for liquefiable soil using centrifuge test and X-ray tomography 965
Etude expérimentale sur la CPG pour le sol liquéfiable par centrifugation et tomographie à rayons X
Takano D., Morikawa Y., Nishimura S., Takehana K.
A model study of strains under footings supported by floating and end-bearing granular columns 969
Une étude sur modèle réduit des contraintes sous semelles isolées reposant sur des colonnes granulaires
flottantes et encastrées
Tekin M., Ergun M.U.
Modélisation physique du blocage d’un écoulement d’eau dans un sol par injection d’un produit de colmatage 973
Physical modelling of blocking phenomenon, by injection of a clogging product, of water flow through soils
Truong Q.Q., Dupla J.-C., Canou J., Chevalier C., Chopin M., Fry J.J.
Hydraulic conductivity and small-strain stiffness of a cement-bentonite sample exposed to sulphates 977
Conductivité hydraulique et module de cisaillement initial d’un échantillon de ciment-bentonite
exposé aux sulfates
Verástegui-Flores R.D., Di Emidio G., Bezuijen A.
Centrifuge modelling of bored piles in sands 981
Modélisation en centrifugeuse de pieux forés dans le sable
Williamson M.G., Elshafie M.Z.E.B., Mair R.J.
Stability and performance of ground improvement using geocell mattresses under extreme weather 985
La stabilité et les performances de l’amélioration du sol en utilisant des matelas géocellules
dans des conditions météorologiques extrêmes
Xu Y., Wang J.P.
Technical committee 105
Geo-Mechanics from Micro to Macro
Comité technique 105
Géomécanique micro-macro
General Report of TC 105 - Geomechanics through the scales  991
Rapport général du TC 105 - La géomécanique à travers les échelles
Viggiani G.
Un rêve devenu réalité : explorer une bande de cisaillement à l’échelle des grains 999
Grain-scale experimental investigation of shear banding in sand
Andò E., Desrues J., Bésuelle P., Viggiani G., Hall S.
Modelling crushing of granular materials as a poly-disperse mixture 1003
Modélisation de la fracturation des matériaux granulaires comme un mélange poli-disperse
Caicedo B., Ocampo M., Vallejo L.

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Contents / Table des matières

Behaviour of a compacted silty sand under constant water content shearing 1007
Comportement d’un sable limoneux compacté sous cisaillement à teneur en eau constante
Heitor A., Rujikiatkamjorn C., Indraratna B.
Shear Strength and Deformation of Methane Hydrate Bearing Sand with Fines 1011
Résistance au cisaillement et déformation des sables avec des fines contenant de l’hydrate de méthane
Hyodo M., Yoshimoto N., Kato A., Yoneda J.
A Simplified Contact Model for Sandy Grains Cemented with Methane Hydrate 1015
Un modèle simplifié pour les contacts entre grains de sable cimentés par hydrates de méthane
Jiang M., Liu F., Zhu F., Xiao Y.
Macro- and micro-FE modelling of wellbore damage due to drilling and coring processes 1019
Modélisation par les éléments finis aux échelles micro et macro de l’endommagement dû au forage
et au carrotage
Khoa H.D.V., Grande L., Jostad H.P.
Three dimensional discrete element simulation of trapdoor unloading and gravity flow of sandy granular material 1023
Simulation tridimensionnelle par les éléments distincts du débit de décharge et d’écoulement gravitaire
du matériau granulaire sableux
Kikkawa N., Itoh K., Toyosawa Y., Pender M.J., Orense R.P.
Microstructural changes leading to chemically enhanced drainage 1027
Modifications de microstructure entraînant un drainage chimiquement amélioré
Minder P., Puzrin A.M.
Discrete Element Method Study of Shear Wave Propagation in Granular Soil 1031
Étude de la propagation des ondes de cisaillement dans un sol granuleux par la méthode des éléments discrets
Ning Z., Evans T.M.
Microscopic observation on compacted sandy soil using micro-focus X-ray CT 1035
Observation microscopique par micro-tomographie à rayons X de sables compactés
Otani J., Mukunoki T., Takano D., Chevalier B.
Study of relative permeability variation during unsteady flow in saturated reservoir rock using Lattice
Boltzmann method 1039
Étude de la variation de la perméabilité relative au cours d’écoulement transitoire dans une roche réservoir
saturée en utilisant la méthode des réseaux de Boltzmann
Pak A., Sheikh B.
Uniform effective stress equation for soil mechanics 1043
Équation aux contraintes effectives uniformes pour la Mécanique des Sols
Shao L.-T., Liu G., Guo X.-X.
Particulate Modeling of Sand Slurry Flow Retardation 1047
Modélisation par les milieux granulaires de l’effet de retard de l’écoulement des boues résiduelles
Tomac I., Gutierrez M.
A Coupled Analysis of Fluid-Particle Interactions in Granular Soils 1051
Analyse couplée des interactions fluide-particules dans les sols granulaires
Zhao J., Shan T.
Experimental study of resilient modulus of unsaturated soil at different temperatures 1055
Etude expérimentale du module de résilience d’un sol non saturé à différentes températures
Zhou C., Ng C.W.W.
Technical committee 106
Unsaturated Soils
Comité technique 106
Sols non saturés
General Report of TC 106 - Unsaturated soils 1061
Rapport général du TC 106 - Sols non saturés
Jommi C.
A simple approach for predicting vertical movements of expansive soils using the mechanics
of unsaturated soils 1069
Une approche simple pour prédire les mouvements verticaux des sols gonflants par la mécanique des sols
non saturés
Adem H.H., Vanapalli S.K.
Étude de l’impact de l’hygrométrie sur la fissuration d’un sol gonflant 1073
Impact of the hygrometry on the swelling soil cracking
Auvray R., Rosin-Paumier S., Abdallah A., Masrouri F.

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

One-dimensional cracking model in clayey soils 1077


Modélisation unidimensionnel de la fissuration des sols argileux
Ávila G., Ledesma A., Lloret A.
Experimental Study on Effect of Initial Moisture Content on Compressive Property of Compacted
Loess Like Silt 1081
Étude expérimentale des caractéristiques de compression des lœss compactés
Bai X., Yang J., Ma F.
Evolution of microstructure during desiccation of oil sands mature fine tailings 1085
Évolution de la microstructure en séchage des résidus de sables bitumineux
Bajwa T, Simms P.
Evaluation of void ratio and elastic modulus of unsaturated soil using elastic waves 1089
Évaluation de l’indice des vides et du module élastique d’un sol non saturé en utilisant les ondes élastiques
Byun Y.H., Lee J.S., Cho S.H., Yoon H.K.
Evaluation Curves SWCC for Tropical Peruvian Soils 1093
Évaluation des courbes de rétention d’eau SWCC pour les sols tropicaux péruviens
Carrillo-Gil A., Carrillo-Acevedo A.
Étude par la méthode des éléments finis du comportement des remblais en sols fins compactés 1097
Finite element analysis of embankments in fine compacted soils
Droniuc N.
Comportement des sols gonflants lors de l’humidification et du séchage 1101
Behavior of swelling soil under cyclic wetting and drying
Ejjaaouani H., Shakhirev V., Magnan J.-P., Bensallam S.
Numerical study of damage in unsaturated bentonite with θ-stock finite element code 1105
Étude numérique d’endommagement pour les milieux poreux non saturés
avec le code des éléments finis θ-stock
Fathalikhani M., Gatmiri B.
Combination of Shrinkage Curve and Soil-Water Characteristic Curves for Soils that Undergo Volume
Change as Soil Suction is Increased 1109
Combinaison des courbes de retrait et des courbes des propriétés hydriques des sols pour les sols subissant
un changement de volume avec une augmentation de la succion
Fredlund D.G., Zhang F.
Small-strain shear modulus and shear strength of an unsaturated clayey sand 1113
Module de cisaillement en petites déformations et la résistance au cisaillement d’un sable argileux non saturé
Georgetti G.B., Vilar O.M., Rodrigues R.A.
Étude de la stabilité des pentes non saturées sous les effets de l’infiltration prenant en compte la végétation 1117
Study of the stability of unsaturated slopes under the effects of infiltration taking into account the vegetation
Hemmati S., Modaressi A.
Rainfall-induced collapse of old railway embankments in Norway 1121
Influence des precipitations sur l’instabilité d’anciens remblais ferroviaires en Norvège
Heyerdahl H., Høydal Ø., Nadim F., Kalsnes B.G., Børsting T.
Dynamic shear modulus and damping of compacted silty sand via suction-controlled resonant column testing 1125
Propriétés dynamiques d’un sable limoneux par des tests en colonne de résonance sous aspiration contrôlée.
Hoyos L.R., Cruz J.A., Puppala A.J., Douglas W.A., Suescún E.A.
Expression of mechanical characteristics in compacted soil with soil/water/air coupled F.E. simulation 1129
Expression des caractéristiques mécaniques des sols compactés par une simulation couplée sol/eau/air
par éléments finis
Kawai K., Iizuka A., Kanazawa S.
A Geotechnical Countermeasure for Combating Desertification 1133
Une mesure géotechnique pour lutter contre la désertification
Liu Q., Yasufuku N.
Extension of measurement range of dew-point potentiometer and evaporation method 1137
Extension de gamme de mesure de potentiomètre de point de rosée et méthode d’évaporation
Maček M., Smolar J., Petkovšek A.
Field capacity and moisture loss during active deposition on Tailings Dams 1143
Capacité au champ et perte d’humidité pendant le dépôt actif des résidus
MacRobert C.
Effet du retrait du sol sur une maison expérimentale 1147
Effects of soil shrinkage on an experimental house
Makki L., Bourgeois E., Burlon S., Magnan J.-P., Duc M.
Hydro-mechanical properties of lime-treated London Clay 1151
Propriétés hydromécaniques de l’argile de Londres traitée à la chaux
Mavroulidou M., Zhang X., Kichou Z., Gunn M.J.

XVI
Contents / Table des matières

Influence of initial water content on the water retention behaviour of a sandy clay soil 1155
Influence de la teneur en eau initiale sur le comportement de rétention d’eau d’une argile sableuse
Mendes J., Toll D.G.
Climate Change Effects on Expansive Soil Movements 1159
Les effets du changement climatique sur les mouvements d’un sol gonflant
Mitchell P.W.
Study on mechanism of two-phase flow in porous media using X-ray CT Image Analysis 1163
Etude sur le mécanisme de transfert biphasé dans les milieux poreux par l’imagerie aux rayons X
Mukunoki T., Mikami K.
Soil suction induced by grass and tree in an atmospheric-controlled plant room 1167
Succion du sol induite par l’herbe et l’arbre dans une chambre atmosphérique contrôlée
Ng C.W.W., Leung A.K., Garg A., Woon K.X., Chu L.M., Hau B.C.H.
Application of micro-porous membrane technology for measurement of soil-water characteristic curve 1171
Application de la technologie de membrane microporeuse pour la détermination de la courbe
de rétention d’eau des sols
Nishimura T.
Determination of soil-water retention curve for a young residual soil using a small centrifuge 1175
Détermination de la courbe de rétention d’eau pour un sol résiduel jeune à l’aide d´une petite centrifugeuse
Reis R.M., Saboya F., Tibana S., Marciano C.R., Ribeiro A.B., Sterck W.N., Avanzi E.D.
Interpretation of the Effect of Compaction on the Mechanical Behavior of Embankment Materials
Based on the Soil Skeleton Structure Concept 1179
Interprétation de l’effet de compactage sur le comportement mécanique des matériaux de remblai basée
sur le concept de structure des sols
Sakai T., Nakano M.
Mechanisms of Strength Loss during Wetting and Drying of Pierre Shale 1183
Mécanismes de la perte de force pendant humidification et séchage de Pierre Shale
Schaefer V.R., Birchmier M.A.
Effect of confining stress on the transient hydration of unsaturated GCLs 1187
Effet de la contrainte de confinement sur l’hydratation transitoire de GCLs insaturés
Siemens G.A., Take W.A., Rowe R.K., Brachman R.
Soil chart, new evaluation method of the swelling-shrinkage potential, applied to the Bahlui’s clay
stabilized with cement 1191
L’ empreinte du sol, une nouvelle méthode d’évaluation du potentiel de gonflement, appliquée à l’argile
de Bahlui stabilisée avec du ciment.
Stanciu A., Aniculaesi M., Lungu I.
Measurement of Unsaturated Ground Hydraulic Properties using a Dynamic State Soil Moisture
Distribution Model 1195
Mise en œuvre de l’évaluation d’une mesure des propriétés hydrauliques d’un sol non saturé
par un modèle dynamique de distribution de l’humidité
Sugii T., Yamada K., Asano N., Yamada Y.
New devices for water content measurement 1199
Les appareils nouveaux pour la mesure de la teneur en eau
Toll D.G., Hassan A.A., King J.M., Asquith J.D.
A simplified model for collapse using suction controlled tests 1203
Un modèle simplifié d’effondrement, basée sur des essais de succion controlée
Vázquez M., Justo de J.L., Durand P.
Critical State for Unsaturated Soils and Steady State of Thermodynamic Process 1207
Etat critique de s sols non saturés et état stable thermodynamique
Zhao C.G., Li J., Cai G.Q., Liu Y.
Technical committee 202
Transportation Geotechnics
Comité technique 202
Géotechnique des transports
General Report TC202 - Transportation Geotechnics 1213
Rapport général du TC202 - Géotechnique pour les infrastructures de transport
Indraratna B., Correia A.
Five years of Impact Compaction in Europe – successful implementation of an innovative compaction
technique based on fundamental research and field experiments 1225
Cinq ans de compactage par impact en Europe – mise en œuvre avec succès d’une technique
de compactage novatrice basée sur la recherche fondamentale et expériences sur le terrain
Adam D., Paulmichl I., Adam C., Falkner F.-J.

XVII
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Développement d’un modèle non linéaire de la voie ferrée ballastée 1229


Development of a non-linear ballasted railway track model
Alves Fernandes V., Costa d’Aguiar S., Lopez-Caballero F.
LGV EST lot 41 : tassements calculés puis mesurés sous remblais 1233
LGV EST section 41 : measured and calculated settlements under embankments
Boutonnier L., Hajouai F., Bacar Fadhuli N., Gandille D.
Recent developments in pavement foundation design 1237
Développements récents dans la conception des fondations des chaussées
Brown S.F., Thom N.H.
Deformation Performance and Stability Control of Multi-stage Embankments in Ireland 1241
Performance en déformation et contrôle de stabilité de remblais construits par étapes en Irlande
Buggy F.J.
Renforcement de plates-formes ferroviaires par colonnes de soil mixing réalisées sans enlever la voie 1245
Railways platforms reinforced by soil-mixing columns without track removing
Calon N., Robinet A., Costa d’Aguiar S., Briançon L., Cojean C., Mosser J.-F.
Analysis of the influence of soft soil depth on the subgrade capacity for flexible pavements 1249
Analyse de l’influence de la profondeur d’un sol mou sur la capacité portante pour les chaussées souples.
Carvajal E., Romana M.
The Use of Jet Grouting to Enhance Stability of Bermed Excavation 1255
L’utilisation de Jet Grouting pour améliorer la stabilité d’une excavation avec risbermes
Cheuk J.C.Y., Lai A.W.L., Cheung C.K.W., Man V.K.W., So A.K.O.
The geotechnical analysis corresponding to the high road embankments close to a bridge 1259
L’analyse géotechnique correspondant aux remblais routiers de grande hauteur à proximité d’un pont
Chirica A., Vintila D., Tenea D.
Applicability of the Geogauge, P-FWD and DCP for compaction control 1263
Étude des conditions d’application du Geogauge, DP et PDL dans le contrôle du compactage
Conde M.C., Lopes M.G., Caldeira L., Bilé Serra J.
Equilibrium models for arching in basal reinforced piled embankments 1267
Modèles d’équilibre par effet voute pour l’amélioration des sols de fondation par inclusions rigides
Eekelen van S.J.M., Bezuijen A.
Prise en compte des effets de la surconsolidation dans la stabilité des talus 1271
Consideration of Overconsolidation in slopes stability
Guerpillon Y., Virollet M.
Effects of ballast thickness and tie-tamper repair on settlement characteristics of railway ballasted tracks 1275
Les effets de l’épaisseur de ballast et de la réparation de lien-bourreur sur le tassement des voies chemin de fer
Hayano K., Ishii K., Muramoto K.
Mécanismes de transfert de charges dans les remblais sur cavités renforcés par géotextiles :
approches expérimentales et numériques 1279
Load transfer mechanisms in geotextile-reinforced embankments overlying voids: experimental
and numerical approaches
Huckert A., Garcin P., Villard P., Briançon L., Auray G.
Performance Assessment of Synthetic Shock Mats and Grids in the Improvement of Ballasted Tracks 1283
Évaluation de la performance des nappes synthétiques à effet d’amortissement et des géogrilles
dans l’amélioration des plates-formes ferroviaires ballastées
Indraratna B., Nimbalkar S., Rujikiatkamjorn C., Neville T., Christie D.
Effect Evaluation of Freeze-Thaw on Deformation-Strength Properties of Granular Base Course
Material in Pavement 1287
Évaluation des effets de gel-dégel sur les propriétés de résistance à la déformation des matériaux granulaires
de couche de base des chaussées
Ishikawa T., Zhang Y., Kawabata S., Kameyama S., Tokoro T., Ono T.
Long-term performance of preloaded road embankment 1291
Comportement à long terme d’un remblai routier préchargé
Islam M.N., Gnanendran C.T., Sivakumar S.T., Karim M.R.
Probabilistic Settlement Analysis For The Botlek Lifting Bridge Design 1295
Analyse probabiliste de tassement pour la conception du pont levant Botlek
Jacobse J.A., Nehal R.S., Rijneveld B., Bouwmeester D.
Ground improvement methods for the construction of the federal road B 176 on a new elevated dump
in the brown coal region of MIBRAG 1301
Méthodes d’amélioration de sols pour la construction de la route nationale B 176 traversant un remblai récent
d’une mine de lignite de MIBRAG
Kirstein J.F., Ahner C., Uhlemann S., Uhlich P., Röder K.

XVIII
Contents / Table des matières

Model tests on settlement behaviour of ballasts subjected to sand intrusion and tie tamping application 1305
Tests de modélisation sur le comportement en tassement des ballasts sujets à l’intrusion de sable
et au bourrage
Kumara J., Hayano K.
Assessing the Effectiveness of Rolling Dynamic Compaction 1309
Évaluation de l’efficacité du compactage dynamique roulant
Kuo Y.L., Jaksa M.B., Scott B.T., Bradley A.C., Power C.N., Crisp A.C., Jiang J.H.
Determination of distribution of modulus of subgrade reaction 1313
Détermination de la distribution du module de réaction d’un sol de fondation
Larkela A., Mengelt M., Stapelfeldt T.
Stability improvement methods for soft clays in a railway environment 1317
Méthodes d’amélioration de la stabilité des argiles moles sous remblai de chemin de fer
Mansikkamäki J., Länsivaara T.
Effect of wetting- drying cycles on CBR values of silty subgrade soil of Karaj railway 1321
Effet des cycles d’humidification et séchage sur les valeurs CBR des sols de limoneux de fondation
de la voie ferrée Karaj
Moayed R.Z., Lahiji B.P., Daghigh Y.
On the Permanent Deformation Behavior of Rail Road Pond Ash Subgrade 1325
Sur le comportement en déformation permanente d’une assise ferroviaire en cendres volantes
de bassin
Mohanty B., Chandra S.
Evaluation of the Performance of Road Embankments over North Jakarta-Soft Soils 1329
Évaluation de la performance de remblais routiers sur les sols mous du Nord de Djakarta.
Murjanto D., Rahadian H., Hendarto, Taufik R.
Retrofit Technique for Asphalt Concrete Pavements after seismic damage 1333
Technique de réhabilitation pour chaussée en béton d’asphalte après dommage sismique
Ohta H., Ishigaki T., Tatta N.
Simultaneous interpretation of CPT/DMT tests to ground characterisation 1337
L’interprétation simultanée des essais CPT/DMT pour la caractérisation du sol
Rabarijoely S., Garbulewski K.
Modélisation numérique 3D d’un système de fondation d’un complexe immobilier 1341
3D numerical modeling of a foundation system of a building complex
Reynaud S., Allagnat D., Mazaré B., Julien T.
Comportement du viaduc élevé de la ligne 12 du métro de la Ville de Mexico, autour de la Sierra
de Santa Catarina 1345
Elevated Viaduct behavior of Metro Line 12 Mexico City in the nearness of the Santa Catarina
Rodríguez G.L.B., Soria C.B.
Influence of installation damage on the tensile strength of asphalt reinforcement products 1349
Influence de l’endommagement de mise en place sur la traction des produits de renforcement en asphalte
Sakou Touole L., Thesseling B.
Influence of Anti-freezing layer on the Frost Penetration Depth for Paved Road Design 1353
Influence d’une couche anti-gel sur la profondeur de pénétration du gel dans la conception des chaussées
Shin E.C., Cho G.T., Lee J.S.
Evaluation of roadbed potential damage induced by swelling/shrinkage of the subgrade 1357
Effet du retrait-gonflement des sols sur les structures de chaussées
Simic D.
The performance of shale as fill and embankment material for a trunk road in Ghana 1361
La performance du schiste comme matériau de remblai pour une route destinée au trafic de camions au Ghana
Solomon K.M., Oddei J.K., Gawu S.K.
Influence of Mechanical Indices for Soil Basement on Strength of Road Structure 1365
Influence des paramètres mécaniques de la couche de fondation sur la résistance d’une structure de chaussée
Teltayev B.
Design and performance of a jet grout retaining wall in a railway embankment on soft soil 1369
Dimensionnement et performance d’une paroi de soutènement réalisée à l’aide de la technique de jet grouting
dans un remblai ferroviaire sur sol mou
Verstraelen J., Maekelberg W., Lejeune C., De Clercq E., De Vos L.
Laboratory characterization and model calibration of a cemented aggregate for application
in transportation infrastructures 1373
Caractérisation en laboratoire et calibration d’un modèle d’agrégat cimenté pour une utilisation
dans les infrastructures de transport
Viana da Fonseca A., Rios S., Domingues A.M., Silva A., Fortunato E.

XIX
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Special Aspects for Building a Motorway on a 185 m Deep Dump 1377


Aspects particuliers pour construire une autoroute sur un remblai de comblement de 185 m
Vogt N., Heyer D., Birle E., Vogt S., Dahmen D., Karcher C., Vinzelberg G., Eidam F.
Performance verification of a geogrid mechanically stabilised layer 1381
Vérification de la performance d’une couche stabilisée mécaniquement par une géogrille
Wayne M., Fraser I., Reall B., Kwon J.
Characterization of Soil-Geosynthetic Interaction under Small Displacements Conditions 1385
Caractérisation de l’Interaction sol-géosynthétique sous des conditions de petits déplacements
Zornberg J.G., Roodi G.H., Ferreira J., Gupta R.
Technical committee 203
Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering and Associated Problems
Comité technique 203
Géotechnique parasismique et problèmes associés
1st General Report for TC 203: Seismic response of soils, foundations and geotechnical structures 1391
1er rapport général du TC 203 : Réponse sismique des sols, des fondations et des ouvrages géotechniques
Semblat J.-F.
2nd General Report for TC 203: Experimental characterization and analysis of soil behaviour under earthquake
loads 1399
2e rapport général du TC 203 : Caractérisation expérimentale et analyse du comportement des sols
sous chargement sismique
Silvestri F.
Analytical study of seismic slope behavior in a large-scale shaking table model test using FEM and MPM 1407
Étude analytique du comportement des pentes sismiques dans les essais de modèles de grandes dimensions
sur table à secousses conformément aux méthodes FEM et MPM
Abe K., Izawa J., Nakamura H., Kawai T., Nakamura S.
Degradation of clay due to cyclic loadings and deformations 1411
La dégradation de l’argile due à des chargements et des déformations cycliques
Åhnberg H., Larsson R., Holmén M.
The effect of fines type on correlation between shear wave velocity and liquefaction resistance
of sand containing fines 1415
L’effet du type amendes sur la corrélation entre la vitesse des ondes de cisaillement et de résistance
à la liquéfaction du sable contenant des amendes
Akbari-Paydar N., Ahmadi M.M.
Dependency of nonuniform ground surface liquefaction damage on organization and slope of deep strata 1419
Non-uniformité des dommages de liquéfaction de la couche de surface due à la configuration des strates
profondes et de l’inclinaison des strates
Asaoka A., Nakai K.
Seismic slope stability of earthen levees 1423
La stabilité sismique de pente de digues en terre
Athanasopoulos-Zekkos A., Seed R.B.
3D Numerical Analysis of a Suspension Bridge Anchor Block to Oblique-Slip Fault Movement 1427
Analyse numérique 3D d’un bloc d’ancrage de pont suspendu soumis à un mouvement oblique de glissement
dû à une faille de rupture
Avar B.B., Augustesen A.H., Kasper T., Steenfelt J.S.
Seismic site effects in the city of Mendoza and surroundings (Argentina) 1431
Effets de site sismique dans la ville de Mendoza et les environs (Argentine)
Barchiesi A.M., Mancipe-Herrera C.
Liquefaction impact revisited 1435
L’impact de la liquéfaction revisité
Barends F.B.J., Meijers P., Schenkeveld F.M., Weijers J.B.A.
An experimental approach to evaluate shear modulus and damping ratio of granular material 1439
Une approche expérimentale pour évaluer le module de cisaillement et le taux d’amortissement
du matériau granulaire
Bolouri Bazaz J., Bolouri Bazaz H.R.
Behavior of a multi-story building under seismic loads when taking into account the viscoplasticity
of the soil base 1443
L’interaction entre les constructions du bâtiment sous charges sismiques tout en tenant compte
de la viscoplasticité de la base du sol.
Boyko I.P., Sakharov O.S., Sakharov V.O.
Vers les métamatériaux sismiques 1447
Towards seismic metamaterials
Brûlé S., Javelaud E., Guenneau S., Enoch S.

XX
Contents / Table des matières

Possibilities and limitations of the Prevost model for the modelling of cohesionless soil cyclic behaviour 1451
Possibilités et limitations du modèle de Prévost pour la modélisation du comportement cyclique
des sols sans cohésion.
Cerfontaine B., Charlier R., Collin F.
On Seismic Performance and Load Capacities for Pile Design 1455
A propos des performances sismiques et les capacités de charge pour la conception de pieux
Chang D.-W., Sung S.-H., Lee S.-M., Zhussupbekov A., Erlan Saparbek E.
Challenges to the laboratory evaluation of field liquefaction resistance 1459
Les défis de l’évaluation en laboratoire de la résistance à la liquéfaction de terrain
Coelho P.A.L.F., Azeiteiro R.J.N., Marques V.D., Santos L.M.A., Taborda D.M.G.
Liquefaction Susceptibility of Loose Calcareous Sand of Northern Coast in Egypt 1463
La susceptibilité à la liquéfaction du sable calcaire lâche de la côte nord en Égypte
Elmamlouk H., Salem M., Agaiby S.S.
Seismic bearing capacity of strip footings near cohesive slopes using lower bound limit analysis 1467
Capacité portante séismique des fondations superficielles en bord des talus purement cohérents ;
une évaluation par défaut suivant la méthode du calcul à la rupture
Farzaneh O., Mofidi J., Askari F.
Risk minimisation in construction of upstream tailings storage facilities based on in-situ testing 1471
Minimisation du risque sur base d’essais in situ lors de la construction de digues de stockage des résidus miniers
par la méthode amont.
Fourie A B., Palma J H., Villavicencio G., Espinace R.
Dynamic soil-pile behavior in liquefiable sand overlaid with soft clay 1475
Dynamique sol-pieu comportement dans le sable liquéfiable recouvert d’argile molle
Ghotbi S.M.A., Olyaei M., Yasrebi S.S., Mosallanejad M.
Correlations between the shear wave velocity profile and the response spectrum based on SASW tests 1479
Corrélation entre le profil de vitesse d’ondes de coupe et le spectre de réponse basé
sur l’essai SASW
Gonzalez L., Pinilla C., Peredo V., Boroschek R.
Methodological approach for the stability analysis of the Po river banks 1483
Méthodologie pour l’analyse de la stabilité des digues de la rivière Pô
Gottardi G., Madiai C., Marchi M., Tonni L., Vannucchi G.
Effect of Soil Plugging on Axial Capacity of Open-Ended Pipe Piles in Sands 1487
(manque traduction en français)
Gudavalli S.R., Safaqah O., Seo H.
Strain Response Envelopes for low cycle loading processes 1491
Enveloppe de réponse d´allongement pour chargements cycliques de basse intensité
Hettler A., Danne St.
Development of Map of Maximum Considered Earthquake Geometric Mean (MCEG) PGA for Earthquake
Resistance Building Design in Indonesia 1495
Élaboration de la carte de moyenne géométrique du tremblement de terre maximum considéré (MCEG) PGA
pour la conception antisismique des bâtiments en Indonésie
Irsyam M., Asrurifak M., Ridwan M., Aldiamar F., Wayan Sengara I., Widiyantoro S., Triyoso W., Hilman D.,
Kertapati E., Meilano I., Suhardjono, Hendriyawan, Simatupang P.T., Muhammad I., Murjanto D., Hasan M.
Study on long-term subsidence of soft clay due to 2007 Niigata Prefecture Chuetsu-Oki Earthquake 1499
Étude sur l’affaissement à long terme d’argile molle dû au tremblement de terre de la préfecture
de Niigata Chuetsu-Oki en 2007
Isobe K., Ohtsuka S.
Effect of stress anisotropy on cyclic behavior of dense sand with dynamic hollow cylinder apparatus 1503
Effet de l’anisotropie de contrainte sur le comportement cyclique du sable dense avec dynamique appareil
cylindre creux
Jafarzadeh F., Zamanian M.
Impact of blast vibrations on the release of quick clay slides 1507
Impact des vibrations dues aux explosions sur les glissements de terrain dans les argiles sensibles
Johansson J., Løvholt F., Andersen K.H., Madshus C., Aabøe R.
Dynamic calculation for the dry closure of Almagrera tailings dam 1511
Calcul dynamique pour la fermeture à sec du barrage des stériles d’Almagrera
Justo de J.L., Morales-Esteban A., Durand P., Vázquez-Boza M., Jiménez F.A., Rossi E.
Recent developments in procedures for estimation of liquefaction potential of soils 1515
Développements récents des méthodes d’estimation du potentiel de liquéfaction des sols
Katzenbach R., Clauss F., Rochée S.

XXI
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Applying Earthquake Risk Analysis Methods to a Town in Hungary 1519


L’application des méthodes d’analyse du risque sismique dans le cas d’une ville de Hongrie
Kegyes-Brassai O., Ray R.P.
Ensuring Stability of Boards of Deep Ditches in Seismic Regions 1523
Assurer la stabilité des fossés profonds dans les régions sismiques
Khomyakov V.A.
Colonne à Module Mixte CMM® sous des sollicitations statiques et dynamiques : étude expérimentale 1527
Mixed Module Columns® under static and dynamic load – Experimental study.
Lambert S., Santruckova H., Foray P., Flavigny E., Gotteland Ph.
Évaluation de la réduction du risque de liquéfaction par des colonnes ballastées 1531
Valuation of liquefaction mitigation by stone columns
Lambert S.
Normalized Shear Modulus of Compacted Gravel 1535
Module de cisaillement normalisé des graviers compactés
Liao T., Massoudi N., McHood M., Stokoe K.H., Jung M.J., Menq F.-Y.
Dynamic Properties and Liquefaction Potential of a Sandy Soil Containing Silt 1539
Propriétés dynamiques et potentiel de liquéfaction d’un sol sablonneux contenant de la vase
Mominul H.M., Alam M.J., Ansary M.A., Karim M.E.
Seismic stability assessment of a steel plate fabricated column constructed on liquefiable grounds
with different soil-layer profiles 1543
Évaluation de la stabilité sismique d’une colonne en plaques d’acier construite sur des sols liquéfiables
avec différents profils sol-couche
Nakai K., Xu B., Takaine T.
A method of suppressing liquefaction using a solidification material and tension stiffeners 1547
Étude de base sur les méthodes de résistance à la liquéfaction, en utilisant des matériaux précontraints
Nakamichi M., Sato K.
Effects of Fines Content on Cyclic Shear Characteristics of Sand-Clay Mixtures 1551
Les effets de la teneur en fines sur les caractéristiques du cisaillement répété des mélanges de sable et argile
Noda S., Hyodo M.
Case study of the post-earthquake behavior of a CFRD dam 1555
Étude de cas sur le comportement post-sismique d’un barrage CFRD
Núñez E.A. Sfriso O.
Liquefaction characteristics of crushable pumice sand 1559
Caractéristiques de liquéfaction des sables de pierre ponce sensibles à l’écrasement
Orense R.P., Pender M.J.
Investigation of Reinforced Earth Structures Following the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake 1563
Etude des structures en Terre Armée suite au séisme de Tohoku de 2011
Otani Y., Takao K., Sakai S., Kimura T., Kuwano J., Freitag N., Sankey J.
Accumulated Stress Based Model for Prediction of Residual Pore Pressure 1567
Étude et développement du modèle pour le pronostic sur l’excès de pression hydrostatique interstitielle
causé par les contraintes accumulées
Park D., Ahn J.-K.
Pioneer application of a dynamic penetrometer and boroscope in archeological prospecting 1571
Application pionnière d’un pénétromètre dynamique et d’un boroscope dans la prospection archéologique
Rangel-Núñez J.L., Barba L., Ovando E., Auvinet G., Ibarra-Razo E.
Measuring and modeling the dynamic behavior of Danube Sands 1575
Mesure et modélisation du comportement dynamique des sables du Danube
Ray R.P., Szilvágyi Z.
Three-dimensional seismic active earth pressure coefficients using upper bound numerical limit analysis:
a few preliminary results 1579
Coefficients de poussée tridimensionels séismiques déterminés avec une application numérique du theorème
cinématique de l’analyse limite: quelques résultats préliminaires
Santana T., Guerra N.M.C., Antão A.N., Vicente da Silva M.
Modélisation 1D-3Composantes de la réponse sismique d’une colonne de sol multicouche à comportement
non linéaire 1583
1Directional-3Component seismic response modelling of a multilayer nonlinear soil profile.
Santisi d’Avila M.P., Lenti L., Semblat J.-F.
The behaviour of natural cohesive soils under dynamic excitations 1587
Le comportement des sols cohérentes naturelles sous excitations dynamiques
Sas W., Szymański A., Gabryś K.

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Dynamic behavior of multi-arch culverts embankment considering the installation interval of consecutive
arch culverts 1591
Comportement dynamique des terre-pleins à dalot multi-arche en fonction de l’intervalle entre les arches
successives
Sawamura Y., Kishida K., Kimura M.
Méthode simplifiée de calcul d’une paroi sous séisme 1595
Simplified seismic wall stability analysis
Serratrice J.-F.
Effect of Seismic Waves with Different Dominant Frequencies on the Delayed Failure Behavior of a Soil Structure-
Ground System 1599
Effets des ondes sismiques de fréquence dominante différente sur le comportement de rupture retardée
de structures en terre et de systèmes de sol
Shimizu R., Yamada S.
Shaking table test of large-scaled slope model subjected to horizontal and vertical seismic loading
using E-Defense 1603
Tessai sur table à secousses de modèles de gros talus par une accèlèration vericale et horizontale
par E-Dèfense
Shinoda M., Nakajima S., Nakamura H., Kawai T., Nakamura S.
Stability analysis of earth dams under static and earthquake loadings using geosynthetics as a seepage barrier 1607
Analyse de stabilité des barrages en terre sous des charges statiques et sous séisme à l’aide de géosynthétiques
comme une barrière d’infiltration
Srivastava A., Sivakumar Babu G.L.
Cyclic Loading Behavior of Saturated Sand with Different Fabrics 1611
Comportement du sable saturé avec des structures différentes sous chargement cyclique
Sze H.Y., Yang J.
Evaluation of effective parameters on soil layers seismic amplification ratios (A case study of Bam earthquake) 1615
Évaluation des paramètres effectifs sur les ratios d’amplification sismique des couches de sol
(Une étude de cas de tremblement de terre de Bam)
Tabatabaie S.H., Hassanlourad M., Yazdanparast M., Mohammadi A.
Experimental study on lattice-shaped cement treatment method for liquefaction countermeasure 1619
Étude expérimentale d’un procédé d’anti-liquéfaction des sols au moyen d’un bâti en forme de treillage en béton
Takahashi H., Morikawa Y., Iba H., Fukada H., Maruyama K., Takehana K.
Shaking model tests on mitigation of liquefaction-induced ground flow by new configuration of embedded columns 1623
Essais sur table vibrante pour une attenuation de l’écoulement des sols du a la liquefaction
par une nouvelle configuration de colonnes enterrees
Takahashi N., Derakhshani A., Rasouli R., Towhata I., Yamada S.
Structure-Soil Massif System Behavior Features Under Static & Dynamic Loads 1627
Les particularités du comportement du système edifice-sol avec des efforts statiques et dynamiques
Taranov V.G., Aleksandrovych V.A., Luchkovskyi I. Ia., Plashchev S.A., Kornienko N.V., Areshkovych O.O.
Pseudo static analysis considering strength softening in saturated clays during earthquakes 1631
L’analyse pseudo statique considérant la force de ramollissement dans l’argile saturée lors des tremblements
de terre
Tsai C.-C., Mejia L.H., Meymand P.
Effectiveness of In-soil Seismic Isolation taking into account of Soil-Structure Interaction 1635
Efficacité d’ Isolement sismique dans le Sol tenant compte de l’interaction du Sol avec la Structure
Tsatsis A.K., Anastasopoulos I.C., Gelagoti F.L., Kourkoulis R.S.
The device of the bases and foundation in the conditions of weak soil and high seismic activity
of the Republic of Tajikistan 1639
L’appareil des bases et de la fondation dans les conditions de faible sol et la haute activité sismique
de la République du Tadjikistan
Usmanov R.
Foundation conditions analysis for some eolian power units corresponding to the seismic loads influence 1643
Analyse des fondations pour certaines unités d’éoliennes sous chargement sismique
Vintila D., Tenea D., Chirica A.
Performance-based Evaluation of Saturated Loess Ground Liquefaction 1647
Évaluation des risques de liquéfaction d’un Loess saturé
Wang L.M., Yuan Z.X., Wang Q., Wu Z.J.
Seismic design of retaining wall considering the dynamic response characteristic 1651
Conception sismique des murs de soutènement compte tenu des caractéristiques de réponse dynamique
Watanabe K., Koseki J.

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Seismic Responses of Geogrid Reinforced Wall with Tire Derived Aggregates (TDA) Backfill
using Reduced-Scale Shake Table Test 1655
Les réponses sismiques des géogrilles renforcée mur avec des granulats de pneus dérivés (TDA) en utilisant
emblai d’essai à échelle réduite table vibrante
Xiao M., Hartman D., Ledezma M.
Soil Properties of Liquefied Soils in Tokyo Bay Area by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake 1659
Propriétés des sols liquéfiés dans la baie de Tokyo pendant le grand séisme de l’Est du Japon en 2011
Yasuda S.
In Situ Assessment of the Nonlinear Shear Modulus of Municipal Solid Waste 1663
Évaluation in situ du module non linéaire de cisaillement des déchets solides municipaux
Zekkos D., Sahadewa A., Woods R., Stokoe K., Matasovic N.
Analyse sismique couplée des sols renforcés par inclusions rigides 1667
Coupled dynamic analysis of soils reinforced with stiff columns
Zerfa FZ.
Technical committee 204
Underground Construction in Soft Ground
Comité technique 204
Construction souterraine en sols mous
General Report of TC204 - Underground Constructions 1673
Rapport général du TC204 - Constructions souterraines
Dias T.G.S., Bezuijen A.
Diametric deformations in the concrete segment lining of a tunnel excavated in soft soils.
Criteria for their evaluation and mitigation actions for their control 1681
Déformations diamétrales dans le secteur du béton revêtement d’un tunnel creusé dans les sols mous.
Critères de leur évaluation et des mesures d’atténuation pour leur contrôle
Aguilar M.A., Valencia J.D., Schmitter J.J., Auvinet-Guichard G., Rangel-Núñez J.L.
Effect of the subsoil conditions in the seismic interaction between two underground stations connected
by a circular section tunnel 1683
Effet des conditions du sous-sol à l’interaction sismique entre deux stations de métro reliées par un tunnel
de section circulaire
Botero E., Ossa A., Ovando E., Sierra L., Giraldo V.
Application of Ductile Segments to Tunnels in Close Proximity 1687
Utilisation de voussoirs ductiles à des tunnels très proches
Chang J.F., Chen D.J., Moh Z.C., Yu N.T.
Effect of pre-ground improvement method during shallow NATM tunnel excavations under unconsolidated
conditions 1691
Effets de la méthode d’amélioration préalable des sols durant l’excavation de tunnel peu profond utilisant
a nouvelle méthode autrichienne (NATM) dans un sol non-consolidé
Cui Y., Kishida K.
Field Performance of Geogrid Bridges for Stress Reduction on Buried Utilities 1695
Performance in-situ des pontages en géogrille pour réduire les contraintes dans les infrastructures souterraines
El Naggar H., Turan A.
Construction of a Cross Passage between Two MRT Tunnels 1699
Construction d’un passage entre deux tunnels de MRT
Fang Y.S., Lin C.T., Liu C., Cheng K.H., Su C.S., Chen T.J.
Auscultation et Instrumentation de démonstrateurs d’alvéoles de stockage au CMHM 1703
Monitoring and Instrumentation of demonstrators storage cells (CMHM)
Gay O., Teixeira P., Bumbieler F., Morel J.
Stability analyses of underground structures cut into porous limestone 1707
Contrôle de la stabilité des cavités souterraines réalisées dans le calcaire grossier
Görög P., Hangodi Á., Török Á.
Effect of brittle failure on deep underground excavation in eastern Taiwan 1711
Effet de la rupture fragile sur l’excavation souterraine profonde dans l’est de Taiwan
Hsiao F.Y., Chi S.Y.
Fast frequency-domain analysis method for longitudinal seismic response of super-long immersed tunnels 1715
Méthode d’analyse rapide dans le domaine fréquentiel pour la réponse sismique longitudinale d’un tunnel
immergé à super longueur
Huang M., Liu H.
Field Monitoring of Shield Tunnel Lining Using Optical Fiber Bragg Grating Based Sensors 1719
Surveillance de doublure d’un tunnel au bouclier utiliser les capteurs optiques de fibre-Bragg-grating
Huang A.B., Lee J.T., Wang C.C., Ho Y.T., Chuang T.S.

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Building deformations, induced by shallow service tunnel construction and protective measures for reducing
of its influence 1723
Déformations de bâtiments induites par la construction d’un tunnel de service peu profond et actions
de protection pour réduire son influence
Ilyichev V.A., Nikiforova N.S., Tupikov M.M.
Engineering inspection and supervision of tunnels and underground stations of urban metro systems 1727
Inspection et surveillance des tunnels et stations de métro souterraines
Katzenbach R., Leppla S.
On the stability of a trap door evaluated by upper bound method 1731
Sur la stabilité d’une trappe évaluée par la méthode de borne supérieure
Kobayashi S., Matsumoto T.
Finite Element Modelling of Construction Processes of The Modular Approached Tunnelling Method 1735
Modélisation par éléments finis du processus de construction de la méthode tunnel modulared
Komiya K.
Cutting tool wear prognosis and management of wear-related risks for Mix-Shield TBM in soft ground 1739
Prévision d’usure des outils de coupe et management des risques liés à l’usure pour Mix-Shield TBM
en terrain meuble
Köppl F., Thuro K.
Compensation Grouting with shallow and deep foundations – case study from the Metro B1 in Rome 1743
Injections de compensation pour les fondations superficielles et profondes – étude de cas de la ligne
de métro B1 à Rome
Kummerer C., Sciotti A.
An evaluation of influence factors that affect pressures in backfilled trenches 1747
Une évaluation de facteurs d’influence qui affectent les pressions dans des tranchées remblayées
Li L., Aubertin M., El Mkadmi N., Jahanbakhshzadeh A.
Prediction of hard rock TBM penetration rate based on Data Mining techniques 1751
Modèles de prévision du taux de pénétration de tunnelier dans les roches dures
Martins F.F., Miranda T.F.S.
Assessment of Empirical Method Used to Study Tunnel System Performance 1755
Évaluation de la méthode empirique utilisée pour étudier la performance du système de tunnel
Mazek S.A., El Ghamrawy M.K.
Refurbishment and Underground Space Development of Moscow P.I. Tchaikovsky Conservatory 1759
Une reconstitution et un cosmique développement un conservatoire un Tchaïkovski moscovite souterrain
Petrukhin V.P., Mozgacheva O.A., Skorikov A.V.
Performance of the tunnel lining subjected to decompression effects on very soft clay deposits 1763
Performance du revêtement du tunnel soumis à des effets de décompression sur les dépôts d’argile très mous
Rangel-Núñez J.L., Aguilar-Tellez M.A., Ibarra-Razo E., Paniagua W.
Design of tunnel lining in consolidating soft soils 1765
Conception du revêtement des tunnels dans des sols mous en processus de consolidation
Rodríguez-Rebolledo J.F., Auvinet G., Vázquez F.
Effects of buried structures on the formation of underground cavity 1769
Effets des structures enterrées sur la formation d’une cavité souterraine
Sato M., Kuwano R.
Rational interpretation of tunneling considering existing tunnel and building loads 1773
Interprétation rationnelle du creusement des tunnels prenant en compte les tunnels préexistants et les charges
iées aux constructions
Shahin H.M., Nakai T., Iwata T.
An elastic continuum model for interpretation of seismic behavior of buried pipes as a soil-structure interaction 1777
Un modèle de continuum élastique pour l’interprétation du comportement sismique des conduites enterrés
comme une interaction sol-structure
Tohda J., Yoshimura H., Maruyoshi K.
Building with the Subsurface for realizing cost-efficient infrastructure 1781
Construire avec le sous-sol pour réaliser une infrastructure à coût avantageux
Venmans A.A.M.
Subsoil Settlement Feature of Immersed Tube Tunnel in Deep Soft Subsoil with Heavy Siltation in Open Sea 1785
Caractérisation du tassement sur sol mou de grande épaisseur d’un tunnel tube immergé soumis
à un envasement important en condition de mer ouverte
Xie Y., Zhang S., Zhang H., Liu B.

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Case Studies of Applicability for Selection of Construction Method for Highway Underground Crossing Transit
on the Deposit soils in Urban Project in Korea 1789
Étude de cas du choix de la méthode de construction pour un croisement souterrain d’autoroute sur sols meubles
dans une zone urbaine en Corée
Yang T.-S., Yoo N.-J., Kim S.-J., Hwang Y.-C.
Numerical modeling of NATM urban tunnels and monitoring-Case study of Niayesh tunnel 1793
Modélisation numérique de tunnels urbains construits par la méthode NATM et étude de cas du contrôle
du tunnel Niayesh
Zolghadr E., Pasdarpour M., Majidian S., Golshani A.
Technical committee 205
Limit State design in Geotechnical Engineering
Comité technique 205
Dimensionnement aux états limites en géotechnique
General report for TC 205 - Safety and serviceability in geotechnical design: a reliability-based perspective 1799
Rapport général du TC 205 - Sécurité et maintenance en conception géotechnique : une perspective fiabiliste
Salgado R.
L’expérience française insolite d’un encadrement juridique : une certaine maîtrise du risque du sol 1805
Unusual French experience of a legal frame ; a certain mastery of ground risk management
Carrière M.-L.
Ideas for improved geotechnical structures for natural disaster mitigation 1809
Idées pour l’amélioration des ouvrages géotechniques pour l’atténuation des catastrophes naturelles
Heerten G., Vollmert L.
Deep Excavation in Hong Kong – Cantilever Bored Pile Wall Design Using CIRIA Report No. C580 1813
Excavation profonde à Hong Kong Cantilever - La conception de mur paroi pieux forés Rapport
Réf CIRIA Report n ° C580
Ho A., Wright M., Ng S.
Comparison of the safety concepts for soil reinforcement methods using concrete columns 1819
Comparaison des concepts de sécurité pour les méthodes de renforcement de sol avec colonnes en béton
Katzenbach R., Bohn C., Wehr J.
Slope stability with partial safety factor method 1823
Stabilité des pentes à l’aide de la méthode de sécurité partielle
Länsivaara T., Poutanen T.
Assessment of embankment stability on organic soils using Eurocode 7 1827
Évaluation de la stabilité des remblais sur sols organiques en utilisant l’Eurocode 7
Lechowicz Z., Wrzesiński G.
Implementation of LRFD Methods to Quantify Value of Site Characterization Activities 1831
Mise en œuvre des méthodes de conception LRFD pour quantifier la valeur des activités de caractérisation
du site
Loehr J.E., Bowders J.J., Rosenblad B.L., Luna R., Maerz N., Stephenson R.W., Likos W.J., Ge L.
European practice in ground anchor design related to the framework of EC7. 1835
Pratique européenne pour le dimensionnement des tirants d’ancrage en application de l’EC7
Merrifield C., Møller O., Simpson B., Farrell E.
Harmonising safety and profit: ethical issues in the geotechnical activity of major consulting companies 1839
Harmoniser sécurité et profit: problèmes éthiques dans l’activité géotechnique de grosses entreprises
de génie conseil
Redaelli M.
La norme sur les missions d’ingénierie géotechnique, clé de voûte du management des risques géotechniques
de tout projet 1843
Geotechnical missions standard, the foundation of risk management for a project
Robert J.
Embedding Geo Risk Management. The Geo-Impuls Approach 1847
L’implantation du management des risques géotechniques. L’approche Geo-Impuls.
Staveren van M.Th., Litjens P.P.T., Cools P.M.C.B.M.
Technical committee 206
Interactive Geotechnical design
Comité technique 206
Dimensionnement géotechnique interactif
General Report for TC206 - Interactive Design 1853
Rapport général du TC206 - Le dimensionnement géotechnique interactif
Ho A.

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Auscultation des fondations d’un ouvrage en terre par des capteurs à fibre optique 1855
Monitoring earthwork foundations by fibre optic sensors
Artières O.
A geoenvironmental application of an optimisation model 1859
Application d’un modèle d’optimisation à un problème geoenvironnemental
Azimi K., Merrifield C., Gallagher E., Smith D.
The role of fibre optic instrumentation in the re-use of deep foundations 1863
Rôle d’une instrumentation en fibre optique pour la réutilisation de fondations profondes
Bell A., Soga K., Ouyang Y., Yan J., Wang F.
Comparison of monitoring techniques for measuring deformations in an excavation 1867
Comparaison de techniques d’auscultation pour la mesure de déformations dans une excavation
De Vos L., Van Alboom G., Haelterman K., Maekelberg W.
Maintenance préventive des ouvrages hydrauliques par fibre optique 1871
Preventive maintenance of water retaining structures based on fiber optic systems
Fry J.-J., Courivaud J.-R., Beck Y.-L., Pinettes P.
Evaluation of diaphragm wall as-built data to determine the risk of leakage for the Kruisplein car park
excavation in Rotterdam, The Netherlands 1875
Evaluation des données de fabrication des murs diaphragmes pour déterminer le risque de fuite dans le chantier
du parking souterrain Kruisplein à Rotterdam, Pays-Bas
Hannink G., Thumann V.M.
Optimisation of bridge approach treatment via staged construction 1879
Optimisation du traitement de remblais d’accès à des ponts par phasage des travaux.
His J.P., Carson D.J., Lee C.H.
SWOT analysis Observational Method applications 1883
Analyse FFOM à l’implémentation de la méthode observationnelle
Korff M., Jong de E., Bles T.J.
Development of Method for Evaluating and Visualizing 3-dimensional Deformation of Earth Retaining
Wall for Excavation 1889
Développement des méthodes d’évaluation et de visualisation de la déformation tridimensionnelle des murs
de soutènement dans les excavations
Matsumaru T., Kojima K.
Geotechnical protection of engineering infrastructure objects in large cities under intense anthropogenic
impact and long term operation 1893
Sécurité géotechnique d’ouvrages du génie civil sous influence anthropogène intense et exploitation
à long terme
Perminov N.A., Zentsov V.N., Perminov A.N.
Data assimilation strategies for parameter identification of elasto-plastic geomaterials and its application
to geotechnical practice 1897
Stratégie d’assimilation de données pour l’identification des paramètres de géomatériaux élastoplastiques
et son applications à la pratique géotechnique
Shuku T., Nishimura S., Murakami A., Fujisawa K.
Experimental analyses on detection of potential risk of slope failure by monitoring of shear strain
in the shallow section 1901
Analyses expérimentales sur la détection d’un risque potentiel de rupture de pente par la surveillance
de la contrainte de cisaillement en pied du talus
Tamate S., Hori T., Mikuni C., Suemasa N.
Soutènements de grande hauteur soutenus par butons ou multi-ancrages à Monaco : de la modélisation
au comportement réel 1905
Retaining wall with struts or multi-anchored for a deep excavation in Monaco: from modeling to real behaviour
Utter N., Dervillé B., Beth M.
New Sensing Technology and New Applications in Geotechnical Engineering 1909
Nouvelle technologie de détection et nouvelles applications à l’ingénierie géotechnique
Wang Y.H., Ooi G.L., Gao Y.
Technical committee 207
Soil-Structure Interaction and Retaining Walls
Comité technique 207
Interaction sol-structure et murs de soutènements
General Report of TC 207 - Foundations and Retaining Structures 1915
Rapport général du TC 207- Fondations et ouvrages de soutènement
Bilfinger W.

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Design, Construction and Monitoring of a Mixed Soil-Reinforced and Anchored Retaining Wall in Expansive Soil 1923
Conception, construction et surveillance d’un mur mixte de sol renforcé et ancré dans un sol gonflant
Abramento M., Fujii J., Cogliati B., Assakura V.
Design and construction of high bermless geogrid walls in a problematic mountainous seismic region in Bulgaria 1927
Conception et construction de murs renforcés par des géogrilles de grande hauteur et sans risberme
dans une région montagneuse sismique problématique en Bulgarie
Alexiew D., Hangen H.
La fouille de la tour Odéon à Monaco : les quatre éléments remarquables de sa conception 1931
The Deep Excavation of the Odéon Tower in Monaco: The four outstanding elements in its design
Baghery S.
3D Finite Element Analyses for a Laterally Loaded Pile Wall in Marine Environment– Case History 1935
Analyses 3D par éléments finis pour un mur de quai chargés latéralement dans un port – Etude de cas
Bahr M.A., Tarek M.F., El-Ghamrawy M.K., Abouzaid K.S., Shaarawi E.M.
Design and construction of a coffer dam on Narmada River for Indira Sagar project in central India:
a case study of innovative foundation 1939
Conception innovante et construction d’un batardeau provisoire pour le barrage sur la rivière Narmada
dans le cadre du projet Sagara en Inde centrale
Bidasaria M.
Anchored sheet pile wall design in expansive soils 1943
Conception d’un mur de palplanches ancré dans les sols expansifs
Bilgin Ö., Mansour E.
Performance of Soil Nails in Weathered Granite and Fill 1947
Performance de renforcement par clouage du granite altéré et du remblai
Chow C.-M., Chee-Meng, Tan Y.-C.
Effects on adjacent buildings from diaphragm wall installation 1951
Effets sur des bâtiments adjacents liés à l’installation de parois moulées
Comodromos E.M., Papadopoulou M.C., Konstantinidis G.K.
Prise en compte des effets de bord dans un massif renforcé par inclusions rigides 1955
Modeling edge effects at the periphery of a rigid inclusion reinforced soil volume
Cuira F., Simon B.
Influence of facing vertical stiffness on reinforced soil wall design 1959
Influence de la rigidité verticale du parement dans la conception des murs en sols renforcés
Damians I.P., Lloret A., Josa A., Bathurst R.J.
Earth Pressure from Strip Footings on an Anchored Sheet Pile Wall 1963
Poussée des terres provenant de semelles filantes sur un mur de palplanches ancré
Denver H., Kellezi L.
Top Down Construction Alongside Of Bosphorus - A Case Study 1967
Construction en « Top - Down » le long du Bosphore - Une étude de cas
Durgunoglu T., Kulac F., Ikiz S., Akcakal O.
Experiences with SBMA ground anchors in spanish soils 1971
Etude expérimentale avec les tirants d’ancrage SBMA dans le sol espagnol
Fernandez Vincent J.M.
Computed and observed ground movements during top-down construction in Chicago 1975
Mouvements de terrains calculés et observés en construction descendante à Chicago
Finno R.J., Arboleda L., Kern K., Kim T., Sarabia F.
Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Geosynthetics versus Concrete Retaining Wall 1979
Analyse de cycle de vie comparative d’un épaulement géotextile et conventionnel
Frischknecht R., Büsser-Knöpfel S., Itten R., Stucki M., Wallbaum H.
Design of inverted T-shape Cantilever Wall a Relief Floor 1983
Concption d’un mur équerre avec dalle de délestage
Ganne P.P., Raucroix X.
An Anchored Retaining Wall in CSM 1987
Un soutènement ancré en CSM
Gomes Correia A., Tinoco J., Pinto A., Tomásio R.
Conception, modélisation et auscultation d’une très grande excavation à Monaco 1991
Design, modelization and monitoring for a very large excavation in Monaco
Guilloux A., Porquet M., De Lavernée P., Lyonnet P., Roman P.
A Case Study of 3D FE Analysis of a Deep Excavation Adjacent to a Tunnel Construction 1995
Une étude de cas d’une simulation tridimensionnelle d’analyse par éléments finis d’une excavation profonde
adjacente à une construction d’un tunnel
Guler E., Osmanoglu U., Koç M.

XXVIII
Contents / Table des matières

Suction Caisson Installation in Shallow Water: Model Tests and Prediction 1999
Installation de caissons à succion en eau peu profonde: essais et prédiction
Guo W., Chu J.
Instrumentation de la paroi moulée du bassin de Blanc-Mesnil : retro-analyse et calage des modèles de calcul 2003
Instrumentation of the diaphragm wall of the Blanc-Mesnil Basin : retro-analysis and calibration of calculation
models
Gutjahr I., Doucerain M., Schmitt P., Heumez S., Maurel C.
Displacement of an apartment building next to a deep excavation in Rotterdam 2007
Déplacements d´un bâtiment d’habitation adjacent à un chantier profond d’excavation à Rotterdam
Hannink G., Oung O.
Calculation method of optimization the soil-cement mass dimensions to reduce the enclosure displacements
in deep excavation 2011
Calcul des dimensions optimales du massif du sol-ciment pour réduire les déplacements de fouilles profondes
Ilyichev V.A., Gotman Y.A.
Case Studies of Complicate Urban Excavation from Design to Construction 2015
Études de cas d’excavations complexes en site urbain: de la conception à la construction
Jang Y.S., Choi H.C., Shin S.M., Kim D.Y.
Passive Pressure on Skewed Bridge Abutments 2019
Pression passive sur des culées de pont asymétriques
Jessee S., Rollins K.
Deformation behaviour of clay due to unloading and the consequences on construction projects in inner cities 2023
Étude du comportement en déformations de l’argile suite à un retrait de charge et conséquences
lors de projets de constructions en zone urbaine
Katzenbach R., Leppla S.
Large tailings heaps and the influence on infrastructures due to the resulting soil deformation 2027
Les grands terrils miniers et leur influence sur les infrastructures voisines à travers la déformation des sols
Katzenbach R., Leppla S., Seip M., Schleinig J.-P., Schnürer F.
In-situ tests of permanent prestressed ground anchors with alternative designs of anchor bond length 2031
Essais in situ des tirants d’ancrage précontraints permanents avec des conceptions alternatives de la longueur
de scellement
Klemenc I., Logar J.
Response of piled buildings to deep excavations in soft soils 2035
Déformations des bâtiments liés aux excavations profondes situé dans les sols mous
Korff M., Mair R.J.
Deep excavation in Irish glacial deposits 2039
Excavation profonde des dépôts glaciaires Irlandais
Long M., O’Leary F., Ryan M., Looby M.
Active earth thrust on walls supporting granular soils: effect of wall movement 2043
Pression active des terres sur des murs soutenant des sols granulaires: l’effet du mouvement du mur
Loukidis D., Salgado R.
Innovative solutions for supporting excavations in slopes 2047
Solutions innovantes pour le soutien d’excavations situées dans des terrains en pente
Lüftenegger R., Schweiger H.F., Marte R.
Design and Construction of Inclined-Braceless Excavation Support Applicable to Deep Excavation 2051
Dimensionnement et construction du support d’excavation Incliné sans butons applicable
à une excavation profonde
Maeda T., Shimada Y., Takahashi S., Sakahira Y.
Shaking table tests on caisson-type quay wall with stabilized mound 2055
Essais à table vibrante sur les murs de quai de type caisson avec butte stabilisée
Mizutani T., Kikuchi Y.
Inspection of structural health of existing railway retaining walls 2059
Inspection de l’état structurel des murs de soutènement des voies de chemin de fer existantes
Nakajima S., Shinoda M., Abe K.
Mechanism of Settlement Influence Zone due to Deep Excavation in Soft Clay 2063
Mécanisme de la zone d’influence de tassement dû à une excavation profonde dans l’argile molle
Ou C.-Y., Teng F.-C., Hsieh P.-G., Chien S.-C.
Establishing a high risk construction pit in a hurry 2067
L’établissement d’une excavation profonde à risque élevé en court temps
Philipsen J.

XXIX
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Innovative Solution of King Post Walls combined with CSM Panels 2071
Solution Innovante de Parois Berlinoise combinée avec des Panneaux de CSM
Pinto A., Tomásio R., Godinho P.
Unusual Geotechnical Solutions at the Leixões Cruise Terminal 2075
Solutions géotechniques inhabituelles au terminal de croisières de Leixões
Pinto A., Pita X., Neves M., Vaz J.
Aspects on designing and monitoring a deep excavation for a highly important structure 2079
Aspects de conception et de suivi d’une excavation profonde d’une très importante structure
Popa H., Manea S., Batali L., Olteanu A.
FEM-aided design of a novel device for soil anchoring 2083
Conception assistée par éléments finis d’un nouveau système pour l’ancrage des sols
Prisco di C., Pisanò F.
Structural Optimization in Geotechnical Engineering 2087
Optimisation de la structure dans la géotechnique
Pucker T., Grabe J.
Role of the facing on the behaviour of soil-nailed slopes under surcharge loading 2091
Rôle du parement sur le comportement des pentes de sol cloué sous surcharge
Sanvitale N., Simonini P., Bisson A., Cola S.
Geotechnical aspects in sustainable protection of cultural and historical monuments 2095
Les aspects géotechniques dans le développement durable des monuments historiques et culturels
Sesov V., Cvetanovska J., Edip K.
Various use of diaphragm walls for construction of multilevel road junction – Design and monitoring
of displacements 2099
Diverses utilisations de parois moulées pour la construction de l’intersection des routes à plusieurs niveaux –
Conception et le suivi des déplacements
Siemińska-Lewandowska A., Mitew-Czajewska M., Tomczak U.
Effects of plane shapes of a cofferdam on 3D seepage failure stability and axisymmetric approximation 2103
Effets des formes planes d’un batardeau sur la stabilité après une rupture par infiltration tridimensionnelle
et sur l’approximation axisymétrique
Tanaka T., Kusumi S., Inoue K.
Stability and dewatering problems of deep excavations in Bratislava 2107
Les problèmes de stabilité et d’assèchement des excavations profondes dans la ville de Bratislava
Turček P., Frankovská J., Súľovská M.
Managed remediation of a large Victorian gravity quay wall using the observational method 2111
Stabilisation d’un grand mur de quai de l’époque Victorienne gérée en utilisant la méthode observationnelle
Turner M. J, Smith N A.
Concrete panel walls – Current development on interaction of earthworks, geosynthetic reinforcement and facing 2115
Comportement des parements béton de murs de soutènement en sols renforcés – Interaction entre les sols
remblayés, le renforcement et le parement
Vollmert L., Niehues C., Pachomow D., Herold A., Verstraaten W.
The influence of bond stress distribution on ground anchor fixed length design. Field trial results
and proposal for design methodology 2119
L’influence de la répartition des contraintes sur les tirants d’ancrage de longueur fixe. Résultats de planche
d’essais et proposition de méthodologie de conception
Vukotić G., González Galindo J., Soriano A.
The sustainability and assessment of drystone retaining walls 2123
Le développement durable et l’évaluation des murs de soutènement en pierres sèches
Warren L., McCombie P., Donohue S.
Numerical modelling of groundwater flow around contiguous pile retaining walls 2127
Modélisation numérique des écoulements des eaux souterraines autour d’écrans de soutènement
de pieux contigusë
Wiggan C.A., Richards D.J., Powrie W.
Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Wall Performance under Heavy Rainfall 2131
La performance du mur en sol renforcé par géosynthétiques sous de fortes pluies
Yoo C., Jang D.W.
Technical committee 208
Slope Stability in Engineering Practice
Comité technique 208
Stablité des pentes pour la pratique de l’ingéneiur
General Report of TC 208 - Slope Stability in Engineering Practice 2137
Rapport Général du TC 208 - La stabilité des talus dans la pratique de l’ingénieur
Bowman E.T., Fannin R.J.

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Contents / Table des matières

Calculation of slopes stability based on the energy approach 2145


Calcul de la stabilité des pentes sur la base de l’approche énergetique
Bogomolov A.N., Ushakov A.N., Bogomolova O.A.
Preservation of slope stability along the by-pass Vlora 2149
Maintien de la stabilité des pentes dans le contournement de « vlora »
Bozo L., Allkja S.
A Methodology for Evaluating Liquefaction Susceptibility in Shallow Sandy Slopes 2153
Une méthodologie pour l’évaluation de susceptibilité à la liquéfaction dans les pentes sableuses
Buscarnera G., Whittle A.J.
Assessment of landslide run-out by Monte Carlo simulations 2157
Évaluation de la dynamique des glissements de terrain par des simulations de Monte-Carlo
Cepeda J., Quan Luna B., Nadim F.
The Challenge of the Slope Failure Problem and Its Remedial Considerations at Mileage 39km,
Mt. Ali Road, Taiwan 2161
Le défi du problème du glissement de pente et des dispositions correctives apportées, au kilomètre 39,
de la route Mt. Ali Road, àTaïwan
Chang M., Huang R.
Downstream Frontal Velocity Reduction Resulting from Baffles 2165
Effets des déflecteurs dans la réduction des vitesses frontales dans un écoulement descendant.
Choi C.E., Ng C.W.W., Kwan J.S.H., Shiu H.Y.K., Ho K.K.S., Koo R.C.H.
GPS instrumentation and remote sensing study of slow moving landslides in the eastern
San Francisco Bay hills, California, USA 2169
Instrumentation GPS et télédétection de glissements de terrains lents dans les collines est
de la baie de San Francisco, Californie, USA
Cohen-Waeber J., Sitar N., Bürgmann R.
Geotechnical Characterization, Stability Analysis, and the Stabilization Process for a Landslid
in a area of Barreiras Formation and Granite Residual Soils, Pernambuco 2173
Caractérisation géotechnique, analyse de la stabilité et procédés de stabilisation pour un glissement de terrain
dans des matériaux du type « Barreiras Formation » et sols de granite résiduel, Pernambuco
Coutinho R.Q., Silva da M.M.
Progressive failure of slopes with sensitive clay layers 2177
Rupture progressive de pentes comportant des couches d’argile sensible
Dey R., Hawlader B., Phillips R., Soga K.
Quantitative vulnerability estimation for individual landslides 2181
Estimation quantitative de la vulnérabilité aux glissements de terrain
Du J., Yin K., Nadim F., Lacasse S.
A site specific early warning system for rainfall induced landslides 2185
Utilisation d’un site spécifique pour l’élaboration d’un système d’alerte rapide pour les instabilités
de pente induites par les pluies.
Harris S., Orense R., Itoh K.
Characteristics of Ground Motion on Colluviums Slope Induced by Heavy Rainfall 2189
Caractéristiques du déplacement du sol sur la pente de colluvions induit par la pluie violente
Jeng C.J., Sue D.Z.
Stability and movements of open-pit lignite mines in Northern Greece 2193
Stabilité et mouvements de terrain dans les mines de lignite à ciel ouvert en Grèce du Nord
Kavvadas M., Agioutantis Z., Schilizzi P., Steiakakis C.
A web-based tool for ranking landslide mitigation measures 2197
Un outil internet pour classer les techniques visant à diminuer le risque de glissements de terrain
Lacasse S., Kalsnes B., Vaciago G., Choi Y.J., Lam A.
A Numerical Study of Granular Surge Flow through a Row of Baffles 2201
Une étude numérique des écoulements granulaires à travers une rangée de chicanes
Law R.P.H., Lam A.Y.T., Choi K.Y.
Full-Scale Field Monitoring of a Rainfall-Induced Sliding Slope in Hainan, China 2205
Étude en vraie grandeur d’un talus glissant soumis à des précipitations à Hainan en Chine
Li A.G., Qiu J.J., Mo J.F., Gao W., Tham L.G., Yan R.W.M.
Estimation and Prediction of Debris Flow Potential Using Discrimination Analysis 2209
Estimation et prédiction du potentiel d’écoulement de boue utilisant une analyse discriminante
Lin M.L., Lin Y.S.
Value of Landslide Investigation to Geotechnical Engineering Practice in Hong Kong 2213
Ingénierie des glissements de terrain à Hong Kong
Lo D.O.K., Lam H.W.K.

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Analyses of Seismic Slope Stability and Subsequent Debris Flow Modeling 2217
Analysis de stabilité de pente sous sollicitation sismique et modélisation des écoulements de boues induits
Long X., Tjok K.-M.
Quantitative risk assessment for earthquake-triggered landslides using Bayesian network 2221
Évaluation quantitative du risque associé aux glissements de terrain déclenchés par séisme en utilisant
un réseau Bayésien
Nadim F., Liu Z.Q.
Collapse behavior of slope due to change in pore water pressure 2225
Effondrement d’une pente à cause d’une variation de la pression interstitielle
Nakata Y., Kajiwara T., Yoshimoto N.
Future evolution of slope stability analysis created by SPH method 2229
Évolution future de l’analyse de stabilité des pentes créé par la méthode SPH
Nonoyama H., Yashima A., Moriguchi S.
Slope stability along a new road “Drisht –Drisht castle” 2233
Stabilité de pente le long de la nouvelle route «Drisht-Drisht castle»
Paçi E., Cullufi H., Dervishaj A.
Landslides induced by the interaction of an earthquake and subsequent rainfall. A spatial and temporal model 2237
Glissements de terrain induits par l’interaction d’un tremblement de terre suivi de précipitations –
Un modèle spatio-temporel.
Quan Luna B., Vangelsten B.V., Liu Z.Q., Eidsvig U., Nadim F.
Analyse des glissements de terrains en région urbanisée 2241
Analysis of landslides in urban regions
Rahhal M.E., Hajal M., Seoud J.P., Rafie E.
A smart adaptive multivariable search algorithm applied to slope stability in locating the global optima 2245
Un algorithme adaptatif multivariable de recherche d’optimum global appliqué à la stabilité des pentes
Saha A.
Soil slope stability of hydropower reservoirs - from geological site investigation to design of mitigation measures 2249
La stabilité des talus de réservoirs hydroélectriques - de l’investigation géologique du site à la conception
de mesures d’atténuation
Saurer E., Prager C., Marcher T.
Landslide stabilization by piles: A case history 2253
Stabilisation des glissements de terrain par des pieux: un cas d’étude
Şengör M.Y., Ergun M.U., Huvaj N.
Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Using Bayesian Conditional Probability Model at An Linh Commune,
Tuy An District, Phu Yen Province, Vietnam 2257
Élaboration de la carte de risques de glissement de terrain sur la commune de An Linh, district de Tuy An,
province de Phu Yen, à l’aide d’un modèle Bayesien de probabilité conditionnelle
Son N.T., Ha P.T.S., Son L.M.
Influence of Ground Motion Variability on Seismic Displacement Uncertainty 2261
Influence de la variabilité des mouvements de terrain sur l’incertitude des déplacements en régime sismique
Strenk P.M., Wartman J.
A new approach to assess the potential for flow slide in sensitive clays 2265
Une nouvelle approche pour évaluer le potentiel d’écoulement des argiles sensibles
Thakur V., Degago S.A., Oset F., Dolva B.K., Aabøe R.
Landslide risk assessment in the Göta river valley: effect of climate changes 2269
L’évaluation des risques de glissement de terrain dans la vallée de la rivière Göta :
effet des changements climatiques
Tremblay M., Svahn V., Lundström K.
Deformation and water seepage observed in a natural slope during failure process by artificial heavy rainfall 2273
Déformation du sol et infiltration d’eau observes le long d’une pente naturelle pendant le processus de glissement
dû à de fortes pluies artificielles
Uchimura T., Gizachew G., Wang L., Nishie S., Seko I.
Study on field detection and monitoring of slope instability by measuring tilting motion on the slope surface 2277
Détection et surveillance in situ des phénomènes d’instabilités de pente par mesure locale
des mouvements de surface
Wang L., Nishie S., Seko I., Uchimura T.
The physical vulnerability of roads to debris flow 2281
La vulnérabilité physique des routes aux coulées de boue
Winter M.G., Smith J.T., Fotopoulou S., Pitilakis K., Mavrouli O., Corominas J., Agyroudis S.
Inspection and Capacity Assessment of Anchored Slopes 2285
Inspection et évaluation des capacités des pentes renforcées par ancrage
Yeh H.n-S., Wang C.-S., Wei C.-Y., Lee S.-M., Ho T.-Y., Hsiao C.-A., Tsai L.-S.

XXXII
Contents / Table des matières

2011 Seoul Debris Flow and Risk Analysis 2289


Coulée de boue à Séoul en 2011 et analyse des risques
Yune C.-Y., Kim G., Lee S.W., Paik J.
Technical committee 209
Offshore Geotechnics
Comité technique 209
Géotechnique marine
General Report of TC209 - Offshore Geotechnics 2295
Rapport général du TC209 - Géotechnique Offshore
Jewell R.A.
Shallow foundations for offshore wind towers 2303
Fondations superficielles pour des installations éoliennes maritimes
Arroyo M., Abadías D., Alcoverrro J., Gens A.
Modelling of monopile-footing foundation system for offshore structures in cohesionless soils 2307
Modélisation d’un système de fondation superficielle isolé pour sur les structures maritimes
dans les sols pulvérulents
Arshi H.S., Stone K.J.L., Vaziri M., Newson T.A., El-Marassi M., Taylor R.N., Goodey R.J.
Influence of jack-up footprints on mudmat stability – How beneficial are 3D effects? 2311
Influence des dépressions laissées par les jack-ups sur la capacité portante des mudmats –
quels sont les effets bénéfiques d’une analyse en 3D?
Ballard J.-C., Charue N.
Design and installation of buried large diameter HDPE pipelines in a coastal area 2315
Project et installation de tuyaux enterrés de grand diamètre en zone côtière
Bellezza I., Mazzier F., Pasqualini E., D’Alberto D., Caccavo C., Serrani C.
Geotechnical Exploration for Wind Energy Projects 2319
Compagnes géotechniques destinées aux parcs éoliens
Ben-Hassine J., Griffiths D.V.
Essais cycliques axiaux sur des pieux forés dans des sables denses 2323
Cyclic axial load tests on bored piles in dense sands
Benzaria O., Puech A., Le Kouby A.
Essais cycliques axiaux sur des pieux forés dans l’argile surconsolidée des Flandres 2327
Cyclic axial load tests on bored piles in overconsolidated Flanders clay
Benzaria O., Puech A., Le Kouby A.
Fondations superficielles glissantes pour l’offshore profond – Méthodologie de dimensionnement 2331
Deep Offshore Sliding Footings – Design Methodology
Bretelle S., Wallerand R.
Proposition d’une loi t-z cyclique au moyen d’expérimentations en centrifugeuse 2335
Proposal of cyclic t-z law by means of centrifuge experiments
Burlon S., Thorel L., Mroueh H.
Deformation behavior of single pile in silt under long-term cyclic axial loading 2339
Comportement d’un pieu isolé sous chargement axial cyclique de longue durée dans un limon
Chen R.P., Ren Y., Zhu B., Chen Y.M.
Time-Varying Dynamic Properties of Offshore Wind Turbines Evaluated by Modal Testing 2343
Étude expérimentale de l’évolution temporelle des propriétés dynamiques d’éoliennes maritimes
Damgaard M., Andersen J.K.F., Ibsen L.B., Andersen L.V.
Numerical investigation of dynamic embedment of offshore pipelines 2347
Étude numérique de l’ancrage dynamique de conduites enterrées maritimes
Dutta S., Hawlader B., Phillips R.
Post Cyclic Behaviour of Singapore Marine Clay 2351
Le comportement post-cyclique de l’argile marine de Singapour
Ho J., Goh S.H., Lee F.H.
Centrifuge test and numerical modeling for a suction bucket monopod foundation 2355
Essai en centrifugeuse et la modélisation numérique d’une fondation de type : caisson à succion
Kim D.J., Youn J.U., Jee S.H., Choi J., Choo Y.W., Kim S., Kim J.H., Kim D.S., Lee J.S.
A large deformation finite element analysis solution for modelling dense sand 2359
Solution d’analyse par éléments finis d’une large déformation pour la modélisation de sable dense
Li X., Hu Y, White D.
Plugging Effect of Open-Ended Displacement Piles 2363
Prise en compte de l’effet de bouchon pour les pieux battus ouverts
Lüking J., Kempfert H.-G.

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

A simplified procedure to assess the dynamic stability of a caisson breakwater 2367


Une procédure simplifiée pour évaluer la stabilité dynamique d’une digue en caissons
Madrid R., Gens A., Alonso E., Tarrago D.
The new remediation technique for buried pipelines under permanent ground deformation 2371
Une nouvelle technique de pose des conduites enterrées soumises à des déformations permanentes du sol
Moradi M., Galandarzadeh A., Rojhani M.
Site investigation and geotechnical design strategy for offshore wind development 2375
Investigation géotechniques et stratégie de conception pour le développement d’éoliennes maritimes
Muir Wood A., Knight P.
Diagrammes de stabilité cyclique de pieux dans les sables 2379
Cyclic stability diagrams for piles in sands
Puech A., Benzaria O., Thorel L., Garnier J., Foray P., Silva M., Jardine R.
Utilisation des essais d’expansion cyclique pour définir des modules élastiques en petites déformations 2383
Determining small strain elastic modulus using cyclic expansion tests
Reiffsteck P., Fanelli S., Tacita J.-L., Dupla J.-C., Desanneaux G.
Displacement response to axial cyclic loading of driven piles in sand 2387
Réponse en déplacement au chargement cyclique axial de pieux battus dans le sable
Rimoy S., Jardine R., Standing J.
Experimental Testing of Monopiles in Sand Subjected to One-Way Long-Term Cyclic Lateral Loading 2391
Étude expérimentale de monopiles dans le sable soumis à un chargement cyclique transversal non alterné
Roesen H.R., Ibsen L.B., Andersen L.V.
Pieu sous charge latérale : développement de lois de dégradation pour prendre en compte l’effet des cycles 2395
Pile cyclic lateral loading: Development of degradation laws for describing the cyclic effect
Rosquoët F., Thorel L., Garnier J., Chenaf N.
Behavior of marine silty sand subjected to long term cyclic loading 2499
Comportement du sable limoneux marin soumis à une charge cyclique de longue durée
Safdar M., Kim J.M.
Influence des chargements cycliques axiaux dans le comportement et la réponse de pieux battus dans le sable 2403
Influence of cyclic axial loads in the behaviour and response of driven piles in sand
Silva M., Foray P., Rimoy S., Jardine R., Tsuha C., Yang Z.
Characterization of the geotechnical properties of a carbonate clayey silt till for a shallow wind turbine foundation 2407
Caractérisation des propriétés géotechniques d’un silt argileux carbonaté glaciaires pour une fondation
superficielle d’éolienne
Tyldesley M., Newson T., Boone S., Carriveau R.
Cyclic loading of caisson supported offshore wind structures in sand 2411
Chargement cyclique des éoliennes offshore soutenues par des caissons à succion en sable
Versteele H., Stuyts B., Cathie D., Charlier R.
Technical committee 211
Ground Improvement
Comité technique 211
Amélioration des sols
General Report of TC 211 - Ground Improvement 2417
Rapport général du TC 211 - Amélioration des sols
Huybrechts N., Denies N.
Time-dependent behaviour of foundations lying on an improved ground 2425
Temps-comportement dépendant de fondations reposant sur un sol amélioré
Alupoae D., Aşuencei V., Răileanu P.
Centrifugal and numerical analysis of geosynthetic-reinforced soil embankments 2429
Étude par centrifugeuse et analyse numérique des remblais renforcés par géotextile
Bo L., Linli J., Ningyu Z., Sinong L.
Compacted soil columns for foundations on collapsible soils. Laboratory and in-situ experimental study 2433
Colonnes de sols compactés utilisées pour des fondations sur sols effondrables. Étude expérimentale
menée en laboratoire et in-situ
Burlacu C., Olinic E., Manea S., Uţă P
Selected problems connected with the use of the jet grouting technique 2437
Certains problèmes liés à l’application de la technologie d’injection de jet
Bzówka J., Juzwa A., Wanik L.
Column Supported Embankments for Transportation Infrastructures: Influence of Column Stiffness,
Consolidation Effects and Cyclic Loading 2441

XXXIV
Contents / Table des matières

Remblais sur sols renforcés avec de colonnes ballastées pour les infrastructures de transport:
Influence de la rigidité des colonnes, des effets de consolidation et du chargement cyclique
Carvajal E., Vukotić G., Sagaseta C., Wehr W.
Foundations of embankments using encased stone columns 2445
Fondations de remblais avec des colonnes ballastées entourées de géotextile
Castro J., Sagaseta C., Cañizal J., Da Costa A., Miranda M.
Consolidation theory for combined vacuum pressure and surcharge loading 2449
Théorie de la consolidation sous l’action combinée du vide et d’un pré-chargement
Chai J.-C., Carter J. P.
Displacement rigid inclusions 2453
Inclusions rigides refoulées
Cirión A., Paulín J., Racinais J., Glandy M.
Prediction of the unconfined compressive strength in soft soil chemically stabilized 2457
Prévision de la résistance à la compression non confinée dans sols mous chimiquement stabilisés
Correia A.A.S., Venda Oliveira P.J., Lemos L.J.L.
Modélisation numérique du comportement d’une colonne de soil-mixing et confrontation à un essai
de chargement en vraie grandeur 2461
Numerical modeling of a soil-mixing column behavior and comparison with a full-size load test
Cuira F., Costa d’Aguiar S., Grzyb A., Pellet F., Mosser J.-F., Guimond-Barrett A., Le Kouby A.
Design of Deep Soil Mix Structures: considerations on the UCS characteristic value 2465
Dimensionnement des structures en soil mix : considérations sur la valeur caractéristique UCS
Denies N., Van Lysebetten G., Huybrechts N., De Cock F., Lameire B., Maertens J., Vervoort A.
Method of improvement of the subsoil under Adora facility – Ohrid, Republic Of Macedonia 2469
Méthode d’amélioration du sous-sol sous le bâtiment Adora – Ohrid, République de Macédoine
Dimitrievski L., Ilievski D., Dimitrievski D., Bogoevski B., Strasheski A.
Geoencased columns: toward a displacement based design 2473
Colonnes renforcée par géotextiles: vers une conception basée sur le déplacement
Galli A., Prisco di C.
Design prediction of the strengthened foundation base deformation by field tests data 2477
La prèvision de calcul des déformations de la base des fondements reportès à partir des recherches
prises en nature
Gotman A., Gotman N.
Standardization of the molding procedures for stabilized soil specimens as used for QC/QA
in Deep Mixing application 2481
Normalisation des procédures pour la production d’éprouvettes de sols stabilisés utilisées dans les processus
de QC/QA pour des applications de « Deep Mixing »
Grisolia M., Leder E., Marzano I.P.
Analysis of Floating Pile Capacity in Improved Ground for Thi Vai Port, Vietnam 2485
Analyse de la capacité de Pile flottant dans un terrain Thi Vai Amélioration de Port, Vietnam
Hai N.M., Tuong N.K., Long P.D., Nhon P.V.
Carbonate Cementation via Plant Derived Urease 2489
Cimentation carbonatée par l’utilisation d’uréase issue de plantes
Hamdan N., Kavazanjian Jr. E., O’Donnell S.
Experimental investigation on bearing capacity of geosynthetic encapsulated stone columns 2493
Étude expérimentale sur la capacité portante des colonnes de pierre géosynthétiques encapsulées
Hataf N., Nabipour N.
Performance and Prediction of Vacuum Consolidation Behavior at Port of Brisbane 2497
Avantages et prédictions de comportement due a la consolidation sous vide au port de Brisbane
Indraratna B., Rujikiatkamjorn C., Geng X., Ameratunga J.
Improvement of a Clay Deposit using Prefabricated Vertical Drains and Pre-loading - A Case Study 2501
Amélioration d’un massif d’argile à l’aide de drains verticaux préfabriqués et de pré-chargement -
Une étude de cas
Islam M.S., Yasin S.J.M.
Importance et applications des inclusions de grande inertie 2505
Importance and practical examples of inertial soil improvement.
Jeanty J.M., Mathieu F., Benhamou L., Berthelot P.
Assessement of Carillo’s theory for improved Tunis Soft Soil by Geodrains 2509
(manque traduction en français)
Jebali H., Frikha W., Bouassida M.

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Improvement of soft fat clay using rigid inclusions and vertical drains 2513
Amélioration d’une argile plastique molle par inclusions rigides et drains verticaux
Kirstein J.F., Wittorf N.
Interaction of stone column and surrounding soil during its construction: 3D numerical analysis 2517
Interaction d’une colonne ballastée et du sol environnant pendant sa construction : analyse numérique 3D
Klimis N.S., Sarigiannis D.D.
Laboratory tests and numerical modeling for embankment foundation on soft chalky silt using deep-mixing 2521
Essais au laboratoire et modélisation numérique de la fondation d’un remblai sur un limon crayeux mou
des sols améliorés par malaxage en profondeur
Koch E., Szepesházi R.
Assessment of bio-mechanical reinforcement materials influencing slope stability, based on numerical analyses 2525
Évaluation des matériaux de renforcement bio-mécaniques qui influencent la stabilité des pentes
par des analyses numériques
Koda E., Osinski P.
Evaluation of Vertical Drain-enhanced Radial Consolidation with Modified Analytical Solution 2529
Évaluation de la consolidation radiale améliorée par des drains verticaux par une solution analytique modifiée
Lee C., Choi Y., Lee W., Hong S.J.
Adjusting the soil stiffness with stabilisation to minimize vibration at Maxlab IV – Asynchrotron radiation
facility in Sweden 2533
Ajustement de la rigidité du sol par stabilisation pour minimiser les vibrations à Maxlab IV, un centre
de rayonnement synchrotron en Suède
Lindh P., Rydén N.
Construction and Performance of Containment Bund Using Geotextile Tubes Filled With Cement Mixed Soil
in Singapore 2537
La construction et la performance de la digue de confinement utilisant des tubes géotextiles remplis
de terre mélangée au ciment à Singapour
Loh C.K., Chew S.H., Tan C.Y., Lim S.K., Lam J.P.W.
Reinforcement of completely decomposed granite with discrete fibres 2541
Renforcement de granite complètement décomposé avec des morceaux fibres
Madhusudhan B.N., Baudet B.A.
Hybrid Application of Deep Mixing Columns Combined with Walls as a Soft Ground - Improvement Method
Under Embankments 2545
Application hybride de la méthode de « Deep Mixing » sur des colonnes combinées à des murs en tant
que méthode d’amélioration des sols mous sous remblais
Matsui H., Ishii H., Horikoshi K.
Application of cement deep mixing method for underpinning 2549
Application de colonnes de sol-ciment pour travaux de reprise en sous œuvre
Melentijevic S., Arcos J.L., Oteo C.
Lime Remediation of Reactivated Landslides 2553
Traitement à la chaux pour la stabilisation des glissements réactivés
Mesri G., Moridzadeh M.
Improvement of the Soil under the Concrete Pavement of a Plant’s Hall 2557
Amélioration du terrain d’assise sous la dalle en béton d’une halle d’usine
Mihova L., Kolev Ch.
Effect of Smear on Strength Behavior of SCP-Reinforced Soft Ground 2561
Effet de comportement de l’étalement de force du SCP- Sol mou renforcé
Mir B.A., Juneja A.
Bio-mediated soil improvement utilized to strengthen coastal deposits 2565
Amélioration du sol biologiquement négociée utilisée pour renforcer les dépôts côtiers
Montoya B.M., Feng K., Shanahan C.
Effect of Grout Bleed Capacity on the Engineering Properties of Cement Grouted Sands 2569
Effet de la capacité de ressuage de coulis de ciment sur les propriétés mécaniques des sables injectés
Pantazopoulos I.A., Atmatzidis D.K., Basas V.G., Papageorgopoulou S.K.
Numerical Analysis to Quantify the Influence of Smear Zone Characteristics on Preloading Design in Soft Clay 2573
Analyses numériques pour quantifier l’influence des caractéristiques  de la zone endommagée sur la conception
de préchargement dans les argiles molles
Parsa-Pajouh A., Fatahi H., Khabbaz B.
Construction of virtual sites for reliability-based design 2577
Construction de sites virtuels à des fins de conception fiabiliste
Phoon K.K., Ching J.

XXXVI
Contents / Table des matières

Technique of reinforced soil base calculation under fall initiation in ground mass 2581
Technique du compte armé les raisons du sol à l’apparition des échecs à le massif du sol
Ponomaryov A., Zolotozubov D.
Stress Concentration Ratio and Design Method for Stone Columns using 2D FEA with Equivalent Strips 2585
Ratio de concentration de contraintes et méthode de conception pour les colonnes ballastées en utilisant
une analyse aux éléments finis 2D avec des bandes équivalentes
Poon B., Chan K.
Porosity/cement index to evaluate geomechanical properties of an artificial cemented soil 2589
Le paramètre porosité/ciment pour l’évaluation des propriétés géomécaniques d’un sol cimenté artificiellement
Rios S., Viana da Fonseca A.
Compressive Strength of Fiber-Reinforced Lightly-Cement Stabilized Sand 2593
Résistance à la compression des sables renforcées par fibres et ciment
Sadek S., Najjar S., Abboud A.
Conservatoriumhotel Amsterdam, geotechnical design and monitoring 2597
Conservatoriumhotel Amsterdam, conception géotechnique et instrumentation
Stoel van der A.E.C., Vink D., Bouma J.
Impact of the soil-stabilization with lime 2601
Impact de la stabilisation des sols à la chaux
Szendefy J.
Etude paramétrique en laboratoire du matériau Deep Soil-Mixing 2605
Laboratory parametric study of the Deep Mixing material
Szymkiewicz F., Le Kouby A., Reiffsteck P., Mosadegh A., Tacita J.-L.
Investigation of failure analysis of clay reinforced with sand encapsulated 2609
Enquête sur l’analyse des défaillances d’argile renforcé avec du sable enrobe
Tabarsa A.R., Hajiesmaeilian S.
Influence of relative density on microbial carbonate precipitation and mechanical properties of sand 2613
L’influence que la densité relative du sol donne dans précipitation du carbonate microbienne et propriétés
de la mécanique
Tsukamoto M., Inagaki T., Sasaki Y., Oda K.
The reinforcement of soils by dispersed oversized particles 2617
Le renforcement des sols par les particules trop grandes non réparties uniformément
Vallejo L.E., Lobo-Guerrero S., Seminsky L.F., Caicedo B.
Analysis of Displacements of GPA in Normally Consolidated Soft Soil 2621
L’analyse des déplacements des GPA dans le sol mou normalement consolidé
Vidyaranya B., Madhav M.R.
Bridge foundation on very soft alluvia with stone column ground improvement 2625
Fondation de pont sur alluvions très mous et amélioration du sol avec des colonnes ballastées
Vlavianos G.J., Marinelli A.K., Andrianopoulos K., Foti S.
Subgrade improvement measures for the main rescue roads in the urban redevelopment area HafenCity
in Hamburg 2629
Mesures d’amélioration du sol de fondation des principales routes de secours dans la zone du réaménagement
urbain de la HafenCity à Hamburg
Weihrauch S., Oehrlein S., Vollmert L.
Fiber Reinforced Cement Treated Clay 2633
Fibro-ciment renforcé argile traitée
Xiao H.W., Lee F.H., Zhang M.H., Yeoh S.Y.
Large-scale Piled Raft with Grid-Form Deep Mixing Walls on Soft Ground 2637
Comportement en vraie grandeur d’une fondation mixte radier-pieux établie dans un sol meuble amélioré
par quadrillage de mélange profond de sol
Yamashita K., Wakai S., Hamada J.
Initial investigation into the carbonation of MgO for soil stabilisation 2641
Premières investigations sur la carbonatation de MgO utilisé pour la stabilisation des sols
Yi Y.L., Liska M., Unluer C., Al-Tabbaa A.
Innovative solutions in the field of geotechnical construction and coastal geotechnical engineering
under difficult engineering-geological conditions of Ukraine 2645
Solutions innovantes dans le domaine de la construction géotechnique et de la géotechnique côtière
dans des conditions géotechniques complexes en Ukraine
Zotsenko M., Vynnykov Y., Doubrovsky M., Oganesyan V., Shokarev V., Syedin V., Shapoval, Poizner M.,
Krysan V., Meshcheryakov G.

XXXVII
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Technical committee 212


Deep Foundations
Comité technique 212
Fondations profondes
General Report for the Two Sessions of TC 212 - Deep Foundations 2651
Rapport général des deux sessions du TC 212 - Fondations profondes
Katzenbach R., Choudhury D., Chang D.W.
Structural and geotechnical design of a piled raft for a tall building founded on granular soil 2659
Conception géotechnique et structurelle du radier sur pieux d’un bâtiment de grande hauteur fondé
sur des sols granulaires
Allievi L., Ferrero S., Mussi A., Persio R., Petrella F.
Performance of Piled-Raft System under Axial Load 2663
Performance du système radier pieux sous chargement axial
Alnuiam A., El Naggar H., El Naggar M.H.
Analysis of Full-Scale Random Vibration Pile Tests in Soft and Improved Clays 2667
Analyses à grande échelle de vibrations aléatoires sur pieux dans un sol argileux
Ashlock J.C., Fotouhi M.K.
A Design Method For Piled Raft Foundations 2671
Méthode de conception des fondations de type radier sur pieux
Balakumar V., Oh E., Bolton M., Balasubramaniam A.S.
A practical method for the non-linear analysis of piled rafts 2675
Une méthode d’analyse pratique pour déterminer la réponse non linéaire des fondations mixtes de type radier
sur pieux
Basile F.
A Variational Approach for Analysis of Piles Subjected to Torsion 2679
Une approche variationnelle pour l’analyse des pieux soumis à torsion
Basu D., Misra A., Chakraborty T.
Ancrage des pieux tarière creuse type III dans des terrains indurés : nécessité d’outils de forage performants
et de reconnaissances de sols adaptées 2683
Anchoring of continue flight auger piles in hard soil : necessity of succesful tools of drilling and adapted
soils investigations.
Berthelot P., Cardona G., Glandy M., Durand F.
Improved Safety Assessment of Pile Foundations Using Field Control Methods 2687
Évaluation améliorée de la sécurité des fondations sur pieux à l’aide de méthodes de contrôle in situ
Bilfinger W., Santos M.S., Hachich W.
Three Dimensional Finite Element Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Full-Scale Piles under Vertical Excitations 2691
Analyse dynamique non linéaire en 3D par éléments finis des pieux à grande échelle soumis
à des vibrations verticales
Biswas S., Manna B.
P-Y curves from the prebored pressuremeter test for laterally loaded single piles 2695
Courbes P-Y à partir de l’essai pressiométrique préforé pour les pieux isolés sous charge latérale
Bouafia A.
Comparaison des règlements australien et français pour le dimensionnement des pieux - Prise en compte
des essais de chargement 2699
French and Australian Pile Design Comparison – Load Testing Influence on Design
Bretelle S.
Dynamic Pile Testing at the Mesa A Rail Bridge 2703
Analyse dynamique d’essais de pieux au pont ferroviaire Mesa A
Cannon J.G.
Uplift behavior of bored piles in tropical unsaturated sandy soil 2707
Comportement en traction de pieux forés en sol tropical sablonneux non saturé
Carvalho de D., Rocha de Albuquerque P.J.
Essais de chargement statique de pieux en bois instrumentés avec des extensomètres amovibles 2711
Timber pile load test instrumented with removable extensometers
Christin J., El Kouby A., Reiffsteck P., Rocher-Lacoste F.
Pylon foundation of a cable stayed bridge at the motorway ring road of Wrocław 2715
Fondation d’un pylône du pont suspendu du périphérique de l’autoroute de Wrocław
Dembicki E., Cudny M., Krasiński A., Załęski K.
Consolidating Soil-Pile Interaction 2719
Interaction pieux-sol en cours de consolidation
El-Sakhawy N., Nassar A.

XXXVIII
Contents / Table des matières

The Performance of Helical Pile Groups Under Compressive Loads: A Numerical Investigation 2723
Performance d’un groupe de piles héliocoïdales sous chargement axial : une étude numérique
Elsherbiny Z., El Naggar M.H.
Contributing factors on soil setup and the effects on pile design parameters 2727
Facteurs contribuant au durcissement du sol et leur effet sur les paramètres de conception des pieux
Fakharian K., Attar I.H., Sarrafzadeh A., Haddad H.
Model loading tests in large soil tank on group behavior of piles 2731
Essais de chargement modèle afin d’étudier le comportement de groupe de pieux dans un grand réservoir du sol
Goto S., Aoyama S., Liu B., Towhata I., Takita A., Renzo A.A.
Probabilist analysis of the foundation of a shopping center in Brazil 2735
Analyse probabiliste des fondations d’un centre commercial au Brésil
Gusmão A., Oliveira P., Ferreira S., Maia G., Amorim M.
Bearing capacity of displacement piles in layered soils with highly diverse strength parameters 2739
Capacité portante des pieux de deplacements battus dans les sols stratifiés avec des paramètres fortement
differés de la resistance
Gwizdala K., Krasinski A.
Practical experience with piled raft design for tall buildings 2743
Expérience pratique de la conception de radiers sur pieux pour les immeubles de grandes hauteurs
Haberfield C.M.
Non-Conventional Pile Loading Tests in Vietnam 2747
Essai non conventionnel de chargement de pieux au Vietnam
Hai N.M., Dao D.H.
Slope stability structures for road landslide 2751
Structures de stabilité de pentes pour glissement de terrain
Hamova M., Frangov G., Zayakova Hr.
Research on the Load-Bearing Behaviour of Bored Piles with Different Enlarged Bases 2755
La recherche sur le comportement portante de pieux forés avec diverses bases élargies
Herrmann R.A., Löwen M., Tinteler T., Krumm S.
Visualization of Settlement Behavior for Friction Pile Group during Consolidation 2759
Visualisation du tassement pour un groupe de pieux frottant lors d’une consolidation
Ishikura R., Matsuda H., Igawa N.
Interactive 3-D Analysis Method of Piled Raft Foundation for High-rise Buildings 2763
Méthode d’analyse 3-D interactive de fondations mixte radier pieux pour immeubles de grande hauteur
Jeong S.J, Cho Ja.
Optimal FBG Sensor Deployment via Gaussian Quadrature Formula for Measurement of Displacement
of Laterally Loaded Piles 2767
Le déploiement optimal des capteurs à fibres optiques, par la formule de la quadrature de Gauss,
pour la mesure du déplacement des pieux chargés latéralement
Jung Y.-H., Na S.-U., Mok Y.
Numerical Simulation of the Load Tests on Bearing Capacity of Piled Raft Foundations 2771
Simulations numériques d’essais de chargement pour établir la capacité portante des fondations mixtes
radier sur pieux
Kaneda K., Honda T., Shigeno Y., Hamada J.
The Development and the Structural Behavior of a New Type Hybrid Concrete Filled Fiber-Glass
Reinforced Plastic Pile 2775
Développement et comportment structural d’un nouveau type de béton hybride rempli de fibre de verre
renforcé par pile plastique
Kang I.-K., Kim H.-T., Baek S.-C., Park S.-Y.
Ground displacements related to deep excavation in Amsterdam 2779
Déformations du sol liées à des excavations profondes à Amsterdam
Korff M., Mair R.J.
Drilled pile technology in retaining wall construction and energy transfer 2783
Application de la technologie des pieux forés à la construction des murs de soutènement et au tranfert
d´énergie
Lehtonen J.
Three-Dimensional Models of Bearing Capacity - Case Study 2787
Modèles tridimensionnels de capacité de portante - Étude de cas
Leite da Silva C.P., Moreira de Souza N., Medeiros Silva C.
Full scale rapid uplift tests on transmission tower footings 2791
Tests grandeur nature d’arrachement rapide sur les fondations d’une tour relais
Levy F.M., Richards D.J.

XXXIX
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Characteristics Values in Rock Socket Design 2795


Valeurs caractéristiques d’ancrage sur roche
Look B., Lacey D.
Safety theory in geotechnical design of piled raft 2799
Théorie sur la sécurité pour la réalisation de radier sur pieux
Lorenzo R., Zubeldia E.H., Cunha R.P.
Bored pile foundation response using seismic cone test data 2803
Réponse des pieux à l’aide des données de piézocône sismique
Mayne P.W., Woeller D.J.
Energy and Reliability Applied to Continuous Flight Augern Pilings - The SCCAP Methodology 2807
Énergie et fiabilité appliquées à l’excavation des pieux forés en continu - La méthodologie SCCAP
Medeiros Silva C., Camapum de Carvalho J., Brasil Cavalcante A.L.
Performance of a pioneer foundation of the skirt type for the Metro-Line 12 overpass on the Mexico City soft clay 2811
Comportement d’un nouveau type de fondations de type radier à jupe, utilisé pour les tronçons
en viaduc de la ligne 12 du Métro fondés sur les argiles molles de Mexico
Mendoza M.J., Rufiar M., Ibarra E., Mendoza S.A.
Improving the capacity of bored piles by shaft grouting 2815
Améliorer la capacité portante des pieux forés par injection de coulis opérée latéralement
Miller M., Potts V., Skinner H., Vaziri M.
Polymer pillar, a new innovation for underpinning 2819
Colonne de polymère, une nouvelle innovation comme support de fondation
Perälä A.
Identification of Test Pile Defects in a Super-tall Building Foundation 2823
Identification des anomalies dans les essais de chargement de pieu pour les fondations d’une tour
de très grande hauteur
Poulos H.G., Badelow F., Tosen R., Abdelrazaq, Kim S.H.
A review of pile test results and design from a London clay site 2827
Un compte rendu sur les resultants d’essais sur pieux et leur dimensionnement sur un site d’argile de Londres
Powell J.J.M., Skinner H.
Effet du mode de mise en place sur le comportement statique de pieux dans l’argile fortement surconsolidée
des Flandres 2831
Effect of installation mode on the static behaviour of piles in highly overconsolidated Flanders clay
Puech A., Benzaria O.
Analysis of Piles Supporting Excavation Adjacent to Existing Buildings 2835
Analyse de pieux de bâtiments existant en cours de fouilles sous-jacentes
Ramadan E.H., Ramadan M., Khashila M.M., Kenawi M.A.
Analysis and Design of Piles for Dynamic Loading 2839
Analyse et conception de fondations par pieux en chargement dynamique
Ray R.P., Wolf Á.
A new tool for the automated travel time analyses of bender element tests 2843
Un nouvel outil pour les analyses automatisées du temps de déplacement des essais « bender element »
Rees S., Le Compte A., Snelling K., Rinaldi V.A., Viguera R.
Pseudo-static Pile Load Test: Experience on Pre-bored and Large Diameter Piles 2847
Tests de chargement pseudo-statique sur pieux: experiences sur pieux forés de grands diamètres
Rinaldi V.A., Viguera R.
Behavior of Vertical Piles Embedded in Sand under Inclined Loads near Ground Slope 2851
Comportement de pieux verticaux ancrés dans une couche de sable à proximité d’une pente
Sakr M.A., Nasr A.M.
Semi-Analytical Solutions for Laterally Loaded Piles in Multilayered Soils 2855
Solutions Semi-analytiques pour des pieux soumis à des charges latérales dans les sols multicouches
Salgado R, Basu D., Prezzi M, Tehran F.S.
Skyscrapers of «Moskva-City» Business Center - Tests of Bored Piles 2859
Gratte-ciel du centre d’affaires « Moskva-City » – Essais de pieux forés
Shulyatiev О.А., Ladyzhensky I.G. Yastrebov P.I.
Cavity remediation for pylon foundation of the Transrhumel Viaduct in Constantine 2863
Résolution des problèmes de cavité sous les fondations du Viaduc Trans-Rhumel de Constantine
Steenfelt J.S., Schunk M.
Integrating Nonlinear Pile Behavior with Standard Structural Engineering Software 2869
Analyse non linéaire de fondations par pieux à l’aide d’un code industriel
Szép J., Ray R.P.

XL
Contents / Table des matières

Experimental Study on the Method of Rebound and Recompression Deformation Calculation in Deep
and Large Foundation Design 2873
Etude expérimentale sur la méthode de calcul des déformations de résilience et de recompression
pour les fondations larges et profondes
Teng Y., Li J., Wang S.
Deep Basement Construction of Bank of Thailand Along Chao Phraya River closed to Tewavej Palace
and Bangkhumphrom Palace 2877
Construction du sous-sol profond de la Banque de Thaïlande le long de la Chao Phraya près des palais
de Bangkhumphrom et Tewavej
Teparaksa W.
Creep and long-term bearing capacity of a long pile in clay 2881
Fluage et capacité portante à long terme d’un long pieu dans de l’argile
Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Ter-Martirosyan A.Z., Sidorov V.V.
Compressive resistance of piles, an update 2885
Résistance à la compression des pieux, une mise à jour
Tol van A.F., Stoevelaar R., Bezuijen A., Jansen H.L., Hannink G.
A design verification method for pile foundations used in combination with solidified improved columns 2889
Une méthode de vérification de la conception des pieux en combinant avec des colonnes de sol améliorés
Tomisawa K., Miura S.
nfluence of multiple helix configuration on the uplift capacity of helical anchors 2893
Influence de la configuration des hélices sur la résistance à l’arrachement de pieux hélicoïdaux
Tsuha C.H.C., Santos T.C., Rault G., Thorel L., Garnier J.
Super-long bored pile foundation for super high-rise buildings in China 2897
Fondation profonde sur pieux de très grandes longueurs pour les immeubles de grandes hauteurs en Chine
Wang W., Wu J., Li Y.
Case Studies of Cost-effective Foundation Design in Rock 2901
Études de cas sur la conception de la Fondation rentable dans Rock
Wong P.K.
Difficulté d’exécution des pieux profonds de grand diamètre dans des sols mous 2905
Difficulty execution of large diameter deep piles in soft soils
Zaghouani K., Chouikha A., Haffoudhi S.
Load Tests on Full-Scale Bored Pile Groups 2909
Essais de chargement sur des groupes de pieux forés
Zhang Y., Salgado R., Dai G., Gong W.
Technical committee 214
Foundation Engineering for Difficult Soft Soil Conditions
Comité tevnique 214
Fondations en conditions difficiles de sols mous
General Report of TC 214 - Soft soils 2915
Rapport général du TC 214 - Sol mous
Ovando-Shelley E., Rangel-Núñez J.L.
Soil Fracturing Induced by Land Subsidence in Mexico City 2921
Fracturation des sols induite par la subsidence de la ville de Mexico
Auvinet G., Méndez E., Juárez M.
Characterization of Sensitive Soft Soils for the Waterview Connection Project, New Zealand 2925
Caractérisation de sols mous sensibles pour le projet de raccordement Waterview en Nouvelle-Zélande
Bobei D.C., Locks J.
Design and Construction of a Landfill Containment Bund cum Seawall Supported on Stone Columns Installed
in Very Soft Marine Mud in Cotai, Macau 2929
Conception et construction d’un remblai de depôts avec une enceinte sur des colonnes ballastées
nstallées dans un sol marin très mou à Cotai, Macao
De Silva S., Fong L.T.T.
Estimation of undrained shear strength of soft soil obtained by cylinder vertical penetration 2933
Estimation de la résistance au cisaillement d’un sol mou en conditions non-drainées obtenue par la pénétration
verticale d’un cylindre
Equihua-Anguiano L.N., Orozco-Calderon M., Foray P.
he Application of a Novel Design Approach for Construction over soft soils: The Hybrid Undrained-Drained model 2937
L’application d’une nouvelle méthode de conception pour des constructions sur sols mous: le modèle hybride
non drainé - drainés
Espinoza D., Li C.

XLI
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Land reclamation on soft clays at Port of Brisbane 2941


Construction d’un terre-plein sur des sols argileux dans le port de Brisbane
Ganesalingam D., Sivakugan N., Ameratunga J., Schweitzer G.
Kansai International Airport. Theoretical settlement history 2945
Aéroport international de Kansai. Historique théorique du tassement
Juárez-Badillo E.
Design and Performance of Highway Embankments Constructed Over Sri Lankan Peaty Soils 2949
Conception et performance de remblais d’autoroute construits sur sols tourbeux au Sri Lanka
Karunawardena A., Toki M.
Design improvements for expansion of a roadway on a thick layer of soft soil 2953
Un projet d’amélioration pour l’élargissement d’une autoroute sur une argile molle
Kim K.-H., Jung T.-M., Jung J.-H., Kim T.-H., Kim S.-R., You S.-H.
Case Study on X-section Cast-in-place Pile-Supported Embankment over Soft Clay 2957
Étude de cas pour un remblai renforcé par des pieux de section en X coulés en place dans de l’argile molle
Liu H.L., Kong G.Q., Ding X.M, Yu T., Yang G.
Settlements of Earth Fills on Thick Layers of Overconsolidated Soft Clays without Geodrains 2961
Tassements des remblais sur d’épaisses couches d’argile molle, surconsolidée, sans géodrains
Massad F., Teixeira A.H., Carvalho C.T., Grangé L.F.A.
Aspects on the modelling of smear zones around vertical drains 2965
Aspects de la modélisation de la zone remaniée autour des drains verticaux
Müller R., Larsson S.
A Review of Geogrid Working Platform in Soft Ground in Malaysia 2969
Analyse du comportement de plateformes renforcées par géogilles en Malaisie
Ooi T.A., Tee C.H., Chan C.B., Ong R.
Container Terminal on Soft Soil 2973
Terminal de conteneurs sur un sol mou
Popovic N., Stanic B.
Instrumented Trial Embankment on Soft Ground at Tokai, State of Kedah, Malaysia 2977
Embankment essai instrumenté sur un sol mou, État de Kedah, Malaisie
Tan Y.C., Lee P.-T., Koo K.-S
Prediction of and countermeasures for embankment-related settlement in ultra-soft ground containing peat 2981
Prédiction et contre-mesure sur les tassements de remblais dans les sols ultra-meubles contenant de la tourbe
Tashiro M., Inagaki M., Asaoka A.
Numerical simulation of energy consumption of artificial ground freezing applications subject to water seepage 2985
Simulation numérique de la consummation d’énergie des applications pour la congélation artificielle du sol
soumise au flux de l’eau souterraine
Ziegler M., Schüller R., Mottaghy D.
Technical committee 215
Environmental Geotechnics
Comité technique 215
Géotechnique de l’environnement
General Report of TC 215 - Environmental Geotechnics 2991
Rapport Général du TC 215 - Géotechnique de l’Environnement
Bouazza A.
Novel bentonites for containment barrier applications 2997
Bentonites novatrices pour des applications comme barriers de confinement
Bohnhoff G., Shackelford C., Malusis M., Scalia J., Benson C., Edil T., Di Emidio G., Katsumi T., Mazzieri F.
Long term performance of cement-bentonite cut-offs in saline and acidic solutions 3001
Perméabilité à long terme des parois ciment-bentonite en solutions acides et salines
Brianzoni V., Fratalocchi E., Pasqualini E.
Determination of shear strength of MSW. Field tests vs. laboratory tests 3005
Détermination de la résistance au cisaillement des déchets urbains (MSW). Essais in situ vs essais de laboratoire
Cañizal J., Lapeña P., Castro J., Costa da A., Sagaseta C.
Geo-environmental problems in landfills of MSW with high organic content 3009
Problèmes géo-environnementaux dans les sites d’enfouissement de déchets urbains à hautes teneurs
organiques
Chen Y.M., Zhan L.T., Xu X.B., Liu H.L.
Étude expérimentale d’une technique de filtration radiale pour une application au sein de Barrières Perméables
Réactives (BPR) 3013
Experimental study of radial filtration in Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRB)
Courcelles B.

XLII
Contents / Table des matières

Measurement of NAPL saturation distribution in whole domainsby the Simplified Image Analysis Metod 3017
Mesure de la distribution de la satturation de liquide en phase non aqueuse couvrant tout le spectre de l’étude
par la méthode simplifiée d’analyse d’image
Florès G., Katsumi T., Inui T., Takai A.
Hydraulic conductivity of zeolite-sand mixtures permeated with landfill leachate 3021
Conductivité hydaulique de mélanges zéolithe-sable infiltrés par des écoulements de décharge de déchets
Fronczyk J., Garbulewski K.
Moisture-Suction Relationships for Geosynthetic Clay Liners 3025
Courbes de rétention des membranes géotextiles chargées en argile
Hanson J.L., Risken J.L., Yeşiller N.
Hydraulic conductivity of compacted clay liners moisture-conditioned and permeated with saline coal
seam gas water 3029
La conductivité hydraulique de l’humidité argile compactée doublures conditionné et imprégné avec de l’eau
salée gaz de houille couture
Indrawan I.G.B., Williams D.J., Scheuermann A.
Simultaneous estimation of transverse and longitudinal dispersion in unsaturated soils using spatial moments
and image processing 3033
Estimation simultanée de la dispersion transversale et longitudinale dans des sols insaturés au moyen
de la méthode des moments pour l’analyse des données spatiales et du traitement d’images
Inoue K., Shimada H., Tanaka T.
Evaluating the long-term leaching characteristics of heavy metals in excavated rocks 3037
Évaluation des caractéristiques de lixiviation à long terme de métaux lourds dans les roches excavées
Inui T., Katsumi T., Takai A., Kamon M.
Geo-environmental challenges of a major coal terminal development in Australia 3041
Défis géo-environnementaux du développement d’un terminal majeur de charbon en Australie
Jones S.R.
Characterisation of landfill steel mill sludge waste in terms of shear strength, pore water pressure dissipation
and liquefaction potential 3045
Caractérisation de la résistance au cisaillement, de l’évolution des pressions d’eau interstitielle et du potentiel
de liquéfaction des boues d’aciérie dans un centre de stockage.
Lavoie J.L.N., Sinclair T.J.E.
A numerical analysis of phytoextraction processes 3049
Une analyse numérique des processus de phyto-extraction
Lugli F., Mahler C.F.
Soil-geosynthetic interface strength on smooth and texturized geomembranes under different test conditions 3053
Résistance au cisaillement des interfaces entre sols et membranes géo-synthétiques lisses ou rugueuses
sous différentes conditions
Monteiro C.B., Araújo G.L.S., Palmeira E.M., Cordão Neto M.P.
Geoenvironmental Approach to Restoration of Agricultural Land Damaged by Tsunami 3057
Approche géo-environnementale de la restauration de terres agricoles endommagées par Tsunami
Omine K., Moqsud M.A., Hazarika H.
Factors affecting hydration of Geosynthetic Clay Liners in landfill applications 3061
Facteurs influençant l’hydratation des géosynthétiques bentonitiques dans les applications d’enfouissement
Rayhani M.T., Sarabadani H.
Utilisation de la désorption thermique pour l’élimination in situ des couches flottantes d’hydrocarbures 3065
Use of thermal desorption for removing in-situ floating oil layers
Saadaoui H., Haemers J., Denecheau P., Cédou C.
Devepment and Verification of Ecohabitat Chart based on Ecological Geotechnics 3069
Développement et vérification du diagramme Ecohabitat, basé sur la géotechnique écologique
Sassa S., Watabe Y., Yang S.
A New Approach for Characterizing Shear Strength of Municipal Solid Waste for Land Fill Design 3073
Une nouvelle approche pour la caractérisation de la résistance au cisaillement des déchets urbains
pour la conception des décharges
Singh S.
The role of molecular biology in geotechnical engineering 3077
Le rôle de la biologie moléculaire en géotechnique
Stewart D.I., Fuller S.J., Burke I.T., Whittleston R.A., Lockwood C.L., Baker A.
A System of dehydration, purification, and reduction for dredged soil – Release inhibition of nutrient salts
from bed mud using natural zeolite 3081
Un système de déshydratation, d’épuration et de réduction de sols dragués - Prévention du relâchement
de sels nutritifs des lits de boue à l’aide d’une zéolithe naturelle
Umezaki T., Kawamura T.

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Technical committee 301


Preservation of Historic Sites
Comité technique 301
Préservation des sites historiques
General Report du TC 301 - Monuments, historic sites and case histories 3087
Rapport général du TC 301 - Monuments, sites historiques et études de cas
Flora A.
Reconstitution of foundation platform of Prasat Suor Prat by compaction of original soil with slaked lime,
Angkor Ruins, Cambodia 3095
Reconstitution de la plate-forme de la fondation de Prasat Suor Prat par compactage du sol d’origine additionné
de chaux éteinte, sur les ruines d’Angkor, au Cambodge
Akazawa Y., Fukuda M., Iwasaki Y., Nakazawa J.
Geotechnical Aspects of Design and Construction of the Mountain Cluster Olympic Facilities in Sochi 3099
Les aspects géotechniques des projets et de la construction des sites olympiques situés dans les pays
montagneux autour de la ville Sotchi
Fedorovsky V., Kurillo S., Kryuchkov S., Bobyr G., Djantimirov K., Iliyn S., Iovlev I., Kharlamov P., Rytov S.,
Skorokhodov A., Kabantsev О.
Importance of understanding the development and significance of sulphates in the London Clay 3103
L’importance de comprendre le développement et la signification des sulfates dans l’Argile de Londres.
Hawkins A.B., St John T.W.
Rockfall-protection embankments – design concept and construction details 3107
Merlons de protection contre les chutes de pierres - modèle de conception et d’exécution
Hofmann R., Vollmert L., Mölk M.
Authenticity of Foundations for Heritage Structures 3111
Authenticité des fondations pour les structures du patrimoine
Iwasaki Y., Zhussupbekov A., Issina A.
Geotechnical Assessment for the Restoration of Garandoya tumulus with the Naked Stone Chamber 3115
Évaluation géotechnique de la restauration du tumulus de Garandoya et grottes en pierres nues
Mimura M., Yoshimura M.
Geotechnical Features of Sochi Olympic Facilities Project Designs 3119
Les aspects géotechniques de la conception des installations olympiques de Sochi
Petrukhin V.P., Kolybin I.V., Budanov V.G., Isaev О.N., Kisin B.F., Bokov I.A.
Heaving Mechanisms in High Sulfate Soils 3125
Mécanismes de soulèvement dans les sols à contenu élevé en sulfates
Puppala A.J., Talluri N., Gaily A., Bhaskar, Chittoori C.S.
Geotechnical aspects in sustainable protection of cultural and historical monuments 3129
Les aspects géotechniques de la protection durable des monuments culturels et historiques
Sesov V., Cvetanovska J., Edip K.
Modern methods of geotechnical defense of buildings in the difficult geological conditions of Ukraine 3133
Méthodes modernes pour la défense géotechnique de bâtiments dans les conditions géologiques difficiles
de l’Ukraine
Slyusarenko Y., Chervinskyy Y., Karpenko Y., Dvornik S., Malikov S., Rozenvasser G., Lavshuk I.
Geotechnical problems related to the development of territories in the conditions of the Republic of Tajikistan 3137
Problèmes géotechniques lies au développement de territoires dans les conditions de la République
du Tadjikistan
Usmanov R.A., Saidov R.S., Mangushev R.A.
The preservation of Agrigento Cathedral 3141
La conservation de la cathédrale d’Agrigente
Valore C., Ziccarelli M.
Geotechnical characteristics of glacial soil deposits at Punta Arenas in Chilean Patagonia 3145
Caractéristiques géotechniques des dépôts glaciaires du sol à Punta Arenas en Patagonie chilienne
Vásquez A., Le Roux J.-P., Foncea C.
Geotechnical Issues of Megaprojects on Problematical Soil Ground of Kazakhstan 3149
Questions géotechniques de mégaprojets sur sol problématique du Kazakhstan
Zhussupbekov A.Zh., Ling H.I., Baitassov T.M., Lukpanov R.E., Tulebekova A.S., Yenkebayev S.B., Popov V.N.,
Krasnikov S.V., Boominathan A.

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Contents / Table des matières

Technical committee 307


Sustainability in Geotechnical Engineering
Comité technique 307
Construction durable en géotechnique
General Report of TC 307 - Sustainability in Geotechnical Engineering 3155
Rapport général du TC 307 - Durabilité en géotechnique
Basu D., Puppala A.J., Chittoori B.
Evaluation of Rubber/Sand Mixtures as Replacement Soils to Mitigate Earthquake Induced Ground Motions 3163
Évaluation du mélange sable-caoutchouc comme sol de remplacement pour atténuer les mouvements sismiques
Abdelhaleem A.M., El-Sherbiny R.M., Lotfy H., Al-Ashaal A.A.
New Replacement Formations on Expansive Soils Using Recycled EPS Beads 3167
Remplacement sur les sols expansifs en utilisant des perles EPS
Abdelrahman G.E., Mohamed H.K., Ahmed H.M.
Sustainability in Geotechnical Engineering 3171
Viabilité en géotechnique
Basu D., Misra A., Puppala A.J., Chittoori C.S.
Mechanics of Manufactured Soil Using Powder Wastes 3175
Mécanique des sols fabriqués à partir de déchets de poudre
Baykal G.
Méthodes non traditionnelles de traitement des sols : apports techniques et impact sur le bilan environnemental
d’un ouvrage en terre 3179
Soil treatment with non traditional additives in earthworks: evaluation of the technical and environmental
improvements
Blanck G., Cuisinier O., Masrouri F.
Advanced testing and modelling delivers cost effective piled raft foundation solution 3183
Essais avancés et modélisation délivre une solution économique empilés fondation sur radier
Bourne-Webb P., Cunningham M., Card G.
The use of Recycled Aggregates in Unboud Road Pavements 3187
L’utilisation d’aggégats recyclés en revêtements de chaussée sans liant
Cameron D.A., Rahman M.M., Azam A.M., Gabr A.g., Andrews R., Mitchell P.W.
Reuse of dredged sediments for hydraulic barrires : adsorption and hydraulic conductivity improvement
through polymers 3191
La réutilisation des sédiments dragués pour barrières htdrauliques : l’adsorption et l’améloration
de la conductivité hydraulique avec des polymères
Di Emidio G., Verastegui Flores R.D., Bezuijen A.
Characterization of recycled materials for sustainable construction 3195
Caractérisation des matériaux pour la construction drable
Edil T.B.
Technical and Economic Analysis of Construction and Demolition Waste Used in Paving Project 3199
Analyse technique et économique des déchets dans la construction de pavage
Farias A., Fucale S., Gusmão A., Maia G.
Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Geosynthetics versus Conventional filter layer 3203
Analyse de cycle de vie comparative d’une couche de filtre géotextile et conventionnelle
Frischknecht R., Büsser-Knöpfel S., Itten R., Stucki M., Wallbaum H.
La réutilisation des fondations existantes dans les projets de réhabilitation de constructions anciennes 3207
Reuse of existing foundations for the rehabilitation of old buildings
Guilloux A., Le Bissonnais H., Saussac L., Perini T.
Modern geotechnical construction methods for important infrastructure buildings 3211
Méthodes de construction modernes des ouvrages géotechniques dans les grands projects d’infrastrcuctures
Heerten G., Vollmert L., Herold A., Thompson, Dupond J., Alcazar G.
Sustainable Management of Contamined Sediments 3215
Gestion durable des sédiments contaminés
Holm G., Lundberg K., Svedberg B.
Polymer support fluids: use and misuse of innovative fluids in geotechnical works 3219
Les polymères: l’utilisation de nouveaux fluides de forage en travaux géotechnique
Jefferis S.A., Lam C.
Utilisation of polyethylene (plastic) shopping bags waste for soil improvement in sandy soils 3223
Utilisation des déchets de sacs en polyéthylène (plastiques) pour l’amélioration des sols sableux
Kalumba D., Chebet F.C.

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Effect of dredge soil on the strength development of air-foam treated lightweight soil 3227
Effets des sols de dragage sur le développement de la résistance des sols mélangés à de l’air
Kataoka S., Horita T., Tanaka M., Tomita R., Nakajima M.
Application of a Method to Accelerate Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Solidification 3231
Une méthode de solidification accélérée des granulats issus de laitier de haut fourneau
Kikuchi Y., Mizutani T.
Building on an old landfill: design and construction 3235
Construire sur une ancienne décharge : dimensionnement et exécution des travaux
McIntosh G.W., Barthelmess A.J.
Interpretation of mechanical behavior of cement-treated dredged soil based on soil skeleton structure 3239
Interprétation des comportements mécaniques des sols dragués traités au ciment basée sur la structure
squelette du sol
Nakano M., Sakai T.
Utilization of waste copper slag as a substitute for sand in vertical sand drains and sand piles 3243
Utilisation des scories de cuivre en tant que substitut pour le sable dans le sable drains verticaux
et tas de sable
Nawagamuwa U.P., Senanayake A., Rathnaweera T.
Tools for Natural Hazard management in a Changing Climate 3247
Outils de gestion de désastres naturels dans un climat changeant
Rogbeck Y., Löfroth H., Rydell B., Andersson-Sköld Y.
Experimental reinforced soil walls built with recycled construction and demolition waste (RCDW) 3251
Murs expérimentaux de sol renforcé construits avec résidus de construction et démolition recyclés
Santos E.C.G., Palmeira E.M.
Comparing the properties of EPS and glass foam mixed with cement and sand 3255
Comparer les propriétés d’EPS et mousse de verre mélangé avec du ciment et du sable
Teymur B., Tuncel E.Y., Ahmedov R.
Geotechnical engineering and protection of environment and sustainable development 3259
Engineering géotechnique, protection de l’environnement et développement durable
Vaníček M., Jirásko D., Vaníček I.
Applicability of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Incineration Ash in Road Pavements Base 3263
Utilisation de cendres d’incinération de déchets solides municipaux (MSW) dans la couche de base de chaussée
Vizcarra G., Szeliga L., Casagrande M., Motta L.
Research Results of Fine-Grained Soil Stabilization Using Fly Ash from Serbian Electric Power Plants 3267
Les résultats de recherche de la stabilisation des sols de grains fins en utilisant les cendres volantes
des centrales électriques serbes
Vukićević M., Maraš-Dragojević S., Jocković S., Marjanović M., Pujević V.
Simplified Prediction of Changes in Shear Strength in Geotechnical Use of Drinking Water Sludge 3271
Prédiction simplifiée de changements dans la force du ciseau dans usage Geotechnical de boue
de l’eau potable
Watanabe Y., Komine H.
Road foundation construction using lightweight tyre bales 3275
Construction des assises de routes à l’aide de balles de pneus légères
Winter M.G.
Technical committee 210 + 201
Dykes Leeves and Dams
Comité technique 210 + 201
Digues, levées et barrages
General report - Geotechnical problems of dikes (TC 201) and dams (TC 210) 3281
Rapport général - Problèmes géotechniques dans les digues (TC 201) et barrages (TC 210)
Xu Z.
Hydraulic failure of flood protection dykes 3289
Défaillance du circuit hydraulique des levées de protection contre les inondations
Brandl H., Szabo M.
Prédiction du comportement de barrage en enrochement de grande taille à l’aide d’une modélisation
tridimensionnelle 3293
Prediction of the behavior of very high CFRD using a 3D modelling
Chen Y., Fry J.-J., Laigle F., Vincens E., Froiio F.
Slope stability of the Włocławek Dam frontal earth dam in the light of the modernisation works carried out
in the period 2000-2011 3297
Stabilité de la pente du barrage en terre de Włocławek à la lumière des travaux de modernisation exécutés
dans la période 2000-2011
Leszczynski M., Lipiecki B., Popielski P.
XLVI
Contents / Table des matières

Deformation safety of high concrete face rockfill dams 3301


Calculs en déformations de la sécurité des grands barrages en rochement à masque amont en béton
Li N., Wang J., Mi Z., Li D.
Safety of a protection levee under rapid drawdown conditions. Coupled analysis of transient seepage
and stability 3305
La sécurité d’une digue de protection en conditions de vidange rapide. Analyse couplée des écoulements
transitoires et de la stabilité
López-Acosta N.P., Fuente de la H.A., Auvinet G.
Some Technical Aspects of the Tailing Dam Failure at the Ajka Red Mud Reservoirs 3309
Quelques aspects techniques de la rupture d’une digue de retenue de boues à Ajka
Mecsi J.
The Design of Filter Materials and their Importance in Geotechnical Engineering 3313
La conception de matériaux filtrants et leur importance en géotechnique
Messerklinger S.
Identification du risque d’érosion interne sur les digues de l’Isère et du Drac 3317
Identification of erosion risk on the Isère and Drac river levees
Monnet J., Plé O., Nguyen D.M.
Suffusion in compacted loessial silts. Interaction with granular filters 3321
Suffusion dans les limons lœssique compactés. Interaction avec les filtres granulaires
Terzariol R.E., Rocca R.J., Zeballos M.E.
Predicting long-term settlements of coastal defences for the safeguard of the Venetian Lagoon 3325
Évaluation des tassements de consolidation secondaire des structures côtières de protection
pour la sauvegarde
de la lagune de Venise
Tonni L., García Martínez M.F., Simonini P.
Full scale field tests for strength assessment of peat 3329
Essais in situ en vraie grandeur pour évaluer la résistance d’une tourbe
Zwanenburg C., Van M.A.
Technical committee 307 + 212
Heat effects
Comité technique 307+212
Effets de la cHAleur
General Report TCs 307+212 - Thermal Geomechanics with Emphasis on Geothermal Energy 3335
Rapport général TCs 307+212 - Géomécanique thermique avec une attention particulière portée sur l’énergie
géothermique
Puppala A.J., Choudhury D., Basu D.
Numerical Modelling of Ground Heat Exchangers with Different Ground Loop Configurations for Direct
Geothermal Applications 3343
Modélisation numérique des échangeurs de chaleur souterrains avec différentes configurations de boucles
pour les applications géothermiques directs
Bidarmaghz A., Narsilio G., Johnston I.
The response of energy foundations under thermo-mechanical loading 3347
La réponse des fondations thermo actifs sous chargement thermo-mécanique
Bodas Freitas T.M., Cruz Silva F., Bourne-Webb P.J.
Large Thermal Energy Storage at Marstal District Heating 3351
Importante capacité de stockage de l’énergie thermique pour le chauffage collectif de Marstal
Dannemand Andersen J., Bødker L., Jensen M.V.
Combination of borehole heat exchangers and air sparging to increase geothermal efficiency 3355
Combinaison de sondes géothermiques et barbotage d’air pour augmenter l’efficacité géothermique
Grabe J., Menzel F., Ma X.
Geothermal Heat PipeBorehole Heat-Exchangers: Computational Simulation and Analysis of Measurement Data 3359
Échangeurs thermiques à thermosiphon utilisés en géothermie : simulation numérique et analyse des mesures
Katzenbach R., Clauss F.
Analysis of the freeze thaw performance of geothermal heat exchanger borehole grout materials 3363
Étude de la résistance au gel et dégel des sondes géothermiques verticales
Katzenbach R., Clauss F., Rochée S.
Thermal influences on swelling pressure and swelling deformation of bentonites and investigation of its factors 3367
Effets thermiques sur la pression et les déformations de gonflement des bentonites et facteurs d’influence
Komine H.
Performance of Piled Foundations Used as Heat Exchangers 3371
Performance des fondations sur pieux utilisées comme échangeurs thermiques
Loveridge F., Powrie W.

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Measuring soil thermal properties for use in energy foundation design 3375
La mesure des caractéristiques thermiques du sol pour la conception des fondations énergie
Low J.E., Loveridge F.A., Powrie W.
Thermo-Mechanical Behavior of Energy Foundations 3379
Comportement thermo-mécanique des pieux énergétiques
McCartney J.S., Murphy J.S., Stewart M.A.
Pressurisation thermique dans l’argile de Boom 3383
Thermal pressurization in Boom clay
Monfared M., Delage P., Sulem J., Mohajerani M., Tang A.M.
Effet des conditions environnementales sur les propriétés mécaniques d’un ciment de puits géothermique 3387
Effect of environmental conditions on the mechanical properties of geothermal well cement paste
Nauleau E., Martineau F., Kréziak C., Ghabezloo S.
Development of a predictive framework for geothermal and geotechnical responses in cold regions experiencing
climate change 3391
Développement d’un cadre conceptuel pour les réponses géotechniques et géothermales dans une zone polaire
sous l’influence du changement climatique
Nishimura S., Jardine R.J., Fenton C.H., Olivilla S., Gens A., Martin C.J.
An undrained upper bound solution for the face stability of tunnels reinforced by micropiles 3395
Une solution en limite supérieure non drainée pour la stabilité du front de tunnels renforcés par micropieux
Pinyol N.M., Alonso E.E.
Numerical simulation of the process of geothermal low-potential ground energy extraction in Perm region (Russia) 3399
Modélisation numérique du procès de la sélection géothermale d’énergie potentielle basse du sol
dans les conditions de la région de Perm (Russie)
Ponomaryov A., Zakharov A.
Determination of the thermal parameters of a clay from heating cell tests 3403
Détermination des paramètres thermiques d’une argile à partir d’essais dans une cellule de chauffage
Romero E., Lima A., Gens A., Vaunat J., Li X.L.
Analyse de la portance des pieux géothermiques 3407
Discussions about the bearing capacity of geothermal piles
Suryatriyastuti M., Mroueh H., Burlon S., Habert J.
One-dimensional compressive behaviour of reconstituted clays under high temperature and small strain rate 3411
Comportement oedométrique des argiles reconstituées sous fortes température et à faible vitesse
de déformation
Tsutsumi A., Tanaka H.
Field Investgation of a geothermal energy pile: Initial Observations 3415
Essai sur site d’un pieu géothermique : observations initiales
Wang B., Bouazza A., Singh R.M., Barry-Macaulay D., Haberfield C., Chapman G., Baycan S.
THM simulations for laboratory heating test and real-scale field test 3419
Simulations THM d’essais de chauffage en laboratoire et en vraie grandeur in situ
Xiong Y.L., Zhang F., Nishimura T., Kurimoto Y.
New Developments in near-surface geothermal energy systems 3423
Nouveaux Développements dans les systèmes géothermiques proches à la surface
Ziegler M., Kürten S.
Understanding the effects of high temperature processes on the engineering properties of soils 3427
Comprendre les effets des procédés à haute température sur les propriétés des sols
Zihms S.G., Switzer C., Karstunen M., Tarantino A.
Technical committee CFMS
shallow foundation
Comité technique CFMS
Fondations superficielles
General Report - Shallow foundations 3433
Rapport général - Fondations superficielles
Zerhouni M.I., Demay B.
Bearing capacity of shallow foundation under eccentrically inclined load 3439
Capacité portante d’une fondation superficielle sous une charge inclinée excentrique
Atalar C., Patra C.R., Das B.M., Sivakugan N.
Estimating settlements of footings in sands – a probabilistic approach 3443
Estimation des tassements de semelles dans les sables – une approche probabiliste
Bungenstab F.C., Bicalho K.V., Ribeiro R.C.H., Aoki R.C.H.

XLVIII
Settlement velocity measured over ten years in major-scale shallow foundations on a preloaded 20-m
thick silty alluvial layer 3447
Velocité des affaissements mesurés sur dix ans, sur une foundation superficielle de grandes dimensions
sur une couche alluviale limoneuse de 20 m d’épaisseur préchargée
Dapena E., Román F., Pardo de Santayana F., Cuéllar V.
Combined massive and plate foundations under machines with dynamic loadings 3451
Des fondations combinées à blocs et plaques pour des machines avec charges dynamiques
Kirichek Y., Bolshakov V.
Settlements Under Footings on Rammed Aggregate Piers 3455
Tassements sous des semelles sur pieux d’agrégats battus
Kuruoglu O., Horoz A., Erol O.
Interaction of Nearby Strip Footings Under Inclined Loading 3459
Interaction de semelles rapprochées soumises à des charges inclinées
Nainegali L.S., Ghosh P., Basudhar P.K.
Over a decade of experience with computer aided learning in geotechnical engineering 3463
Plus d’une décennie d’expérience dans le domaine de l’enseignement assisté par ordinateur dans le domaine
de l’ingénierie géotechnique
Springman S.M., Herzog R., Seward L.
Predicting Settlements of Shallow Footings on Granular Soil Using Nonlinear Dynamic Soil Properties 3467
Prédiction des tassements de fondations superficielles sur des sols granulaires en utilisant des propriétés
dynamiques non linéaires du sol.
Stokoe K.H., Kacar O., Van Pelt J.
Characterization of Model Uncertainty in Immediate Settlement Calculations for Spread Footings on Clays 3471
Caractérisation de l’incertitude des modèles de calculs du tassement immédiat de semelles reposant
sur des sols argileux
Strahler A.W., Stuedlein A.W.
Probalistic Assessment of the bearing Capacity of Shallow Strip Footings on Stiff-over-Soft Clay 3475
Évaluation probabiliste de la capacité portante de semelles filantes peu profondes sur couche d’argile recouvrant
une couche d’argile molle
Tian Y., Cassidy M.J., Uzielli M.
Residual Soils and the Teaching of Soil Mechanics 3479
Les sols résiduels et l’enseignement de la mécanique des sols
Wesley L.D.
Application of The Tangent Modulus Method in Nonlinear Settlement Analysis of Sand Foundation 3483
Application de la méthode du module tangent dans le calcul du tassement non-linéaire de fondations
sur sol sableux
Yang G.-H., Luo Y.-D., Zhang Y.-C., Wang E.-Q.

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Committees / Comités
Conference Advisory Committee (ICSMGE) / Comité consultatif (SIMSG)
President /Président
Jean-Louis Briaud (ISSMGE President)
Members / Membres
Ivan Vanicek (Vice President Europe), Neil Taylor (General Secretary), Mamdouh Hamza (17ICSMGE Chairman), Pedro
Seco e Pinto (ISSMGE Immediate Past President), Suzanne Lacasse (President of the Technical Oversight Committee),
Roger Frank (18ICSMGE President of the Strategic Advisory Committee), Philippe Mestat (18thCSMGE President of the
Conference Organizing Committee), Alain Guilloux (18thCSMGE Vice-President of the Conference Organizing Committee),
Conference Organizing Committee / Comité d’organisation
President / Président
Philippe Mestat
Vice-President / Vice-président
Alain Guilloux
Members / Membres
Séverine Beaunier, Valérie Bernhardt, Nathalie Borie, Laurent Briançon, Yu-Jun Cui, Pierre Delage, Jacques Desrues,
François Depardon, Philippe Gotteland, Pierre Habib, Roger Frank, Philippe Liausu, Stéphane Monleau, Claude Plumelle,
Alain Puech, Jacques Robert, Frédéric Rocher-Lacoste, David Remaud, Françoise Ropers, François Schlosser
Strategic Advisory Committee / Comité stratégique consultatif
President / Président
Roger Frank
Vice-president / Vice-président
Alain Puech
Scientific Committee / Commission scientifique
President / Président
François Schlosser
Vice-presidents / Vice-présidents
Jacques Desrues, Pierre Delage
Members / Membres
Dietmar Adams, Dominique Allagnat, Eduardo Alonso, Gabriel Auvinet, Mounir Bouassida, Malek Bouazza, Sylvie Bre-
telle, Denys Breysse, Bernardo Caicedo, Robert Charlier, Christophe Chevalier, Alain Corfdir, Michael Davies, Peter Day,
Hervé Di Benedetto, Claudio Di Prisco, Rich Finno, Etienne Flavigny, Bertrand, François, Roger Frank, Jean-Jacques Fry,
Christophe Gaudin, Antonio Gens, Antonio Gomez-Correia, Roland, Gourvès, Yves Guerpillon, Pierre Yves Hicher, Robert
Holtz, Catherine Jacquard, Richard Jardine, Richard, Kastner, Jean-Bernard Kazmierczak, Zoubeir Lafhaj, Serge Lambert,
Eric Leber, Serge Leroueil, Michael Lisyuk, Juan Martinez, Farimah Masrouri, Hormoz Modaressi, Arezou Modaressi,
Franz Molenkamp, David Muir Wood, Charles Ng, Fusao Oka, Trevor Orr, Olivier Pal, Anne Pantet, Manolo Pastor, Alain
Puech, Françoise Ropers, Pierre Schmitt, Bruno Simon, Claudio Tamagnini, Jean-François Thimus , Luc Thorel, Christos
Tsatsanifos, Serge Varaksin, Laurent Vulliet
The Scientific Committee acknowledges the contribution of  the following persons to the edition of the Proceeding/ Le co-
mité scientifique reconnaît la contribution à la réalisation des actes des personnes suivantes : P. Bésuelle, M. Boulon,
S. Burlon, J. Canou, C. Chevalier, G. Combe, J.-C. Dupla, S. Hemmati, O. Jenck, A. Le Kouby, O. Plé, A. Pouya,
S. Salager, J. Sulem
Committee for the French-speaking World / Commission pour la francophonie
President / Président
Jean-Pierre Magnan
Vice-presidents / Vice-présidents
Claude Plumelle , Mounir Bouassida
Committee for Sponsors and Exhibition / Commission pour les sponsors et l’exposition
President / Président
Valérie Bernhardt
Vice-president / Vice-président
Jacques Robert
Organizing Committee for the 5th Young Geotechnical Engineers Conference (5th iYGEC)/
Comité d’organisation du Congrès des jeunes géotechniciens (CIJG)
President / Président
Yu-Jun Cui
Vice-president / Vice-président
Fabrice Emeriault
Members /Membres
Fhad Cuira, Siavash Ghabezloo, Jean-Michel Pereira, Hugo Ravel, Michael Reboul, Anh Minh Tang, Séverine Beaunier

L
Foreword

The French Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (CFMS) is most happy to host
the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (18th ICSMGE)
in Paris, France, from Monday 2 to Friday 6 September 2013. The main theme of the Conference is
“Challenges and Innovations in Geotechnics”.
In agreement with ISSMGE vision for strengthening the role of the Technical Committees (TCs), the
18th ICSMGE Paris 2013 adopted a new format. The two first days are devoted to plenary sessions
with the Terzaghi Oration, seven ISSMGE Honour lectures proposed by the TCs and three Special
lectures proposed by CFMS. The two following days are devoted to parallel sessions organised by the
TCs: they include 28 Discussion Sessions and 22 Workshops. Whereas Workshops have a free format,
the Discussion Sessions are meant to discuss the papers accepted by the ISSMGE Member Societies
and presented in the four volumes of these Proceedings.
The structure of the Proceedings corresponds to the organisation of the Conference. They start with
the Terzaghi Oration, the Honour lectures and the Special lectures. Then, the papers are presented ac-
cording to the relevant responsible TC. They are introduced by a TC General Report The Proceedings
also include the papers on Shallow Foundations (Session and General Report organised by CFMS, as
no TC covers this subject), on Dams, Dykes and Levees (organised jointly by TC 201 and TC 210),
on Geothermal issues (organised jointly by TC 212 and TC 307) and finally the papers on Historic
sites, as well as on some case studies (organised by TC 301).
To enhance the diffusion of knowledge feee of charge, no transfer of copyright was requested from
the authors of the papers published in these volumes. All the papers, together with late contributions,
will be made available free of charge on the various appropriate Internet websites.
It was quite a fruitful and exciting experience for the Scientific Committee to work hand in hand with
the TCs for the organisation of this Conference. They were enthusiastic and efficient. The Scientific
Committee is most grateful to the General Reporters, Chairs, Vice-Chairs and Secretaries of the TCs
for their great help in making the 18th ICSMGE in Paris a most successful scientific and technical
event.

Pierre Delage, Jacques Desrues, Roger Frank, Alain Puech, François Schlosser

1
Avant-propos

Le Comité français de mécanique des sols et de géotechnique (CFMS) a le grand plaisir d’accueillir
le 18e Congrès international de mécanique des sols et de géotechnique (CIMSG) à Paris, du lundi 2 au
vendredi 6 septembre 2013. Le congrès est organisé autour du thème principal : « Défis et Innovations
en Géotechnique ».
En cohérence avec le souhait de la Société internationale (SIMSG) de renforcer le rôle des comités
techniques (CTs), le 18e CIMSG Paris 2013 adopte le nouveau format suivant : les deux premiers
jours sont consacrés aux sessions plénières avec l’allocution Terzaghi, sept conférences honorifiques
de la SIMSG, proposées par les CTs, et trois conférences spéciales proposées par le CFMS. Les deux
jours suivants sont consacrés aux sessions parallèles organisées par les CTs, comprenant 28 sessions
de discussion et 22 ateliers. Les sessions de discussion sont le lieu du débat autour des contributions
acceptées par les sociétés membres de la SIMSG et réunies dans ces actes en 4 tomes du congrès. Le
format des ateliers est laissé à la discrétion de leurs organisateurs.
La structure des actes correspond à celle du congrès : ils commencent par l’allocution Terzaghi, les
conférences honorifiques, puis les conférences spéciales. Viennent ensuite les contributions, réunies
par CT, et précédées du rapport général du CT. Les actes comportent également les contributions sur
les fondations superficielles (session et rapport général organisés par le CFMS, car ce sujet n’est celui
d’aucun CT), sur les barrages, les digues et les levées (organisation conjointe par les CTs 201 et 210),
sur la géothermie (par les CTs 212 et 307), et enfin sur les sites historiques ainsi qu’un certain nombre
d’études de cas (par le CT 301).
Dans le but de faciliter la circulation des connaissances, il n’a pas été demandé aux auteurs de trans-
férer leurs droits pour les contributions publiées dans les actes. Toutes ces contributions, ainsi que
des contributions disponibles après le congrès, seront mises en accès gratuit sur divers sites internet
appropriés.
La collaboration étroite avec les CTs pour l’organisation de ce congrès a été pour la commission
scientifique une expérience riche et passionnante, grâce à l’enthousiasme et à l’efficacité de ses inter-
locuteurs. La commission scientifique remercie vivement les rapporteurs généraux, les présidents, les
vice-présidents et les secrétaires des CTs pour leur aide décisive en vue de faire de ce 18e CIMSG un
événement scientifique et technique des plus réussis.

Pierre Delage, Jacques Desrues, Roger Frank, Alain Puech, François Schlosser

2
Introduction / Introduction
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Proceedings of the 18 International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

ISSMGE – The State of the Society (2009-2013)


SIMSG – État de la Société (2009-2013)

Briaud J.-L.
President of ISSMGE, Professor and Holder of the Buchanan Chair, Zachry Dpt. Of Civil Engineering, Texas A&M
University, College Station, Texas, 77843-3136, USA. briaud@tamu.edu

Distinguished Colleagues, Dear Friends, 1 VISION


The very first thing I wish to tell you is thank you, thank you for My vision as President was
letting me serve you as your President for the last four years. a. To involve the membership and generate a sense of
You have given me four of the very best and most exciting ownership in every one of you. I wanted you to feel that you
years of my professional career. It has been an honor and a true were part of your professional family and that the family
pleasure for me to work with everyone of you for the betterment cared about you. This would be done for example by creating
of our profession. Sometime people ask me how I feel about the Board Level Committees where more members could
Presidency, I answer it feels like a very hard working vacation! participate and make high level decisions, by writing progress
You elected me in Alexandria, Egypt in 2009 and I report to ensure that you felt connected, and by creating new
suddenly found myself on a list next to the names of Terzaghi, awards to recognize those who excel in our profession..
Peck, Cassagrande, Skempton, Kerisel, and many other giants b. To modernize the society and further advance it into the
of our field (Fig. 1). This prestigious and enviable position also electronic age. This would be done for example by starting a
placed a tremendous sense of responsibility on my shoulders series of free webinars, revamping the web site, creating
and generated a lot of pressure for me to do the very best job I GeoWorld, transferring the Lexicon to an addressable data
could do. I can assure you that I gave it my very best effort, at base available on the web site, having the Board start meeting
the detriment of some of my other responsibilities in life. My by Skype conference calls to save money.
wife Janet kept me honest during all this time. I recall asking c. To help developing countries and the young geotechnical
her how she felt to be married to the President of the engineers. This would be done for example by raising money
International Society. She promptly answered President Briaud for the new ISSMGE Foundation which would receive
don’t forget to take care of the garbage!! applications and distribute grants, by creating a special group
with direct access to the President.
d. To mobilize more actively the practitioners side of our
society and help bridge the gap between academics and
practitioners. This would be done by creating a special group
for practitioners with direct access to the president and
recruiting more Corporate Associates into the Society.
e. To enhance the image of the geotechnical engineer
worldwide. This would be advanced by creating a Public
Relations Group dedicated to simple steps that would increase
the visibility of our profession.
My basic tactic to realize my vision was pretty simple:
1. Develop a vision of what I wanted to accomplish
2. Surround myself with very smart people. Here I was very
lucky to be able to convince the outstanding people including
Harry Poulos, Suzanne Lacasse, Mike Jamiolkowski, Marc
Ballouz, Dimitris Zekkos, François Schlosser, Jennifer Nicks,
Michael Lisyuk.
3. Share with them my vision and check if they truly
embraced it.
4. Give them a lot of freedom and support.
5. Be a strong cheer leader for those who did well
6. Be a gentle but steady nudge for those who dragged the
team down
7. Keep thinking and acting with a vision for the relentless
pursuit of excellence in a just and friendly atmosphere.

Fig. 1 Presidents of ISSMGE

Fig. 2 The 2009-2013 ISSMGE Board Members (in India)

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The Technical Committees (TCs) were reorganized in three The location of the chairs and host society of the TCs is shown
categories (Table 1), fundamental topics (7 TCs), applications on Fig. 5.
(16 TCs), and impact on society (6 TCs), for a total of 29 TCs.

Table 1 ISSMGE Technical Committees


Cat TC
egor TC Official Name Host Country TC Chair
#
y
101 Laboratory Stress Strain Strength Testing of Geomaterials France H. Di Benedetto
102 Ground Property Characterization from In-Situ Tests USA P. Mayne
Fun 103 Numerical Methods in Geomechanics Hong Kong K. T. Chau
dam Switzerland/ S. Springman (‘til 1 July 2010)
ental 104 Physical Modelling in Geotechnics Australia C. Gaudin
s 105 Geo-Mechanics from Micro to Macro UK/Japan M. Bolton/M. Hyodo
106 Unsaturated Soils Spain E. Alonso
107 Laterites and Lateritic Soils Ghana K. Ampadu
Geotechnical Aspects of Dykes and Levees, Shore Protection
201 Netherlands M. A. Van
and Land Reclamation
202 Transportation Geotechnics Portugal A. Gomes Correia
Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering and Associated
203 Greece K. Pitilakis
Problems
France/
204 Underground Construction in Soft Ground R. Kastner/A. Bezuijen
Netherlands
205 Limit State design in Geotechnical Engineering UK B. Simpson
App 206 Interactive Geotechnical design Canada K. Been
licat 207 Soil-Structure Interaction and Retaining Walls Russia V. Ulitsky
ions 208 Slope Stability in Engineering Practice Canada J. Fannin
209 Offshore Geotechnics USA P. Jeanjean
210 Dams and Embankments China Z. Xu
211 Ground Improvement France S. Varaksin
212 Deep Foundations Germany R. Katzenbach
213 Geotechnics of Soil Erosion Germany M. Heibaum
214 Foundation Engineering for Difficult Soft Soil Conditions Mexico J. L. Rangel
215 Environmental Geotechnics Italy M. Manassero
216 Frost Geotechnics Norway A. Instanaes
301 Preservation of Historic Sites Italy C. Viggiani
Imp 302 Forensic Geotechnical Engineering India V. V. S. Rao
act 303 Coastal and River Disaster Mitigation and Rehabilitation Japan S. Iai
on 304 Engineering Practice of Risk Assessment and Management Singapore K. K. Phoon
soci 305 Geotechnical Infrastructure for Megacities and New Capitals Brazil A. Negro
ety Geo-Engineering Education (include aspects of software in
306 Australia M. Jaksa
use)
307 Sustainability in Geotechnical Engineering Canada D. Basu

7 HONOR LECTURES the speaker through voice over IP and watch the slides on their
computer screen. Fig. 7 shows the list of webinars offered over
The TCs were given the opportunity to create an honour lecture the last two years and the location of the computers connected
named after one of the giants in their field. There were already 2 worldwide for the first webinar. A contract was established with
such lectures in 2009 (The Ishihara Lecture and the Mitchell a web service company to facilitate the connection with many
Lecture), 7 more were created between 2009 and 2013 as listed participants. The webinar series started in 2011 and the
on Fig. 6. Many of them were presented in Paris at the President gave the first webinar. Until August 2013 the
conference. Note that honour lectures are not necessarily webinars have been free and the recordings have been kept on
permanent. They are created for eight years renewable by the ISSMGE web site for free access. These recorded webinars
decision of the technical committee and approval of the Board. have been accessed 1664 times since they have been uploaded
three months ago. All speakers have been generous and offered
ISHIHARA ‐ Earthquake to present the webinars for free as a gift to their fellow
geotechnical engineers.
MITCHELL – Site characterization
BISHOP – Laboratory testing
KERISEL – Monument preservation
SCHOFIELD – Physical modeling
McCLELLAND – Offshore geotechnics
FUJITA – Underground construction
MENARD – Soil Improvement
ROWE – Environmental geotechnics
Fig. 6 ISSMGE Honour Lectures

8 WEBINARS
Webinars are lectures presented over the internet as follows.
The speaker is at her or his desk in front of the computer screen. Fig. 7 Webinar series and location of computers connected to the first
The speaker talks and advances the power point slides as would ISSMGE webinar.
be done in a conference setting. The participants sit in front of
their computer many kilometers away and listen to the voice of 1. Scour and Erosion – Briaud, USA, 23rd Aug 2011

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2. Intelligent Compaction – Correia & Chang, Portugal, 25th


Oct 2011
3. Eurocode- Bond, UK, 19th Dec 2011
4. Risk and Geotech Engrg – Medina & Uzielli, USA, 24th
Feb 2012
5. Landfill liners – Rowe, Canada, April 2012
6. Unsaturated soils – Alonso, Spain, July 2012
7. Pile driving – Rausche, USA, September 2012
8. Earthquake engineering – Towhata, Japan, November 2012
9. Geosynthetics – Koerner, USA, January 2013
10. Ground Improvement – Varaksin/Huybrechts, Belgium,
March 2013 SAN DIEGO, USA DUBAI, UAE
11. Geophysics – Foti, Italy, May 2013
12. Foundations of very tall structures – Poulos, July 2013

9 AWARDS
In 2009, we had the Terzaghi Oration which is selected by the
President of the Society alone, the Kevin Nash Gold Medal
decided by the Council of Past Presidents, and three young
geotechnical engineer awards decided by a committee of the
Board. After calculating the ratio of awards offered by ISSMGE
over the number of individual members of ISSMGE, I
discovered that this ratio was extremely small compared to most
other professional societies. We created 7 new awards as shown
in Fig. 8. Then we created the Awards committee (AWAC) to MELBOURNE,
finalize the awards descriptions, handle the collection of CAIRO, EGYPT AUSTRALIA
nominations and the selection process. The Board would make
the final choice among the two candidates recommended by the
Awards committee. The awards will be given at the Awards
lunch in Paris and will be recorded on the ISSMGE web site.

Terzaghi Oration
Kevin Nash Gold Medal
3 Young Geotechnical Engineer Awards
Outstanding Technical Committee
Outstanding Member Society
Outstanding Geotechnical Project
Outstanding Innovator
Outstanding Young Geotechnical Engineer
Outstanding Public Relations
Best paper in the Int. J. Geoeng. Case Hist.
9 Named Lectures SAMARKAND, PORT AU PRINCE,
UZBEKHISTAN HAITI
Fig. 8 ISSMGE Awards

10 TRAVEL
I travelled extensively over the last 4 years with a total of 80
trips as shown in Fig. 9. During those trips I met so many
people and made so many new friends. It was always a pleasure
to meet geotechnical engineers throughout the world and I
learned so much. I realized how much of a difference there is in
the standard of living across the globe and that these differences LAGOS, NIGERIA LANGZHOU, CHINA
cannot be solved by engineering and medicine alone. The Fig. 10 President Briaud on the road
biggest impediment to progress in some countries is corruption.
Other impediments to an increase in the standard of living are 11 THE ISSMGE FOUNDATION
lack of education and transportation. Until such basic problems
are solved, the third world cannot rapidly improve. I kept many One of the realizations during my early travel was that there are
photographs of my trips and will continue to appreciate them as huge inequalities in the salaries of geotechnical engineers
very special moments (Fig. 10). throughout the world. Some people told me that their salary was
$1000/year and added “How can I go to the conferences that
you organize when the registration alone approaches one year
salary”. This is when I decided to create the ISSMGE
Foundation. By the way, it seemed very appropriate for a
geotechnical engineering organization to have a Foundation!
Harry Poulos agreed to look after its functioning and to head the
grant distribution process. Today, any member of ISSMGE can
apply for a grant from the Foundation. The application form and
the rules are on our web site at
http://www.issmge.org/en/issmge-foundation.
Many geotechnical engineers, geotechnical companies,
member societies, and even Technical Committees have
contributed to the Foundation (Fig. 11) which currently has
about $140,000 and has awarded grants to 19 people worldwide.
Remember this saying that when you die, the only part of you
Fig. 9 The 80 places I visited during my Presidency. that does not die with you is what you have given to others.

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13 THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF


GEOENGINEERING CASE HISTORIES
Practitioners often complain that geotechnical journals are too
academically oriented and that there is little useful to them. The
IJGCS fills that gap:
(http://www.issmge.org/en/resources/international-journal-of-
geoengineering-case-histories). Born a few years ago in the
mind of Dimitris Zekkos, the IJGCS was endorsed by ISSMGE
in early 2009 and has seen slow but steady growth. It is free of
charge, on line, in color, with embedded spread sheet data when
clicking on the figures. It is particularly welcome by developing
countries which have access to high quality papers for free. It is
not only useful to practitioners but also to professors who can
use the case histories for their students in class. Jonathan Bray
was the first editor in chief followed recently by Pedro Pinto.
The ISSMGE TCs now have the opportunity of setting up
special issues and the ISI rating is around the corner. The future
of the IJGCS is very bright. I urge all of you to consider
publishing a high quality case history in IJGCS. In life you have
your financial wealth potential and your intellectual wealth
potential. Publishing a case history in IJGCS is making an
intellectual gift to developing countries: be generous and take
the time to publish in IJGCS.

Fig. 11 ISSMGE 22 Foundation donors

12 CORPORATE ASSOCIATES
ISSMGE Corporate Associates (Fig. 12) are geotechnical
engineering companies, including consultants, contractors, and
manufacturers who pay dues ($1500/year) to ISSMGE for a list
of benefits (http://www.issmge.org/en/corporate-associates) and
to support the profession. The Corporate Associates Fig. 13 GeoMap within GeoWorld: the new geotechnical engineers
representatives (one per company) also form the Corporate interaction medium
Associate Presidential Group under the leadership of Michael
Lisyuk of Russia. This group was created to work on aspects of 14 GEOWORLD
ISSMGE which could benefit practitioners more specifically. In
2009 we had 21 CAs, today (2013) we have 43 CAs. This Again born in the mind of Dimitris Zekkos and endorsed by
remarkable increase in the number of CAs is due to the hard IDC and SYMPG, GeoWorld (http://www.mygeoworld.info/) is
work of many people and is very welcome. However this to geotechnical engineers what Facebook is to social
number still pales compared to the number of CAs in other networking. It allows geotechnical engineers in the world to
international societies closely associated with ISSMGE who interact and make friends on line, to exchange questions and
have more than 100 CAs. If you see your company logo on Fig. answers on various topics, to post examples, and to become
12 we really appreciate your support. If you don’t, please even more connected internationally. Geoworld was launched in
consider joining and supporting your profession. October 2011 and has now reached 2600 individual members,
160 companies, and 76 professional organizations. GeoMap is a
new application within GeoWorld which allows you to find out
members and companies in any geographic area by clicking on
the GeoMap (Fig. 13). You can also find the location of
upcoming conferences worldwide and the location of the case
histories published in the IJGCS.

15 THE NEW ISSMGE WEB SITE


Our new web site was launched in 2012. It was changed to
allow ISSMGE to incorporate the latest technology and to
modernize the look of the pages while maintaining flexibility of
access and modification by the Secretary General’s office. The
new site has a new conferences database, has increased
functionality, hosts the recorded webinars, and promotes the
integration with GeoWorld. The number of visitors has nearly
double in the short time since it has been open going from 2200
visitors in June 2012 to 4000 in March2013 (Fig. 14). It also
now hosts the new electronic version of the Lexicon.
Fig. 12 ISSMGE 42 Corporate Associates

9
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Fig. 14 Traffic on the new ISSMGE web site over the last 10 months.
Fig. 15 The 2013 ICSMGE Paris conference organizing committee and
16 LEXICON its chair Philippe Mestat (center front row).
The Lexicon was started around 1953 with the translation of
geotechnical engineering terms in three languages: English, 21 THE PROGRESS REPORTS
French, and German. This was very quickly recognized as a
very valuable resource and had reached 8 languages by 1981 Communication helps to solve problems and to generate a sense
(5th edition). It had stayed that way until about 3 years ago of belonging. This is why I started the monthly progress report
when I asked Dimitris Zekkos and the Innovation and in November 2009. The other reason was to tell you what was
Development Committee (IDC) to transform the paper copy into being accomplished. Since I got elected on 9Oct2009, my
an electronic and addressable Excel spread sheet and if at all monthly report came on the 9th of each month. It required a
possible increase the number of languages. We now have an e- tremendous discipline and dedication to not miss any of them
Lexicon on our web site with 12 languages. Note that the e- but it provided a regular self evaluation of my work and our
Lexicon was a huge amount of work and is a great example of progress.
team work across country borders by many member societies
and enabled by a platform developed by Geoengineer.org. The 22 FUTURE OF GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
e-Lexicon includes a web-based application that allows users to
query the database and find the translation of a total of 1590 It is always very difficult to predict the future. A 20 year
geotechnical terms in 12 languages, specifically: English, forecast is easier than a 100 year forecast and a 1000 year
French, Spanish, Turkish, Chinese (traditional and simple), forecast is nearly impossible. Yet if we go back in history about
German, Japanese, Portuguese, Russian, Persian (Farsi), and 1000 years ago to the time of the Tower of Pisa, we then realize
Finnish. that designing a foundation for that Tower today would be a
very simple exercise. Then we wonder by extrapolation what
geotechnical engineering will be like in another 1000 years.
17 THE ISSMGE BULLETIN Will we have?
The ISSMGE Bulletin was remarkably well handled by Ikuo 1. complete non intrusive site investigation of the entire soil
Towhata as Editor in Chief and his team of editors. The Bulletin volume,
grew significantly in size and content under his leadership. 2. automated 4D computer generated design by voice
Furthermore it went from 4 issues per year to 6 issues per year. recognition and based on a target risk,
We are very grateful to him for this enormous responsibility. 3. tiny and easily installed instruments to monitor
geotechnical structures,
4. unmanned robotic machines working at great depth,
18 THE SECRETARIAT IN LONDON 5. significant development of the underground,
Neil Taylor was our Secretary General for the period and faced 6. extension of projects into the sea,
his responsibility with great poise. I could always count on Neil 7. soil structure interaction extended to thermal and magnetic
to tell me what the bylaws said. Paloma Peers was his assistant engineering
and continued to be a rock in a soil’s world. I also want to thank 8. failures down to a minimum,
my assistant Theresa Taeger for being so reliable and dedicated 9. expert systems to optimize repairs of defective geotechnical
to perfection. engineering projects,
10. geospace engineering of other planets,
11. geotechnical engineers with advanced engineering
19 THE FINANCES judgment taught in universities,
The finances of ISSMGE are in very good shape. The Members 12. no more lawyers because of the drastic increase in projects
Societies dues have not changed during the last 4 years yet we reliability (Fig. 16).
have started new free programs for our members such as the
webinars. Our budgets over the last 4 years have been
approximately balanced and our reserves are healthy. This gives
me a good occasion to thank the United States National Society
and the Geo-Institute of ASCE for contributing to my yearly
budget.

20 THE PARIS CONFERENCE


The 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and
Geotechnical Engineering will take place in Paris from 2 to 5
September 2013 and judging by the outstanding preparation, it
will be a magnificent success. Our professional family will get
together, to learn from the best, to exchange ideas and practices,
all this in a classy, distinguished, yet relaxed and fun
atmosphere. We are very grateful to our host: the French
member society and its sponsors. Most of the members of the
organizing committee are shown in Fig. 15 including Philippe Fig. 16 Improved reliability of geotechnical projects (courtesy of
Mestat, Chair of the Committee (center front row). George Nasr, Lebanon)

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23 A SUCCESSFUL CAREER
A successful career is built on a series of demonstrated
successes by an individual alone or as part of a team. In the
performance of your job, remember when you make a decision
of any sort that one mistake will take ten successes to erase the
mistake from the mind of your peers. This is why it is always
important to concentrate and plan. Also remember before a
challenging moment that you may have been through similar
tough moment before and have done well; this reasoning will UZBEKISTAN AUSTRALIA
give you added confidence and lower the stress. The following
are some thoughts on what is important in a career. They have
been inspired from discussion with many engineers over time
including Clyde Baker and personal experiences as well.
10. Chose the relentless pursuit of excellence as a way of
life
9. Be curious. The discovery process is a fountain of youth
8. Work hard but balance your interests (fun, family, sport, art,
world news)
7. Make lots of friends. Nurture your public relations MOZAMBIQUE
6. Look for solutions and not who is to blame. Leave that to LEBANON
the judge.
5. Be firm in your decisions but always fair and polite
4. Treat others as you wish to be treated, you will lead by
example
3. Communication is the best way to solve problems.
Convince through logic and data
2. Surround yourself with smart people and role models
1. Go after your dreams with vision and perseverance

24 GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING FOR THE PEOPLE, ROMANIA BRAZIL


BY THE PEOPLE, WITH THE PEOPLE
While we continue to advance the profession, there is also no
doubt that we do not get the recognition that we deserve. If you
go in the street today and say to a passerby “my child is a heart
surgeon”, that person will be very impressed. If you then say
my other child is a geotechnical engineer, you will likely be
asked: “what it that?”. There is a need to enhance the public’s
recognition and awareness of our profession and this is why we HUNGARY
have created the Public Relations Committee led by Marc SPAIN
Ballouz. It will be a very long road before we are recognized as
heart surgeons are but the only way we can make a real
difference is if every one of you takes the time to explain it to
the people in the streets. One of our best ambassadors is Ikuo
Towhata from Japan who came up with this saying:
“Geotechnical engineering for the people, by the people, and
with the people”.

25 CONCLUSION
EGYPT VIETNAM
If someone asked me what has been the most rewarding part of
my presidency I would not hesitate and say that it is making so
many new friends all over the world (Fig. 17). Bill Gates, the
richest man in the world today, was asked “how do you measure
success in life?”. I believe he responded something like: “by
how many friends you have”. All of you have been very kind to
me over the last 4 years. I do not know if I will ever be able to
repay such kindness before I die but I can assure you that it did
not go unnoticed and it was extremely appreciated. Everywhere
I went it felt like coming home for a special event, you RUSSIA ITALY
welcomed me in your daily life as if I were coming to see the
family. You treated me like a close friend and made me feel
comfortable.
I believe in team work and the ultimate team is the family
(Fig. 18). I think that we have developed a better sense of
family in our society and we are stronger for it. I say good bye
as your President, but it will be my pleasure to become again a
regular member of ISSMGE and to continue to serve you to the
best of my ability. You certainly can continue to count on me if
I can help. While I will no longer be your president, I will have
the same desire to help you and to help the professional family.
You mean a lot to me. Thank you again for all your
kindness, take care, and remember that happiness is a choice.

TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY


Fig. 17 So many new friends!

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To finish I will borrow a saying from ASFE. When it comes to


the soil, when it comes to the Earth, you are the best. Indeed,
you are the best people on Earth.

Fig. 18 The Professional family

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8th Terzaghi Oration


Protecting society from landslides – the role of the geotechnical engineer
8e allocution Terzaghi
La gestion de l’aléa glissements de terrain et le rôle de l’ingénieur géotechnicien

Lacasse S.
Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Norway

ABSTRACT: Protecting society from landslides and reducing exposure and risk to population and property are areas where the geo-
technical profession can practice both the art and the science of engineering legated by Karl Terzaghi. The paper presents several case
studies of slope failure and examples of landslide risk management. Since factor of safety remains the practice’s main indicator to en-
sure slope safety, the significance of factor of safety is discussed. The geotechnical engineer’s role is not only to act as technologist
providing judgment on factors of safety. The role has evolved to providing input in the evaluation of hazard, vulnerability and risk as-
sociated with landslides. The geotechnical profession should be increasingly perceived as reducing risk and protecting people.

RÉSUMÉ : La réduction de l’aléa dû aux glissements de terrains est devenue l’une des sphères où l’ingénieur géotechnicien peut pra-
tiquer l’art et la science que nous a légués Karl Terzaghi. L’article présente plusieurs études de cas de glissements et des exemples de
gestion du risque au glissement. Puisque le facteur de sécurité demeure l’indicateur principal de la stabilité des pentes, l’article discute
les implications du facteur de sécurité. Le rôle de l’ingénieur géotechnicien n’est plus simplement d’offrir un jugement sur le facteur
de sécurité, mais aussi de générer les paramètres et l’analyse pour l’évaluation des aléas, de la vulnérabilité et des risques associés aux
glissements de terrain. Notre profession devrait de plus en plus être perçue comme réduisant le risque et protégeant la société.
KEYWORDS: landslide, slope stability, strain-softening, factor of safety, case studies, hazard, risk

1 INTRODUCTION Protecting society from landslide hazard and mitigating the


exposure and risk to population and property is one of the issues
The ISSMGE hosted seven Terzaghi Orations. Table 1 lists the where we can practice both the art and science legated to us by
topics covered earlier. The topics reflect an evolution and a Karl Terzaghi. Landslide issues and how to protect population
cross-section of our professional practice. The 1st Terzaghi Ora- has become a key to recruiting concerned young talents to the
tion was on the progress over 30 years in the prediction of cliff geo-profession. This is the reason why the topic of landslides, in
side instability. The 2nd described the design of the giant off- terms of protecting society, was selected for the 2013 Terzaghi
shore structures marking the start of the suction anchor concept Oration.
now widely used around the world. The 3rd Oration looked into The mandate of the Terzaghi Oration is to cover case histo-
prediction and performance for embankments on soft clay and ries derived from professional activities, and if possible to illus-
pile foundations. The Terzaghi Oration then gave us remarkable trate the dynamic interaction among consulting work, teaching,
case studies, (1) the shattering Kobe earthquake in Japan and (2) research and publication. The case studies selected for this Ter-
how the movements of the Pisa tower can be curbed to preserve zaghi Oration attempt to exemplify Karl Terzaghi's intellectual
the tower for future generations. The importance of the interac- approach to engineering and geology. Landslides and the pro-
tion of soil and water for the Netherlands came with the 6th Ora- tection of society from its hazards are a well-suited topic to
tion. The 7th Terzaghi Oration marked the emergence of slender meet this mandate, as landslides require a good understanding
high-rise buildings and introduced us to their challenging foun- of the geology and soil behaviour, and have ample room for im-
dations subjected to large vertical, lateral and moment loads. provement.
The paper presents case studies of landslides and examples
Table 1. Terzaghi Orations 1985-2009. of landslide risk management. Since factor of safety remains the
Year Author Title main indicator to ensure the safety of populations in practice,
1985 T.W. Lambe Amuay landslides. the significance of factor of safety is discussed. The role of the
Foundation engineering for the geotechnical engineer in protecting people is focused on as part
1989 K. Høeg
Gullfaks C offshore gravity structure.
of the conclusions.
1994 V. De Mello Revisiting our origins.
Geotechnical aspects of the 1995
1997 K. Ishihara
Kobe earthquake. 2 LANDSLIDE HAZARDS
Leaning tower of Pisa: End of an
2001 M. Jamiolkowski
Odyssey. Landslides represent a major threat to human life, constructed
2005 F. Barends Associating with advancing insight. facilities, infrastructure and natural environment in many re-
Tall buildings and deep foundations – gions of the world. During the decade 2000-2009, natural disas-
2009 H.G. Poulos
Middle East challenges.
ters caused nearly one million fatalities, affecting nearly 2.5 bil-
lion people across the globe.
Over the past decade, the geotechnical profession has moved in In 2010 alone, 295,000 fatalities due to natural disasters
a direction of increased awareness of both its role and contribu- were recorded by Munich RE (2011) and the overall economic
tion to a safer society, and the need for targeted communication losses were more than double those of 2009, for approximately
has emerged more strongly than earlier. the same number of natural catastrophes. Table 2 presents the
2010 natural catastrophe data published by Munich RE NatCat-

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SERVICE. Most of the increase is due to the increase in the ex- though belonging to “after-the-fact” sagacity, lessons learned
posed population. However, many lives could have been saved will be especially focused upon.
if more had been known about the risks associated with natural The following case studies are included (section number is
disasters and risk mitigation measures had been implemented. given in parenthesis):
Urban development, increased infrastructure and rapid popula-  The Vestfossen slide in sensitive clay, Norway (4)
tion rise contribute to increasing the vulnerability of humans  The Kattmarka slide triggered by blasting, Norway (5)
and property to landslides.  The Saint-Jude natural slope failure, Québec, Canada (6)
While earthquakes, floods, tsunamis and storms receive wide  Recurrent sliding on Cap Lopez, Gabon (7)
attention in the news, landslides are not recorded as a separate  The Ashcroft Thompson River landslides, BC, Canada (8)
hazard by Munich Re. The European statistics from the past 100  The Aalesund slide, Norway (9)
years in Table 3 give the social-economic impact of landslides  The Storegga slide, NE Atlantic Continental margin (10).
in Europe in the 20th century. The landslide frequency of about The following landslide risk management examples are also
20 major events per year in Europe is the highest compared to briefly presented:
floods, earthquakes and cyclones. However, the number of fa-  Landslide prevention in Norway.
talities and the quantity of material damage is far greater for  The SafeLand Project.
earthquakes. Landslides are also frequently triggered by floods  Slope safety in Hong Kong.
and earthquakes and are not statistically recorded as landslides,  Preparedness.
but as floods and earthquakes in the disaster databases.  A few recent developments.
Tragically, developing countries are more severely affected
by natural disasters than developed countries, especially in
terms of lives lost (UNDP 2004, UNISDR 2009 and IFRC 4 THE VESTFOSSEN SLIDE
2004). Table 4 shows the data compiled by IFRC (2001) for the
decade 1991-2000. Of the total fatalities due to natural disasters, 4.1 Description of the landslide
the highly developed countries accounted for 5 % of the casual-
The slide occurred in 1984 and involved 50,000 m3 of soil that
ties. In absolute numbers, the material damage and economic
propagated about 100 m in almost horizontal terrain until it
loss due to natural hazards in highly developed countries by far
stopped on the opposite side of the Vestfossen River, close to
exceed those in developing nations. However, this reflects the
grossly disproportionate values of fixed assets, rather than ac- Drammen in Norway. The geometry before and after failure in
tual economic vulnerability. Figure 1 shows the critical circular slip surface in the middle
and other slip surfaces studies. The failure had a 150-m long
Table 2. Natural catastrophes in 2010 (Munich Re 2011) run-out across the Vestfossen River, as illustrated at the top of
Events and Average Average Figure 1.
2010 2009 The failure was triggered by a fill placed mid-slope when a
losses(MUSD) 2000-2009 1980-2009
No. of events 950 900 785 615 new soccer stadium was to be built. During project planning, the
Overall losses 130,000 60,000 110,000 95,000 slope was probably assumed to have sufficient safety margin
Insured losses 37,000 22,000 35,000 23,000 because the new slope was not steeper than the original slope.
No. fatalities 295,000 11,000 77,000 66,000

Table 3. Impact of natural disasters in Europe (1900-2000)


Disaster Lose of life Material damage
45 floods 10,000 105 B€
1700 landslides 16,000 200 B€
32 earthquakes 239,000 325 B€

Table 4. Natural disasters between 1991 and 2000 (IFRC 2001).


Countries No. of disasters No. of lives lost
Low & medium dev. Countries 1838 649,400
Highly developed countries 719 16,200

3 OVERVIEW OF CASE STUDIES


Professor Ralph B. Peck, Karl Terzaghi’s closest colleague, re-
lied heavily on case studies to learn from and to develop inno-
vative solutions. After Karl Terzaghi himself, no one has influ-
enced our practice as strongly as Ralph B. Peck with his 65
years of practice. Ralph Peck had a philosophy of simplicity of
communication, whereby “if you cannot reduce the presentation
of a difficult engineering problem to just one sheet of paper, you
will probably never understand it” (Course CE484, University
of Illinois; DiBiagio 2013). While achieving one-page summa-
ries for each case study was not possible in this Oration, an at- Figure 1. Cross-section before and after the Vestfossen slide also show-
tempt was made to stick to Ralph B. Peck’s philosophy. Each ing the undrained shear strength from field vane tests.
case study is organized contains essentially four components:
1. Description of the landslide 4.2 Soil parameters
2. Soil parameters
3. Analysis of the landslide Below the drying crust, the clay had water content of 45% at
4. Lessons learned depths 4 to 10 m. The water content decreased to 30% below 12
The summaries do not contain all the details for each case study. m. Laboratory fall cone tests indicated a clay with extremely
However, the details may be found in the references cited. Al- high sensitivity with St ≈ 150-200 in the top 12 m, and St ≈ 50-

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100 below 12 m. The overconsolidation ratio below the drying the sum of driving forces. The calculations considered strain
crust was 1.1, due to aging) Figure 1 provides profiles of undis- compatibility (Grimstad and Jostad 2012). The strain compati-
turbed and remoulded undrained shear strength from the field bility was achieved by finding the highest safety factor on a
vane test (FV). Figure 2 presents the undrained shear strength given slip surface for different constant shear deformations.
normalized with the effective overburden stress, p'o, from triax- Thereafter, the slip surface giving the lowest safety factor was
ial compression, direct simple shear and triaxial extension tests located. The strain-compatible critical slip surface was not nec-
vs the inverse of the overconsolidation ratio (OCR). Specimens essarily the same as for the case without strain compatibility.
from depths of 7, 13 and 17 m were tested. Figure 3 illustrates To do strain-compatible calculations, an idealized material
three stress strain curves and effective stress paths from anisot- model was used, as shown in Figure 4. The peak shear stress
ropically consolidated triaxial compression tests. The residual was taken at a shear strain of 1% in triaxial compression, 5% in
shear strength and the peak shear strength for a “perfect” sample direct simple shear and 10% in triaxial extension.
are also indicated with the dashed line. To simulate a “perfect”
sample, the effective stress path of a perfect specimen follows
an angle of 1:3 up to the failure line (Berre et al 2007).

Figure 4. Idealized anisotropic stress-strain model for strain-


compatibility modelling (Grimstad and Jostad 2012).

Figure 5 presents the results of the limit equilibrium stability


Figure 2. Normalized undrained shear strength, Vestfossen clay (Grim-
stad and Jostad, 2011a). analyses when the peak undrained shear strengths were used.
The factors of safety obtained are listed in Table 5.

Table 5. Result of limiting equilibrium analyses of Vestfossen slide.


Case Strain compatibility Factor of
(Slip surface) safety
Fill added No 1.01
(Fig. 5, top) Yes 0.93
Before addition of fill No 1.26
(Fig. 5, bottom) Yes 1.19

Figure 5. Result of limiting equilibrium analyses of Vestfossen slide


Figure 3. Stress-strain curves and effective stress paths from triaxial
(Grimstad and Jostad 2012).
compression tests, Vestfossen clay (Grimstad and Jostad, 2011b).
Including the strain compatibility criterion decreased the safety
4.3 Analyses of the slide
factor by about 7%. With the strain-compatible model and the
4.3.1 Limit equilibrium analyses added fill, the slip surface extended further beyond the toe. The
The classic Fellenius method was used, where the factor of safety factor of 1.2 for the case “before the addition of the fill”
safety, FS, is calculated from the ratio of the sum of resisting to

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was too optimistic, because the peak shear strengths were used remaining part of the strain-softening curve towards residual
and side shear was not included in the analyses. governs post-failure displacements.
The safety factor obtained by the finite element analysis be-
4.3.2 Finite element analyses fore failure, without strain-softening and without strain com-
The material model NGI-ADPSoft (Grimstad and Jostad 2012) patibility was 1.28, which is very close to the 1.26 in Table 5.
was used to model the sensitive clay. The model is a user- With the addition of fill, the safety factor from the finite ele-
defined special version of the NGI-ADP model (Grimstad et al ment analyses was 1.0. Figure 8 illustrates the failure zone for
2010; 2011) which was implemented as a standard material the case of no strain-softening. The failure zone extends much
model into Plaxis (www.Plaxis.nl). The model is an elasto- further up slope and less at the toe than in the case with strain-
plastic model that describes the anisotropic behaviour of clays softening. The uncertainties in the analyses were mainly related
during undrained shear and includes post peak strain-softening. to the strength in the drying crust, the initial effective stresses
The model is suitable for modelling the initiation of progressive under the fill, and the thickness of the shear band after mobiliza-
failure in sensitive clays under undrained loading. tion has been initiated.
The model uses as input the data from anisotropically con-
solidated undrained triaxial compression (CAUC) tests, constant
volume direct simple shear (DSS) tests and undrained triaxial
extension (CAUE) tests. The input parameters are the peak
undrained shear strength sup and the residual shear strength sur
and the corresponding shear strains p and r along the shear
stress-shear strain curves (Fig. 6). The curves start at an initial
shear stress o with a slope equal to the initial shear modulus Go.
In the calculations, Go is set equal to Gur. Plane strain compres-
sion and extension were assumed to be equal to the results of
triaxial compression and extension tests.
Through interpolation between the three curves, the model
describes the general 3D anisotropic behaviour of the clay that
depends on the actual orientation of the maximum shear defor-
mation.

Figure 6. NGI-ADPSoft model parameters (Fornes and Jostad, 2013).

The softening behaviour is governed by introducing a “non-


local plastic shear strain”. The so-called “non-local strain” (Er- Figure 7. Incremental displacements in modell of Vestfossen progres-
ingen, 1981) means that the plastic strain in a stress point sive failure (NGI 2012).
(Gaussian integration point) is replaced by an integrated
weighted average plastic strain within a specified zone around
the point. The plastic strain and ensuing reduction in shear
strength during softening become mesh independent, and are
controlled by the input parameters. The shear band thickness
and resulting brittleness are then also controlled by the input
data (Grimstad and Jostad, 2011; Grimstad and Jostad 2012).
Figure 7 illustrates the progressive development of the fail-
ure. Each diagram gives a snapshot for increasing incremental Figure 8. Contours of total displacements, model without strain-
displacements (from NINC =40 to 160). The figure shows that it softening, scale in m (NGI 2012).
is possible to model strain-softening. The analysis did not in-
In summary, it was possible to obtain a factor of safety of 1
clude the in situ variation in sensitivity of the quick clay (clay is
when using a best estimate of the soil parameters and the NGI-
much less sensitive upstream), and without the complete effect
ADPSoft model, but the stress-strain curves used in the analyses
of the drying crust, which, if included, would have limited the
had to account for the strain-softening observed in laboratory
shearing at the toe (which is unrealistically large in Figure 7).
tests. The finite element modelling of the deformation under the
Jostad and Grimstad (2011) found that the critical strain at
embankment load led to a progressive development of the fail-
which progressive failure starts to develop is low, and not large
ure in a nearly horizontal terrain. The failure occurred along a
enough to remould the clay. It is therefore only the initial part of
circular slip surface (as shown), which gradually progressed as a
the strain-softening curve that is of interest for capacity. The
circular surface towards the river. This was very close to the ob-
served displacements after the failure in 1984.

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4.3.3 Sensitivity analyses analyses. One can either apply a reduction factor on the peak
Jostad et al 2013 did sensitivity analyses to quantify the re- undrained shear strength from triaxial compression, direct sim-
quired reduction in peak undrained shear strength, Fsoftening, for ple shear and triaxial extension tests, or one can apply different
sensitive clays. Figure 9 illustrates the results obtained. The factors on each test type, e.g. 15% on the triaxial compression
analyses were done with the PLAXIS finite element code with strength, 10% on the direct simple shear strength and 5% on the
the NGI ADPSoft model. A total of 500 Monte Carlo simula- triaxial extension strength. Based on Figure 9, one should con-
tions were done. sider establishing a reduction factor as a function of clay type
The average required reduction of the peak undrained shear (or strength), type of slip surface and perhaps slope inclination
strength in triaxial compression, direct simple shear and triaxial and clay sensitivity. With the knowledge available today, an av-
extension was 9% (Fsoftening= 1.09). The values of Fsoftening erage reduction factor between 1.10 and 1.15 may be reason-
ranged between 1.02 and 1.27. Although Figure 9 shows scatter, able. More research on this topic is underway.
the effect of softening increases with decreasing load. The val-
ues of Fsoftening of 1.0 were cases where failure occurred in the
drying crust. For 2.5 % of the simulations, Fsoftening was greater 5 LANDSLIDE IN KATTMARKA
than 1.2, and for 12% of the simulations, Fsoftening was greater
than 1.15. For stronger strain-softening clays, the factor Fsoftening 5.1 Description of the landslide
was considerably lower that for the softer clays with low failure
load. On March 13 2009, about midday, in Kattmarka near Namsos
north of Trondheim in Norway, a slide occurred, moving about
500.000 m3 of material in a scar measured afterwards of about
100 m width by 300 m length. The slide destroyed a highway
and damaged four permanent dwellings and 6 summer resi-
dences. Seven persons, who had been transported on the slide,
were rescued unharmed by helicopter. Figures 10 and 11 illus-
trate the slide that occurred. Figure 12 illustrates the sequence
of the movements (from 1 to 5) based on observations and eye-
witness accounts. The slide (part in Fig. 12) started about ½
minute after the blasting of rock as part of highway construction
nearly (Fig. 12). Part 2 slid 2 minutes later, thereafter Parts 3, 4,
and 5. The sliding activity lasted between 6 and 10 minutes. The
construction project nearby was a widening of the road into the
mountainside, adding sidewalks, and upgrading of sewers and
pavement by the Norwegian Public Road Administration.

Figure 9. Required reduction in peak undrained shear strength (Fsoftening)


vs failure load for all sensitivity analyses (Jostad et al 2013).

4.4 Lessons learned

For brittle materials such as highly sensitive and quick clays,


the strain-softening behaviour needs to be taken into account in
the stability analyses (Jostad et al. 2013; Fornes and Jostad
2013). The brittle nature of the failure and the strain-softening
are such that the peak strength measured in the laboratory can-
not be used directly in limit equilibrium analyses.
The stability of long slip surfaces in brittle and sensitive soils
cannot be calculated by classical limit equilibrium methods. The
calculated material coefficient will be overestimated for long
slip surfaces to a greater degree than for local slip surfaces.
Failure on long slip surfaces generally develops progressively in
time and space. The shear strength along part of the slip surface Figure 10. Photograph of Kattmarka landslide (photo: L.A. Holme).
reduces significantly, moving towards the remoulded shear
strength, while other parts are still in the pre-peak, hardening 5.2 Soil parameters
regime. The peak shear strength is not representative for the The soil investigations post-landslide revealed the presence of
shear resistance along the potential slip surfaces. sensitive clay with lenses of silt and sand. The clay thickness
Stability calculations in practice are usually done by limit was between 10 and 20 m above bedrock. There is a thin layer
equilibrium approaches that account for horizontal, vertical and of moraine above the bedrock. The soil consists of clay layers,
moment equilibrium. As no commercial software that fully ac- some more silty than others, with thin sand lenses at irregular
counts for progressive failure is available today, limit equilib- intervals. More than half of the clay was quick clay. The water
rium methods will continue to be used in practice. content was above the liquid limit. The overconsolidation ratio
In the case of Vestfossen, one should note that it was neces- in the clay below a drying crust about 2.5 m thick decreased
sary to reduce the peak shear strength by an average of 10%, if from 2.5 at a depth of 3 m to 1.5 at a depth of 14 m.
limit equilibrium analysis was used. The reduction accounts in- Figure 13 presents the undrained shear strength profile for
directly for strain compatibility and time effects. the area. On the basis of the test results, the undrained shear
The initiation and progressive failure were captured well by strength selected for the stability analyses was selected as:
a large deformation finite element analysis with PLAXIS 2D
(Grimstad and Jostad 2011), using the NGI-ADPSoft material suC = 15(kPa) + 2.0(kPa/m) · z(m) (1)
model: the safety factor was then 1.0.
One needs to establish a reduction in the peak shear strength where suC is the undrained shear strength in triaxial compression
required to account for the strain-softening in limit equilibrium and z is the depth in meters. The undrained shear strength was

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highly anisotropic with suDSS equal to 0.70 × suC and suE equal to
0.40 × suC, where suDSS is the undrained shear strength from di-
rect simple shear tests, and suE is the undrained shear strength in
triaxial extension. In Figure 13, the undrained shear strength
values derived from the cone penetration test (CPTU) via the
cone factors Nkt and Nu. An analysis was done of the uncertain-
ties in the undrained shear strength, and it was concluded that
exceeding the value of the suC used in the analyses was less than
10 or 15%.
The analyses were done with the computer codes PLAXIS
and GeoSuite Stability (Lacasse et al 2013). The NGI-ADP soil
model for anisotropic clays was used. The two programs gave
the same safety factors. The PLAXIS analyses were run with a
plane strain approximation, with partial compensation of the 3-
D effects with a stabilizing side shear. To model the condition
“After blasting, before sliding”, a zone of remoulded clay was
included immediately at the rock-clay interface, which dimen-
sion of 8 m by 4 m was based on observations in situ (after the
slide) and calculations of shear strains due to the blasting (Nor-
dal et al 2009). Table 3 lists the resulting safety factors.

Figure 11. 3-D model of Kattmarka area before and after landslide (ter-
rain model from laser scanning plate) (NVE 2009).

Figure 13. Undrained shear strength from laboratory and in situ tests
and profile selected for stability analyses.

Table 6. Factor of safety before sliding


Factor of safety,
Zone (Fig. 11) Stability condition
FS
Before blasting 1.20
1
After blasting, before sliding 0.97
Before blasting 1.19
2
After blasting, before sliding 1.06
Before blasting 1.02
3
After blasting, before sliding ~0.90

The delay of ½ minute between the blast and the initiation of


the slide (visual observation) can be in part explained by rate ef-
fects, whereby the high frequency of the load caused an increase
in the strength, but as the clay at the top of the slope became
remoulded under the added load from the rock slipping and
pushing in the clay, the clay towards the bottom of the slope
could not support the added load. The overstressed area towards
the bottom of the slope in the Zone 3 cross-section is illustrated
in Figure 14.
Figure 15 illustrates the vertical interface rock-clay in Zone
1, and the blasting that triggered the slide. The cross-section af-
ter the slide is also shown on the figure. The location of the
blasting holes is only approximate on the figure, as it was diffi-
cult to reconstruct the exact locations in the aftermath of the
Figure 12. Movement succession in Kattmarka (Nordal et al 2009). slide. The blast shot the rock face out about 1 meter into the

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Proceedings of the 18 International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

sensitive clay. Geological investigations of the rock also indi- nicipality, the Norwegian Public Road Administration, the geo-
cated the following (Fig.15): a nearly vertical weakness zone in technical consultant and the contractor building the road.
the bedrock (Plan K); a fault at an angle of 36 º inclining to-
wards the clay (Plan 3) acting as sliding plane for the rock under
blasting; and other weakness planes in the rock mass contribut-
ing, with Plan 3, to pushing the rock face into the quick clay.

Figure 14. Results of stability analyses before blasting, cross-section in


Zone 3, Kattmarka landslide (Nordal et al 2009).

Figure 16. Modeling of effect of blasting in clay sediments in Kattmarka


(remoulded clay in red and yellow zones) (Nordal et al 2009).

The Namsos municipality introduced in 2003 the following


regulation: before approval of building plans, geotechnical
documentation shall confirm that the stability is acceptable and
shall not be impaired. This was not done for the road project in
2009.
No geotechnical investigation was carried out at the site be-
fore detailed planning. This was partly due to budget limita-
tions. Although it is acceptable for stakeholders with consider-
able local experience to work on the basis of their wide
knowledge in a region, the developer should have stopped the
building activities to do site investigations when soft clay was
found close to the road during the preparation for the blasting.
The geotechnical consultant was hired to study the stability
of the slopes in surrounding areas of the project and not in the
Figure 15. Cross-section in Zone 1 at the time of blasting, Kattmarka areas of Kattmarka, and his work had been limited to 80 hours.
landslide (Nordal et al 2009). The consultant had indicated the stability problem at the Katt-
marka location, but the proposed actions were not followed up.
Nordal et al 2009 did analyses of the shear strain () in the sen- The stability of the area of road construction was not analysed,
sitive clay as the rock mass detached by the blasting penetrated although this is required by the NVE (2011) regulations.
the clay. Figure 16 illustrates one of the results. With the finite The Kattmarka landslide led to new regulations and an in-
element mesh in the top part of the figure for the PLAXIS dy- creased focus on existing regulations, including:
namic analysis, the blasting was modeled by a penetrating ele-  the control and mapping of the clay-rock interface when
ment with a maximum velocity of 10 m/s and a total displace- blasting in marginally stable areas;
ment of 0.5 m into the clay. Equivalent linear properties were  the requirement for geotechnical investigations early in the
used in the clay for this calculation. The bottom cross-section in project planning process; and
Figure 16 illustrates the shear strain contours. Liquefaction was  the necessity for hazard and vulnerability analyses for pro-
believed to occur when the shear strain is greater than 3%. jects that can endanger life and property.
The slide was triggered by the blasting. The blasting moved
the rock face and a block pushed outward into the clay with
6 THE SAINT-JUDE LANDSLIDE
considerable force and velocity, causing the surrounding clay to
liquefy. The unexpected movement of the rock face was a con- 6.1 Description of the landslide
sequence of two unfavourable conditions: (1) the a priori un-
known orientation of the rock-clay interface and (2) planes of In the evening of May10, 2010, a large landslide occurred in the
weakness in the rock mass. The sensitive quick clays, however, municipality of Saint-Jude, northeast of Montréal, in Québec,
had already before construction a marginal stability. The devel- Canada (Locat et al 2012). The landslide happened without
oper did not know of how critical the stability was. warning on the right bank of the Salvail River, and tragically
took four lives. The landslide swept away the road, aqueduct
5.3 Lessons learned and power and telephone lines. Figure 17 presents a photograph
of the landslide and the location of the bed of the Salvail River
The slide had dramatic consequences, and it was just a matter of completely blocked by the landslide.
good odds that no lives were lost. Many parties were involved The plain at the top of the natural slope before failure was at
in the planning, design and building process: the Namsos mu- an elevation of 28m, and the slope inclination was between 12

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Proceedings of the 18 International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

and 18º, and perhaps 20º in sections close to the toe. The height since 1950 showed that erosion was active more or less steadily
of the slope involved in the sliding was about 22 m. The slide at the foot of the slope and that small landslides associated with
area had a width of 275 m parallel to the watercourse and a erosion had occurred. The erosion seemed to have intensified
length of 150 m normal to the watercourse. A total area of over the past 15 years.
54,000 m2 was affected by the landslide.
The morphology of the slide was typical of a spread (Varnes, Table 7. Index properties, Saint-Jude slide (after Locat et al 2011).
1078). The debris were a succession of long slices of deformed Depth w Ip
Soil description IL
and dislocated material oriented normal to the direction of (m) (%) (%)
movement. Some of the debris took the form of a triangular Drying crust, sandy,
0-3.8 24-78 - -
prism and reminded of horsts, and these were displaced horizon- silty from 2 m
tally only. The horsts were separated by slices of relatively Clay, some silt traces
undisturbed material, just like a block having dropped due to 3.8-26 65 20-37 2.0-1.0
of sand
some sort of faulting, and were called grabens (Fig. 18). In the 26-31 Silty clay 45-75 21-37 0.7-1.0
back part of the slide, some blocks coming from an upper Silt, clayey, some
failure surface were pushed upward by movement and 31-37 15-25 12-29 0.5-1.5
sand, trace gravel
overlapped the adjacent lower slices. Silt, sandy, some clay,
The investigation of the landslide was carried out by the 37-42.6 13-18 - -
trace gravel, v.dense
Geotechnical and Geological Department of the Ministry of >42.6 Shale and sandstone - - -
Transportation of Québec (Locat et al 2011). w water content Ip plasticity index IL liquidity index

Table 8. Stress and strength characteristics, Saint-Jude slide location


(after Locat et al 2011).
Depth su p'c 
Soil description
(m) (kPa) (kPa) (kN/m3)
0-3.8 Drying crust, sandy, 50-165 250-400 18.6
silty from 2 m
3.8-26 Clay, some silt 25-65 100-260 16.0
traces of sand
26-31 Clay, sandy 50-107 180-310 16.8
31-37 Silt, clayey, some 40-150 - 19.3
sand, trace gravel
37-42.6 Silt, sandy, some - - 20.7
clay, trace gravel
>42.6 Shale and sandstone - - -
su undrained shear strength from field vane (CPTU Nkt = 13.5)
p'c preconsolidation stress (OCR = 1.4 at El. +15 and 1.0 at El. 0)
Figure 17. Saint-Jude landslide and location of Salvail river (dashed
 soil unit weight
line) (Locat et al 2011).

Figure 18. Saint-Jude landslide: illustration of the horsts and grabens af-
ter the slide (Locat et al 2011).

6.2 Soil parameters

The soils involved in the landslide are mainly marine clay from
the former Champlain Sea. The clay was sensitive, of medium
to firm consistency, and had sensitivity ranging from 30 to 80
and liquidity index decreasing form 2 to 1 with depth. There
was artesian pressure of 10 m above the river level at the land-
slide site. Table 7 and 8 describe a typical soil profile.
Figure 19 gives an example of the cone resistance measured
at the site after the failure. The profiling enabled the determina-
tion of the location of the slip surface (Elevation +4 in Fig. 19).

6.3 Analysis of the landslide Figure 19. Example of piezocone results in Saint-Jude deposit and indi-
cation of slip surface at Elevation +4 (Locat et al 2011).
The analysis of the available data revealed that landslides had
occurred earlier along the Salvail River. Aerial photographs The slide is believed to have occurred as follows. Along the
centreline of the slide, the slip surface developed at depth and

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Proceedings of the 18 International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

was sub-horizontal. The slip surface was detected Elevation 2.5 6.4 Lessons learned
m below the Salvail river bed (originally at Elevation 6 m) for
the first two-third of its length. The last third of the slip surface The high pore pressures in the clay below the river bed resulted
was at Elevation 15 m near the scarp. These two levels of the in very low effective stresses, and therefore low resistance in
failure surface explain the overlapping of blocks in the central the clay.
part of the scar. The conventional analysis of the failure with circular slip
Figures 20 and 21 and Table 9 present the results of a few of surface gave a safety factor of unity under drained conditions,
the stability analyses. Only the most critical of the 1000’s of but could not explain the observed extent of the slide. Locat
slip surfaces are shown. Analyses under drained and undrained (2007) and Locat et al (2008) made similar observations.
conditions were run. The analyses were run with the SEEP/W The trigger of the landslide is believed to have been of natu-
and SLOPE/W code (GeoStudio 2007 verG7.17; GeoSlope In- ral origin. The stability was impaired by (1) the high artesian
ternational). pore pressure at the toe of the slope and (2) shoreline erosion,
For the case of drained conditions (Fig. 20), the computed also at the toe of the slope. Since the meteorological conditions
factor of safety (FS) was 0.98 with the Bishop method and 1.03 did not show any heavy rainfall at the time of the landslide, the
with the Morgenstern-Price method. The lower part of Figure 20 trigger of the movement was probably the continuous erosion of
shows the area of all the circles giving a factor of safety of 1.05 the toe, which had aggravated over the last 15 years.
or less. All critical slip surfaces pass below the river bed, which The failure probably occurred in two stages, the first a rota-
agrees with the observations after the slide. tion, thereafter a translation, as suggested by the post-failure
For a failure surface extending significantly up slope (hori- grabens and the horsts (Fig. 18). The movement stopped when
zontal distance of 80 m in Fig. 21), the factor of safety was the debris accumulated on the other side of the river bank gen-
about 1.3, showing that this was not the triggering rupture erated sufficient resisting forces to re-establish equilibrium.
mechanism. For undrained conditions (Fig. 21), using the ob- As mitigation in Saint-Jude on the Salvail River, the height
served slip surface, the safety factor was about 2.3. of the natural slope was reduced to a maximum of 10 m, the
river was moved about 60 m further away from the road and the
Table 9. Results of stability analyses of St-Jude landslide. debris were left in the landslide scar.
Case Slip surface Method FS
Drained Circular Bishop 0.98
7 RECURRENT SLIDING ON CAP LOPEZ
(Fig.54) Horizontal Morgenstern-Price 1.03
Drained Circular Bishop 3.1 7.1 Description of the landslide
Entire slope Horizontal Morgenstern-Price 3.3
Undrained Circular Bishop 2.2 On Cap Lopez in Gabon, a large underwater slide took place in
(Fig.55) Horizontal Morgenstern-Price 2.3 July 1971. Twenty years later, the coastline had same topography
as in July 1971. It was important to assess whether sliding would
recur, as adequate safety was required for the oil terminal installa-
tions on land.
Pointe Odden in Gabon is known for its rapidly changing
coastline due to complex erosion and sedimentation patterns,
enhanced by the presence of a deep submarine canyon on the west
side. A 3,000,000 m³ slide took place on Cap Lopez’ north end,
called Pointe Odden in July 1971 (Fig. 22). Figure 23 shows some
of the coastline movements since 1911.

Figure 20. Results of limiting equilibrium analysis of St-Jude landslide


under drained conditions: top: Bishop method, critical slip surface; bot-
tom: All slip surfaces giving Factor of safety ≤ 1.05 (Locat et al 2011).

Figure 21. Results of limiting equilibrium analysis of St-Jude landslide


under undrained conditions: Morgenstern-Price method, observed slip Figure 22. Topography before and after 1971 slide (Lacasse and Boisard
surface (Locat et al 2011). 1996)

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Proceedings of the 18 International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

is a 10- m deep, 20-m wide zone of compacted sand, placed to


stop the propagation of a slide. In 1979, dredging was carried
out at the east side of Pointe Odden to remove sand down to 9-
12 metres below sea level. The surface sliding however appeared
to have a self-remediating effect. Elf opted to monitor whether this
auto-regulation was sufficient to keep the coast stable in the future.

Figure 24. Underwater cross-sections before sliding (Lacasse and


Boisard 1996)

7.2 Soil parameters

The sand of Cap Lopez is a fine to medium coarse, mainly quartz,


sand. The grain size distribution falls within the limits established
in the literature for flow slide materials, and is similar to the grain
size of sands which have experienced flow slides. Consolidated-
undrained triaxial compression tests on sand sampled on-shore on
Pointe Odden show that the sand in a loose state has a contractive
behaviour with considerable strain-softening at low shear strains.
Figure 23. Observations of Cap Lopez 1911-1971 (Lacasse and Boisard Cone penetration tests suggested that layers with very low density
1996). or very low shear strength can be present.

Witnesses to the July 1971 slide reported that the slide started at 7.3 Analysis of the slide
02:00 in the night and continued until noon the next day. Land
extending about 310 m into the sea disappeared, moving about Stability analyses considered both a drained situation and an
1000 m away into deeper water. The slide had typical funnel and undrained situation with development of excess pore pressures.
fan shape often associated with flow slides. Surface sliding of a 3 The slides seem to have been triggered by a small increase of shear
m thickness over most of the seabed east of Pointe Odden occurred stress in a layer of looser/weaker material. The slide of March
between 1988 and 1989. The slopes before sliding had an 1992 suggested that only a small additional amount of sand or a
inclination between 8 and 9°. small change in pore water pressure was sufficient to trigger a
Between 1989 and 1992, the coastline did not move large slide. On the basis of over 70 observations since 1971, the
significantly. In March 1992, a new large slide occurred. At its limiting inclination of the slope was 8-9°. Slopes less than 8° were
deepest, the 1992 slide was 10-12 m deep and extended 350 m in always stable, slopes greater than 9° slid.
the east direction. The 1971 slide was 30 m deep and extended Edgers and Karlsrud (1982) studied the mechanisms of subma-
1000 m out to sea. Figure 24 illustrates the cross-sections before rine slide run-out with case studies. Figure 25 presents run-out dis-
sliding in the interval between the 70s and 90s. tance as a function of the sliding volume. Observations for Cap
The observations of the coastline (Fig.23) suggest recurrent Lopez are added to the graph, as well as a number of larger un-
sliding, perhaps every 15 to 20 years as indicated in Table 8. derwater slides that have been mapped in recent years (Canals et al
2004). The Cap Lopez slides plot at the limit of the underwater
Table 8. Periodicity of slides on Cap Lopez slides. The existing data show that (1) submarine slides may be
Approx. Date Event Time between events triggered on very flat slopes; (2) the volume and run-out of subma-
1911-1920 Slide (?) -- rine slides are by far greater than the volume of terrestrial slides;
1930-1937 Slide (?) 15-20 years (3) the most predominant soil types with large run-out distances
1946-1957 Slide in 1957(?) 15-20 years were fine sands and silts; (4) a trend for increasing relative run-out
1971 Slide 15-205years distance (run-out distance L over height drop H) with increasing
1992 Slide 21 years slide volume. The Cap Lopez data follow this trend.
A worst case scenario would be a deep-seated slide, ex-
Elf Gabon took measures to protect the coastline. On the west tending close to the Quai des Chalands, and partly through the
side of the cape, protection walls were built every 25 m at oil loading berth, causing environmental damage, affecting op-
frequent time intervals since the 50s to stop erosion and sand eration of the harbour and terminal, and requiring stabilisation
transport. From the Quai des Chalands to Pointe Odden on the of dangerous slopes after the slide. The "worst case" estimate
east coast, a vibro-floated "wall" was built (Fig. 22). The "wall" was based on a series of “positive” and “negative” factors.

24

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On the one hand, among the «negative» factors: 7.4 Lessons learned
‐ The slope between Pointe Odden and Quai des Chalands
consists of young sediments with frequent and seasonal The slides seemed to occur every 15 to 20 years. They are a natural
changes in the shoreline. phenomenon due to the geology and geography of the area. For
‐ The sediments south of the 1971 slide may be in a state of such natural hazard, given the impact analysis carried out and the
unstable equilibrium. The addition of a small quantity of sand uncertainty whether remedial measures would be partly or fully
can result in important surface sliding. successful, continued surveillance of the coast and seabed, using
‐ The slopes of the seabed have an inclination prone to sliding; the slope of the seabed as stability indicator, was deemed the
continuous weaker layers susceptible to slides may be present. optimum solution.
‐ The large surface slide in 1988-1989 did not preclude the The sliding on Cap Lopez was difficult to circumvent. In view
possibility of the occurrence of a large deep-seated slide. of the sliding observations in the past, the fact that recent sliding
‐ A deep-seated slide may be triggered by an accumulation of occurred within the limits of the «worst case» scenario of the
sand, erosion (e.g. discharge of an outflow pipe or wave impact study, the positive and negative factors that could lead to
action) or some local small vibration in the earth crust. sliding near the terminal installations, Elf made the engineering
On the other hand, among the «positive» factors: decision to continue surveillance of the coast and seabed, using the
‐ The Quai des Chalands area appears to have no history of slope of the seabed as indicator of stability. This decision was
sliding, except between 1937 and 1946. helped by the fact that the risk of loss of human life was essentially
‐ The efficiency of the vibro-floated wall to stop a slope failure nil. The overall risk to the oil terminal operations was considered
is not known. However observations during the vibro-floating to be tolerable with surveillance of the coast as the main tool to
operation indicated a very strong soil at the bottom of the evaluate whether new remedial measures were needed.
vibro-floated area, where the cone penetrometer could not
penetrate. With such layer beneath the vibro-floatation zone, 8 THE ASHCROFT THOMPSON RIVER LANDSLIDES
the possibility of a slide going further inland should be low.
‐ Movements experienced during pile installation were not an 8.1 Description of the landslides
indication of foundation instability, but were probably caused
by the piling procedure used. The town of Ashcroft is located on the east side of the Thomp-
‐ The sheet pile driving near the Quai des Chalands did not son River in southern British Columbia, northeast of Vancou-
trigger slides at the time of pile installation. ver. The multiple landslide activity near Ashcroft has a very
An impact study was made to select the optimum solution for strong impact on freight transportation. (Bunce and Chadwick
the continued operation of the oil terminal. The following 2012; Bunce and Martin 2011; Bunce and Quinn 2012).
consequences were considered: (1) loss of life, and loss of Pointe Figure 26 presents an aerial view of part of the Ashcroft
Odden to sea; (2) impact on environment due to damage of loading Thompson River and three recent landslides. Near the village of
berth and oil leakage; (3) undermining of sand foundation at Quai Ashcroft, more than 20 landslides have occurred, ranging in size
des Chalands; (4) displacement of pile tops and anchors of the from 10,000 m3 to 5 million m3. Figure 27 illustrates some of
pier; (5) reduction of draught near the pier and Quai des Chalands; the reported landslide initiations and observed significant
(6) impact on oil terminal activities. Remedial measures and their movements near the railway in the Ashcroft area. The move-
feasilibity were also considered: (1) on-site geotechnical ments can be slow and relatively small, but insidious, or they
reconnaissance and laboratory testing on soil samples; (2) careful can be sudden, fast and very large.
dredging (difficult to achieve without triggering a slide, and not a The stakeholders are the railway companies, Canadian Pa-
permanent solution); (3) deep underwater compaction (e.g. vibro- cific and Canadian National, Transport Canada, the British Co-
floatation, chalk piling, grouting, chemical injection; (4) controlled lumbia Government (Environment and Transportation) and the
blasting of the underwater slope. Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans. Railways trav-
erse valley slopes and can be exposed to numerous landslide
hazards. Railways typically select one of three strategies to
manage the risks associated with landslides: avoid the landslide,
stabilize the landslide or implement monitoring and signal sys-
tems that indicate when the tracks may be unsafe (Bunce and
Martin 2011).

Figure 25. Run-out distance vs slide volume for submarine slides


(Edgers and Karlsrud 1982; additional data from Canals et al 2005)) Figure 26. Ashcroft Thompson River and three recent landslides (Bunce
and Quinn 2012)

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cluded the magnitude and frequency of landslide activity and


the rate of ground movement compared to the frequency of
track maintenance.
The impact of the failures was multi-faceted. In addition to
the costs to the Canadian economy, the negative aspects in-
cluded: potential for injury and death of locomotive operator
and conductor, the impact on the environment, consequences of
a derailment including the fate of the freight material, a pro-
longed service interruption resulting in a loss of Canada’s
credibility as a reliable exporter, damage to key fisheries, im-
pact to First Nations land claims, damage to adjacent land-use
and irrigation for agriculture, flooding, damage upstream and
downstream of the landslide.
For the Ripley Landslide, since the track speed was 30 mph
with no potential for a derailed locomotive to reach the river,
the probability of a fatality was estimated as extremely low. The
Figure 27. Reported landslide in Ashcroft area (Bunce and Quinn 2012). Ripley Landslide was known to be moving at a gradual rate that
had had no influence on the safe operation of the railway for
8.2 Investigations more than 60 years. The frequency of normal railway mainte-
nance was sufficient to periodically realign the track such that
The soil consists of disturbed glacio-lacustrine clay and silt, and
the track speed could be maintained without compromising the
the failure seemed to follow complex mechanisms with irregular
safety of rail operations, despite periods requiring more frequent
wedge formation. The geological and hydrogeological settings
track maintenance.
were also complex, with alluvial fans and fractured bedrock
From an economic perspective the Ripley Landslide was
(Bunce and Quinn 2012).
costing the railways a minimal amount of maintenance and little
The geotechnical investigation failed to identify a trigger for
or no reduction in operating efficiency. The primary successful
increased movement. Given the long period of gradual move-
landslide mitigation measure of the other landslide locations
ment it appeared that the slope was in a alternating cycle of be-
was the placement of an erosion-protection toe-berm of rip-rap
ing unstable and stable due to erosion and or groundwater con-
into and along the river bank. However, although the cost of this
ditions and small increments of movement.
method was attractive compared to other options the environ-
As part of the planning of mitigation work and the man-
mental, especially fisheries impact was considered significant.
agement of the landslide activity and operative safety of the rail-
In the case of the Ripley Landslide, CP assessed its options
road, knowledge gaps were identified:
and given that the effectiveness of stabilization was uncertain
 Subsurface conditions outside and between landslides.
and costly, and the risk of catastrophic failure based on past per-
 Stress-strain behaviour of the materials involved in failure. formance of this landslide was low, a monitoring system was
 Realistic model for new or reactivated landslides. selected.
 Contribution of river drawdown, erosion and infiltration. The advantages of this concept were: the risk to train traffic
 Erosion by the river. was minimized; the cost was less than the least costly stabiliza-
 Effect of weather and climate, and changes thereof. tion measures; the environmental impact was negligible in com-
 Effects of topography. parison to completing in-river works; and additional informa-
 What are the tolerable movement limits? tion about the behaviour of the landslide in response to external
 Local water balance. changes could be further investigated to identify means of stabi-
lizing the landslide in the future if movement rates increase
8.3 Analyses of the slides above tolerable levels. These advantages were offset by the dis-
advantage that although rail safety is ensured the reliability of
Some Ashcroft Thompson River landslides are known to have the transportation system remains the same.
moved at rates of several meters per day including the North In view of the uncertainties and the overwhelming extent of
Landslide in 1881 (Stanton 1898) and the Goddard Landslide in the potential consequences, CP invested in research and moni-
1982 (Fig.91). The Ashcroft Sub, Mile 50.9 Landslide and the toring.
active portions of the North Landslide and the South Landslide The research investment included a Railway Ground Hazard
are known to be currently moving at rates of 10 to 30 mm year. Research Project (http://rghrp.com/), multi-year research grants
The causes of the landslides were multiple, and at times dif- and support for PhD and MSc studies on rock fall, landslides,
ficult to assess, which make the prediction of an oncoming climatic triggers, debris flows and risk analysis, a rail research
landslide as railroad traffic is planned very uncertain. The laboratory (http://carrl.ca/) and strategic research partnership
causal factors include (Bunce and Chadwick 2012): with universities, research organizations, and stakeholders.
 weak glacio-lacustrine silt and clay; CP installed in 2008 a real time permanent Global Position-
 incision of the Thompson River; ing System (GPS) on the Ripley Landslide located about 7.5 km
 upward seepage pressures; south of Ashcroft to monitor ground movement and provide no-
 low strength on pre-existing failure surfaces; tification of significant track movement (Bunce and Chadwick
 river level appears to exert a controlling influence; 2012). The Ripley Landslide was known to have moved ap-
 infiltration from irrigation. proximately 70 mm per year between 2008 and 2011. In view of
There was also relative little information on the success (1) the high cost to stabilize 400,000 m3 of soil, (2) the envi-
and/or failure of past remedial measures. ronmental implication of attempting to stabilize the landslide
without negatively changing the fishery in the Thompson River
8.4 Risk management and (3) the uncertainty on the effectiveness of potential stabiliz-
ing measure; the decision was taken to monitor and respond
Bunce and Martin (2011) developed a procedure to manage the rather than stabilize the landslide.
railroad risk associated with landslides. Factors considered in-

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Proceedings of the 18 International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

The monitoring system had three GPS antennae on the land- 9 THE AALESUND SLIDE
slide and one stationary reference antenna. Accuracy for the
longer term 24 hour averaged data was better than 5 mm. The 9.1 Description of the slide
landslide monitoring data revealed that the landslide moved
During the night of 26th March 2008, a rock slope failed and de-
fastest in the spring prior to the highest river levels (Bunce and
stroyed a new apartment complex in Aalesund, Norway. About
Chadwick 2012). The GPS landslide monitoring system could
1400 m3 of rock rammed in the building. The lower floors were
provide real time warning to approaching trains of ground
completely collapsed and set on fire. The entire building was
movement and possible track misalignment.
displaced by several meters. There were 20 persons in the build-
Figure 28 illustrates on a semi-log scale the costs associated
ing at the time of the collapse, and 5 persons, all from the lower
with landslides in the Ashcroft Thompson River area as a func-
floors, died. The other residents were not injured. The accident
tion of the return period of the landslides.
was tragic and affected many in Norway because of its actuality
and because it hit “close to home”, in the privacy of one’s
apartment. Figure 29 illustrates the sliding of the rock mass in
the building already on fire and attended by firemen.
The cause of the rock slide was the presence of a plane of
weakness filled with clayey material, and the creation of addi-
tional fissures by the blasting during the preparation of the site
before the construction started. Figure 30 illustrates the plane of
weakness.

9.2 Lessons learned

The accident could have been avoided if a proper site investiga-


tion had been carried out. In particular, geophysical methods
should have been used both before and after the blasting for the
site preparation. Before the blasting, the weakness plane would
Figure 28. Cost of landslides for the Ashcroft Thompson River railroad have been discovered, and bolting would then have been under-
(Bunce and Quinn 2012). taken. The geotechnical/engineering geology site investigation
The total cost was calculated as the sum of the cost of rail- report was insufficient. This omission cost the lives of five per-
way service interruption and the cost of the of railway revenue. sons. After the accident, engineering geologists studied the sta-
Figure 26 indicates that as soon as railway service interruption bility of the rock for all neighbouring buildings, and the rock
exceeded about two to three days, the total cost became expo- wall has been stabilized.
nential. The curves show that for a landslide with return period
of only 20 years, the total cost reach an astronomical sum of
800 MCAD or more. Preventing the smaller, more frequent
landslides became therefore a priority.
On the basis of the diagram in Figure 27, it would seem jus-
tified for the stakeholder to spend about 5 to 10 MCAD in miti-
gation measures to avoid the damage due to a 10-year return pe-
riod landslide. This was translated into a recommendation to
continue research with an additional 0.5 to $1.5 MCAD/year
and to do the stabilization of known landslides at a cost of 2 to 5
MCAD per landslide per year.

8.5 Lessons learned

This case study presents an excellent example of risk manage-


ment and decision-making under uncertainty, where the poten-
tial negative consequences on both short and longer term were
considered and a compromise solution was selected.
In one case, the decision was made to reduce the risk with
monitoring and warning to avoid the cost of mitigation with un-
certain outcome, and to avoid the environmental impact of sta- Figure 29. The Aalesund rock slide
bilizing the landslides. A GPS landslide monitoring system was
used to notify approaching trains if the ground movement has
exceeded a threshold that rendered the track impassable.
When the implications of avoiding or stabilizing landslides
are significant, this can be a viable risk reduction strategy.
However, this approach did not reduce the likelihood of a pro-
longed service interruption, with the ensuing costs.
With a view towards future improvements, the stakeholders
decided to invest in research and to quantify how much money
they could spend on mitigation compared to the cost on of let-
ting the landslides occur, in order to document the cost-
effectiveness of mitigation and monitoring.

Figure 30. Sliding of rock mass on weakness plane (NGI files)

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10 THE STOREGGA SLIDE required for the exploitation of the field; and (2) Can smaller
slides be triggered on the steep slopes created by the Storegga
10.1 Description of the slide slide, and if so, would they endanger the planned offshore in-
stallations to recover the gas resources.
The Storegga slide in the Norwegian Sea is one of the largest
known submarine slides on earth. The head wall of the slide
10.2 Soil parameters
scar is 300 km long. About 3500 km3 failed from the shelf edge,
sliding out as far as 800 km in water depths as deep as 3000 m The reader is referred to Solheim et al (2005a; b); Kvalstad et al
(Fig. 31). The failure started probably some 200 km downhill (2005 a;b); Kvalstad (2007); Nadim et al (2005b) and the spe-
and crept rapidly up slope as the headwalls failed and slipped cial issue of Marine and Petroleum Geology (Volume 22, No 1
down towards the deep ocean floor. At the same time, the mass and 2) for an account of the slide and a summary of the studies
movement generated a huge tsunami that reached the shores of, by the parties involved.
among others, Norway, Scotland and the Shetland Islands. The
sizable gas resources at the Ormen Lange filed are located in the 10.3 Analysis of the landslide
scar left by the giant underwater slide, beneath a relatively cha-
otic terrain created by the slide 8,200 years ago. Based on the studies in the SEABED project, the triggering and
The Storegga slide was the subject of a large integrated study sliding mechanics used the observed morphology and the geo-
for the safe development of the deepwater gas field on the North technical characteristics of the sediments. The average slope
Atlantic continental margin. In addition, the SEABED project angle of the seafloor was only 0.6 to 0.7°. The geotechnical
was launched by the partners of the Ormen Lange field (Norsk properties indicated shear strengths far above those required to
Hydro ASA, A/S Norske Shell, Petoro AS, Statoil ASA, BP explain a failure. However, the geophysical observations, espe-
Norge AS and Esso Exploration and Production Norway AS) cially seismic reflections profiles in the upper parts of the slide
with the aim of improving the knowledge of the seafloor mor- scar, provided strong indications that the failure developed ret-
phology, the shallow geology, and the potential hazards and rogressively (Fig. 32). Using the retrogressive slide model as
risks associated with the area. The project is an excellent exam- working hypothesis, several scenarios of sources of excess pore
ple of the interweaving of research and practice and the coop- pressures were considered, including (1) earthquake-induced
eration of academia and industry. shear strain generating excess pore pressures, (2) melting of gas
hydrates releasing methane gas and water, (3) shear strain-
induced contraction with pore pressure generation and strain-
softening, and (4) rapid deposition. The studies concluded that
the most likely trigger was an earthquake destabilizing a locally
steep slope in the lower part of the present slide scar. The retro-
gressive process continued up-slope until conditions improved
with stronger layers associated with the consolidation of the
shelf sediments during glacial times. Once the instability
started, excess pore pressures already generated during rapid
sedimentation under the last glaciation were an important con-
tribution to the large slope failure (Bryn et al 2005).

Figure 32. Bathymetry and seismic profiles in the upper headwall at


Ormen Lange (Kvalstad et al 2005a).

Excess pore pressures still exist at the site, as demonstrated by


in situ monitoring (Strout and Tjelta 2005). The excess pore
pressures recorded in several locations and at several strati-
graphic levels support the depositional role in the Storegga fail-
ure proposed by Bryn et al 2005.
The seismic studies by Bungum et al 2005 showed that
strong, isostatically induced earthquakes had occurred earlier
along the mapped faults at the site. Stress transfer induced
earthquakes had also probably taken place earlier. Bungum et al
also suggested that multiple strong earthquakes with extended
duration most likely occurred and could be the potential trigger
for the Storegga slope instability.
The tsunami generating potential of submarine slides is to-
Figure 31. The Storegga slide, 8,200 years BP.
day widely recognized. The tsunami studies indicated that the
field observations of run-up fitted will the retrogressive slide
The design questions that needed to be answered were: (1) model with a velocity of 25-30 m/s, and time lags of 15-20 s be-
Can a new large slide, capable of generating a tsunami, occur tween individual slide blocks (Bondevik et al 2005). The slide
again, either due to natural processes or through the activities mass involved in the tsunami generation modelwas 2,400 km3.

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Figure 33 presents an illustration to explain the sedimenta- behavior and potential hazards and risks associated with the
tion process leading to failure, which supports the hypothesis area. The interweaving of research and practice, the cooperation
that major slides have occurred in the Storegga area on a semi- of academia and industry and the integration of the geo-
regular basis, related to the glacial/interglacial cyclicity. disciplines were essential for gaining an understanding of the
The bottom illustration in Figure 33 (denoted 1) gives the past slide and providing the possibility to develop the gas field.
last interglacial with deposition of soft marine clays. The middle
illustration (denoted 2) presents the last glacial maximum
(LGM) with the ice at the shelf edge and deposition of glacial 11 LANDSLIDE RISK MANAGEMENT
sediments. The top illustration (denoted 3) presents the topogra-
phy after the Storegga slide. Dating (BP, before present) is giv- 11.1 Landslide prevention in Drammen
en for each illustration. The illustration denoted 3 also shows In Norway, the hazard ere estimated on the basis of simple theo-
two older slide scars that were filled with marine clays. The slip
retical evaluations of the potential area that can be involved in a
planes were found in seismically stratified units of hemipelagic
quick clay slide, in combination with back-calculations of a
deposits and the thick infill of stratified sediments indicate a late
glacial to early interglacial occurrence of slides (Bryn et al number of historical quick clay slides (Aas 1979).
2005). The assessment of the risk associated with slides in sensitive
The soft fine-grained hemipelagic deposits were rapidly clays in Norway is a semi-quantitative approach developed for
loaded by coarser glacial deposits during the short glaciations the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE).
period. Excess pore pressures were a destabilizing factor. The Slide areas are classified according to “engineering scores”
hypothesis of strong earthquake shaking was retained to start based on an evaluation of the topography, geology and local
the underwater slide. After the earthquake initiated the move- conditions (to qualify hazard) and an evaluation of the elements
ment, the slide continued retrogressively by back-stepping up at risk, persons, properties and infrastructure exposed (to qualify
the slope where the pore pressures were already high. The mass consequence). The risk score to classify the mapped areas into
movement was further facilitated by the release of support at the risk zones is obtained from the relationship RS = HWS  CWS,
toe. where RS is the risk score, HWS is the weighted hazard score and
The stability of the present situation at Ormen Lange was CWS is the weighted consequence score. The risk matrix is di-
evaluated by Kvalstad et al 2005b. The conclusion was that an vided in five risk classes. Guidelines for the implementation of
extremely strong earthquake would be the only realistic trigger- the risk matrix are administered by NVE. In practice, the ap-
ing mechanism for new submarine slides in the area. The annual proach is used to make decisions on required mitigation meas-
probability of third party damage was also investigated and ures to reduce the risk. The approach is simple and makes room
found to be extremely low (Nadim et al 2005b). The project for engineering experience and judgment. For detailed regional
team therefore concluded that developing the Ormen Lange gas planning, slope stability calculations need to be made. The ap-
field could be done safely. proach has been described in detail in Gregersen 2005; Lacasse
et al 2003; Lacasse and Nadim 2008; and Kalsnes et al 2013. A
similar procedure has been developed for sensitive clays in
Québec (Thibault et al 2008), reflecting the experience with
large retrogressive slides in Québec.
An example of the management of risk based on the above
scores is the preventive actions set in place in Drammen. The
city of Drammen, along the Drammensfjord and the Drammen
River, is built on soft sensitive clay. Stability analyses were
done in an area close to the centre of the city, and indicated that
some areas did not have satisfactory safety against a slope fail-
ure. Based on the results of the stability analyses and the factors
of safety (FS) obtained, the area under study was divided into
three zones, as illustrated in Figure 34:
– Zone I FS satisfactory
– Zone II FS shall not be reduced
– Zone III FS too low, area must be stabilised
Figure 35 illustrates the mitigation done in Zone III: a counter
fill was immediately placed in the river to support the river
bank, and the factor of safety checked again. The counter fill
provided adequate stability. In Zone II, no immediate action
was taken, but a ban was placed on any new structural and
foundation work without first ensuring increased stability. Fig-
ure 36 illustrates required actions:
 if an excavation is planned, the clay will have to be stabi-
lised with e.g. anchored sheetpiling or soil stabilisation, for
example lime-cement piles;
 if new construction is planned, the engineer needs to check
Figure 33. Deposition and sliding processes (Bryn et al 2005). the effects of the change on the stability down slope: e.g.
adding a floor to a dwelling may cause failure because of
10.4 Lessons learned added driving forces; or new piling up slope can cause an
increase in pore pressures and a driving force on the soil
The documentation of the feasibility of pipeline installation down slope.
across the Storegga slide would not have been possible without With such an approach, focus is set on the need for mitigation
the integrated inter- and cross-disciplinary study of the devel- rather than as the risk and potential for failure.
opment, now without the conscious effort to improve knowl-
edge on seafloor morphology, shallow geology, geotechnical

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11.2 The SafeLand Project

The need to protect people and property in view of the changing


pattern of landslide hazard and risk caused by climate change
and changes in demography, and the need for societies in
Europe to live with the risk associated with natural hazards,
formed the bases for the 2009-2012 SafeLand project “Living
with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global
change, and risk management strategies”.
SafeLand was an integrating research project under the
European Commission’s 7th Framework Programme. The pro-
ject involved 27 partners from 12 European countries, and had
international collaborators and advisers from China, India,
USA, Japan and Hong Kong. SafeLand also involved 25 End-
Users from 11 countries. SafeLand was coordinated by NGI’s
Centre of Excellence “International Centre for Geohazards
(ICG)” (http://safeland-fp7.eu/). Nadim and Kalsnes (2014) pre-
Figure 34. Classification of hazard zones in Drammen (FS = safety fac-
sent the results of the project in more detail. The objectives
tor) (Gregersen, 2008).
achieved in the SafeLand project include:
‐ Guidelines related to landslide triggering processes and run-
out modelling.
‐ Development and testing of empirical methods for predict-
ing the characteristics of threshold rainfall events for trig-
gering of precipitation-induced landslides, and development
of an empirical model for assessing the changes in landslide
frequency (hazard) as a function of changes in the demogra-
phy and population density.
‐ Guidelines for landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk as-
Figure 35. Mitigation in hazard Zone III in Drammen.
sessment and zoning.
‐ New methodologies for the assessment of physical and so-
cietal vulnerability.
‐ Identification of landslide hazard and risk hotspots in
Europe. The maps show the location of the areas with high-
est landslide risk and allow a ranking of the countries by
exposed area and population.
‐ Simulation of regional and local climate change over re-
gions of Europe at spatial resolutions of 10 x 10 km and 2.8
x 2.8 km. The simulations were used for an extreme value
analysis of trends in heavy precipitation events, and subse-
quent effects on landslide hazard and risk.
‐ Guidelines for the use of remote sensing, monitoring and
early warning systems.
‐ Development of a prototype web-based "toolbox” of inno-
vative mitigation measures. The toolbox does a preliminary
assessment of the appropriateness of the measures and a
ranking of over 60 structural and non-structural landslide
risk mitigation options.
‐ Case histories and "hotspots" of European landslides were
collected and documented. Data for close to fifty potential
case study sites (Italy, France, Norway, Switzerland, Aus-
tria, Andorra, and Romania) were compiled. Almost all
types of landslide and types of movement were represented.
‐ Stakeholder workshops and participatory processes to in-
volve the population exposed to landslide risk in the selec-
tion process for the most appropriate risk mitigation meas-
ure(s).

11.3 Slope safety in Hong Kong

The best example worldwide of a comprehensive and effective


program of risk management for landslides is probably the slope
safety program administered by the Geotechnical Engineering
Office (GEO) of the Civil Engineering and Development De-
partment in Hong Kong. The Slope Safety System has seven
main targets:
‐ Improve slope safety standards, technology, and administra-
tive and regulatory frameworks.
Figure 36. Mitigation and preventive measures in Zone II in Drammen.
‐ Ensure safety standards of new slopes.

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‐ Rectify substandard Government man-made slopes. formation within each of the organizations was insufficient;
‐ Maintain all Government man-made slopes. control of the information given to the media was problematic
‐ Ensure that owners take responsibility for slope safety. (it was not possible to check the wording with the journalists);
‐ Promote public awareness and response in slope safety making notes and looking at maps in a high pressure context
through public education, publicity, information services proved very difficult; how could the private actors doing emer-
and public warnings. gency work/repair ensure that they had a contract (and would be
‐ Enhance the appearance and aesthetics of slopes paid for their work); the authorities should create an emergency
Hong Kong has a history of tragic landslides. Since 1947, more group, and invite wide participation; a logistical and communi-
than 470 people died, mostly as a result of failures associated cation tool should be developed for crisis situations and made
with man-made cut slopes, fill slopes and retaining walls. To- available to all stakeholders; the need for frequent preparedness
day, the risk to the community has been greatly reduced by con- exercise, as the people change in each of the organisations in-
certed Government action. On average, about 300 incidents af- volved; and some of the routines in the governmental hand-
books needed to be updated.
fecting man-made slopes, walls and natural hillsides are
reported to the Government each year.
11.5 Recent developments
To reduce landslide risk, GEO assures the operation of a 24-
hour year-round emergency service by geotechnical engineers 11.5.1 Mapping tool for quick clays
to protect the public, investigates all serious landslides, and with Geophysical methods, especially Electric Resistivity Tomogra-
this experience continuously improves its knowledge and stan- phy, have emerged as reliable tools for quick clay mapping, as
dards. GEO also audits the design and supervision of construc- witnessed at several quick clay sites in Norway (Pfaffhuber et al
tion of all new slopes to ensure that they meet the required 2012). When combined with borehole data and electric resistiv-
safety standards, upgrades “substandard” slopes based on a pri- ity cone penetrometer data, the methods are also cost-effective.
ority matrix and takes steps to ensure that private owners take Geochemical analysis also demonstrated that changes in resis-
responsibility for their own slopes through safety screening. tivity are directly related to changes in clay salt content, and re-
Natural terrain studies and risk mitigation actions are carried lated to clay sensitivity. The usefulness of geophysical investi-
our continuously. gations offshore for the determination of the soil characteristics
In addition, GEO undertakes extensive public education on and correlation of layers has already been demonstrated in off-
personal safety precautions in order that the community can be shore work in deep waters.
better informed on how to protect themselves during periods of
intense rainfall when landslides are likely to occur. There is also 11.5.2 Mitigation
a program to assess squatter villages for clearance of squatter The United Nations’ International Decade for Natural Disaster
huts and to provide guidance to the residents on landslide risk Reduction (1990-2000) to reduce loss of life, property damage
and self-protection. Complementary to enhancing the stability and social and economic disruption caused by natural disasters,
of slopes, GEO also gives priority to beautifying the slopes, ei- was the start of international concerted actions.
ther by making them look as natural as possible or blending Mitigation and prevention of the risk posed by landslides,
them with the surroundings. Technical guidelines have been is- however, did not attract widespread and effective public support
sued on good practice in landscape treatment and bioengineer- in the past. The situation has changed dramatically during the
past decade, and it is now generally accepted that a proactive
ing for slope work.
approach to risk management is required to significantly reduce
the loss of lives and material damage associated with natural
11.4 Preparedness
hazards. The wide media attention on major natural disasters
NVE organized in 2010 an exercise in landslide preparedness, during the last decade has clearly changed people's mind in
and the Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection and Emer- terms of acknowledging risk management as an alternative to
gency Planning (DSB) in 2013. The first exercise simulated a emergency management. A milestone in recognition of the need
quick clay landslide of national dimension with fatalities. The for natural disaster risk reduction was the approval of the
second assembled a group of experts to establish the premises "Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the Resil-
for the national risk that could be posed by quick clay slides. ience of Nations and Communities to Disasters" (ISDR 2005).
Worst case scenario, estimates of hazard and vulnerability and This document, approved by 164 UN countries during the
valuation of the consequences were discussed by the different World Conference on Disaster Reduction in Kobe in January
stakeholders involved. The results will become available in June 2005, defines international working modes, responsibilities
2013. In the 20th century, the economic losses from natural hazards
The NVE simulation in 2010 was made as realistic as possi- were greatly underestimated, the awareness of hazards and risk
ble with the participants not knowing beforehand what to expect was insufficient, and the mitigation and regulation to avoid
and having one party simulate fatalities. The participants were damage and loss was inadequate. Since 2005, the awareness of
briefed of the exercise ahead of time, but they did not know the the need for mitigation of natural hazards has greatly increased.
details of what was to happen. A majority of stakeholders were On the other hand, since the 80's, hazard and risk assessment of
invited, including authorities, police, private actors and media, the geo-component of a system has gained increased attention.
in addition to the technical instances required in such emer- The offshore, hydropower, nuclear and mining industry were
gency situation. The exercise aimed at improving the parties’ the pioneers in applying the tools of statistics, probability and
ability to respond under pressure in a complex context, and risk assessment. Gradually, environmental concerns and natural
making decisions under critical conditions. The emergency rou- hazards started implementing hazard and vulnerability assess-
tines, information channels and response tools in each of the ment. Nowadays the notion of hazard and risk is a natural ques-
participating organizations were tested. The exercise also tested tion in most geotechnical engineering aspects and even project
who took responsibility for the decisions made, and whether the management.
parties had the same understanding of the respective responsi-
bility and roles.
12 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SAFETY FACTOR
An evaluation report was prepared with, among others, les-
sons learned: the respective roles and responsibility should be The factor of safety against instability is a measure of how far a
more clearly defined and communicated to all parties; not eve- slope may be from failure. Factors of safety are applied to com-
ryone received the required information in time and internal in- pensate for uncertainties in the load, resistance and parameters

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thereof, and model used for the calculation. The factor of safety Increase in driving forces
is often expressed as the ratio of the resisting forces to the driv-  increase in external loads;
ing forces. For a slope to be stable, the stabilizing forces (mo-  pore pressure in weakness zones;
ments) should be larger than the driving (destabilizing) forces.  frost in fissures;
If there was no uncertainty in the safety factor, a safety fac-  increase in unit weight due to rainfall;
tor of 1.05 would be sufficient. However there is uncertainty in  excavation or erosion at toe of slope;
nearly all the parameters that enter the analysis of the stability  lowering of water table;
of a slope. There will therefore always be a finite probability  earthquake loading.
that the slope will fail. Defining the level of the finite probabil- Figure 39 illustrates the development of a progressive failure in
ity that is tolerable is the challenge. The geotechnical engineer a strain-softening soil. The displacement along the slip surface
should provide insight in this discussion. varies between the toe and the top of the slope. One therefore
Figure 37 illustrates with probability density functions the needs to include strain compatibility in the analyses.
notion that factor of safety alone is not a sufficient measure of
the margin of safety. The figure gives the probability density
function (PDF) for two slopes. The first has a central FS (or SF
based on mean values) of 1.4 and a probability of failure, Pf, of
10-4 per year. The probability of failure is illustrated by the area
ace where the factor of safety can be less than unity. The second
slope has a more diffuse PDF, has a higher FS of 1.8, but also a
higher probability of failure, Pf, of 10-3 per year (zone aed). In
order to select a suitable factor of safety, one therefore needs to
estimate the uncertainties involved. There exists no relationship
between safety factor based on limit equilibrium analysis and
annual probability of failure. Any relationship would be site-
specific and depend on the uncertainties in the analysis.

Figure 38. Brittle and strain-softening material

Figure 37. Factor of safety and probability of failure.

The safety factor should not be a constant deterministic


value, but should be adjusted according to the level of uncer-
tainty. Ideally, given time and money, one could calibrate the
required safety factor for different classes of slopes, soils and
failure types that would ensure a target annual probability of
failure of for example 10-3 or 10-4 per year.
In most cases, after a slide has occurred, it is difficult to de-
termine a unique trigger for the slide. Whether a material is duc-
tile or brittle (Fig. 38) is a very important factor that causes un-
certainty in the shear strength to use and how well the failure Figure 39. Illustration of progressive failure.
mechanism of the slope is captured and modelled in the stability
analyses. The strain-softening of the brittle material is espe- For sensitive clays in Norway, the average mobilized shear
cially problematic, as it will show reduced resistance once a stress along different slip surfaces is compared with the corre-
threshold shear deformation has been exceeded (b in Fig. 38). sponding characteristic average shear strength divided by a ma-
The stability conditions are especially difficult to analyse, e.g. terial coefficient, γM.
for the Vestfossen and the Kattmarka landslides. The requirement in Norway for the material coefficient γM is
Landslides can be triggered by natural causes (geological, 1.4 (NVE 2011), and this γM should be used in design. However,
geomorphological or hydrological/meteorological processes) or for an existing (standing) slope with a material coefficient less
by human intervention. Triggers can be: than 1.4, NVE requires that the back-calculated material coeffi-
Reduction of soil resistance: cient should be increased, but not necessarily to as much as 1.4.
 increase in pore pressure (artesian pressure, rainfall etc); Figure 40 illustrates the NVE requirement.
 cracks on top of slope; The required γM is a function of the initial back-calculated
 swelling; material coefficient and the improvement required. The im-
 chemical changes; provement required depends on the hazard class (NVE 2011).
 reduction of shear strength towards residual strength; The upper diagram in Figure 40 gives the minimum required in-
 creep deformations; crease in material coefficient γM, (in %), for two levels of slope
 vibrations with temporary increase in pore pressure; improvement: “Substantial improvement required” and “Im-
 rainfall (intensity and duration). provement required”. The lower diagram provides the resulting

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Proceedings of the 18 International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

required γM. The improvements are to be made through topog- The geotechnical engineer should be aware that it is more
raphical modifications. As an example (lower diagram), for an correct and safer to ensure that slopes have the same probability
initial γM of 1.2, an improvement from γM = 1.2 to γM = 1.26 and of failure rather than the same factor of safety.
1.29 is required by NVE (2011) for the two levels of improve- Mitchell and Kavazanjian (2007) presented “Geo-engineer-
ment specified. Standing slopes with a material factor γM of 1.0 ing Engineering for the 21st Century”. On request from the Na-
require an improvement up to γM = 1.10 and 1.15 for the two tional Science Foundation in the USA, an expert committee sug-
levels of “improvement” specified by NVE. gested a vision for how geo-engineering could continue to
The reason for allowing a material coefficient less than 1.4 is address societal needs in the 21st century, and identified emerg-
that the fact that the slope is standing today is a confirmation ing technologies that could contribute to this vision. Mitigation
that the slope has a material coefficient of at least 1.0. Any im- of natural hazards was one of the areas identified. Emerging
provement therefore represents a real gain to the present safety technologies included:
of the slope. The NVE requirement needs to be satisfied for all  An improved ability to “see into the earth” and interpret
potential slip surfaces. geophysical surveys.
For sensitive clays, the peak undrained shear strength is re-  Improved sensing and monitoring, more reliable instrumen-
duced in limit equilibrium analyses to account for strain- tation, enhanced data acquisition, processing and storage,
softening at large shear strains. A reduction of 10 to 15% in the and appropriate information systems.
peak shear strength in triaxial compression, triaxial extension  Improved ability to characterize the spatial variability of
and direct simple shear may be adequate, as discussed under the soil properties and the uncertainty in the assessments made.
Vestfossen case study. However a reduction factor should In addition, inter- and cross-disciplinary problem-solving is es-
probably be developed for different categories of clays and slip sential for advancing in the practice of geo-engineering. More
surfaces.. emphasis must be placed on inter-disciplinary collaboration, in
research, consulting and education.
1.5
The expertise of geotechnical engineers is essential for meet-
ing the challenge of protecting society, worldwide. Safety and
Substantial improvement required life quality depends on our profession. We must however avoid
1.4 being unaware of the impact of the work we do as engineers. To
Improvement required
paraphrase Siegel (2010): civil engineers built the countries we
Initial material coefficient, , M

live in. Civil engineers make a difference in the world: “When


1.3
we flip a switch, the lights come on. When we turn on the tap,
we trust that the water is clean and potable. When we drive
1.2 home from work, we trust the roads will not collapse”. Over the
last 100 years, life expectancy has doubled. The main factor has
not been advances in medicine, but advances in clean water
1.1
technology and sanitation. Civil engineers are solving the
world’s problems every day.
1.0 In closing this 8th Terzaghi Oration, I return to Professor
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Ralph B. Peck, who early in his career, already defined the civil
Minimum improvement in FS required  through topographical modifications (%) engineer’s role in a most adequate manner. The key to success
and happiness, in his view, was “[...] a love of civil engineering,
1.5
which, at its core, seeks to do 'good works' for humanity”. In
view of today’s needs and our profession’s evolution, Ralph
could not have been more right.
Required M after improgvement

1.4

14 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
1.3

The author wishes to thank President Jean-Louis Briaud for selecting


1.2
her to be the 2013 Terzaghi Orator. The author is also thankful to NGI
for the opportunities it gave her throughout her career. The author is in-
debted to many colleagues who provided data and information for the
1.1 Substantial improvement required case studies, especially Dr Hans-Peter Jostad, Håkon Heyerdahl, Bjørn
Kalsnes Dr Maarten Vanneste, Arnstein Aarset, Dr Farrokh Nadim, Odd
Improvement required
Gregersen, Dr Andi A Pfaffhuber,Tim Gregory and Dr Kaare Höeg, all
1
1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
from NGI. The assistance and prompt reply to my questions from Pro-
Initial material coefficient,  M fessor Steinar Nordal, from NTNU, Dr Denis Demers and his colleagues
at Ministère des Transport du Québec and Dr Chris Bunce from Cana-
dian Pacific are also greatly appreciated.
Figure 40. Required increase in material coefficient (top diagram, NVE
2011) and resulting required material coefficient (lower diagram) for an
existing (standing) slope. 15 REFERENCES
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Bryn P., Berg K., Solheim A., Kvalstad T.J. and Forsberg C.F. 2005. Lacasse S. 2013. Wizard for GeoSuite software. Paper to 2013 Cana-
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Marine and Petroleum Geology 22: 299-310. Special Report 176, TRB, National Research Council, Washington,
Lacasse S. and Boisard, P. Recurrent sliding of underwater slope on Cap D.C., pp.11-33.
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Judgement. The Skempton Conference, Proc. London. 2, 856-867

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Proceedings of the 18 International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Bishop
Bishop Lecture
lecture
Advanced laboratory testing in research and practice
Conférence Bishop
Les essais en laboratoire avancés dans la recherche et dans l'industrie

Jardine R. J.
Imperial College London, UK

ABSTRACT: This lecture demonstrates the special capabilities and practical value of Advanced Laboratory Testing, focusing on its
application in advancing the understanding and prediction of how driven piles function and perform in sand. Emphasis is placed on
integrating laboratory research with analysis and field observations, drawing principally on work by the Author, his colleagues and
research group. The laboratory studies include highly instrumented static and cyclic stress-path triaxial experiments, hollow cylinder
and ring-shear interface tests and micro-mechanical research. Soil element testing is combined with model studies in large laboratory
calibration chambers, full-scale field investigations and numerical simulations to help advance fundamental methods for predicting pile
behaviour that have important implications and applications, particularly in offshore engineering.

RÉSUMÉ: Cet exposé décrit les possibilités offertes par les essais en laboratoire de pointe, et en particulier sur leurs apports dans la
compréhension et la prévision du comportement des pieux battus dans du sable. L'accent est mis sur l’intégration entre les essais en
laboratoire et les observations sur le terrain, à partir des travaux de l'Auteur, ses collègues et leur groupe de recherche. Les essais décris
incluent des essais triaxiaux statiques et cycliques avec des appareils suréquipés, des essais au triaxial à cylindre creux, des études
d'interfaces pieu/sable à l'aide d'appareils de cisaillement annulaire et des recherches sur la micro-mécanique. Les essais en laboratoire
sont combinés à des expériences en chambre de calibration, des études « grandeur nature » sur site et des simulations numériques afin
d'aider à l'amélioration des méthodes de prévision du comportement des pieux, qui ont des conséquences importantes en pratique,
notamment pour l'industrie offshore.
KEYWORDS: Sand; laboratory element tests; non-linearity anisotropy breakage time-dependence; driven piles; field and model tests
MOTS-CLÉS: Sable ; tests élémentaires en laboratoire; non-linearité, anisotropie, fragmentation; comportement en fonction du temps;
pieu battu; pieu foncé; tests sur le terrain

1 INTRODUCTION be addressed fully or reliably with currently available


conventional design tools. Database studies and prediction
The Bishop Lecture was inaugurated by Technical Committee competitions have quantified the significant biases and scatters
TC-101 (formerly TC-29) of the ISSMGE, honouring the legacy associated with conventional practice. The Coefficients of
of Professor Alan Bishop (1920-1988), the leading figure of his Variation (CoV) established by contrasting axial capacity
generation in geotechnical laboratory experiments and predictions with field tests typically fall around 0.5 to 0.7. Some
equipment design. Bishop was well known for his meticulous methods’ predictions scatter around half the measurements while
attention to detail, analytical rigour and application of others tend to double the test values (Briaud and Tucker 1988).
fundamental research in civil engineering practice. His The capacity CoVs can be halved and biases largely eliminated
contributions to soil sampling and testing were summarised in by applying modern ‘offshore’ methods (Jardine et al 2005b,
the last major keynote he gave, at the Stockholm ICSMFE; Lehane et al 2005). But displacement predictions remain
Bishop 1981. Similarly admirable attributes were clear in the unreliable under axial, lateral or moment loads. It is also unclear
first Bishop Lecture presented by Tatsuoka 2011, making the how cyclic or extended loading should be considered: Kallehave
invitation to deliver the 2nd Lecture both a considerable et al 2012, Jardine et al 2012. Improving understanding and
challenge and a poignant honour for this former student of predictive ability will benefit a broad range of applications,
Bishop and Skempton. The lives, work and archived papers of especially in offshore energy developments.
the latter two pioneers are described together in a website hosted The Author’s research with displacement piles in sand
by Imperial College: www.cv.ic.ac.uk/SkemArchive/index.htm. started with highly instrumented field model piles at Labenne
Our key aim is to demonstrate the special capabilities and (SW France, Lehane et al 1993) and Dunkerque (N France,
practical value of Advanced Laboratory Testing, mirroring Chow 1997), where full-scale testing followed. We review some
Bishop’s work and TC-101’s intent in the International of the full-scale test results below before considering new
Symposia (IS) it convened in Hokkaido 1994, London 1997, research prompted by some surprising and significant results.
Torino 1999, Lyon 2003, Atlanta 2008 and Seoul 2011. We The Dunkerque profile comprises medium-dense fine-to-
focus on the mechanics of piles driven in sand, a practical medium clean silica Holocene marine sand overlain by hydraulic
problem that was thought fully resistant to ‘theoretical sand fill. Jardine et al 2006, Jardine and Standing 2012 and
refinement’ by Terzaghi and Peck 1967. The illustration draws Rimoy et al 2013 give details of the geotechnical profiles, pile
principally on work by the Author, his colleagues and research driving records and testing methods. Static and cyclic axial
group. In keeping with Bishop’s approach, emphasis is placed on loading tests were conducted on multiple piles, including six
integrating laboratory research, analysis and field observation. 19.3m long 457mm outside diameter driven steel pipe-piles: R1
The selected topic is significant industrially. Pile stiffness, to R6. Static axial testing involved a Maintained-Load (ML)
capacity, cyclic response and long-term behaviour can be procedure where load (Q) was applied initially in 200 kN steps
critically important to, for example, wind-turbine foundations. that reduced as the tests progressed. Loads were held constant
However, the key geomechanics issues are complex and cannot

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Proceedings of the 18 International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

until creep rates slowed to pre-set limits; the piles took between An objective assessment was made of how well the
several hours and 1.5 days to reach failure. More rapid ML Dunkerque pile tests could be predicted by well-qualified
tension tests that achieved failure with an hour were also engineers by inviting entries to an open competition that
conducted after cyclic loading experiments. Testing rate was concentrated on the static and cyclic tests conducted ≈ 80 days
found to affect displacements but have little influence on shaft after driving; Jardine et al 2001a. Over 30 (many prominent)
capacity. The cyclic tests were controlled to deliver international practitioners and academics took part, sending in a
approximately sine-wave load variations at ≈ 1 cycle/minute. wide spread of predictions. The axial capacity estimates
The static testing investigated, among other factors, the confirmed the expected CoV of 0.6, as well as significant bias;
effects of pile age after driving. Figure 1 presents tension tests the stiffness predictions were similarly spread.
on three identical piles that were aged for 9 to 235 days before No competitor was prepared to predict the cyclic test
being failed for the first time. We note: outcomes; some indicated that cycling should have no effect in
clean sand. Figure 3 illustrates the field outcomes in a cyclic
 The load displacement (Q – δ) curves are practically failure interaction diagram. The conditions under which 13 tests
identical up to Q ≈ 1 MN but then diverge to show marked ended in failure and one developed a fully stable response are
increases in Qult (the ultimate load shaft capacity) with age. summarised by plotting the normalised cyclic load amplitude
 Creep displacements (dδ/dt when dQ/dt = 0) were negligible Qcyc/Qmax static against the average mid-cycle load Qmean/Qmax static
until Q > 1 MN after which creep became progressively where Qmax static = QT current tension capacity. If cycling and
more important, finally dominating as failure approached. testing rate had no effect, then failures should lie on the ‘top-left
to bottom-right’ diagonal static capacity line: Qcyc + Qmean = QT
Load-displacement behaviour was highly non-linear. The in Fig. 3. However, the cyclic test failure points all fell well
overall pile head secant stiffnesses k = Q/δ all fell as loading below this limit, proving a negative impact that grew directly
continued with no discernible ‘linear-elastic’ plateau. This with Qcyc/Qmean. High-level two-way (tension and compression)
feature is highlighted in Fig. 2 with data from ‘1st time’ tension cycling could halve shaft capacity within a few tens of cycles.
tests on five ‘R’ piles. The pile stiffnesses, kl, are normalised by Rimoy et al 2013 discuss the piles’ permanent displacement
kRef, the value developed under QRef - the first (200 kN) load and cyclic stiffness trends, noting also that their non-linear cyclic
step. The loads Q are normalised by QRef. stiffnesses depended primarily on Qcyc/QT and did not vary
greatly with the number of cycles (N) until failure approached.
The permanent displacement trends were more complex,
depending also on Qmean/QT and N. Interactions were seen
between the piles’ ageing and cyclic behaviours: low-level
cycling accelerated capacity growth while high-level cycling
slowed or reversed the beneficial capacity trend.

Fig. 1. Load-displacement curves from first-time tension failures on


Dunkerque piles R1, R2 and R6: Jardine et al 2006

1.0

0.8
Fig. 3. Axial cyclic interaction diagram for full–scale cyclic tests on piles
driven at Dunkerque: Jardine & Standing 2012
0.6
We consider below eight research themes that addressed the
kl/kRef

shortfalls in understanding revealed by the Dunkerque tests:


0.4
1. Characterising the sands’ true stress-strain relationships,
correlating advanced laboratory and in-situ measurements.
2. Checking, through Finite Element (FE) modelling, whether
0.2 R2 - R6 laboratory-based non-linear predictive approaches led to
better matches with full scale behaviour.
3. Stress-path laboratory testing programmes that investigated
0.0 creep and ageing trends.
0 5 10 15 20
4. Studying the stress conditions imposed by pile installation
Q/QRef through highly instrumented Calibration Chamber tests.
Fig. 2. Stiffness load-factor curves from 1st time tests at Dunkerque 5. Grain-crushing and interface-shear zone studies involving
conducted (except R6) around 80 days after driving: Rimoy et al 2013 high pressure triaxial, ring-shear and laser particle analysis.
6. Quantitative checking against advanced numerical analyses.

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Proceedings of the 18 International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

7. Model-pile Calibration Chamber cyclic loading experiments.


100
8. Cyclic soil element tests to replicate pile loading conditions.

Percentage fine by weight (%)


A common theme is that sands show strong non-linearity, 80
plasticity and time dependency from very small strains and have
markedly anisotropic properties. It is argued that their overall
60
responses can be understood within a critical state soil
mechanics framework, provided that the above features are
accommodated and the importance of particle breakage is 40
recognised, especially under high pressures and within abrading
shear bands. Space constraints limit the details that can be 20
Dunkerque, Kuwano(1999)
reported for the various studies cited, or the reviews that can be new-HRS Kuwano (1999)
NE34, Yang et al. (2010)
made of research by other groups. However, PhD theses and co-
TVS, Rimoy & Jardine (2011)
authored articles are cited to cover the main omissions. 0
0.01 0.1 1 10
Particle size (mm)
Fig. 4. Summary of particle size distributions for granular media
2 CHARACTERISING STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOUR employed in reported laboratory research

Bishop recognised at an early stage that geotechnical stress-


strain measurements are constrained heavily by equipment
capabilities. ISSMGE Technical Committee 29 (now TC-101)
was set up to coordinate advanced laboratory developments,
leading to a review of apparatus, sensors and testing strategies by
Tatsuoka et al 1999. The hydraulic stress path cells and Hollow
Cylinder Apparatus (HCA) advocated by Bishop and Wesley
1974 and Bishop 1981 allow in-situ stress conditions to be
imposed and studies made of shear strength anisotropy; see for
example Hight et al 1983 and Shibuya et al 2003a,b. Burland and
Symes 1982 and Jardine et al 1984 went onto show that end-
bedding, sample tilting and compliance caused very large errors
in conventional geotechnical strain measurements that often led
to completely misleading soil stiffness characteristics. Local
strain sensors or dynamic non-destructive techniques are
required to obtain representative data: see Tatsuoka et al 1999.
Laboratory research with such equipment that contributed to
the first phase of research that advanced the “Dunkerque
agenda” included the PhD studies of Porovic 1995, who worked
with a Resonant Column (RC) equipped HCA and Kuwano 1999
who developed dual-axis Bender Elements (BE) and enhanced
resolution local strain sensors for stress-path triaxial tests.
Porovic worked mainly with Ham River Sand (HRS), a silica
sand graded from Thames Valley gravels that has been tested
since Bishop’s arrival at Imperial College and is now known
generically as Thames Valley Sand (TVS); Takahashi and
Jardine 2007. Kuwano studied Dunkerque sand, spherical glass
ballotini and HRS; Connolly 1998 undertook RC and HCA
experiments on Dunkerque sand. The sands were tested saturated
after pluviation to the desired initial void ratios; Table 1 and Fig.
4 summarise their index properties. Figures 5 to 7 illustrate the
apparatus employed in this first period of ‘sand’ research. We
consider studies with the Thames Valley (TVS) and French
Fontainebleau NE34 sands later in the paper.

Table 1. Index properties of silica sands employed in laboratory studies.

Specific d10 d50 d90


Sand Cu emax emin
gravity (Gs) (mm) (mm) (mm)

Dunkerque 2.65 0.188 0.276 0.426 2.27 0.97 0.51

NE34 2.65 0.150 0.210 0.230 1.53 0.90 0.51

HRS 2.66 0.190 0.283 0.312 1.64 0.85 0.55

Fig. 5. Automated hydraulic stress path triaxial cell for 100mm OD


TVS 2.66 0.160 0.250 0.265 1.67 0.85 0.55 specimens employed to investigate non-linear, anisotropic, pressure and
time-dependent stiffness of sands: Kuwano and Jardine 1998, 2002a

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Proceedings of the 18 International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

(Y1) true yield surface that is dragged with the current effective
stress point, growing and shrinking with p΄ and changing in
shape with proximity to the outer, Y3 surface; Jardine 1992. The
latter corresponds to the yield surface recognised in classical
critical state soil mechanics. Behaviour within the true Y1 yield
surface is highly anisotropic, following patterns that evolve if K,
the ratio of the radial to vertical effective stress (K = σ΄r /σ΄z),
changes. Plastic straining commences once the Y1 surface is
engaged and becomes progressively more important as straining
continues along any monotonic path. An intermediate kinematic
Y2 surface was identified that marks: (i) potential changes in
strain increment directions, (ii) the onset of marked strain-rate or
time dependency and (iii) a threshold condition in cyclic tests (as
noted by Vucetic 1994) beyond which permanent strains (or p΄
reductions in constant volume tests) accumulate significantly.
The Y3 surface is generally anisotropic. For example, the
marked undrained shear strength anisotropy of sands has been
identified in earlier HCA studies (Menkiti 1995, Porovic 1995,
Shibuya et al 2003a,b) on HRS. The surface can be difficult to
define under drained conditions where volumetric strains
dominate. Kuwano and Jardine 2007 suggested that its evolution
could be mapped by tracking the incremental ratios of plastic to
Fig. 6. Bender element configuration to investigate stiffness of sands: total strains. They also suggested that the Phase Transformation
Kuwano and Jardine 1998, 2002a process (identified by Ishihara et al 1975, in which specimens
that are already yielding under shear in a contractant style could
switch abruptly to follow a dilatant pattern) could be considered
as a further (Y4) stage of progressive yielding. Jardine et al
2001b argue that the above in-elastic features can be explained
Displacement by micro-mechanical grain contact yielding/slipping and force
Transducer Bellofram cylinder
chain buckling processes. The breakage of grains, which
becomes important under high pressures, has also been referred
Ram
to as yielding: see Muir-Wood 2008 or Bandini and Coop 2011.
HCA testing is necessary to investigate stiffness anisotropy
Clamp
Sprocket and torque
post-Y1 yielding; Zdravkovic and Jardine 1997. However, cross-
transmission chain anisotropic elastic parameter sets can be obtained within Y1 by
Stepper motor for
torsion Rotary tension cylinder
assuming rate independence and combining very small-strain
axial and radial stress probing experiments with multi-axis shear
wave measurements. Kuwano 1999 undertook hundreds of such
tests under a wide range of stress conditions, confirming the
Tie rod Hardin oscillator elastic stiffness Equations 1 to 5. Ageing periods were imposed
in all tests before making any change in stress path direction to
ensure that residual creep rates reduced to low proportions
Cam Proximity transducers
(typically <1/100) of those that would be developed in the next
test stage. Note that the function used to normalise for variations
Acrylic chamber wall
in void ratio (e) is f (e) = (2.17 – e)2/(1 + e).
Specimen
Eu  f ( e ). Au . p  / pr  (1)
Bu

Load cell

E v'  f (e). Av .  v' / p r Cv
(2)

Outer cell and pore water


pressure transducers 
E h'  f ( e). Ah .  h' / p r 
Dh
(3)


Gvh  f (e). Avh .  v' / pr  .
Cvh '
h / pr 
Dvh
(4)


Ghh  f (e). Ahh .  v' / p r  .
Chh '
h / pr  Dhh
(5)
To foundation

Fig. 7. Schematic arrangements of Resonant-Column HCA system The terms Aij, Bij, Cij and Dij are non-dimensional material
employed to test sands: Nishimura et al 2007 constants and pr is atmospheric pressure. With Dunkerque sand
the values of Bu and the sum [Cij + Dij] of the exponents
applying to Equations 1 to 5 fell between 0.5 and 0.6. The
Kuwano and Jardine 1998, 2002a,b noted the high sensor equations are evaluated and plotted against depth in Fig. 8
resolution and stability required to track sands’ stress-strain adopting Kuwano’s sets of coefficients (Aij, Bij, Cij and Dij)
responses from their (very limited) pseudo-elastic ranges through combined with the Dunkerque unit weight profile, water table
to ultimate (large strain) failure. Even when the standard depth and an estimated K0 = 1 – sin φ΄ for the normally
deviations in strain measurements fall below 10-6, and those for consolidated sand. A single void ratio (0.61) has been adopted
stresses below 0.05kPa, multiple readings and averaging are for this illustration that matches the expected mean, although the
required to establish initial stiffness trends. Highly flexible CPT qc profiles point to significant fluctuations with depth in
stress-path control systems are also essential. void ratio and state. Also shown is the in-situ Gvh profile
Kuwano and Jardine 2007 emphasise that behaviour can only measured with seismic CPT tests and DMT tests conducted by
be considered elastic within a very limited kinematic hardening the UK Building Research Establishment (Chow 1997).

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The sand’s marked quasi-elastic stiffness anisotropy is and anisotropic behaviour of geomaterials and how they respond
clearly evident. Under OCR = 1, K0 conditions the E'v/E'h ratio is to the general stress paths applied by field foundation loading.
~ 1.7 while E'v/Gvh ~ 3.9. The pattern of anisotropy varies with
OCR and applied K ratio. The field quasi-elastic seismic CPT
Gvh profile matches that from HCA Resonant Column tests by 3 COMPARING LABORATORY_BASED PREDICTIONS
Connolly 1998 and falls marginally (≈12%) above Kuwano’s WITH FIELD BEHAVIOUR
Bender Element Gvh profile.
The degree of match between laboratory and field stiffness
Elastic stiffness, MPa trends was investigated through fully non-linear FE simulations
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 with the code ICFEP (Potts and Zdravkovic 1999, 2001).
0 Several of the ‘80 day’ Dunkerque tests were modelled. The key
Legend: aspects emphasised by Jardine et al 2005a were:
Eu from TXC tests
E`v from TXC tests
5 E`h from TX tests
Gvh from TX BE tests
 Meshing to accommodate eight ‘density’ sub-layers, based
Ghh from TX BE tests on pile-specific CPTs, with bulk unit weights varying above
Gvh from field seism. CPT tests
and below the water table from 17.1 to 20 kN/m3.
10  Following triaxial and direct shear tests by Kuwano 1999,
Depth, m

peak φ΄ values ranging between 35o and 32o for the dense-
to-loose sand sub-layers, dilation angles ψ = φ΄/2 and a
15 single pile-sand interface shear angle δ΄ = 28o.
 Non-linear shear and bulk stiffnesses curves fitted to
laboratory test data with simple effective stress functions
20 from Jardine and Potts 1988 (after Jardine et al 1986).
 Noting that pile loading imposes vertical shearing on the
shaft and axial loading at the base, a normalised ‘dense’
25 shear stiffness relationship was selected that was biased
towards the OCR = 1 torsional shear HCA curve in Fig. 9.
Fig 8. Quasi-elastic stiffness component profiles at Dunkerque. Seismic  A normalised ‘dense’ bulk stiffness-volume strain curve
CPT Gvh profile also shown: Jardine et al 2005a fitted from Kuwano’s swelling/re-compression tests and
adjusted to meet K0 swelling effective stress path checks.
Dunkerque dense sand secant shear stiffness data OCR=1
 Softer stiffness curves (factored by 0.8) for the thin
‘organic’ loose sub-layers identified from the CPT traces.
1400
 Effective stress regimes that were simplified to give
Legend: constant stress ratios σr/σz0 near the pile shaft within each
Curve used for FE analysis
1200
TC test curve OCR=1 block (where σz0 is the undisturbed vertical effective stress)
TE test curve OCR=1 that decayed monotonically out to far-field K0 values. The
1000 TS test curve for OCR=1 shaft radial stresses were derived following the Jardine et al
2005b procedures, adjusted to account for the piles’ 80 day
800 ages. Estimates for how σθ/σz0 and σz/σz0 varied at points
away from the shaft could only be based on judgement.
G/p'

600 2500

400

2000
200

0
Pile resistance, Q (MN)

0.001 0.01 0.1 1


 s, % 1500

Fig 9. Experimental shear stiffness-shear strain invariant curves with


ICFEP analysis curve: Jardine et al 2005a
1000

The Dunkerque HCA and triaxial tests demonstrated how


stiffness anisotropy persists after Y1 yielding and degrades with
strain. Fig. 9 illustrates the shear stiffness trends from undrained 500
TC (Triaxial Compression), TE (Triaxial Extension), which Legend:
should converge within the very small strain elastic region, along predicted - ICFEP
observed
with TS (HCA Torsional Shear) experiments. The stiffnesses are
normalised by p΄, as the stress level exponent was higher over 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
this range than in the ‘Y1 bubble’ and approaches unity at 0.1%.
Pile cap displacement,  (mm)
The tests on K0 consolidated samples were all sheared from p΄=
200 kPa at OCR = 1. Higher stiffness ratios were developed in
other tests conducted at OCR = 2; Jardine et al 2005a. Fig 10. Predicted and (end of load stage) measured load-displacement
Advanced laboratory testing offers the only means of making curves: 80day test on R6: Jardine et al 2005a.
such accurate measurements of the non-linear, time-dependent Figure 10 compares the non-linear FE analysis with the ‘end-
of-increment’ Q-δ envelope curve for pile R6 shown in Fig. 1.

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The pile’s overall capacity was well predicted, as were pile head Pressure-dependent elastic stiffness functions (Equations 1 to
movements up to half QT. The approach gave broadly successful 5) established from parallel tests were integrated to calculate the
numerical predictions for all piles’ initial stiffness responses contribution of elastic straining dεe to the overall total (elastic-
under compression and cyclic loading as well as insights into the plastic) strains dεep developed over each test stage. Figure 12
shaft shear stress distributions, the strain fields and potential illustrates the void-ratio (e) - p΄ relationships obtained from the
group interaction effects: see Jardine and Potts 1988. K0 normally consolidated stage of test H4 on an HRS specimen
Lateral/moment loading responses and group analyses may be prepared to the average relative density applying to the
considered through 3-D approaches (Potts and Zdravkovic Dunkerque field profile. The average dεe/dεep ratios applying
2001). Stiffness anisotropy can be addressed within the same during loading (dp΄/dt > 0) stages fall from 0.30 to 0.23 as
non-linear framework: Addenbrooke et al 1997. However, the loading continues, indicating an increasingly plastic response.
time-independent FE analysis could not predict the large creep However, the additional plastic strains developed during creep
movements that developed in the field, following a stick-slip stages (where dp΄/dt = dεe/dεep = 0) become progressively more
pattern, as failure approached. New research was required into significant as loading continued and contributed the major part
of the overall ‘consolidation’ strains (εcon) by the end of the test.
several aspects of behaviour:
The latter point is emphasised in Fig. 13 by plotting the
proportion of the overall consolidation strain εcon that was due to
 The time dependent processes of ageing and creep. creep εcre during the pause periods of test H4 and two otherwise
 The stress regime set up in the soil mass by driving. identical experiments on loose HRS and medium-dense, nearly
 How cycling affects stiffness, capacity and permanent spherical, GB. Overall, the relative contribution of creep appears
displacements. to (i) grow with stress level and grain angularity and (ii) fall with
initial void ratio, OCR and stress ratio K = σ΄3/σ΄1. Jardine and
Kuwano 2002a also show that creep strain rates decay inversely
4 INVESTIGATING TIME-DEPENDENT BEHAVIOUR with time over the first few hours. Jardine et al 2001b offer
observations on the micro-mechanical processes that control the
We consider below laboratory research designed to experimental behaviour seen in triaxial and HCA tests.
investigate the time-dependent behaviour of piles driven in sand.
However, we note first that Bishop also recognised the need to
consider time effects carefully. Late in his career, he designed
elegant triaxial cells that used long, soft, adjustable mechanical
springs to provide uninterruptable and easily controlled long-
term deviator force actuators. Davies 1975 reports long-term
tests on natural clays conducted with several of the cells
described by Bishop 1981. We also note Tatsuoka’s 2011 very
thorough exploration of time-dependency in his Bishop Lecture.
Sand properties are often considered independent of rate and
time. However, long-term field observations reveal that
settlements can double or more under shallow foundations on
sand through long-term creep; Burland and Burbridge 1984,
Frank 1994 or Jardine et al 2005a. Kuwano and Jardine 2002a
reviewed the stringent experimental requirements necessary for
investigating the creep of sands through triaxial tests: very stable
high-resolution, local strain sensors are required, as are high
quality pressure and temperature control systems. Membrane
penetration has to be considered carefully; lubricated low-
friction sample ends are also recommended.

Fig. 12. Overall e-p΄ relationship of K0 compression tests on medium-


Fig. 11. Effective stress paths followed in drained ‘Creep’ stress path dense HRS, showing ratios dεe/dεep of elastic to plastic strains and time-
tests on HRS and GB specimens: Kuwano and Jardine 2002a dependent compression over creep stages (C): Jardine et al 2001b.

Kuwano and Jardine illustrated aspects of short-term creep


behaviour through tests on saturated Ham River Sand (HRS) and It is argued later that the kinematic conditions applying close
Glass Ballotini (GB) specimens prepared at various initial to the shafts of displacement piles impose approximately
densities. The tests advanced along the drained ‘near isotropic’ constant volume conditions. The constant volume creep response
and ‘K0’ stress paths set out in Fig. 11 at mean stress rates dp΄/dt is illustrated in Fig. 14 by showing first the effective stress path
of around 100 kPa per hour. The paths were punctuated, as followed by an isotropically normally consolidated medium-
indicated, by periods ‘C’ where samples were allowed to creep dense HRS specimen that was allowed to creep to a stable
under constant stresses for several hours. condition before being sheared undrained in triaxial compression

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under a constant axial rate of 0.5%/hour, punctuated by seven medium-dense TVS sand (see Fig. 4 and Table 1) in the
constant stress creep pauses. advanced hydraulic stress path cell system illustrated in Fig 16.
Figure 15 presents the strain-time (ε – t) responses observed
over the undrained creep stages. Note: (i) very little creep before
the Y2 surface is engaged (at q ≈ 30 kPa ≈ 0.15p΄) (ii) the post
Y2 family of ε – t curves in which creep rates grow exponentially
with q (iii) a marked softening of the stress-strain response and
anti-clockwise effective stress path rotation at the Y3 stage
(when q ≈ 160 kPa), (iv) the Y4 Phase Transformation Point (at q
≈ 200 kPa, p΄ ≈ 170 kPa when q/p΄ approaches Mcritical state) and
(v) a second family of ε – t curves applying post Y4 showing
creep rates that grow slowly as q increases very significantly.

Fig. 15. Strain-time paths followed in seven undrained ‘Creep stages’ of


stress-path test H2 on HRS specimen indentified in Fig. 14: Kuwano and
Jardine 2002a

Fig. 13. Ratios of creep strains εcre to total consolidation axial strains εcon
in K0 compression tests on HRS and GB specimens following paths
shown in Fig. 11: Kuwano and Jardine 2002a

p΄ (kPa)
Fig. 14. Effective stress paths followed in undrained ‘Creep’ stress-path
test H2 on HRS specimen: Kuwano and Jardine 2002a
The triaxial trends bear out the pile load-test trends in Fig. 1
for ‘creep-yielding’ (noted at Q ≈ 1 MN with the R piles)
followed by creep rates that rise rapidly with each subsequent
load step. It is clear that time-dependency has an important Fig. 16. Advanced IC automated hydraulic stress-path triaxial apparatus
impact on both laboratory and field pre-failure behaviour. and instrumentation for 100mm OD specimens described by Gasparre et
We consider next longer-term triaxial stress path al 2007 and employed by Rimoy and Jardine 2011
experiments designed to investigate the interactions between pile
ageing and low-level cyclic loading noted by Jardine et al 2006.
Rimoy and Jardine 2011 report suites of tests conducted on

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Proceedings of the 18 International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

1000 and increases in K0. Bowman and Soga (2005) noted similar
features in independent experiments, speculating that this feature
might play a significant role in pile capacity growth with age.
Rimoy and Jardine 2012 also explored interactions between
800 creep and low-level cyclic loading. Figure 20 plots the εs - t
trends from tests where the deviator stresses q were varied by
one cycle per minute (as in the Dunkerque pile tests) while
600 True creep or keeping p΄ constant. The cycling commenced as soon as the
stress path arrived at the desired p΄ level with (half peak-to-
q (kPa)

cyclic loading with


trough) amplitudes qcyc equal to 5, 10 and 15% of p΄. The cyclic
CSL 1.33 constant p' tests showed augmented rates of permanent strain development,
400
which in the qcyc = 0.15p΄ test doubled those seen in the ‘true
True creep creep’ experiment. Other experiments showed that prior drained
0.868 ageing (creep) or overconsolidation slow permanent strain
200 Cyclic loading development.
with constant p'
Ko line 0.20
Creep, p' = 600kPa
0
0.16 Creep, p' = 400kPa
0 200 400 600 800 1000
p' (kPa)

V o lu m etric strain s (% )
Creep, p' = 200kPa
Fig. 17. Effective stress paths followed in creep-cyclic interaction stress- 0.12
path triaxial tests on TVS specimens: Rimoy and Jardine 2011
0.08
Figure 17 sets out the effective stress paths followed by
Rimoy and Jardine 2011, indicating the pause points at which 0.04
drained creep straining was observed for 2 to 4 day durations
under constant stresses - either in an undisturbed ‘true’ state or in 0.00
combination with low-level drained cyclic loading.
-0.04
0.20% 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
minutes
Creep, p' = 600kPa
0.18%
Creep, p' = 400kPa Fig. 19. Volume strain-time trends followed in ‘true creep’ stages of
0.16% stress-path triaxial tests on TVS specimens: Rimoy and Jardine 2011
Creep, p' = 200kPa
Shear strain invariant (% )

0.14%
0.12% 0.30
qcyc, 0.05p' = 30kPa
0.10%
0.25 qcyc, 0.025p' = 15kPa
0.08%
qcyc, 0.015p' = 10kPa
0.06% 0.20
ε c y c a x ia l - ε c re ep (% )

0.04%
0.02% 0.15
0.00%
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 0.10
minutes
Fig. 18. Shear strain invariant-time trends followed in ‘true creep’ stages 0.05
of stress-path triaxial tests on TVS specimens: Rimoy and Jardine 2011
0.00
Figures 18 and 19 show the volumetric and shear strain 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
invariant responses observed during ‘true’ creep at three p΄ Cycles
levels, showing stable and consistent trends. While the invariant
Fig. 20. Shear strain invariant-time trends from cyclic stress-path tests on
shear strain increased monotonically with time and p΄ level, the TVS specimens conducted at 1cycle/minute: Rimoy and Jardine 2011
volumetric trends reversed when εs exceeded ≈ 0.015% after
several hours and diverged strongly from the initially near K0
pattern, where dεa/dεvol = 1 and dεs/dεvol = 2/3 for zero radial More complex interactions are revealed by plotting εs against
strains. Monotonically continuing shear distortion led to sharp εvol in Fig. 21. It can be seen that cyclic loading retards the shift
rotation of strain increment directions, eventually establishing a from contractive-to-dilative volumetric response. The time-
steady trend for dεs/dεvol ≈ -1. dependent Y2 point is pushed forward in terms of both creep
This interesting kinematic yielding trend, which was not duration and shear strain developed. Low-level cyclic loading
apparent in the shorter duration creep tests investigated by does not simply accelerate creep. It also holds back and probably
Kuwano 1999, can be seen as the (stationary) effective stress expands the time-dependent kinematic Y2 surface. It is
point engaging a kinematic yield surface that is moving with interesting that low-level cycling enhances pile capacity growth,
respect to time or strain rate. Given the final strain increment suggesting that the delayed dilation mechanism may be playing a
direction, it appears that the Y2 ‘bubble’ has moved rightwards more complex role than had been appreciated in pile axial
with time and the fixed effective stress point has engaged its capacity growth with time. The laboratory tests provide critical
leftward limit. Under strain-controlled K0 conditions any radial data against which new time-dependent and kinematic yielding
dilation has to be suppressed, leading to radial effective stresses models may be tested.

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0.35 soil sensors. Zhu et al 2009 focus on the sensors’ calibrations


qcyc/p' = 0.05 p'=600kPa and performance, emphasizing the care needed to address non-
linear and hysteretic cell action.
0.30 qcyc/p' = 0.025 p'=600kPa
qcyc/p' = 0.015 p'=600kPa
Shear strains invariant (%)

0.25
Pure creep at p' = 600kPa
0.20 Pure creep at p' = 400kPa
Pure creep at p' = 200kPa
0.15
Ko line
0.10

0.05
Yield points
0.00
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35
Volumetric strains (%)

Fig. 21. Shear strain invariant-volume strain trends followed in creep-


cyclic interaction stress-path triaxial tests on TVS specimens: Rimoy and
Jardine 2011

5 ESTABLISHING THE STRESS CONDITIONS


DEVELOPED AROUND LABORATORY MODEL Fig. 22. Schematic arrangements for fully instrumented environmentally
DISPLACEMENT PILES controlled Calibration Chamber Mini-ICP tests: Jardine et al. 2009
10
The laboratory element testing described above reveals highly
non-linear, anisotropic, time-dependent and in-elastic stress-
1500
strain behaviour. These features depend critically on the
samples’ effective stress states and stress histories. However, the 1400
lack of knowledge regarding the effective stress regime set up in
the surrounding sand mass when piles are driven called for 1300
further research. Calibration Chamber experiments offered the 1200
promise of new insights that would help to link laboratory d
element tests and field pile behaviour. 1100 Axial load
Laboratory Calibration Chambers (CC) were developed
originally to aid field SPT and CPT interpretation in sands. 1000 Surface stress transducer
Multiple test series have been conducted on uniform (well-
Distance from pile tip, h (mm)

900
characterized) sand masses under controlled pressure or
displacement boundary conditions; see for example Baldi et al 800
1986 or Huang and Hsu 2005. Laboratory CCs also provide Trailing cluster
700
scope for measuring stresses in soil masses around model piles
(during and after installation) and also allow ‘post-mortem’ sand 600
sampling; these activities are far more difficult to perform in
field tests. 500
Joint research with Professor Foray’s group at the Institut Following cluster
400
National Polytechnique de Grenoble (INPG) has included a
comprehensive study of the stresses developed around closed- 300
ended displacement piles. Cone-ended ‘Mini-ICP’ stainless-
steel, moderately rough (RCLA ≈ 3μm) piles with 18mm radii R 200 Leading cluster and
(the same as a standard CPT probe) were penetrated 1m into dry, Pile tip
pressurized, and highly instrumented medium-dense
100 
Fontainebleau NE 34 silica sand. NE 34 has the index properties 0

shown in Fig. 4 and Table 1 and is broadly comparable to the 1 1
earlier discussed Dunkerque, HRS and TVS sands. Jardine et al
2009 detail the general experimental arrangements outlined in
Fig. 22. Cyclic jacking, with full unloading between strokes, was Fig. 23. Schematic of laboratory Mini-ICP pile with three levels
imposed to simulate pile driving installation. of Surface Stress Transducers, as well as Axial Load Cells,
The Mini-ICP instrumentation included reduced-scale temperature sensors and inclinometers: Jardine et al 2009
Surface Stress Transducers that measure radial and shear shaft
stresses at radial distances r/R = 1 from the pile axis at three Upper annular membranes were used to apply a surcharge
levels, as shown on Fig. 23. Measurements were also made of pressure of σ΄zo ≈ 150 kPa to the sand mass. Separate CPT tests
σ΄z, σ΄θ and σ΄r at two to three levels in the sand mass at radial established qc profiles for various boundary conditions. As
distances between 2 and 20R from the pile axis using miniature shown in Fig. 24, two alternative membrane designs gave quasi-

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Proceedings of the 18 International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

constant CPT trace sections with qc = 21±2 MPa, although this penetration (σ΄rm) stages. The results are normalized for local qc
was achieved at a shallower depth with the smaller Internal and plotted with cylindrical co-ordinates defined relative to the
Diameter (ID) membrane. Also shown is the qc profile predicted pile tip. Normalised vertical distances (h/R) above are positive,
by Zhang et al 2013 that is discussed later. points below have negative h/R. Separate plots were derived for
Rimoy 2013 describes more recent experiments with the ‘stationary’ pause radial stresses (σ΄rs points) recorded when the
same equipment, noting that axial capacities from multiple load pile head was unloaded fully. Moving and stationary contour sets
tests agree encouragingly well with predictions made with the were also reported for the vertical (σ΄z) and hoop (σ΄θ) stresses.
‘field-calibrated’ capacity approach outlined by Jardine et al
2005b, which gave good results for the Dunkerque field tests. 3.0

qc (MPa) 2.5 (a)


0 5 10 15 20 25
2.0
h/R=5.6

rs / qc: %
0
1.5
200
h/R=16~21

'
Penetration (mm)

1.0
h/R=31.1
400
200mm ID top membrane 0.5 h/R=40.6
50mm ID top membrane
600 Numerical simulation
0.0
0 5 10 15 20
800
r /R
Fig. 26. Radial profiles of radial stresses measured around model pile
1000 after installation in laboratory Calibration Chamber (normalized by qc
and shown in %): Jardine et al. 2013b

1200 The contour plots indicate intense stress concentrations


emanating from the pile tip. Radial stress maxima exceeding
15% qc were observed at h/R~0.5, r/R=2 during penetration,
Fig. 24. Measured and predicted qc profiles with alternative CC top- while the ‘zero-load’ stationary values were 2 to 3 times smaller.
membranes: Jardine et al. 2013a and Zhang et al 2013 Yang et al 2010 describe how an active failure develops beneath
the advancing tip where, on average, σ΄zm/qc = 1, σ΄rm = σ΄θm =
KAσ΄zm and KA = tan2(45 + φ'/2). Close analysis of the ‘moving’
50 10
and stationary’ stresses measurements shows the greatest
0
0
divergence near the tip (-5 <h/R < 3) where substantial
0.25
1.0 2.0 differences extend to r/R = 10. Variation is mainly restricted to
40
2.0
1.0 the r/R < 2 region at higher levels on the shaft.
The most reliable observations of how stresses vary with r/R
4.0

(at set h/R values) were developed from the end-of-installation


3.0
30 5 6.0
0.25 4.0

1.5 8.0 measurements. The stationary σ΄r and σ΄θ profiles interpreted by
5.0
Jardine et al 2013b for four h/R values are presented in Figs. 26
20
and 27. Note that the final radial stresses develop maxima away
1 10
6.0

from the shaft, between 2 <r/R < 4; σ΄θ must vary steeply with
6.0
r/R to maintain equilibrium and give σ΄θ> σ΄r close to the shaft.
h/R

4.0 2.0
h/R

10 0 8.3 3.0

0.50
3
4.8
0 2.0 1.5
h/R=5.6
1.0
0.75
0.50
1.5 (b)
-10 -5
s / qc: %

2
1.0 h/R=16~21
-20 0.25
0.75 h/R=31.1
'

-30 -10
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10

r/R r/R 1
Fig. 25. Contoured radial stresses around a penetrating conically tipped
pile (normalized by qc and shown in %) as measured in laboratory CC h/R=40.6
tests: Jardine et al. 2013b

0
Jardine et al 2013a, b report and interpret the measurements 0 5 10 15 20
made during installation, referring to these as the ‘Mini-ICP
data-set’. Pile penetration invoked extreme stress changes in all r /R
three normal stress components and significant stress changes Fig. 27. Radial profiles of hoop stresses around model pile after
installation, (normalized by qc and shown in %): Jardine et al 2013b.
out to r/R>33. Synthesising thousands of stress measurements
led to contour plots for the stress components including the The above effective stress profiles, taken in combination with
radial stress set given in Fig. 25 derived for ‘moving’ steady the time-dependent behaviour discussed in Section 4, have the

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potential to explain the marked field capacity-time trends high pressure shearing that are also strain-rate dependent. Stable
illustrated in Fig. 1 by the Dunkerque tension pile loading tests. unique critical states do not appear feasible under such
conditions; Muir-Wood 2008 and Bandini and Coop 2011.

6 LABORATORY TESTING AND FABRIC STUDIES TO


INVESTIGATE PARTICLE CRUSHING AND
INTERFACE SHEAR PROCESSES

The Calibration Chamber model pile tests also revealed the


important micro-mechanical features illustrated schematically in
Fig. 28. Post-mortem sampling revealed a clearly differentiated
grey coloured interface shear band (Zone 1) around the shaft, as
shown in Fig. 29. The following paragraphs report the insights
provided by laboratory studies into the breakage phenomena.
Their influence on the stress regime developed around the
penetrating pile is considered later.

Fig. 29. Photographs of interface shear zone developed around


laboratory model pile: (a) top view from above and (b) side view of
shear zone material: Yang et al 2010

0.9 emax emax


Fig. 28. Schematic of crushing and interface shearing zones developed
Loading curve
around laboratory model piles: Yang et al 2010 0.8
Fresh sand
Yang et al 2010 describe how the three concentric micro- Initial state eo 0.7 Zone 1 material
fabric zones were defined, their diameters measured and samples
comprising only a few grams analysed with a QicPic laser-based 0.6
void ratio e

imaging system. The latter can resolve particles with sizes cc=0.34
between a few μm and several mm. Care is needed to relate the 0.5 emin average Zone 1
various optical definitions of grain size with sieve analyses and
unloaded efinal=0.36
the Feret Minimum optical measurement correlated best. The 0.4
grey Zone 1 band contained the highest fraction of modified,
partially crushed sand. Fracture commenced beneath the active 0.3
emin
pile tip area once qc > 5 MPa. The high pressure oedometer test
on NE 34 sand illustrated in Fig. 30 indicates that large scale
0.2
breakage is delayed until σ΄z > 10 MPa under K0 conditions. 0.1 1 10 100
Yang et al tested material taken from the Zone 1 shear zone, '
v (MPa)
finding that breakage reduced the minimum void ratio emin very
considerably but had less effect on emax. The sand was densified Fig. 30. Void ratio-vertical effective stress relationship from high
in the shear zone and manifested a higher relative density in pressure oedometer test on NE 34 sand, also showing emin and emax values
relation to its modified limits. The original (intact) and modified of intact sand (left) and Zone 1 material (right): Yang et al 2010
(partially crushed) emin and emax values are shown on Fig 30 for
reference. Although not demonstrated here, the experiments Once produced, the crushed material is smeared over the
reported by Altuhafi and Jardine 2011 support the view that a advancing pile shaft giving an initial Zone I thickness ≈ 0.5mm,
family of critical state lines evolve as breakage progresses under which grew to ≈ 1.5mm at any given soil depth as the tip

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advanced and the cyclic interface shearing caused by jacking above and below the sand samples. Their sweep of δ angles
promoted further shear abrasion. against d50 is shown in Fig. 34 where the upper plot (a) shows
Figure 31 displays the progressively increasing breakage trends after shearing to 50mm, while the lower (b) indicates
from the fresh sand through Zones III, II to the interface Zone I, those after 8m of shear displacement. Also shown are the
where about 20% of the sand comprises fragments finer than the ‘critical state’ trends suggested by Jardine et al 1992 from low
smallest grains present in the parent NE 34. Image analysis displacement (5mm) direct-shear interface tests, and by CUR
showed that the Zone 1 sand has similar sphericity and convexity 2001 from cyclic shear box interface tests.
to fresh NE 34 while diffraction analyses showed quartz contents
(99.6%) just 0.1% lower than for intact NE 34.

100

Fresh sand
Average of Zone 1
cumulative percentage (%)

80 Average of Zone 2
Average of Zone 3
Average of Zone 1-2
60

40

20

Fig. 33. Lower interface configuration for ring shear tests: Ho et al 2011
0
10 100 1000
particle size (m)
Fig. 31. Optical grain size distributions defined by Feret mimima for
fresh NE34 sand and Zones 1 to 3: Yang et al 2010

The pile surface was also modified. Multiple Rank Hobson


Talysurf measurements showed that the maximum surface
roughness declined from around 33 to 22μm, while the centre
line average values fell from 3.8 to 2.8μm. The abraded 1μm
thickness of stainless steel would have contributed less than
1/1000th of the average thickness (≈ 1mm) of the interface shear
zone, which is compatible with the very slightly (0.1%) lower
quartz content of the Zone 1 material.

Fig. 32. Photograph and scheme of shear zones from interface ring shear
tests on NE 34 sand; after Yang et al 2010
Parallel interface ring-shear experiments were conducted with Fig. 34. Friction angles from ring shear tests against stainless steel
a modified version of the Bishop et al 1971 equipment, shearing interfaces with initial CLA roughnesses of 3 to 4μm. Upper (a) results
NE 34 against surfaces identical to the pile shaft, at normal after 50mm shear displacements, lower (b) after 8m; Ho et al 2011.
stresses up to 800 kPa. These tests also developed grey ‘Zone 1’ It is clear that the angles previously interpreted as stable ‘critical
shear bands, as illustrated in Fig. 32, although the bands were state’ values in fact vary with test conditions:
thinner and had lower percentages of broken grains than those
adjacent to the model piles. Ring-shear tests employing the  The lower interface arrangement led, with d50 > 0.2mm
lower interface configuration shown in Fig. 33 did not reproduce sands, to lesser δ angles after 50mm displacements than
the high pressure pile tip breakage conditions, but led to closely equivalent upper interface tests, where fine fragments can
comparable δ = tan-1 (τzh/σ΄z) angles to the pile tests that were fall from above into void spaces beneath the shear zone.
practically independent of stress level over 100 < σ΄z < 800 kPa.  Lower interface ring-shear tests gave similar trends at 50mm
Ho et al 2011 extended the study, covering a wider range of displacement to (5mm) direct shear interface tests.
gradings with seven silica sands and silts (including NE 34 and
TVS) in ring-shear tests involving interfaces positioned both

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 Fragments appear to choke available void spaces after large shear strength and dilatancy of the ‘heavily
displacements (8m), preventing lower friction angles overconsolidated’ and partially crushed sand.
persisting with coarser sands and upper interfaces. The ring
shear trends converge, but do not conform fully to the
uniform δ = 29o CUR 2001 recommendation.

The Calibration Chamber model studies reported in Section


5 testified to the extreme stresses developed beneath advancing
pile tips. Stresses rose and fell around the shaft (at any given
depth) by almost two orders of magnitude as the tip penetrated to See Fig. below
greater depths. Such changes in stress level, combined with for low pressure
particle breakage, affect the sand’s constitutive behaviour. test stages
Altuhafi and Jardine 2011 conducted tests to investigate these
features using the high pressure apparatus shown schematically
in Fig. 35 to subject medium-dense NE 34 to the effective stress
paths set out in Fig. 36.

Fig. 35. High pressure triaxial apparatus employed to test crushing NE34
sand. System described first by Cuccovillo and Coop 1998

The key test stages were: Fig. 36. Effective stress paths followed in high-low pressure triaxial tests
on NE 34 sand, showing high pressure stages (top) and overconsolidated
 K0 compression to p΄ = 9 MPa, simulating the pile tip low pressure stages (below): Altuhafi and Jardine 2011
advancing towards the sand element from above.
 Drained compression under constant σ΄r until apparent
The results obtained are illustrated in Fig. 37, plotting
‘critical states’ were reached with σ΄1 > 20 MPa, simulating
mobilised angles of shearing resistance φ΄ against axial strain.
failure beneath the conical pile tip. Tests that stopped
The upper plot (a) shows the generally ductile-contractant
abruptly developed large creep strains. The displacement
response seen in six similar high pressure tests, with peak φ΄
strain rates therefore were slowed progressively to reduce
only slightly greater than the ‘critical state’ (30o) angle. The
residual creep effects prior to unloading. The ‘critical state’
lower plot (b) summarises the ‘overconsolidated’ response
e-p΄ relationships depend on time.
observed on recompression after unloading. All three
 Drained unloading to q = 0 under constant σ΄r before
‘overconsolidated’ samples dilated as they sheared, developing
isotropic unloading to p΄ values between 150 and 500 kPa
peak φ΄ ≈ 42o, well above the ultimate angles (around 33o)
(giving ‘OCRs’ of 40 to 140 in terms of vertical stresses),
developed after large shear strains and diminished dilation.
simulating the sharp unloading experienced as the tip passes.
It is clear that the sand’s behaviour alters radically on
 Renewed drained shearing to failure at constant σ΄r in
unloading as the pile tip advances by a few diameters, changing
compression (or at constant p΄ in extension) to assess the
from being contractant, ductile, highly prone to creep and

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offering relatively low φ΄ beneath and around the tip, to being


dilatant, brittle and able to mobilise far higher peak φ΄ in the
mass that surrounds the shaft. These features were critical to
Jardine et al 2013b’s interpretation of the model pile Calibration
Chamber stress measurements illustrated above in Figures 24 to
27. Further analysis of the evolving family of ‘critical state’ e-p΄
curves developed by crushing is underway by Dr Altuhafi.
50
', Degrees

40

30

'
P-T1 Ultimate  =30o
20 P-T2
P-T3
P-EE1
10
P-EE2
P-EE3
0

0 10 20 30 40

Strain%
50 Fig. 38. Comparison between (a) Yang et al’s interpretation of breakage
Peak '= 42o
around penetrating Mini-ICP model piles and (b) simulation breakage
40 parameter B contours for same tests; Zhang et al 2013
' , Degrees

6.0
30
(a) Numerical results by Zhang et al. (2013)
Ultimate  '= 33 o
Fontainebleau sand
P-T1
20 P-T2 4.5
P-T3
r / qc: %

10 h/R=3
3.0
0 h/R=6
'

0 5 10 15 20 25
Strain% h/R=9
1.5
Fig. 37. Mobilised φ΄ values plotted against axial strain for both high (a)
and low (b) pressure test stages of triaxial tests on NE34 sand: Altuhafi
and Jardine 2011
0.0
0 5 10 15 20

r /R
7 COMPARISON WITH NUMERICAL ANALYSES Fig. 39. Radial profiles of σ΄r/qc from Zhang et al 2013’s analysis of
Mini-ICP pile in NE 34 sand
Recently published numerical analyses allow further links to be
established between the soil element and model pile
6.0
experiments. Zhang et al 2013 present FE analyses of (a) Numerical results by Einav (2012)
penetration in sands in which they adopted an Arbitrary Fontainebleau sand
Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) approach to deal with the implicit h/R=3
moving boundary problem and a constitutive model that 4.5
accounted for grain size distribution evolving through grain h/R=6
 / qc: %

breakage. Their analyses included simulations of the Calibration


Chamber (CC) model pile tests that applied a ‘breakage’ 3.0
constitutive model that they calibrated against NE 34 laboratory
tests reported by Yang et al 2010 and others.
'

Zhang et al’s predictions for the Mini-ICPs end-bearing


1.5 h/R=9
characteristics were presented in Fig. 24, together with the CC
measurements. The agreement is good when considering the
same CC upper boundary conditions. Figure 38 compares the
breakage pattern identified by Yang et al 2010 around the Mini- 0.0
0 5 10 15 20
ICP pile tip with Zhang et al 2013’s contoured predictions for
their internal breakage parameter B, which scales linearly r /R
between the sand’s initial (B = 0) and ultimate (B = 1.0) ‘fully Fig. 40. Radial profiles of σ΄θ/qc from Zhang et al 2013’s analysis of
crushed’ grading curves. The simulated and experimentally Mini-ICP pile in NE 34 sand.
established patterns are similar, with the maximum B predicted Correspondence with Zhang, Nguyen and Einav led to
as ≈ 0.35 close to the shaft, far from the ‘fully broken’ B = 1 further processing of the stress predictions implicit in their
limit. The grading curves’ predictions match Yang et al’s numerical analyses. Interesting comparisons are presented from
measurements well in all three zones, although they do not Yang et al 2013 in Figs. 39 and 40, plotting the σ΄r and σ΄θ
recover the experimentally observed Zone 1 thickness growth predictions transmitted by Professor Einav against r/R. The
with pile tip depth h/R. The latter is thought to develop through stresses are normalised by predicted qc, as are the experimental
the un-modelled process of cyclic interface shear abrasion. equivalents shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The overall trends show

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encouraging quantitative agreement when comparisons are made controlled cycles. The more severe TW test progressed further
between predictions and measurements made at h/R values up to and developed a full failure system with a ‘butterfly-wing’
10; see for example the match between the common curves effective stress path pattern resulting from slip displacements
given for h/R ≈ 6. Naturally, scope exists to consider further that generated dilatant loading stages followed by sharply
factors such as: the effects of stress history on dilatancy and contractant unloading stages.
shear strength; creep behaviour; and the extreme cyclic loading
that accompanies pile installation and leads to radial stresses
continuing to reduce with h/R at ratios greater than 10. Nf= Nf = number of cycles to failure
1.0 1

ay
8 LABORATORY MODEL PILE TESTS TO

w
o
INVESTIGATE CYCLIC LOADING

Tw
0.8

ay
w
The Mini-ICP Calibration Chamber experiments described in

ne
Section 5 included multiple suites of axial cyclic loading tests

O
Qcyclic/QT
with the model piles installed into pressurised medium-dense NE 0.6 Unstable
34 sand. Cycling was found to have a broadly similar effect on 1
axial capacity to that seen in the Dunkerque field tests. Figure 41 5
10 4
presents an overall interactive diagram which compares directly 10
0.4 4
with the field patterns in Fig. 3. Tsuha et al 2012 and Rimoy et al 100 170 66
2013 report on the cyclic stiffness and permanent displacement 500
trends. Broadly, they classify responses to cycling as: 500 Meta-Stable
1000
0.2
 Stable: capacity increasing slightly, displacements small
>1000
and stabilising) over 1000 or more cycles Stable
 Unstable: reaching failure with 100 cycles, or
 Metastable: falling between these limits 0.0
-0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Qmean/QT
A particular advantage offered by the laboratory model pile
arrangements shown in Figs. 22 and 23 was the ability to Fig. 41. Effects on shaft capacity of cyclic loading. Interactive
measure the pile-sand effective stress path response directly, stability diagram from Mini-ICP CC tests: Tsuha et al 2012.
both at the shaft interface (with the Mini-pile’s leading,
Following and Trailing Surface Stress Transducers) and within
the sand mass by the sand-stress senor arrays.
Figure 42 illustrates the local interface effective stress paths 200 Leading A ' o
followed under Stable conditions in a 1000 cycle experiment. Following B  =27
The patterns resemble those seen in Constant Normal Stiffness Trailing C
(CNS) shear experiments (see for example Boulon & Foray 1986
Shear stress rz (kPa)

or Dejong et al 2003) with radial effective stresses increasing 100


under tension loading (that generates negative shaft shear stress)
and decreasing under compressive load increments around the
relatively rigid Mini-ICPs. While the load-displacement response
is in-elastic (non-linear and hysteretic) under even low-level 0
cycling, the radial effective stress changes and pile head
movements induced by each cycle are small.
The effective stress paths appear to match, approximately,
the Y2 criteria described in Section 2 and traced by Kuwano and -100
Jardine 2007 in small strain triaxial probing tests. Rather than
remain exactly static, the radial stresses reduced, albeit at very
slow rates, over time indicating a tendency towards contraction Direction of
and migration towards the interface shear failure criterion angles
-200 radial stresses
established by Yang et al 2010 through interface ring shear tests,
or those shown in Fig. 34 from Ho et al 2011. The continuing 0 100 200 300 400 500
rates of radial stress reduction might also be related to very slow
rates of continuing interface surface abrasion and particle Radial stress 'r (kPa)
modification.
Multiple static tension tests on the Mini-ICPs showed shaft Fig. 42. Interface shear τrz - σ΄r effective stress paths: Stable
capacities increasing (by up to 20%) as a result of stable cycling, cyclic test ICP4-OW1: Tsuha et al 2012.
mainly due to changes in loading stress-path geometry that gave
a less contractive response under static loading. The Dunkerque Close examination reveals the top-down progressive failure
field tests also showed tension capacity increasing after a stable process described by Jardine 1991, 1994. The points where
1000 cycle test; Jardine and Standing 2013. Figures 43 and 44 behaviour switches from contractant to dilatant fall on an
demonstrate the contrasting responses seen in Metastable tests interface Phase Transformation line analogous to that noted by
under One-Way (OW) and Two-Way (TW) loading respectively. Ishihara et al 1975.
All paths approach the interface failure envelope as cycling
continues, either asymmetrically under OW loading or more
symmetrically in the TW test. The milder OW test shows a
similar pattern to the Stable test shown in Fig. 40, except that it
migrates more rapidly and engages the critical δ= 27o failure
line, leading to the onset of local slip after several hundred load

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Tsuha et al 2012 report on the similarly in-elastic cyclic local


200 effective stress responses measured by the multiple cells
Leading A ' o
 =27 positioned in the surrounding sand mass, relating these to the
Following B sand mass failure criteria established by the experiments outlined
Trailing C in Fig. 37.
Shear stress rz (kPa)

100

9 LABORATORY ELEMENT TESTS TO INVESTIGATE


CYCLIC LOADING PROCESSES
0
Predictions can be made through cyclic soil element testing of
how cyclic pile head loading affects the local shear stresses rz
-100 available on the shaft and shear strains in the surrounding soil;
Jardine 1991, 1994. Considering the conditions applying close to
axially loaded shafts, as in Fig. 46, the hoop strain  must be
Direction of zero due to symmetry. Also z must be small if the pile does not
-200 radial stresses slip against the shaft and the pile is relatively stiff. The only
significant normal strain components are radial (r) and these are
0 100 200 300 400 500 constrained by the radial stiffness of the surrounding sand mass.
Radial stress 'r (kPa)
Fig. 43. Interface shear τrz - σ΄r effective stress paths: Metastable cyclic
test ICP2-OW3: Tsuha et al 2012.

200 Leading A ' o


Following B  =27
Trailing C
Shear stress rz (kPa)

100

-100
Fig. 46. Soil element adjacent to a pile shaft: Sim et al 2013

-200 Direction of The changes in local radial stress, 'r, developed on the shaft
radial stresses in response to Δrz increments that cause dilative or contractive
radial displacementsr at the interface can be related to the
0 100 200 300 400 500 shear stiffness of the surrounding sand by the elastic cavity
Radial stress 'r (kPa) expansion expression given as Eq. 6; Boulon and Foray 1986.
Fig. 44. Interface shear τrz - σ΄r effective stress paths: Metastable Jardine et al. 2005b suggest that r is approximately equal to the
becoming Unstable cyclic loading test ICP4-TW1: Tsuha et al 2012 peak-to-trough centreline average roughness of the pile surface
under static loading to failure. Provided that strains remain very
small and the shear stiffness is linear, Eq. 6 implies a Constant
Normal Stiffness (CNS) interface shear boundary condition,
200 Leading A
'
 =27
o where KCNS is the interface’s global radial stiffness value.
Following B
Trailing C
δσ΄r /δr = 2G/R = KCNS Eq. 6
Shear stress rz (kPa)

100
Laboratory shear tests can be conducted under CNS
conditions (Boulon & Foray, 1986 or Dejong et al 2003) to
mimic the pile loading boundary conditions and observe the
0 near-shaft cyclic soil response. Suitable mixed boundary
conditions can be devised for simple shear, triaxial or HCA tests.
However, sands’ shear stiffnesses are non-linear, pressure
-100 dependent and anisotropic. Also KCNS varies with 1/R, making it
hard to define meaningful single CNS values. Constant volume
tests in simple shear, triaxial or HCA cells provide upper limit,
Direction of infinite, CNS conditions that can be met by cycling saturated
-200 samples under undrained conditions. More sophisticated controls
radial stresses
can be imposed if reliable information is available about the
0 100 200 300 400 500 interface stress and strain boundary conditions.
Radial stress 'r (kPa) Constant volume or CNS Simple Shear (SS) tests provide
conditions analogous to those near pile shafts; Randolph and
Fig. 45. Interface shear τrz - σ΄r effective stress paths: Unstable cyclic test Wroth 1981. However, conventional simple shear tests cannot
ICP2-TW1: Tsuha et al 2012 provide a full description of the sample’s stress state: neither

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Proceedings of the 18 International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

invariant effective stress paths nor Mohr circles of stress can be interaction diagrams (such as those in Figs 3 or 41). If further
drawn. Shen 2013 presents new DEM based simple shear analysis is warranted, laboratory or field test data can be applied
simulations. His analyses, which did not require any assumption in site-specific and storm-specific calculations that follow either
of idealised co-axial (or other) plasticity in the sand, emphasize a local (T-Z, the left hand path in Fig. 48) or a global (the right
the differences between the true internal stress variables and the hand route in Fig. 48) assessments procedure. The global
‘average’ stresses deduced from boundary measurements. He approach is most applicable when soil conditions are relatively
also highlights the impact of apparatus details on the parameters uniform and progressive top-down failure is not a major concern.
interpreted by alternative simple shear failure hypotheses.
Shibuya and Hight 1987, Menkiti 1995, Nishimura 2006 and
Anh-Minh et al 2011 outline the principles and technicalities of
conducting SS tests with HCA equipment. While HCAs are
subject to sample curvature effects that have to be considered
(Hight et al 1983), their annular geometry automatically provides
the complementary shear stresses and so reduces stress non-
uniformity. They also allow the full stress and strain tensors to
be defined and permit detailed assessments of the effects of
anisotropy, variable b values (reflecting σ2 ratios or Lode angles)
and principal stress axis rotation.
Undrained triaxial experiments can also provide useful
information. The shear stress changes Δrz developed on the pile
shaft pile and changes to triaxial deviator stress Δq = Δ(1- 3)
can be inter-related by assuming an isotropic soil response and
applying general stress invariants, or by simply noting that in a
Mohr circle analysis increments of pure shear shaft loading Δrz
have an equivalent effect to an increment Δq that is numerically
twice as large. In this simplified view, the changes to mean
effective stress, Δp' observed under cyclic loading in the triaxial
cell can be seen as implying approximately equivalent
proportional Δ'r changes at points close to the shaft.
Sim et al 2013 emphasize the need for very stable high
resolution test equipment and stable environments for such tests.
This applies particularly to long duration, low-level cycling tests Fig. 47. Leftward migration of effective stress paths over 1500
where p΄ drift rates and changes in cyclic stiffness/permanent undrained qcyclic = 0.2 p΄ cycles. Triaxial tests on Dunkerque and
strain development may be slow. Sim et al also report cyclic NE 34 sands from p΄0 = 150 kPa, OCR = 4: Sim et al 2013
experiments on Dunkerque and NE 34 sands designed to help
interpret the field and laboratory CC model pile tests. Their on-
going research programme is investigating:

 Differences between HCA SS and triaxial responses.


 Effects of pile installation stress history, including the ‘over-
consolidation’ that takes place as the tip passes and the
effects of the shearing cycles imposed by jacking or driving.
 The sequence in which different cyclic load packets are
applied, assessing the applicability of Miner’s rule.
 Varying sand types and initial sand states.

Figure 47 illustrates the leftward effective stress path drifts


developed in undrained cyclic triaxial tests with paired tests on
medium-dense Fontainebleu and Dunkerque samples conducted
after K0 consolidation to 800 kPa and unloading to OCR = 4, to
simulate pile installation for points positioned 2 < r/R < 3 from a
pile shaft. 1500 qcyclic = 0.20p΄ stress controlled cycles were then
applied at 1/per minute. The stress paths evidently engaged the
samples’ Y2 surfaces. Slow migration led to final mean effective
stress reductions of 30 and 40% overall for NE34 and
Dunkerque samples respectively under the stringent constant
volume conditions imposed. It is interesting that the effective
stress paths remained within the Mini-ICPs τ/σ΄n < tan δ΄
interface shear envelope (δ΄ = 27o when shearing against NE 34
or Dunkerque sand, see Figs. 34 and 42-45) implying that while
shaft failure would not be expected to reduce in an equivalent
cyclic pile test, the pile shaft would not fail within 1500 cycles.
Jardine et al 2005b and 2012 offer guidance on how to apply Fig. 48 Flow chart outlining approaches for assessing cyclic
such laboratory testing to estimate the axial response of offshore loading effects in driven pile design: after Jardine et al 2012.
piles under storm cyclic loading. Referring to the flow chart
given in Fig. 48, the first essential step is careful characterisation Jardine et al 2012 describe several approaches for such
(applying rainfall analysis methods) of the storm loads to calculations. These include the simple ‘ABC’ formulation given
establish equivalent batches of uniform cycles. Initial screening by Jardine et al 2005b. Calibration of the latter approach against
checks are then recommended with experimentally derived (or both laboratory tests and the Dunkerque field experiments
appropriately validated theoretical) published cyclic failure indicated encouraging agreement; Jardine and Standing 2013.

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Proceedings of the 18 International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Recent practical applications include a fleet of 40 wind-turbines 3. Behaviour can only be considered elastic within a very
at Borkum West II (German North Sea) which employ the tripod limited kinematic true (Y1) yield surface that is dragged with
design shown in Fig. 49 and each rely on three 2.48m diameter the current effective stress point, growing and shrinking with
piles driven in (mainly) very dense sands; Merritt et al 2012. the mean effective stress p΄ and changing in shape with
Another application of the laboratory derived ‘ABC’ approach proximity to the outer, Y3 surface; stiffness is anisotropic
involved manned oil platforms founded on pile groups driven in within Y1, following patterns that evolve with K = σ΄r /σ΄z.
very hard sandy glacial tills: Jardine et al 2012. 4. Plastic straining commences once Y1 is engaged and
becomes progressively more important straining continues
along any monotonic path.
5. An intermediate Y2 kinematic surface may be identified in
either continuum or interface shear tests that signifies: (i)
potentially marked changes in strain increment directions (ii)
the onset of important strain-rate or time dependency and
(iii) a threshold beyond which permanent strains (and mean
effective stress reductions in constant volume tests)
accumulate significantly in cyclic tests.
6. Creep tests and experiments that combine drained creep and
low level cycling show that the Y2 process is both time
dependent and affected by cyclic perturbations.
7. Undrained cyclic tests taken to large numbers of cycles tend
to show continuous rates of p΄ reduction, even under
relatively small strain cycles. These trends may be modified
considerably by overconsolidation, ageing or pre-cycling.
8. Particle breakage develops under large displacement
interface shearing as well as high pressure compression and
triaxial conditions. Breakage leads to continuous evolution
of the index properties and critical state e-p΄ relationships.

Conclusions regarding piles driven in sand include:


Fig. 49. Wind-turbine tripods in fabrication yard; http://www.power-
technology.com/projects/borkum-farm/borkum-farm3.html 1. Conventional approaches for capacity and load-displacement
assessment have generally poor accuracy and reliability.
The fully analytical cyclic assessment route shown as the 2. It is possible to improve predictions considerably through
central path through Fig. 48 may also be followed. Laboratory numerical analyses that capture the observations made with
testing can provide the detailed information required for advanced laboratory stress-strain and interface shear tests.
modelling the sands’ complex behaviour including: stiffness and 3. Such predictions rely critically on assumptions regarding the
shear strength anisotropy; non-linearity and progressive yielding; stresses set up around the piles during and after installation.
grain crushing; time effects/creep; and cyclic loading responses. 4. Laboratory and field tests highlight the importance of plastic
Similarly, the laboratory and field model pile stress and time-dependent straining which becomes progressively
measurements can guide the specification (or modelling) of the more important as stress and strain levels rise.
effective stress regime set up around the driven piles and show 5. The Calibration Chamber model pile tests demonstrate key
how this may change under static/cyclic loading conditions. The physical features of the pile-soil mechanics, including the
stage is now set for numerical modelling that can capture field extreme stress changes and grain breakage experienced
behaviour far more accurately than was previously possible. during installation. Micro-mechanical laboratory analysis
and high pressure triaxial and ring shear tests allow the
properties of the modified material to be studied in detail.
10 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 6. Laboratory model pile experiments demonstrate that radial
stress maxima develop at some distance from the pile shafts.
This feature can also be predicted analytically in studies that
The key aim of the lecture was to demonstrate the special address grain breakage. Taken together with the creep trends
capabilities and practical value of the Advanced Laboratory discussed above, this feature offers a mechanism for the
Testing promoted by Bishop and TC-101. New insights have growth in shaft capacity of piles driven in sand over time.
been offered through static and cyclic experiments with the 7. Axial cyclic pile tests show broadly similar modes of Stable,
apparatus and techniques they advocated, including highly Metastable and Unstable behaviour in full scale field tests
instrumented stress-path and high pressure triaxial tests as well and model experiments in Calibration Chambers.
as hollow cylinder, ring-shear interface and micro-mechanical 8. Local stress measurements made on the ICP and Mini-ICP
experiments. Emphasis has been placed also on integrating piles give profound insights into the mechanisms of cyclic
laboratory research, field observations, numerical analysis and degradation, demonstrating features of kinematic yielding
calibration chamber model pile studies to advance understanding and interface shear failure that can be tracked in triaxial,
and prediction of the complex behaviour of driven piles in sands. HCA and ring shear laboratory experiments.
The experiments investigated sand behaviour under a wide
range of conditions. Aspects highlighted for consideration in Advanced laboratory testing is critical to advancing all
ongoing and future constitutive modelling include: difficult geotechnical engineering problems where the outcomes
depend critically on the detailed constitutive behaviour of the
1. The strong non-linearity, marked in-elasticity and time ground. Tatsuoka 2011, for example, described advanced testing
dependency seen from small-to-large strains. directed towards the performance of large bridge foundations
2. Markedly anisotropic behaviour within the large scale and the compaction of reinforced earth retaining wall backfills,
classical critical state soil mechanics (Y3) yield surface. while Kovacevic et al 2012 describe novel analyses of very large
Sands also show Phase Transformation (Y4) over a wide submarine slope failures that employed models derived also
range of states. These features may occur in either soil from detailed and advanced laboratory studies.
continua, or during shearing against interfaces.

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12 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Cuccovillo, T. and Coop, M.R. 1997. The measurement of local


strains in triaxial testing using LVDTs. Géotechnique, 47
The Author acknowledges gratefully the many contributions by (1): 167-171.
current and former co-authors, students, technicians, colleagues CUR 2001. Bearing capacity of steel pipe piles. Report 2001-8.
and co-workers principally at Imperial College, but also at: Centre for Civil Engineering Research and Codes. Gouda,
Building Research Establishment (BRE, UK), Cambridge-Insitu The Netherlands.
(UK), D’Appolonia (Italy), Geotechnical Consulting Group Davies, P. 1975. Creep characteristics of three undisturbed clays.
(GCG, London), IFP (France), INPG (Grenoble, France) and PhD Thesis, (Imperial College) University of London.
ISSMGE TC-29/101. He also acknowledges with thanks funding DeJong, J.T., Randolph, M.F. & White, D.J. 2003. Interface load
from the Commonwealth Commission, CNRS (France), EPSRC transfer degradation during cyclic loading: a microscale
(UK), EU, HSE (UK), NSFC (China), Royal Society (UK), Shell investigation Soils and Foundations, 43 (4). 91-94.
(UK), Total (France) and other bodies. Prof. David Hight and Dr Frank, R. 1994. Some recent developments on the behaviour of
Jamie Standing are thanked also for their useful comments on shallow foundations. General Report. 10th ECSMFE,
the manuscript. Florence, Vol 4, Balkema: 1115-1146
Gasparre, A., Nishimura, S., Anh-Minh, N., Coop, M.R. &
Jardine, R.J. 2007. The stiffness of natural London clay.
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London, 440p. 675-688.

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Ishihara Lecture
Soil–Foundation–Structure Systems Beyond Conventional Seismic Failure
Thresholds
Conférence Ishihara
Les systèmes sol-fondation-structure qui dépassent les limites de la rupture parasismique
conventionnelle

Gazetas G.
Professor, National Technical University of Athens, Greece

ABSTRACT: A new paradigm has now emerged in performance–based seismic design of soilfoundationstructure systems. Instead
of imposing strict safety limits on forces and moments transmitted from the foundation onto the soil (aiming at avoiding pseudo-static
failure), the new dynamic approach “invites” the creation of two simultaneous “failure” mechanisms: substantial foundation uplifting
and ultimate-bearing-capacity slippage, while ensuring that peak and residual deformations are acceptable. The paper shows that
allowing the foundation to work at such extreme conditions not only may not lead to system collapse, but it would help protect (save)
the structure from seismic damage. A potential price to pay: residual settlement and rotation, which could be abated with a number of
foundation and soil improvements. Numerical studies and experiments demonstrate that the consequences of such daring foundation
design would likely be quite beneficial to bridge piers and building frames. It is shown that system collapse could be avoided even
under seismic shaking far beyond the design ground motion.

RÉSUMÉ : Un nouveau paradigme a émergé dans la conception sismique de la performance des systèmes sol – fondation – structure.
Au lieu d'imposer des coefficients de sûreté sur les forces et les moments transmis par la fondation sur le sol (pour éviter la rupture
pseudo-statique), la nouvelle approche dynamique permet la création de deux modes de rupture simultanés : le soulèvement important
de la fondation et le dépassement de la capacité portante ultime, tout en assurant que les déformations maximales et résiduelles sont
acceptables. L’article montre que, quand on permet à la fondation de travailler dans ces conditions extrêmes, l'effondrement du
système peut être évité et de plus la structure peut être protégée du dommage sismique. Un prix potentiel à payer : le déplacement et la
rotation résiduels, qui peuvent être contrôlés avec différentes méthodes d'amélioration de la fondation et des sols. Des études
numériques et expérimentales montrent que les conséquences d'une telle conception audacieuse de la fondation seraient certainement
très bénéfiques pour les ponts et les bâtiments. On montre que l'effondrement du système pourrait être évité, même pendant des
secousses sismiques qui dépassent le mouvement de calcul.
KEYWORDS: seismic analysis, performance-based design, foundation rocking, bearing capacity failure, nonlinear vibrations

1 CURRENT STATE OF PRACTICE:  mobilisation of the so-called bearing-capacity failure


THE CONVENTIONAL “WISDOM” mechanisms under cyclicallyuplifting shallow foundations
Seismic design of structures recognises that highly inelastic  sliding at the soil–footing interface or excessive uplifting of
material response is unavoidable under the strongest possible a shallow foundation
shaking of the particular location and for the specific soil where  passive failure along the normal compressing sides of an
the structure is founded. “Ductility” levels of the order of 3 or embedded foundation
more are usually allowed to develop under seismic loading,  a combination of two or more of the above “failure” modes.
implying that the strength of a number of critical bearing In this conventional approach to foundation design,
elements is fully mobilized. In the prevailing structural “overstrength” factors plus (explicit and implicit) factors of
terminology “plastic hinging” is allowed to develop as long as safety larger than 1 (e.g. in the form of “material” factors) are
the overall stability is maintained. introduced against each of the above “failure” modes, in a way
By contrast, a crucial goal of current practice in seismic qualitatively similar to the factors of safety of the traditional
“foundation” design, particularly as entrenched in the respective static design. Thus, the engineer is certain that foundation
codes is to avoid the mobilisation of “strength” in the performance will be satisfactory and there will be no need to
foundation. In the words of EC8 (Part 2, § 5.8) : inspect and repair after strong earthquake shaking  a task
“…foundations shall not be used as sources of hysteretic practically considered next to impossible.
energy dissipation, and therefore shall be designed to Some of the above thresholds stem not just from an
remain elastic under the design seismic action.” understandable engineering conservatism, but also from a
In structural terminology : no “plastic hinging” is allowed in purely (pseudo) static thinking. It will be shown that such an
the foundation. In simple geotechnical terms, the designer must approach may lead not only to unnecessarily expensive
ensure that the below-ground (and hence un-inspectable) foundation solutions but also, in many situations, to less safe
support system will not even reach a number of “thresholds” structures.
that would conventionally imply failure. Specifically, the
following states are prohibited :
 plastic structural “hinging” in piles, pile-caps,
foundation beams, rafts, and so on

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2 SOME COMPELLING REASONS TO GO BEYOND ignored, even if their geometrically–nonlinear nature presents
CONVENTIONAL THRESHOLDS computational difficulties.
In fact, it is worthy of note that the lack of recognition of the
A growing body of evidence suggests that soil–foundation fundamental difference between pseudo-static and seismic
plastic yielding under seismic excitation is unavoidable, and at overturning threshold accelerations has led humanity to a gross
times even desirable; hence, it must be considered in analysis under-estimation of the largest ground accelerations that must
and perhaps allowed in design. [See for an early recognition : have taken place in historic destructive earthquakes. Because,
Pecker 1998, Faccioli & Paolucci 1999, Martin & Lam 2000, by observing in numerous earthquakes that very slender blocks
FEMA-356 2000, Kutter et al 2001, Gazetas & Apostolou (of width b and height h, with h >> b) or monuments in
2003.] The urgent need to explicitly consider the possibility of precarious equilibrium that had not overturned, engineers had
the foundation system to go beyond “failure” thresholds, and the invariably attributed the fact to very small peak accelerations,
potential usefulness of doing so, have emerged from : less than (b/h)g, as would be necessary if accelerations were
(a) The large (often huge) effective ground acceleration, A, applied pseudostatically in one direction. Today we know that
and velocity, V, levels recorded in several earthquakes in the sometimes even five times as large peak ground acceleration of
last 25 years. A few examples : a high-frequency motion may not be enough to overturn a
 1994 Ms  6.8 Northridge : A = 0.98 g, V = 140 cm/s ; slender block (Koh et al 1986, Makris & Roussos 2000, Gazetas
 1995 MJ  7.2 Kobe : A = 0.85 g, V = 120 cm/s ; 2001). Simply stated: even severe uplifting (conventional
 1986 Ms  5.6 San Salvador : A = 0.75 g, V = 84 cm/s ; “failure”) may not lead to overturning (true “collapse”) under
dynamic seismic base excitation.
 2003 Ms = 6.4 Lefkada : A  0.55 g, V = 50 cm/s ;
(d) Compatibility with structural design is another reason for
 2007 MJ  6.9 Niigata : A =1.20 g, V = 100cm/s . the soilstructure interaction analyst to compute the lateral load
With the correspondingly large accelerations in the (above– needed for collapse of the foundation system, as well as (in
ground) structure from such ground motions (spectral Sa values more detail) the complete load–displacement or moment–
well in excess of 1 g), preventing “plastic hinging” in the rotation response to progressively increasing loading up to
foundation system is a formidable task. And in fact, it may not collapse. Indeed, in State of the Art (SOA) structural
even be desirable: enormous ductility demands might be engineering use is made of the so-called “pushover” analysis,
imposed to the structure if soil–foundation “yielding” would not which in order to be complete requires the development of such
take place to effectively limit the transmitted accelerations. information from the foundation analyst.
Several present-day critically–important structures on relatively In addition to the above “theoretical” arguments, there is a
loose soil could not have survived severe ground shaking if growing need for estimating the “collapse motion” : insurance
“plastic hinging” of some sort had not taken place in the coverage of major construction facilities is sometimes based on
“foundation”  usually unintentionally. estimated losses under the worst possible (as opposed to
(b) In seismically retrofitting a building or a bridge, allowing probable) earthquake scenario.
for soil and foundation yielding is often the most rational (e) Several persuasive arguments could be advanced on the
alternative. Because increasing the structural capacity of some need not to disallow structural plastic “hinging” of piles:
elements, or introducing some new stiff elements, would then
imply that the forces transmitted onto their foundation will be  Yielding and cracking of piles (at various critical depths) is
increased, to the point that it might not be technically or unavoidable with strong seismic shaking in soft soils, as the
economically feasible to undertake them “elastically”. The new Kobe 1995 earthquake has amply revealed.
American retrofit design guidelines (FEMA 356) explicitly  Refuting the contrary universal belief, post-earthquake
permit some forms of inelastic deformations in the foundation. inspection of piles is often feasible (with internally placed
A simple hypothetical example referring to an existing three– inclinometers, borehole cameras, integrity shock testing,
bay multi–story building frame which is to be retrofitted with a under-excavation with visual inspection ), although certainly
single–bay concrete “shear” wall had been introduced by not a trivial operation. Again, Kobe offered numerous
Martin & Lam 2000. Such a wall, being much stiffer than the examples to this effect.
columns of the frame, would carry most of the inertia-driven  The lateral confinement provided by the soil plays a very
shear force and would thus transmit a disproportionately large significant role in pile response, by retarding the development
horizontal force and overturning moment onto the foundation of high levels of localised plastic rotation, thereby providing
compared with its respective small vertical force. If uplifting, an increase in ductility capacity. Sufficient displacement
sliding, and mobilisation of bearing capacity failure ductility may be achieved in a pile shaft with transverse
mechanisms in the foundation had been all spuriously ignored, reinforcement ratio as low as 0.003 (Butek et al 2004).
or had been conversely correctly taken into account, would have  The presence of soil confinement leads to increased plastic
led to dramatically different results. With “beyond–threshold” hinge lengths, thus preventing high localised curvatures
action in the foundation the shear wall would “shed” off some (Tassios 1998). Therefore, the piles retain much of their axial
of the load onto the columns of the frame, which must then be load carrying capacity after yielding.
properly reinforced ; the opposite would be true when such Thus, a broadly distributed plastic deformation on the pile
action (beyond the thresholds) is disallowed. may reduce the concentrated plastification on the structural
The Engineer therefore should be able to compute the column  so detrimental to safety.
consequences of “plastic hinging” in the foundation before Furthermore, when subjected to strong cyclic overturning
deciding whether such “hinging” must be accepted, modified, or moment, end-bearing piles in tension will easily reach their full
avoided (through foundation changes). frictional uplifting capacity. It has been shown analytically and
(c) Many slender historical monuments (e.g. ancient experimentally that this does not imply failure. The same
columns, towers, sculptures) may have survived strong seismic argument applies to deeply embedded (caisson) foundations.
shaking during their life (often of thousands of years). While (f) The current trend in structural earthquake engineering
under static conditions such “structures” would have easily calls for a philosophical change : from strength-based design
toppled, it appears that sliding at, and especially uplifting from, (involving force considerations) to performance-based design
their base during oscillatory seismic motion was a key to their (involving displacement considerations) [Pauley 2002,
survival (Makris & Roussos 2000, Papantonopoulos 2000). Priestley et al 2000, 2003, Calvi 2007]. Geotechnical
These nonlinear interface phenomena cannot therefore be earthquake engineering has also been slowly moving towards

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Proceedings of the 18 International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

performance–based seismic design: gravity retaining structures time histories the overall intensity of which is either within or
are indeed allowed to slide during the design earthquake. The well beyond the design earthquake levels.
time is therefore ripe for soil–foundation–structure interaction
(SFSI) to also move from imposing “safe” limits on forces and
moments acting on the foundation (aiming at avoiding pseudo- 4 ROTATIONAL MONOTONIC RESPONSE
static “failure”) to performance–based design in which all OF SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS
possible conventional “failure” mechanisms are allowed to
develop, to the extent that maximum and permanent Much of the research in earlier years on dynamic rocking of
displacements and rotations are kept within acceptable limits. foundations and dynamic soilstructure interaction had focused
on linear response. Elastic stiffness and damping as functions of
frequency have been developed and utilised to describe the
3 THE CONCEPT OF “ROCKING ISOLATION” dynamic action of the foundation system. The various US
IN FOUNDATION DESIGN seismic codes in the last 30+ years have promulgated linear
approximations to deal with seismic soilstructure interaction.
The paper addresses the case of structure-foundation systems The behavior of “Rocking Foundations” significantly
oscillating mainly in a rotational mode (rocking). deviates from linear visco-elasticity: uplifting introduces strong
Subjected to strong seismic shaking, structures tend to geometric nonlinearity and even damping due to impact ; soil
experience large inertial forces. For tall-slender structures these yielding and plastic deformation generate hysteresis, implying
forces will lead to overturning moments onto the foundation significant frequency-independent damping, while when
that may be disproportionally large compared to the vertical bearing-capacity slippage mechanisms develop a limiting
load. As a result, a shallow foundation may experience plateau restricts the passage of high accelerations from the
detachment (uplifting) of one edge from the supporting soil. ground into the superstructure.
This in turn will lead to increased normal stresses under the In monotonic loading, a most crucial parameter controlling
opposite edge of the foundation. Development of a bearing the momentrotation, Mθ, relation of a specific foundation is
capacity failure mechanism is quite possible if such a the factor of safety against vertical static bearing capacity
concentration leads to sufficiently large stresses. But, in failure :
contrast to a static situation, even then failure may not occur.
Thanks to the cyclic and kinematic nature of earthquake Fs = Nuo/N (1)
induced vibrations : (i) the inertial forces do not act “forever” where Nuo is the ultimate load under purely vertical loading and
in the same direction to cause failure (as would be the case with N the acting vertical load. Fig. 2 offers typical results for a
static load), but being cyclic, very soon reverse and thereby homogeneous (G and su ) soil for three Fs values : a very high
relieve the distressed soil; and (ii) the developing inertial forces one (20), a low one (2), and an extremely low one (1.25). M is
are not externally applied predetermined loads, but are normalized by Nuo B, where B is the width of the footing in the
themselves reduced once the soil-foundation system reaches its direction of loading. This leads to curves which, for the
(limited) ultimate resistance  the foundation system acts like a homogeneous profile considered, depend solely on the so-called
fuse. As a result, the system experiences nonlinear-inelastic “rigidity index”, G/ su , and the shape of the footing.
rocking oscillations, which may or may not result in excessive Also shown in Fig. 2 are the snapshots of the deformed soil
settlement and rotation. But failure is almost unlikely. and the contours of plastic strain as they develop when the
In the last 10 years a number of research efforts have maximum moment is reached  apparently at different angles
explored the consequences of substantial foundation rocking on of rotation. The following are worthy of note in the figure:
the response of the supported structure, theoretically and
experimentally : Kutter et al 2003, Gajan et al 2005, Harden et  The foundation with Fs = 20 (which can be interpreted
al 2006, Kawashima et al 2007, Apostolou et al 2007, Paolucci either as a very-lightly loaded foundation or as a “normally”-
et al 2008, Chatzigogos & Pecker 2010, Deng et al 2012. The loaded foundation on very stiff soil) despite its largest initial
results of these studies confirmed the idea that strongly- elastic rocking stiffness fails at the smallest value of applied
nonlinear rocking oscillations under seismic excitation can be of moment:
benefit to the structure. Mu  0.025 Nuo B (2a)
Taking the whole idea one small step farther, it is proposed
that the design of a shallow foundation should actively “invite” Indeed if Fs   , i.e. there is no vertical load onto the
the creation of two simultaneous “failure” mechanisms: foundation, Mu would vanish, due to the tensionless nature of
substantial foundation uplifting and ultimate bearing-capacity the soilfooting interface.
sliding. This would be accomplished by substantially under-
designing the foundation  e.g., by reducing its width and  As expected from the literature (Meyerhof 1963, Georgiadis
length to, say, one-half of the values required with current and Butterfield 1988, Salençon and Pecker 1995, Αllotey and
design criteria. This can be thought of as a reversal of the Naggar 2003, Apostolou and Gazetas 2005, Gajan and Kutter
“capacity” design: “plastic hinging” will take place in the 2008, Chatzigogos et al. 2009, Gouvernec 2009, Gajan and
foundation-soil system and not at the column(s) of the structure. Kutter 2008) the largest maximum moment is attained by the
Fig. 1 elucidates the main idea of Rocking Isolation. The Fs = 2 footing :
benefits of designing the foundation to work at and beyond its Mu  0.13 Nuo B (2b)
conventional limits will become evident in the sequel. To this
end, three examples will elucidate the dynamics of “Rocking but its elastic initial rocking stiffness is smaller than for the Fs
Isolation” in comparison with the dynamics of the conventional = 20 foundation. Evidently, the extensive plastic deformations
design : upon the application of the vertical (heavy) load soften the
soil so that a small applied moment meets less resistance 
(a) a bridge pier, free to rotate at its top hence lower stiffness. However, Fs = 2 achieves the largest
(b) a two-storey two-bay asymmetric frame (MRF) ultimate Mu as it leads to an optimum combination of uplifting
(c) a three-storey retrofitted frameshearwall structure. and bearing-capacity mobilization.
In each case, the two alternatives ( the conventional and the  A more severely loaded foundation, however, with the
rocking-isolated system) are subjected to numerous acceleration (rather unrealistic) Fs = 1.25 will only enjoy an even smaller
initial stiffness and a smaller ultimate moment than the Fs = 2

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foundation. Notice that in this case no uplifting accompanies the soil responds in strongly inelastic fashion, a symmetric
the plasticification of the soil. bearing-capacity failure mechanism under the vertical load N is
almost fully developed, replacing uplifting as the prevailing
The failure envelope (also called interaction diagram) in N- mechanism leading to collapse θc tends to zero.
M space is given in Fig. 3 for the specific example. It was The following relationship has been developed from FE
obtained with the same numerical (FE) analysis as the curves results by Kourkoulis et al, 2012, for the overturning angle θc =
and snapshots of Fig. 2, and can be expressed analytically as a θc(Fs) :
function of the static factor of safety (FS) as
(5)
(3)

The specific plot is in terms of N/Nuo which is 1/Fs which 6 CYCLIC RESPONSE ACCOUNTING FOR Pδ EFFECTS
ranges between 0 and 1. Notice that heavily and lightly loaded
foundations with 1/Fs symmetrically located about the 1/FS = Slow cyclic analytical results are shown for the two
0.5 value where the Mu is the largest, have the same moment aforementioned systems having static factors of safety (FS = 5
capacity : yet their behavior especially in cyclic loading is quite and 2). The displacement imposed on the mass center increased
different as will be shown subsequently. gradually; the last cycle persisted until about 4 or 5 times the
angle θu of the maximum resisting moment. As can be seen in
the momentrotation diagrams, the loops of the cyclic analyses
5 MONOTONIC RESPONSE ACCOUNTING FOR Pδ for the safety factor FS = 5 are well enveloped by the monotonic
EFFECTS pushover curves in Figure 7(a). In fact, the monotonic and
maximum cyclic curves are indistinguishable. This can be
An increasingly popular concept in structural earthquake explained by the fact that the plastic deformations that take
engineering is the so-called “pushover” analysis. It refers to the place under the edges of the foundation during the deformation-
nonlinear lateral force-displacement relationship of a particular controlled cyclic loading are too small to affect to any
structure subjected to monotonically increasing loading up to appreciable degree of response of the system when the
failure. The development (theoretical or experimental) of such deformation alters direction. As a consequence, the residual
pushover relationships has served as a key in simplified rotation almost vanishes after a complete set of cycles ― an
dynamic response analyses that estimate seismic deformation important (and desirable) characteristic. The system largely
demands and their ultimate capacity. We apply the pushover rebounds, helped by the restoring role of the weight. A key
idea to a shallow foundation supporting an elevated mass, which factor of such behaviour is the rather small extent of soil
represents a tall slender structure with h/B = 2 (or “slenderness” plastification, thanks to the light vertical load on the foundation.
ratio h/b = 4, where b = B/2). This mass is subjected to a The cyclic response for the FS = 2 system is also essentially
progressively increasing horizontal displacement until failure by enveloped by the monotonic pushover curves. However, there
overturning. Since our interest at this stage is only in the appears to be a slight overstrength of the cyclic “envelope”
behavior of the foundation, the structural column is considered above the monotonic curve. For an explanation see
absolutely rigid. The results are shown in Fig:4(a) and (b) for Panagiotidou et al, 2012.
two Fs values : 5 and 2. But the largest difference between monotonic and cyclic, on
The difference in the M-θ response curves from those of one hand, and FS = 2 and 5, on the other, is in the developing
Fig. 2 stems from the so-called P-δ effect. As the induced lateral settlement. Indeed, monotonic loading leads to monotonically-
displacement of the mass becomes substantial its weight induces upward movement (“heave”) of the center of the FS = 5
an additional aggravating moment, mgu = mgθh, where θ is the foundation, and slight monotonically-downward movement
angle of foundation rotation. Whereas before the ultimate (“settlement”) of the FS = 2 foundation. Cyclic loading with FS
moment Mu is reached the angles of rotation are small and this = 5 produces vertical movement of the footing which follows
aggravation is negligible, its role becomes increasingly closely its monotonic upheaval.
significant at larger rotation and eventually becomes crucial in But the FS = 5 foundation experiences a progressively
driving the system to collapse. Thus, the (rotation controlled) accumulating settlement  much larger that its monotonic
M-θ curve decreases with θ until the system topples at an angle settlement would have hinted at. The hysteresis loops are now
θc . This critical angle for a rigid structure on a rigid base (FS = wider. Residual rotation may appear upon a full cycle of
) is simply : loading, as inelastic deformations in the soil are now
(4) substantial.
The above behavior is qualitatively similar to the results of
where b = the foundation halfwidth. For very slender systems centrifuge experiments conducted at the University of
the approximation California at Davis on sand and clay (e.g., Kutter et al. 2003,
Gajan et al. 2005) large-scale tests conducted at the European
(4a) Joint Research Centre, (Negro et al. 2000, Faccioli et al. 1998),
is worth remembering. and 1-g Shaking Table tests in our laboratory at the National
As the static vertical safety factor (FS) diminishes, the Technical University of Athens on sand (Anastasopoulos et al
rotation angle (θc) at the state of imminent collapse (“critical” 2011, 2013, Drosos et al 2012).
overturning rotation) also slowly decreases. Indeed, for rocking In conclusion, the cyclic momentrotation behavior of
on compliant soil, θc is always lower than it is on a rigid base foundations on clay and sand exhibits to varying degrees three
(given with Eq. 4). For stiff elastic soil (or with a very large important characteristics with increasing number of cycles :
static vertical safety factor) θc is imperceptibly smaller than that  no “strength” degradation (experimentally verified).
given by Eq. 4, because the soil deforms slightly, only below  sufficient energy dissipation  large for small FS values,
the (right) edge of the footing, and hence only insignificantly smaller but still appreciable for large ones. (Loss of energy
alters the geometry of the system at the point of overturning. As due to impact will further enhance damping in the latter
the soil becomes softer, soil inelasticity starts playing a role in category, when dynamic response comes into play.)
further reducing θc. However, such a reduction is small as long  relatively low residual drift especially for large FS values 
as the factor of safety (FS) remains high (say, in excess of 3). implying a re-centering capability of the rocking
Such behaviour changes drastically with a very small FS: then foundation.

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These positive attributes not only help in explaining the leading to a rather intense accumulation of curvature
favorable behavior of “Rocking Foundation”, but also enhance (deformation scale factor = 2).The Pδ effect of the mass will
the reliability of the geotechnical design. further aggravate the plastic deformation of the column, leading
to collapse.
In stark contrast, with the new design scheme the “plastic
7 SEISMIC RESPONSE OF BRIDGE PIER ON SHALLOW hinge” takes the form of mobilization of the bearing capacity
FOUNDATION failure mechanisms in the underlying soil, leaving the
superstructure totally intact. Notice that the red regions of large
The concept of “Rocking Isolation” is illustrated in Fig. 5 by plastic shearing are of great extent, covering both half-widths of
comparing the response of a 12 m tall bridge pier carrying a the foundation and indicating alternating mobilization of the
deck of four lanes of traffic for a span of about 35 m  typical bearing capacity failure mechanisms, left and right.
of elevated highways around the world. The above observations are further confirmed by the time
The bridge chosen for analysis is similar to the Hanshin history of deck drift shown in Fig. 5(c). The two components of
Expressway Fukae bridge, which collapsed spectacularly in the drift, are shown, one due to footing rotation in blue and one due
Kobe 1995 earthquake. The example bridge is designed in to structural distortion in green. Their sum is shown in red.
accordance to (EC8 2000) for a design acceleration A = 0.30 g, Evidently, the conventional design experiences essentially only
considering a (ductility-based) behavior factor q = 2. With an structural distortion which leads to uncontrollable drifting 
elastic (fixed-base) vibration period T = 0.48 sec the resulting collapse. In marked contrast, the system designed according to
design bending moment MCOL ≈ 45 MNm. the new philosophy easily survives. It experiences substantial
The pier is founded through a square foundation of width B maximum deck drift (about 40 cm), almost exclusively due to
on an idealized homogeneous 25 m deep stiff clay layer, of foundation rotation. Nevertheless, the residual foundation
undrained shear strength su = 150 kPa (representative soil rotation leads to a tolerable 7 cm deck horizontal displacement
conditions for which a surface foundation would be a realistic at the end of shaking.
solution). Two different foundation widths are considered to Fig. 5(d) further elucidates the action of the foundation-soil
represent the two alternative design approaches. A large square system. The M-θ relationship shows for the 11m2 foundation a
foundation, B = 11 m, is designed in compliance with nearly linear viscoelastic response, well below its ultimate
conventional capacity design, applying an overstrength factor capacity and apparently with no uplifting. On the contrary, the
γRd = 1.4 to ensure that the plastic “hinge” will develop in the 7m2 (under-designed) foundation responds well past its ultimate
superstructure (base of pier). Taking account of maximum moment capacity, reaching a maximum θ  30 mrad, generating
allowable uplift (eccentricity e = M / N < B/3, where N is the hysteretic energy dissipation, but returning almost to its original
vertical load), the resulting safety factors for static and seismic position, i.e. with a negligible residual rotation.
loading are FS = 5.6 and FE = 2.0, respectively. A smaller, However, energy dissipation is attained at a cost : increased
under-designed, B = 7 m foundation is considered in the spirit foundation settlement. While the practically elastic response of
of the new design philosophy. Its static safety factor FS= 2.8, the conventional (over-designed) foundation leads to a minor 4
but it is designed applying an “understrength” factor 1/1.4 ≈ 0.7 cm settlement, the under-designed foundation experiences an
for seismic loading. Thus, the resulting safety factor for seismic increased accumulated 15 cm settlement. Although such
loading is lower than 1.0 (FE ≈ 0.7). settlement is certainly not negligible, it can be considered as a
The seismic performance of the two alternatives is small price to pay to avoid collapse under such a severe ground
investigated through nonlinear FE dynamic time history shaking.
analysis. An ensemble of 29 real accelerograms is used as Perhaps not entirely fortuitously, the residual rotation in this
seismic excitation of the soil–foundation–structure system. In particular case turned out to be insignificant. The recentering
all cases, the seismic excitation is applied at the bedrock level. capability of the design certainly played some role in it.
Details about the numerical models and the requisite
constitutive relations can be seen in Anastasopoulos et al, 2010,
2011. 8 SEISMIC RESPONSE OF TWOSTOREY TWO BAY
Results are shown here only for a severe seismic shaking, ASYMMETRIC FRAME
exceeding the design limits: the Takatori accelerogram of the
1995 MJMA 7.2 Kobe earthquake. With a direct economic loss of The frame of Fig. 6 was structural designed according to EC8
more than $100 billion, the Kobe earthquake needs no for an effective ground acceleration A = 0.36 g and ductility-
introduction. Constituting the greatest earthquake disaster in dependent “behavior” factor q = 3.9. The soil remains the stiff
Japan since the 1923 Ms = 8 Kanto earthquake, it is simply clay of the previous example. Two alternative foundation
considered as one of the most devastating earthquakes of schemes are shown in the figure .
modern times. Of special interest is the damage inflicted to the The conventionally over-designed footings can mobilize a
bridges of Hanshin Expressway, which ranged from collapse to maximum moment resistance Mu from the underlying soil,
severe damage. The aforementioned bridge chosen for our larger than the bending moment capacity of the corresponding
analysis is very similar to the Fukae section of Hanshin column MCOL .. For static vertical loads, a factor of safety FS ≥ 3
Expressway, 630 m of which collapsed during the earthquake of is required against bearing capacity failure. For seismic load
1995. It is therefore logical to consider this as a reasonably combinations, a factor of safety FE = 1 is acceptable. In the
realistic example of an “above the limits” earthquake. In latter case, a maximum allowable eccentricity criterion is also
particular, the Takatori record constitutes one of the worst enforced: e = M/N ≤ B/3. For the investigated soil–structure
seismic motions ever recorded : PGA = 0.70 g, PGV = 169 system this eccentricity criterion was found to be the controlling
cm/s, bearing the “mark” of forward rupture directivity and of one, leading to minimum required footing widths B = 2.7 m, 2.5
soil amplification. m and 2.4 m for the left, middle, and right footing, respectively.
Fig. 5 compares the response of the two alternatives, in terms Bearing capacities and safety factors are computed according to
of deformed mesh at the end of shaking with superimposed the the provisions of EC8, which are basically similar to those
plastic strains. In the conventionally designed system there is typically used in foundation design practice around the world.
very little inelastic action in the soil; the red regions of large The under-sized footings of the rocking isolation scheme, are
plastic deformation are seen only under the severely “battered” “weaker” than the superstructure, guiding the plastic hinge to or
edges of the rocking foundation  but without extending below below the soil–footing interface, instead of at the base of the
the foundation. “Plastic hinging” forms at the base of the pier, columns. The small width of the footings promotes full

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mobilization of foundation moment capacity with substantial footing was made larger (B = 1.8 m, compared to 1.1 m and 1.3
uplifting. The eccentricity criterion is completely relaxed, while m of the two side footings) in order to maintain the same FS.
FE < 1 is allowed. The static FS ≥ 3 remains a requirement as a Since the latter is common for the three footings, if the loading
measure against uncertainties regarding soil strength. Moreover, is more-or-less the same, their response should be similar.
it turns out that FS ≥ 4 might be desirable in order to promote However, such equivalence refers to dimensionless quantities,
uplifting–dominated response, and thereby limit seismic not absolute values [see Kourkoulis et al., 2012b]. In other
settlements [Kutter et al. 2003, Faccioli et al. 2001,Pecker & words, while the three footings sustain almost the same
Pender 2000, Kawashima et al. 2007, Chatzigogos et al. 2009; dimensionless settlement w/B, which is roughly equal to 0.025
Panagiotidou et al. 2012]. Applying the methodology which has (≈ 3 cm/1.2 m) for the two side footings and 0.033 (≈ 6 cm/1.8
been outlined in Gelagoti et al. 2012, the footings were designed m) for the central one, the latter is substantially larger in width
to be adequately small to promote uplifting, but large enough to and hence its settlement is larger in absolute terms. Naturally,
limit the settlements. Aiming to minimize differential the three footings are not subjected to exactly the same loading,
settlements stemming from asymmetry, the three footings were something which further complicates the response. Such
dimensioned in such a manner so as to have the same FS. Based differential settlements may inflict additional distress in the
on the above criteria, the resulting footing widths for the superstructure, and are therefore worthy of further investigation.
rocking–isolated design alternative are B = 1.1 m, 1.8 m, and
1.3 m, for the left, middle, and right footing, respectively:
indeed, substantially smaller than those of the code-based 9 THREESTOREY FRAME RETROFITTED WITH
design. Footing dimensions and static factors of safety against SHEARWALL
vertical loading of the two designs are summarized in Table 1.
Table 1. Footing dimensions and corresponding factors of safety The results presented now are not from numerical analysis as
(computed following the provisions of EC8) against vertical loading for
the previous one, but from Shaking Table experiments. They
the seismic load combination (G + 0.3Q) for the two design alternatives
refer to a 3-storey two-bay frame which was designed according
of Fig. 6. to the pre-1970 seismic regulations, for a base shear coefficient
of 0.06. Because of the small value of this coefficient and the
otherwise inadequate design, the frame has columns of cross-
Conventional Design Rocking Isolation section 25 x 25 cm2 and beams 25 x 50 cm2 resulting in a strong
beamweak column system. Naturally, it fails by first “soft-
Footing B (m) FS Footing B (m) FS
story” type of collapse when excited by motions corresponding
Left 2.7 32.6 Left 1.1 5.4 to today’s codes with effective ground accelerations of the order
of 0.30g and more. To upgrade the frame, a strong and stiff
Middle 2.5 10.6 Middle 1.8 5.4 Shear Wall 1.5 m x 0.3 m in cross-section is constructed
replacing the middle column, as shown in Fig. 7.
Right 2.4 18.1 Right 1.3 5.4 The 1:10scale model is supported on dense finegrained Dr
 80% sand. The original footings of all three columns were 1.5
The performance of the two design alternatives is compared m square. For the retrofitted frame the two columns retained
in Fig. 6. The deformed mesh with superimposed plastic strain their original 1.5 x 1.5m2 footings. The foundation of the Shear
contours of the two alternatives is portrayed on top (Fig. 6a). Wall (SW) is of special geotechnical interest : due to its
With the relentless seismic shaking of the Takatori motion, the disproportionately large lateral stiffness the SW tends to attract
conventionally designed frame collapses under its gravity load most of the seismically induced shear force and hence to
(due to excessive drift of the structure, the moments produced transmit onto the foundation a large overturning moment. By
by P–δ effects cannot be sustained by the columns, leading to contrast, its vertical load is relatively small. To meet the
loss of stability and total collapse). As expected, plastic hinges eccentricity limit e = M/N < B/3, a large foundation 6.0m x 0.80
firstly develop in the beams and subsequently at the base of the m is thus necessary. Hence, the conventional solution of Fig. 8.
three columns, while soil under the footings remains practically Of course the resulting vertical bearing-capacity factor of safety
elastic. The collapse is also evidenced by the substantial is unavoidably large, FS  10, and the seismic apparent factor of
exceedance of the available curvature ductility of the columns safety against moment bearing-capacity is also far more than
(Fig. 6b). Conversely, the rocking–isolated frame withstands the adequate : FE = 2.
shaking, with plastic hinging taking place only in the beams, The decision to reduce the footing width to merely B = 3.5 m
leaving the columns almost unscathed (moment-curvature is not only economically favorable, but in the harsh reality of
response: elastic). Instead, plastic hinging now develops within old buildings it may often be the only feasible decision in view
the underlying soil in the form of extended soil plastification of the usual space limitations due to pipes, small basements,
(indicated by the red regions under the foundation. The time walls, etc, present in the base. We will see if it is also favorable
histories of inter-storey drift further elucidate the technically in resisting a strong seismic shaking.
aforementioned behavior of the two design alternatives (Fig. To be practical, in the above sense, no change is made to the
6d). column footings. (1.5 m square).
Thanks to the larger bending moment capacity of the column We subject all three structures [ i.e., “a” the original frame,
than of the footing, damage is guided “below ground” and at the “b” the retrofitted with a SW founded on conventionally-
soil–foundation interface in the form of detachment and conservative footing, and “c” the retrofitted with the
uplifting  evidenced in Fig. 6d by the zero residual rotation, underdesigned SW footing] to a number of strong ground
unveiling the re-centering capability of the under-designed excitations. Frame “a” easily fails as sketched in Fig. 8, where
foundation scheme. the physical collapse was artificially prevented by an external
The price to pay: large accumulated settlements. Moreover, protective barrier in the Shaking Table experiment. The
despite the fact that the three footings have been dimensioned to conventionally retrofitted SW-frame “b” could withstand most
have the same static factor of safety FS (in an attempt to excitations. But with some of the strongest motions it developed
minimize differential settlements exacerbated from asymmetry), substantial plastification at its base and led to residual top drift
the central footing settles more than the two side footings, of an unacceptable 8%.
leading to a differential settlement of the order of 3 cm. The The unconventionally–founded system “c” behaved much
difference in the settlement stems of course from their better with residual top drift of merely 2%.
differences in width. As previously discussed, the central

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Figure 8 sketches the deformation pattern of the three 12 REFERENCES


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the numerous experimental and theoretical findings of Professor envelope for shallow footings on sand. Géotechnique, 44(1), 181-
Bruce Kutter and his coworkers at U.C. Davis, and of 184.
Professors Alain Pecker and Roberto Paolucci and their Chang B.J, Raychowdhury P., Hutchinson T., Thomas J., Gajan S. &
coworkers in Paris and Milano. Kutter B.L. 2006. Centrifuge testing of combined frame-wall-
foundation structural systems. Proc. 8th US National Conference
on Earthquake Engineering, April 18–22, San Francisco, CA, paper
11 ACKNOLEDGMENTS No. 998.
Τhe financial support for the work outlined in this paper has Chatzigogos C.T., Pecker A., and Salençon J. 2009. Macroelement
been provided through the research project “DARE”, funded by modeling of shallow foundations. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake
the European Research Council (ERC), “IDEAS” Programme in Engineering 29(5), 765–781.
Support of Frontier Research. Contract/number ERC–2–9– Chen X.C., and Lai Y.M. 2003. Seismic response of bridge piers on
AdG228254–DARE . elastic-plastic Winkler foundation allowed to uplift. Journal of
Sound Vibration , 266, 957–965.

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Chopra A.K., and Yim C.S. 1984. Earthquake response of structures Gazetas G. 1987. Simple physical methods for foundation impedances.
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foundations. Ph.D. thesis, Politecnico di Milano, Italy. Harden C., Hutchinson T. 2006. Investigation into the Effects of
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K., Padhy S. 2011. Strong ground motions from the 2011 off-the Earthquake Spectra, 22 (3), pp. 663–692.
Pacific-Coast-of-Tohoku, Japan (Mw=9.0) earthquake obtained Harden C.W., and Hutchinson T.C. 2009. Beam on nonlinear Winkler
from a dense nationwide seismic network. Landslides (available foundation modeling of shallow rocking–dominated footings.
online, DOI: 10.1007/s10346-011-0279-3). Earthquake Spectra, 25, 277–300.
Gajan S., Kutter BL. 2008. Capacity, settlement and energy dissipation Houlsby G.T., Amorosi A., & Rojas E. 2005. Elastic moduli of soils
of shallow footings subjected to rocking, Journal of Geotechnical dependent on pressure: a hyperelastic formulation. Géotechnique,
and Geoenvironmetal Engineering, ASCE 134(8), 1129-1141. 55(5), 383–392.
Gajan S., and Kutter B. L., 2009a. Contact interface model for shallow Houlsby G.T., Cassidy M.J., Einav I. 2005. A generalized Winkler
foundations subjected to combined loading. Journal of model for the behavior of shallow foundation. Geotechnique , 55,
Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 135, 407–419. 449–460.
Gajan S., and Kutter B. L., 2009b. Effects of moment-to-shear ratio on Housner G. W. 1963. The behavior of inverted pendulum structures
combined cyclic load-displacement behavior of shallow during earthquakes, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of
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and Geoenvironmental Engineering 135, 1044–1055. Huckelbridge A.A., and Clough R. 1978. Seismic response of uplifting
Garini E., Gazetas G., and Anastasopoulos I. 2011. Asymmetric building frame. Journal of Structural Engineering, 104, 1211–
‘Newmark’ Sliding Caused by Motions Containing Severe 1229.
‘Directivity’ and ‘Fling’ Pulses. Géotechnique, 61(9), 753-756. Ishiyama Y. 1982. Motions of rigid bodies and criteria for overturning
Gazetas G. 1991. Formulas and charts for impedances of surface and by earthquake excitations. Earthquake Engineering Structural
embedded foundations. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Dynamics 10, 635–650.
ASCE, 117(9), 1363–81. Kausel E., & Roesset J.M. 1975. Dynamic stiffness of circular
Gazetas G., Anastasopoulos, I., and Apostolou, M., 2007. Shallow and foundations. J. Eng. Mech. Div., ASCE, 101, pp. 771–85.
deep foundations under fault rupture or strong seismic shaking. Kawashima K., Nagai T., and Sakellaraki D. 2007. Rocking seismic
Chapter 9 in Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, (K. Pitilakis, isolation of bridges supported by spread foundations. Proceedings
ed.), Springer Publishing, 185–215. of 2nd Japan-Greece Workshop on Seismic Design, Observation,
Gazetas G., Apostolou M., Anastasopoulos I. 2003. Seismic Uplifting of and Retrofit of Foundations, Japanese Society of Civil Engineers,
Foundations on Soft Soil, with examples from Adapazari (Izmit Tokyo, 254–265.
1999, Earthquake). BGA Int. Conf. on Found. Innov., Observations, Kirkpatrick P. 1927. Seismic measurements by the overthrow of
Design & Practice, Univ. of Dundee, Scotland, September 25, 37- columns. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 17, 95–
50. 109.
Gazetas G., Mylonakis G. 1998. Seismic soil–structure interaction: new Knappett J.A., Haigh S.K., Madabhushi S.P.G. 2006. Mechanisms of
evidence and emerging issues, emerging issues paper. failure for shallow foundations under earthquake loading. Soil
Geotechnique, Spec. Pub. ASCE, 75, 1119–74. Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 26, 91–102.

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Koh A.S., Spanos P., and Roesset J.M. 1986. Harmonic rocking of rigid Paolucci R., and Pecker A. 1997. Seismic bearing capacity of shallow
block on flexible foundation. Journal of Engineering Mechanics strip foundations on dry soils. Soils and Foundations 37, 95–105
112, 1165–1180. Paulay T., and Priestley M.J.N. 1992. Seismic Design of Reinforced
Kourkoulis R., Gelagoti F., Anastasopoulos I. 2012. Rocking Isolation Concrete and Masonry Buildings. John Wiley & Sons, New York,
of Frames on Isolated Footings : Design Insights and Limitations. NY.
Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 16(3), 374-400. Pecker A. 2003. A seismic foundation design process, lessons learned
Kourkoulis R., Anastasopoulos I., Gelagoti F., Kokkali P. 2012. from two major projects : the Vasco de Gama and the Rion Antirion
Dimensional Analysis of SDOF Systems Rocking on Inelastic Soil. bridges. ACI International Conference on Seismic Bridge Design
Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 16(7), 995-1022. and Retrofit, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, USA.
Kutter B.L., Martin G., Hutchinson T.C., Harden C., Gajan S., Phalen Pecker A. 1998. Capacity design principles for shallow foundations in
J.D. 2003. Status report on study of modeling of nonlinear cyclic seismic areas. Keynote lecture, in 11th European Conference
load–deformation behavior of shallow foundations. University of Earthquake Engineering (P. Bisch, P. Labbe, and A. Pecker, eds.)
California, Davis, PEER Workshop, 2003. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 303–315.
Kutter B.L., Wilson D.L. 2006. Physical Modelling of Dynamic Pender M. 2007. Seismic design and performance of surface
Behavior of Soil-foundation-superstructure Systems. International foundations. 4th International Conference on Earthquake
Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics, 6(1), 1–12. Geotechnical Engineering, Thessaloniki, Greece (CD-ROM).
Kutter B.L., Martin G., Hutchinson T.C., Harden C., Gajan S., and Priestley M.J.N. 1993. Myths and fallacies in earthquake
Phalen J. D. 2006. Workshop on modeling of nonlinear cyclic load- Engineering―Conflicts between design and Reality. Bulletin, New
deformation behavior of shallow foundations. PEER Report Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering , 26, 329–341.
2005/14, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, Priestley M.J.N. 2003. Myths and fallacies in earthquake engineering,
University of California, Berkeley, CA. revisited. Ninth Mallet-Milne Lecture, Rose School, IUSS Press,
Le Pape Y., & Sieffert J.P. 2001.Application of thermodynamics to the Instituto Universitario di Studi Superiori, Pavia, Italy.
global modelling of shallow foundations on frictional material. Raychowdhury P. & Hutchinson T. 2009. Performance evaluation of a
International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in nonlinear Winkler-based shallow foundation model using
Geomechanics, 25, 1377-1408. centrifuge test results. Earthquake Engineering and Structural
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footings. Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division, 97, Roesset J.M. 1980. Stiffness and damping coefficients of foundations,
1381–1395. in Dynamic Response of Foundations: Analytical Aspects (M. W.
Makris N., and Roussos, Y. 2000. Rocking response of rigid blocks O’Neil and R. Dobry, eds.). American Society of Civil Engineers,
under near source ground motions. Géotechnique, 50, 243–262. Reston, VA, 1–30.
Martin C.M., Houlsby G.T. 2001. Combined loading of spudcan Salençon J., and Pecker A., 1995. Ultimate bearing capacity of shallow
foundations on clay : numerical modeling. Géotechnique, 51(8), foundations under inclined and eccentric loads. Part II: Purely
687-699. cohesive soil without tensile strength. European Journal of
Martin G.R., and Lam I.P., 2000. Earthquake resistant design of Mechanics, A:Solids, 14, 377–396.
foundations: Retrofit of existing foundations. Geoengineering 2000 Shi B., Anooshehpoor A., Zeng Y., and Brune J. 1996. Rocking and
Conference (GeoEng2000), 19–24 November 2000, Melbourne, overturning of precariously balanced rocks by earthquake. Bulletin
Australia. of the Seismological Society of America 86, 1364–1371.
Maugeri M., Musumeci G., Novità D., & Taylor C.A. 2000. Shaking Shirato M., Kouno T., Nakatani S., and Paolucci R. 2007. Large-scale
table test of failure of a shallow foundation subjected to an model tests of shallow foundations subjected to earthquake loads, in
eccentric load. Soil Dyn. and Earthq. Eng., 20 (5-8), 435-444. Proceedings of the 2nd Japan-Greece Workshop on Seismic Design,
Meek J. 1975. Effect of foundation tipping on dynamic response, Observation, and Retrofit of Foundations, Japanese Society of Civil
Journal of Structural Division, 101, 1297–1311. Engineers, Tokyo, Japan, 275–299.
Mergos P.E., and Kawashima K. 2005. Rocking isolation of a typical Shirato M., Kuono T., Asai R., Fukui J., and Paolucci R. 2008. Large
bridge pier on spread foundation. Journal of Earthquake scale experiments on nonlinear behavior of shallow foundations
Engineering, 9(2), 395–414. subjected to strong earthquakes. Soils and Foundations, 48, 673–
Meyerhof G.G. 1963. Some recent research on the bearing capacity of 692.
foundations. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 1(1), 6–26. Tassoulas J.L. 1984. An investigation of the effect of rigid sidewalls on
Nakaki D.K., and Hart G.C. 1987. Uplifting response of structures the response of embedded circular foundations to obliquely-
subjected to earthquake motions. U.S.-Japan Coordinated Program incident SV and P waves. Dynamic Soil–Structure Interaction,
for Masonry Building Research, Report No 2.1-3 (Ewing, Kariotis, Rotterdam: A.A.Balkemal,. 55–63.
Englekirk, and Hart, eds.). Ticof J. 1977. Surface footings on sand under general planar loads,
Negro P., Paolucci R., Pedrett S., and Faccioli E. 2000. Large-scale soil- Ph.D. Thesis, University of Southampton, U.K.
structure interaction experiments on sand under cyclic loading. Ukritchon B., Whittle A.J., Sloan S.W. 1998. Undrained limit analysis
Paper No. 1191, 12th World Conference on Earthquake for combined loading of strip footings on clay. Journal of
Engineering, 30 January–4 February 2000, Auckland, New Geotechnical and Geoenvironmetal Engineering, ASCE, 124(3),
Zealand. 265-276.
Nova R., & Montrasio L. 1991.Settlement of shallow foundations on Veletsos A.S., & Nair V.V. 1975. Seismic interaction of structures on
sand. Géotechnique, 41(2), 243-256. hysteretic foundations. Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE,
Panagiotidou A.I., Gazetas G., and Gerolymos N. 2012. Pushover and 101(1), 109–29.
Seismic Response of Foundations on Overconsolidated Clay: Vesic A.S. 1973. Analysis of ultimate loads of shallow foundations.
Analysis with P-δ Effects, Εarthquake Spectra, 28(4), 1589-1618. Journal of Soil Mechanics Foundation Div., ASCE, 99, 45–73.
Panagiotidou A.I. 2010. 2D and 3D inelastic seismic response analysis Vetetsos A.S., and Wei Y.T. 1971. Lateral and rocking vibration of
of foundation with uplifting and P-δ effects. thesis, National footings. Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division
Technical University, Athens, Greece. 97, 1227–1248.
Paolucci R. 1997. Simplified evaluation of earthquake induced Wolf J.P. 1988. Soil–Structure Interaction Analysis in Time-
permanent displacements of shallow foundations. Journal of Domain.Prentice–Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Earthquake Engineering 1, 563-579. Zhang J., and Makris N. 2001. Rocking Response of Free-Standing
Paolucci R. Shirato M., Yilmaz MT. 2008. Seismic behavior of shallow Blocks Under Cycloidal Pulses. Journal of Engineering Mechanics,
foundations : shaking table experiments vs. numerical modeling. 127(5), 473–483.
Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 37(4), 577-595.

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Figure 1. Conceptual illustration of (a) the response of a conventional and a “rocking-isolation” design of a bridge-pier foundation; and (b) the
“capacity” design principle as conventionally applied to foundations, and its reversal in “rocking isolation”.

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Honour Lectures / Conférences honorifiques

Figure 2. Typical momentrotation relations of three foundations and corresponding snapshots of their ultimate response with the contours of plastic
deformation. The only difference between foundations : their static factor of safety.

Figure 3. Dimensionless Nu – Mu failure envelope for strip foundation

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Figure 4. Comparison of two slender systems (differing only in FS) subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading: (a) deformed mesh with plastic strain
contours at ultimate state; (b) dimensionless monotonic moment–rotation response; (c) cyclic moment–rotation response; and (d) cyclic settlement–
rotation response (the grey line corresponds to the monotonic backbone curves).

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Figure 5. (a) Two bridge piers on two alternative foundations subjected to a large intensity shaking, exceeding the design limits; (b) deformed mesh
with superimposed plastic strain, showing the location of “plastic hinging” at ultimate state; (c) time histories of deck drift; (d) overturning
momentrotation (Mθ) response of the two foundations.

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Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

Figure 6. (a) Two building frames on two alternative foundation subjected to a large intensity earthquake, exceeding the design limits; (b) deformed
mesh with superimposed plastic strain, showing the location of “plastic hinging” at ultimate state; (c) bending moment–curvature response of the
central columns; (d) overturning moment–rotation (M–θ) response of the two central foundations.

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Figure 7. (a) Old frame retrofitted with stiff Shear Wall on two different foundations  conventional B = 6 m and unconventional B = 3.5 m; (b) time
histories on top floor drift ratio; (c) settlement–rotation curves of the Shear Wall footings.

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Figure 8. Sketches of damaged states of the three structures.

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Kerisel
Kerisel Lecture
lecture
The role of Geotechnical Engineers in saving monuments and historic sites.
Conférence Kerisel
Le rôle des ingénieurs géotechniciens dans la sauvegarde des monuments et des sites historiques.

Calabresi G.
ISSMGE Technical Committee 301 core member

ABSTRACT: There are many interesting ways for geotechnical engineers to contribute to conservation issues. Firstly they can give a
substantial contribution to the knowledge of the monuments and of their history. Then by assuming a broader, more comprehensive
approach to the conservation issues, based on historical studies, possibly with the cooperation of scholars of different disciplines, they
are often able to identify the nature, characteristics and evolution of the deterioration phenomena and to ascertain the necessity or
opportunity of removing them. Eventually they can propose the less invasive solutions to save the monument and its material
components that bear witness of its origin and history. The paper shows that in some cases this approach can be successfully applied
to save historic buildings, while in others the origin of very slow soil movements, which increase the damage, can be very difficult to
identify and furthermore costly investigations are required. However it is worthwhile to do any effort to achieve a convincing
explanation of the distress causes and to propose interventions that are safe and respectful of the history of the monument.

RÉSUMÉ : Les ingénieurs géotechniciens peuvent contribuer à la sauvegarde des anciens bâtiments et sites historiques de plusieurs
façons. Premièrement, ils peuvent apporter une contribution importante à la connaissance des monuments et de leur histoire. Ensuite,
avec une approche globale des questions de conservation, basée sur des études historiques, et éventuellement en coopération avec des
chercheurs de différentes disciplines, ils peuvent souvent identifier la nature, les caractéristiques et l’évolution des phénomènes de
dégradation et déterminer la nécessité ou la possibilité de les éliminer. Finalement, ils peuvent proposer les solutions les moins
invasives pour sauver le monument et les matériaux qui le composent, témoins de son origine et de son histoire. Dans certains cas,
cette approche peut être appliquée avec succès pour sauver les bâtiments historiques, tandis que dans d’autres, l'origine des
mouvements du sol très lents peut être très difficile à identifier et les études nécessaires pour poursuivre les recherches deviennent très
coûteuses. Néanmoins, il est justifié de faire tous les efforts possibles visant à parvenir à une explication convaincante des causes des
désordres et de proposer des interventions qui soient sûres et respectueuses de l'histoire du monument.
KEYWORDS: Geotechnical engineering, monuments, historic sites, conservation criteria, saving approach, underpinning, micropiles.

1 INTRODUCTION ensuring such conservation. The complexity of the history and


of the static and conservation conditions of historic buildings
Since the time when J. Kerisel (Kerisel 1975, 1987, 1997, 2004. often generates problems in choosing the right intervention
Viggiani 1997, Isnard 1980) and Arrigo Croce (Croce 1980, because of the presence of technical difficulties or because of
1985, Jappelli 1997) raised this issue, the theme of saving differences in conservation criteria.
monuments and Historic Sites has gained interest and has seen All of this experience deserves being highlighted by
an increasing involvement by geotechnical engineers. A promoting a critical discussion on the role of Geotechnical
contribution to this heightened interest has also come from the Engineers in saving monuments and historic buildings.
establishment and the activity of the ISSMGE Technical
Committee (Tsatsanifos and Psarropoulos 2009) and from the
impact of the debate that accompanied the search for solutions 2 THE TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS OF
and the implementation of difficult interventions in the case of GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
very famous monuments like the Tower of Pisa and the
Cathedral of Mexico City. The theme is now a topical one in all It is self-evident that since all buildings interact with the ground
Countries and often involves Geotechnical Engineers, but the on which they rise and are conditioned by its behaviour, their
close relationship between Geotechnics, history and evolution state of conservation is affected by any deformation of the soil
of engineering and architecture is particularly evident in Italy and by any changes in its properties occurring naturally over
where towns, buildings and monuments built over a time period time or caused by variations in environmental conditions. A
spanning thirty centuries, that are concrete evidence of how monument, its foundation and the supporting ground should be
civilization has evolved in the Mediterranean, pose daily considered as parts of a comprehensive complex system, that
problems to restorers and conservation experts. any saving proposal should take into account, but the soil is
In Italy, almost all buildings, monuments and historic sites generally more sensitive than construction materials to stress
have undergone successive changes throughout the centuries. variations and weathering; hence it is only natural that
Their history bears witness to the succession of events, interests, Geotechnics should be involved in discussions on saving and
artistic trends, visions and to the evolution of construction restoration problems since it is the discipline that more than any
techniques that have occurred over time. Their conservation other investigates the nature and causes of soil displacements,
demands contributions not only by the scholars of the Arts and and is therefore the best suited to finding ways of preserving
Humanities, but also by technical experts who are capable of ancient buildings and monuments.

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The possibilities offered in this field by technological progressive instability caused by the erosion of the sand levels
progress in Geotechnical Engineering in recent years have and by the excavations made during the Middle Ages, but also
stimulated these activities all over the world, as is shown by the to free the stone face from the debris produced by the collapsed
reports published in journals and in conference proceedings. Of rock and discover the unsuspected presence of Hypogeums
course the potential of the new technologies opens up (Tomei and Filetici 2011).
fascinating prospects in this sector; suffice it to think of the New intervention arose also from the progress achieved in
possibilities of introducing structural elements of any size into the last decades in the knowledge of the behaviour of
the soil or of mixing the soil with cement to turn it into a new unsaturated soils and in the measurement of soil suction.
coherent material that is very similar to concrete, or of injecting Actually many old buildings with shallow footings suffer the
hardening materials that replace pore pressure fluids in effects of the shrinkage and swelling of unsaturated cohesive
predetermined points of the subsoil, using probes of all lengths soils. The climate changes which occur in some world areas or
that can travel in any direction, even along predetermined and the water level decrease produced by intense pumping lead
controlled, curved lines. often to new unattended settlements. However, as it has been
Actually, scientific progress and the great potential and recently proposed and implemented, control system of the
flexibility of Geotechnical Engineering technology have saturation degree of the foundation soil can be carried out by
allowed for the conservation and protection of important means of subsurface porous water pipes, to be driven according
historic sites threatened by instability, landslides and weathering to prearranged profiles (Carbonella et. al 2011).
of the soils on which they rise.
Suffice it to mention the measures taken to protect Orvieto,
Italy (Fig. 1), that took more than a decade, with the anchoring
of the high cliff faces made of soft pyroclastic rock (tuff) whose
stability had been undermined by the slow softening of the
Pliocene overconsolidated clays, present at their base
(Manfredini et al. 1980, Martinetti 1981, Lembo Fazio et al.
1984, Tommasi et al. 1997, Tommasi and Ribacchi 1997, Pane
and Martini 1997, Tommasi et al. 2005, Soccodato et al. 2013)

a)

a)

b)
Figure 2. a) The limestone cliff over the hermitage of Santa Caterina del
Sasso. b) The anchoring consolidation works.

3 A MORE RESPECTFUL APPROACH: PRESERVING


THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE PAST
Quite often, for most engineers, the interaction between
Geotechnics and the protection of ancient buildings is seen only
b) from the standpoint of the design and execution of consolidation
Figure 1. Orvieto: the tuff high cliff (a) consolidated by means of measures. First of all it has been noticed that measures taken to
passive anchors, nails and drain pipes (b). Scheme of the strengthening improve the static behaviour or seismic resistance of ancient
works along the edge of the Rock (Cencetti et al., 2005). buildings have not always had lasting effects, but on the
contrary they have often produced even greater and irreversible
Not as extensive but not less important are the anchorage
damages. One example speaks for all: the Minaret of Mosul,
works on another cliff face overlooking Lake Maggiore thanks
Iraq, UNESCO Heritage monument (Fig. 3). The heavy,
to which the historic hermitage of Santa Caterina del Sasso (Fig.
invasive, structural consolidation (by means of iron nails) and
2) has been saved (Balossi Restelli 2009). More recently, a set
underpinning (micropiles) carried out in the 1981 (Lizzi, 1982,
of fiberglass tie-rods and a masonry underpinning have stopped
1997) have not protected the monument from a further
the collapse of large tuff blocks from the NW face of the
worsening of its static conditions, so much so that new
Palatine Hill. This measure not only made it possible to stop the

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measures are most urgent, but it is extremely difficult and


problematic to decide on how to go about such measures.

a) b)
Figure 5. Some of the intervention measures proposed to save the Tower
of Pisa at the 1973 call for projects (Burland et al. 2013): a) Fondedile
proposal; b) Impredit-Gambogi-Rodio proposal.
Actually until the early 1990s, the concept that the
conservation of a monument involves also saving its
construction components, even those that are not visible had not
yet gained ground; the idea that the Tower of Pisa, once it were
to be transferred onto a new foundation built using the
technologies of the 20th century, would become a fake, only a
pure icon of the monument, was not understood (Calabresi and
Figure 3. The Minaret of Mosul, underpinned micropiles and Cestelli Guidi 1990, Calabresi 2011). The new way of thinking
structurally strengthened in 1981 (Lizzi 1982, 1997). made its way gradually and radically changed the cultural
approach to the consolidation of ancient buildings, and in the
The role of Geotechnical Engineers in the conservation of case of the Tower of Pisa, it led to the solution that was finally
historic towns and monuments could be much broader and and happily adopted for its stabilization (Burland et al. 2000).
multifaceted and even more attractive in cultural terms than
what is generally believed. The general perception of
geotechnical engineering only as a means for intervening in a 4 THE NEED OF MULTIDISCIPLINARY STUDIES
historic structure from the static standpoint is restrictive and far
from the present view of thinking about monument If the protection of a historic and monumental building has the
conservation. Indeed it is now common thinking that the aim of maintaining and spreading the knowledge of past eras
replacement or substantial modification of a structure or of a and civilizations, then the study of the interaction between
foundation alters or even eliminates forever an historically buildings and the environment, and in particular their
essential feature of a monument, the idea being that even its non foundation soils, brings a substantial contribution to it; it may
visible parts, like the foundations, must also be preserved as a help understand the choices made by the designers at the time of
material token of its history. construction, the changes that occurred over the years, the
A self evident example of the changing of mind that causes of damages, and the techniques and materials used and
occurred in the course of a few decades is provided by the relate them to the natural and artificial materials available, to
Leaning Tower of Pisa: for a long time, faced with the objective the machines and to the historic context. All this helps deepen
difficulty in interpreting the phenomena that were causing the our knowledge of remote times. In this setting the contribution
progressive inclination of the Tower, technological solutions offered by Geotechnics, alongside that offered by structural
were offered that were intended to make the Tower independent engineers, geologists, seismologists, architects, art historians
of the behaviour of its foundation soil. In 1962, F. Terracina, a and construction historians may play an extremely important
geotechnical engineer who was a passionate scholar of the role. The examples of activities carried out with this spirit are
Tower, published a proposal (Fig. 4) that simply envisaged the now a great many and have been quite successful with at times
removal of soil from the uphill section (anticipating the solution unexpected and surprising results. More than thirty years ago
adopted 40 years later) (Terracina 1962), but its suggestion the archaeologist Gullini had already presented a fascinating
remained unattended. picture of the results achieved through cooperation between
geotechnical engineers, archaeologists and historians in
studying the developments in construction techniques and
design in antiquity (Gullini 1980). They studied the foundations
of ancient monuments and archaeological settlements in
Mesopotamia and in the Mediterranean area from the 4th
millennium B.C. to the late Roman Empire. Today there are
many conservation projects sponsored by UNESCO which have
a multidisciplinary approach in which Geology and Geotechnics
play an essential role: for instance mention can be made of the
Figure 4. Layout of the underexcavation proposed by Terracina (1962). set of measures proposed for Greece presented by IAEG
(Christaras 2003).
Geotechnical Engineering had made great progress (with the
An Italian example is the Valley of the Temples in
development of micropiles and consolidation techniques) and
Agrigento (Croce et al. 1980.): studies carried out on the slope
the call for projects launched to save the Tower in 1973, after
stability of the area where the temples rise have contributed to a
the completion of the studies on its subsoil (Cestelli Guidi et al.
better understanding of the history of Magna Greece and of the
1971) attracted only projects that aimed at creating a deep-
technical culture of its inhabitants between the 6th and 5th
seated underpinning (Fig. 5), across soils that were more or less
centuries B.C. within the frame of our knowledge of ancient
deformable (Burland et al. 2013).
Greece architecture (Dinsmoor 1975).

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to 1319, has a total height of 89 m; presently its axis has an


inclination of 1°16' against the vertical, that is not increasing. In
recent years there has been a widespread concern about the
possible seismic vulnerability of the tower and an in-depth
research has been carried out on its static and dynamic
equilibrium conditions (Lancellotta, 2007, 2013). The main
problem was whether the tower had a sufficient stability factor
against a seismic action of assumed intensity.

a)

b)

Figure 7. The Cathedral and the Ghirlandina tower at Modena. A view


c)
of the leaning tower and the Cathedral apse.
Figure 6. The Temple of Juno at Akragas (Agrigento). a) The
calcarenite cliff; b) An aerial view; c) An outline of its foundations
Cotecchia et al. 2000).
The rational layout of the Greek town, Akragas, is only one
of the many discoveries made (Fig. 6). Actually it is clear that
the designers took into account the geomorphological
characteristics of the area and they adopted solutions for the
foundations that contemplated the properties of the soils and the
seismic nature of the area (Cotecchia 1997, Cotecchia et al.
2000). Indeed, the foundations of the structural elements of all
the temples, consisting of large calcarenite blocks were placed
on the rigid and resistant calcarenite layer located at several
metres depth, underneath the Pliocene outcrop of a medium
hard clay: the foundation of the temple of Hera Lacinia is
located at more than 7 metres below ground surface. Does this
mean that the Greeks knew about the local amplification of
seismic action induced by the clay layer? The ruins of Jupiter’s
Temple, that had been built previously and that had collapsed Figure 8. The planimetric positon of the various historic buildings and
before its completion, suggest that this may be the case. of the ancient Roman road Aemilia (Lancellotta 2013).
Being acquainted with all the details of a monument’s
history is essential in studying how to conserve it and in finding The geotechnical characteristics of the site are very
the best measures to ensure its conservation without complex. Actually the foundation soil is a succession of
undermining its original characteristics. geologically recent alluvial deposits, covered by a thick (more
The recent study of the static condition of the leaning tower than 6 m) layer of ancient, man made heterogeneous landfills.
Ghirlandina in Modena (Figs. 7, 9) is a beautiful, outstanding The upper horizons down to about 22 m are formed by medium
exemplary demonstration of the importance of deep historic to high plasticity inorganic clays, with an abundance of thin
knowledge for explaining the nature and origin of the damages laminae of sand and peat. The geological, geotechnical and
and of the effective contribution offered by a thorough geophysical investigations showed that various periods of
geotechnical investigation. The Ghirlandina, that was designed emersion during the deposition of the thick alluvial deposit
by Lanfranco, a famous medieval architect, and built from 1099 generated a series of layers overconsolidated by desiccation.

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A detailed history of the tower and the nearby Cathedral In this connection another emblematic and famous case is
(Labate 2009), their original design and subsequent the Cathedral of Mexico City (Ovando-Shelley et al. 1997,
modifications, was obtained from the study of many archive Tamez et al. 1997, Santoyo and Ovando-Shelley 2000, Ovando-
documents and was checked against the comparison of the Shelley and Santoyo 2001). Historic information made it
material and stylistic characteristics of the various masonry possible to identify the origin of the differential settlements of
levels of both buildings. In addition, on the basis of the foundation soil, part of which had been consolidated by pre-
archeological escavations made in 1913 (Sandonnini, 1983) and Columbian works, and to design sub-excavation and soil
more recent investigations (Labate, 2009), it was possible to consolidation measures to offset the differential settlements
identify the position of the late medieval cathedral, the pre- (Fig. 10). On the other hand, the studies on foundations have
Lanfranco cathedral and the actual Lanfranco cathedral (Fig. 8). contributed to a thorough understanding of the historic events of
the Cathedral and of the surrounding area.

Figure 9. Vertical sections of Ghirlandina tower: from the left, view


towards West, view towards North, view towards South, view towards
East (Lancellotta 2013). Figure 10. Underexcavation at the Cathedral of Mexico City (Santoyo
and Ovando-Shelley, 2000).
Since the foundation soil has “memory” of the previous
loading history, this detailed reconstruction was the key to
explain the differential settlements, suffered by the cathedral 5 CRITICAL CASES
and in particular the tilt of its apse towards East and not only
towards the Ghirlandina tower. There is a long list of monumental buildings that, owing to the
Additional borings allowed to identify a detailed profile of slow or very slow displacements in the foundation planes, suffer
the soil upper layer and to find the remains of the ancient progressive instability. In these cases a conflict sets in between
Roman road Via Aemilia at a depth of about 7 m. By comparing the purely technological approach (aimed at reinstating the
the different elevations of its pavement below the tower and safety of the monument with structural interventions which,
outside, it became possible to deduce the settlements of the while ensuring that the external aspects are preserved, modify
tower and the compressibility of its foundation soil. In order to the original structural design), and a softer approach, on the
explore the stability equilibrium of the leaning tower (Cheney et other hand, that begins with a study of the phenomena
al. 1991, Di Tommaso et al. 2012) the inverted pendulum model underlying the instability and makes a long and perhaps
has been adopted. Its parameters were derived from the soil uneventful search of the causes that need to be removed to stop
investigations and from an experimental identification analysis the instability and if possible save the monument without
of the tower dynamic behaviour in the presence of ambient substantial alterations so as to respect its historic integrity. It is
vibration. The model parameters were chosen according to the worth recalling that the search for the causes is always a time-
time histories of the tower vibration, collected by means of a set consuming exercise that is often much more expensive than
of accelerometers at different heights; then a thorough analysis ordinary, obvious structural and geotechnical engineering
of soil-structure interaction was carried out in order to get a interventions. A systematic study of the saving projects carried
reliable estimate of the rotational stiffness and of the dynamic out in Italy until 1995, including buildings of different kinds
response of the tower foundation. The results gave reason for (Table 1), has shown that pure underpinning by micropiles was
the good performance of the tower during the past seismic the largely predominant type of measure (Fig. 11) which in
events and showed that there is no need for underpinning many cases was probably unnecessary or unsuited.
interventions. Furthermore it appeared that if the tower had been
underpinned on micropiles, following the dogmatic trend of 20-
30 years ago, the decrease of the fundamental period of the
structure would have increased its seismic vulnerability.

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mere hypotheses: the Basilica of St. Angelo in Formis and the


Pienza Cathedral.

St. Angelo in Formis

St. Angelo in Formis is a Benedictine basilica near Capua which


rises on the slopes of a rock hill (Fig. 12); it was built in the 6th
century A.D. on the ruins of a Roman temple whose origins date
back to the 5th century B.C (Cammarota, 2013). The basilica,
which has three naves, presents traces of the changes it
underwent in time. In particular the bell tower and the portico
probably collapsed and were rebuilt in the 13th century. The
foundations of the apse, most of the external walls and the
pillars of the naves are rather shallow and rest on a fractured
dolomite mass, whereas the foundations of the facade, the
portico and a small proportion of the side walls rest on debris
deposits and backfill.
The geology of the area is complex because the dolomite
mass overlies more recent Oligocene and Myocene deposits and
there are major fractures of tectonic origin (Fig. 13). There is
knowledge of relevant repair and consolidation measures
adopted in 1732 and in 1930 after seismic damages. Of the more
recent earthquakes of 1962, 1970 and 1980, only the last one
caused some slight damages. From the end of the 1960s some
cracks of static origin appeared in the walls of the naves lying
over the pillars and with their slow progression they have
caused quite some alarm and have required underpinning props.

Table 1. Monuments types subjected to systematic study (from Cecconi


et al. 1997).

Figure 12. The Benedictine Basilica of St. Angelo in Formis.

a)

a)

b)
Figure 11. An analysis of some Italian monuments (modified from
b)
Cecconi et al. 1997): a) damage types; b) preservation measures.
Figure 13. St Angelo in Formis. a) The main fissures; b) Geologic
However sometimes the causes of the instability are not clear section of the foundation soil (Cammarota et al. 2013).
and the possibility of removing them remains at best uncertain. The geological and geotechnical investigations performed so
This is the case of two Italian monuments of great value for far in different stages have not helped to identify the causes of
which, after years of investigations, the causes of their the settlements of the foundation soil. A first hypothesis
instability still have not been found and for which there are only attributed the instability to the mining activities carried out
using explosives in a nearby quarry, but even after the mining

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activities stopped in 1981 the cracks and fissures continued to and the sandstone scarp that delimits it towards the Orcia Valley
widen. (Fig. 17): the apse, with its underlying crypt, had its foundations
The origin of the distress remains unclear so that further downhill from the scarp where the level of the ground is about
geotechnical investigations and more extended studies are 15 m lower (Fig. 15).
necessary. The safety of the fissured masonry structures – The construction of the apse ran into considerable and
arches and vaults – is currently ensured by provisional and unexpected difficulties. In his memoirs the Pope wrote that the
removable props, but while it is increasingly difficult to obtain foundation plane rested on rock masses crossed by large fissures
public economic support to carry out research into the causes of and that large arches were built across them to support the
the on-going phenomena, the proposals of consolidating the foundations. Some fissures appeared in the walls of the apse
masonry walls of the basilica by means of important structural before the completion of the construction works, but Rossellino
measures are bound to increase. attributed them to the setting of the mortar (Piccolomini 2008).
The church was inaugurated on 29 August 1462. New
The Pienza Cathedral cracks appeared soon after between the nave and the apse and in
the underlying crypt. Since then, for five centuries, there has
The Pienza Cathedral (Fig. 14) is perhaps less famous than the been an uninterrupted succession of instability phenomena and
Tower of Pisa, but it is just as problematic and intriguing. consolidation works under the foundations; drifts and deep
drainage wells have been driven, reinforcement buttresses have
been built to uphold the apse, repairs and restructuring measures
have been adopted for the side walls, the crypt under the apse,
the vaults and the roof (Di Pasquale 1992).
All these measures were made necessary by the constant
lowering of the apse foundation downhill from the rock scarp:
there is proof that between 1520 and 1530 the floor of the apse
was al-ready lower than that of the nave by about 27
centimetres. A sudden settlement of about 0.3 m of the soil
downhill from the scarp occurred on the night of 26 November
1545 and caused the partial collapse of the apse and of the bell
tower. The event, described in the memoirs of a citizen of
Pienza is defined Terrae motus (literally a movement of the
earth), but there are doubts about it being an earthquake or a
sudden slope instability phenomenon, perhaps triggered by a
seismic quake. At present the overall difference in level of the
apse with respect to the nave is about one metre, as it can be
Figure 14. Cathedral of Pienza and Piccolomini Palace from the square. seen from the relative displacement of the cornice in Figure 16.

Perhaps there is no other monument that, in its lifetime, has


been subjected to so many consolidation and strengthening
measures as the Pienza Cathedral, because of the very slow, but
continuous settlements of the foundation soil underneath its
apse (Forlani Conti 1986).

Figure 16. The cornice displacement shows the apse settlement.

Figure 15. The Piccolomini Palace and the Pienza Cathedral apse seen
from the rock scarp downhill.
In 1459 Enea Silvio Piccolomini, newly elected pope with the
name of Pius II, decided to raise the status of his birth town Figure 17. Planimetric position of the Cathedral.
with the construction of a Cathedral and some noble palaces.
Works for the construction of the new cathedral started in 1459
and were completed in only three years. In order to make sure
that the cathedral would be of appropriate proportions without
restricting the size of the main square, situated symbolically
between the Cathedral and the City Hall, the architect, Bernardo
Rossellino extended its layout beyond the walls of the village

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Main events in the Cathedral history (Fig. 18)


1458, Enea Silvio Piccolomini is elected pope (Pius II) and begins to
rebuild his home town.
1459, The construction of the Cathedral is initiated by Bernardo
Rossellino. Some problems arise in the apse foundation.
1462, At the end of the works some fissures appear close to the first
choir chapel. Their openings increase towards the vaults. (a)
1462, Aug. 29, Solemn opening of the Cathedral.
1490, The apse begins to settle.
1500, The settlement of the apse reaches about 0.3 m.
1503, A tunnel is built to drain water from under the crypt.
1508, Two buttress piers are built against the apse to sustain it.(b)
1514, A wall is built around the apse. The settlement reaches 0.45 m
1545, Nov. 25, An earthquake (?) causes a large settlement of the apse
and the collapse of the belfry; a crack appears along the natural c
scarp, SW of the town. (c) )
1570, Repair works of the earthquake damages are completed. The
collapsed vaults of the transept are substituted by false vaults
1596, The crypt arches and the external walls are streightened.
1604, A. Sandrini, architect, states that the damages are due to the
slope movement, so that underpinning the apse is useless. (d)
1650 - 1760, Repeated repair works. The apse is more than 25 cm out
of the plumb line.
1750 - 1770, A proposal of demolishing the apse and shortening the
church is considered, but happily not carried out.
1888 - 1895, Collapsing vaults are replaced by false works. The
pillars are connected by steel tendons. The apse has settled 0.85 m
and has increased its detachment from the nave. (e)
1911 - 1925, Underpinning of the apse with masonry pillars, which
bypass the sandstone layer to reach the marly clay. (f)
1926 - 1929, Various repair works are carried on, the apse walls are
strengthened. The transept is underpinned. d)
1930 - 1933, The apse and crypt vaults are rebuilt. (g)
1958 - 1962, Underpinning of nave and aisle pillars with root piles. A
hydraulic diaphragm is built around the front. (h)

e
)

a)

f)

b)

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engineer who identified two traces of a vicarious fault,


practically aligned with the cracks in the walls, having a total
throw of about 15 m. Quite surprisingly the new structural
consolidation measures adopted a few years later did not take
this fact into any account.
Later, between 1979 and 1984 a more thorough survey was
made of the structures and of the relevant instability and
geological and geotechnical investigations were carried out to
define the bedding and mechanical characteristics of the
foundation soils.
The following figures (Figs. 19, 20) show two stratigraphic
sections and their positions in the plan view. Under the square
and the nave of the Cathedral a limestone layer 3 to 4 m thick
over-laps the weakly cemented sand and fissured sandstone
g) layer, having a thickness of 12-15 metres, which can be seen in
the scarp on the sides of the apse (Lazzarotto and Micheluccini
1986, Calabresi et al. 1988, Calabresi et al. 1998).

h) a)

Figure 18. Main events in the Pienza Cathedral history: a) 1462;


b) 1503-1508; c) 1514-1545; d) 1570-179e) 1888-1895; f) 1908-1920;
g) 1922 -1933; h) 1955 - 1979 (Di Pasquale 1992).
The phenomenon has always been attributed to the poor
quality of the foundation soil, to its many fissures and to the
effects of underground water. The sole exception is a report on
instability dated 1604, in which an architect, A. Sandrini,
having noticed that the earth surface fissures caused by the 1545
displacements were aligned with the scarp and extended
throughout the whole southern side of the village, stated that the
apse settlement was due to the movement of the slope; this
interpretation of the phenomenon has been systematically
b)
ignored.
Figure 19. a) The Cathedral plan and the traces of the fault traces; b)
In about 1750, as the instability in the area of the apse Geologic section AA, parallel to the church axis;
continued, suggestions were made to demolish that part and
restrict the Cathedral to the part rising on the uphill part of the
scarp. Luckily the proposal was not followed up and further
measures were taken to consolidate the walls and foundations of
the apse.
In 1911, as concerns grew for the stability of the Cathedral, a
lively debate occurred between those who suggested
underpinning the apse and those who, following the example of
what had just be done for the Spina Church in Pisa, suggested
dismantling the apse to build a new foundation. In any case
everyone was persuaded that the settlement of the apse was due
to the poor quality of the foundation soil. Luckily the first
position prevailed and between 1911 and 1929, by means of
sample excavations through the sandstones to the underlying
marly clays, stone and brick pillars were built under the apse
down to more than 20 m from ground level downhill from the Figure 20. The axial section BB shows the position of the foundation
scarp. It was deemed that the apse, provided with a rigid block relative to the fault planes.
monolithic foundation resting on the layer of marly clays, was
finally consolidated. However, cracks causing detachment of
the apse from the nave occurred again quite soon and in 1956 a
new study committee was appointed including a geologist

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Then it was finally stated that the apse settlement is not due
to the deformation of the foundation soil but to the constant
lowering of the area downhill from the set of faults.

fault throw

a)

1983$
1984$
1985$
1986$
1987$
1988$
1989$
1990$
1991$
1992$
1993$
1994$
1995$
1996$
1997$
1998$
1999$
2000$
2001$
2002$
2003$
2004$
2005$
2006$
2007$
2008$
2009$
2010$
2011$
0$

Figure 21. The main fault surface about 400 m N-W of the Cathedral !2$

!4$
It lies on a Pliocene formation of strongly overconsolidated !6$
marly clays whose thickness is about 100 m at the centre of abbassamen' (mm(

!8$
Pienza and increases to over 800 m southwards (Brogi et al. !10$
CS$23$

2005). The substrate of the Pliocene sediments consists of !12$


CS$24$

Mesozoic, carbonate-siliceous formations of the “Tuscan !14$


Series”. The discontinuities that border the scarp, already
identified in 1956, are a set of locally vicarious faults having a
!16$

WNW-ESE direction and southward dip. They are crossed by


!18$

minor, approximately perpendicular discontinuities.


!20$

b)
The geotechnical investigations showed that both the Figure 23. Settlements of two significant points close to the Cathedral
sandstones and the underlying marly clays have high strength apse: a) plan view; b) settlements vs. time
and negligible compressibility.
In 1983 a periodical levelling was started by installing many
benchmarks, uphill and downhill from the scarp and from the
set of faults (Fig. 22). The measurements, repeated every year
until 1992 (Guidi 1986) then at various intervals between 1994
and 1999 and resumed recently, show that the whole area
covered by the bench-marks downhill from the scarp has a
constant non uniform settlement of between 1 and 2 mm per
year (Figs. 23, 24). Minor effects of this phenomenon are
visible in other buildings in the same area (Costantini and
Lazzarotto 2010). The lack of uniformity of the settlement rate
shows that the Pliocene marly clay is split by the sets of
discontinuities; the main vicarious fault is the main, but not the
0.0 ‐ 0.4 mm/a
only source, of the soil displacement downhill from the scarp. 0.4 ‐ 0.8 mm/a
0.8 ‐ 1.1 mm/a
1.1 ‐ 1.5 mm/a
> 1.5  mm/a

Figure 24. Settlement rate contours in the area south of the Cathedral.
At the present time the masonry block constituting the
underpinning of the apse built at the beginning of last century,
whose internal edge lies uphill from a fault plane, while the
external part is downhill, has a rigid downhill rotation which
involves the overlying apse. Since the existence of an active
fault should be ruled out, the only hypothesis that would
account for the continuous settlement is a deep seated
gravitational slope deformation within the marly clay formation,
influenced by the shape of its bed and by the discontinuity
surfaces (Genevois and Tecca, 1984, Calabresi 1992, Calabresi
Figure 22. Ground settlement contours from June 1983 to January 1992. et al. 1995, Calabresi et al. 1988, Sciotti and Calabresi 2004).
A recent seismic investigation along a longitudinal section
Horizontal displacements are null or non measurable. The measuring more than 1000 metres has highlighted a significant
steady and extremely small rate of the movement, detectable anomaly in the P-wave velocity contours under the Cathedral
only by a high precision levelling over a long term campaign apse and a depression in the bed of the Pliocene deposits in the
explains why the phenomenon was never detected in the past. zone where the surface movements are largest, thus confirming
that the faults detected at the surface involve also the underlying

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Mesozoic formation (Fig. 25). The lines of larger Vp gradient opinions. Some structural solutions were presented and
obtained from the seismic reflection investigation (Fig. 26) discussed at a special conference (Mascardi 1992, Migliacci
show the main units of the stratigraphic section and the probable 1992), where however the concept of protecting the monument
traces of the discontinuity surfaces (Brogi et al. 2003). and its history also from a material point of view, without
A likely hypothesis is that the sinking of a dihedral mass modifying its original design with inappropriate changes,
between two convergent fault planes is made possible by a largely prevailed. Luckily the rates of subsidence and rotation of
horizontal displacement rate of the downhill zone too small to the apse are very small and leave time for geotechnical
be topographically detectable. While it is evident that the faults, engineers to look for a possible soft solution. There is a hope
along whose surface the clay shear strength has a residual value, that they may win the challenge as it has happened for the
and the sets of minor discontinuities have a critical influence on Tower of Pisa.
the equilibrium conditions of the slope, their geometric
characteristics and the cleft water pressures (Calabresi and
Manfredini 1973, Sciotti and Calabresi 2004) have not yet been CONCLUSIONS
sufficiently defined to get a convincing explanation of the
phenomenon. Geotechnics may offer a significant contribution to the
The project of a deeper geostructural and geotechnical knowledge of ancient designs and construction techniques and
research has been recently submitted to the study committee to the interpretation of the causes of instability. The effects of
recently charged of carrying out an updated analysis of the deformations in foundation soils that occurred in ancient times,
Cathedral conditions, but its implementation has been delayed or that are difficult to trace back to any specific cause, can often
by economic problems. However the fundamental question still be observed in ancient buildings. An ancient building or historic
remains: assuming that the above explanation be correct, could site is interesting in and of itself for geotechnical engineers,
a geotechnical measure, such as a decrease of the piezometric since it constitutes a monitoring instrument of the long term
head, be designed to slow down the movement? behaviour of the soil that influences them.
The progress of geotechnical engineering and of the
specialized technologies offer the means to perform complex
and efficient interventions to save monuments, historic
buildings and old towns. However too often in the last decades
the new opportunities offered by this progress and the
cooperation of geotechnical engineers has been utilized
inappropriately by applying new deep foundations and
structural modifications, that overcome the ancient building
distress in a simplistic way, that ignores the history of the object
of the intervention, from its initial building to our time, and the
witness value of the technical solutions adopted by our
predecessors and of their expertise.
The great challenge is how to save monuments and historic
buildings together with the physical token of their conception,
their original construction techniques and their historic
a) modifications, that are tangible witnesses of the history of
mankind.
The problems posed by slow, continuous settlements induced
by deep seated deformations, which require long, in-depth and
expensive investigations, are among the most difficult to be
understood and explained. However the geotechnical engineers
should feel themselves engaged in exploiting their knowledge of
soil mechanics and applied geology to look for a way, if it
b) exists, to save monuments and historic sites by removing the
Figure 25. Seismic refraction tomography. a) The section trace; cause of distress and avoiding heavy structural interventions
b) P-wave velocity contours. that distort their substantial characters.
The cooperation of architects, historians, archaeologists,
structural and geotechnical engineers is the necessary
precondition for a respectful attitude towards conservation
problems.
In this context the geotechnical engineers have also the
opportunity of actively contributing to the knowledge of the
history of architecture and engineering, by following the
unforgettable example and the footsteps of our great colleague
Jean Kerisel.

Figure 26. Wave P velocity gradients from the seismic reflection ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
measurements. 1. Remoulded superficial soil; 2. Limestone and
Sandstone (Pliocene); 3. Over-consolidated marly clays (Pliocene); 4, 5 The Author is very grateful to his colleagues of the Pienza
carbonate-siliceous formations “Tuscan Series” (Mesozoic); Scientific Committee Antonio Lazzarotto and Silvia Briccoli
6 Anhydrite (Trias). Bati for their continuous, friendly collaboration and for their
help in gathering the relative documentation. The very precious
help of Dr. Manuela Cecconi in preparing the paper is gratefully
Consolidation measures of the Cathedral of an entirely different acknowledged.
approach, aimed at supporting the apse area with new reinforced
concrete structures hinged to the ground uphill from the fault,
are repeatedly being submitted by groups with different

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Geotechnical Engineering for the preservation of monuments and A.A.Balkema, Rotterdam.
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Carbonella M, Cenni G., Franceschini M. 2011. Stabilizzazione di foundation engineering in Italy. A histoical review. Proc. Int.
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CNG. 2, 367-374 Associazione Geotecnica Italiana, Roma A.A.Balkema, Rotterdam.
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of some Italian monuments. Proc. Int. Symposium on Geotechnical Géotechnique, 25, 433-483
Engineering for the Preservation of Monuments and Historic Sites. Kerisel, J. 1987 Down to earth: foundations past and present: the
69-80 C. Viggiani ed., A.A.Balkema, Rotterdam. invisible art of the builder. Balkema, Rotterdam
Cencetti C., Conversini P. and Tacconi P. 2005. The Rock of Orvieto Kerisel, J. 1997 Geotechnical problems in the Egypt of Pharaos. Proc.
(Umbria, Central Italy). Giornale di Geologia Applicata 1, 103- Int. Symposium Geotechnical Engineering for the Preservation of
112. Monuments and Historic Sites. 33-40 C. Viggiani ed. A.A..
Cestelli Guidi, C., Croce, A., Skempton, A.W., Schultze, E., Calabresi, Balkema, Rotterdam
G., Viggiani, C. 1971. Caratteristiche geotecniche del sottosuolo Kerisel J. 2004 Pierres et hommes des Pharaons à nos jours. Presses de
della Torre. Ricerche e studi sulla Torre pendente di Pisa ed i l'E.N.P.C., Paris
fenomeni connessi alle condizioni d’ambiente, IGM, Firenze, I, pp. Labate D. 2009. Il contributo dell’archeologia alla lettura di un
179-200. monumento. La Torre Ghirlandina: un progetto per la
Cheney, J.A., Abghari, A., Kutter, B.L. 1991. Leaning instability of tall conservazione. Vol. 1, 66-77, Luca Sossella Editore, Roma.
structures. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 117(2):
297-318.

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Lancellotta, R., Pepe, M., 1998. On the stability of equilibrium of the Sandonnini T. 1983. Cronaca dei restauri del Duomo di Modena (1897-
Leaning Tower of Pisa, Atti Sc. Fis. Accademia delle Scienze, 1925), a cura di O. Baracchi, Aedes Muratoriana, Modena 285 pp.
Torino, 132, pp. 1-11. Santoyo E.V. and Ovando-Shelley E. 2000. Mexico's City Cayhedral
Lancellotta R. 2009. Aspetti geotecnici nella salvaguardia della torre and Sagrario - Geometrical correction and soil hardening. Mexico
Ghirlandina. La Torre Ghirlandina. Un progetto per la City's Cathedral and Sagrario, TGC Ingenieria, Mexico
conservazione. p. 178-193 Luca Sassella Editore, Roma, Sciotti. A. and Calabresi G. 2004 Deep-seated movements in stiff
Lancellotta R. 2013. La Torre Ghirlandina: una storia di interazione jointed clays: the role of structural discontinuities”. Advances in
struttura-terreno. XI Croce Lecture, Rivista Italiana di Geotecnica, geotechnical engineering: the Skempton Conference. Thomas
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di Pienza, 1459-1984, Studi e Restauri. 94-98 Cantini, Firenze preservation of historical, archaeological and artistic heritage of
Lembo Fazio A., Manfredini G., Ribacchi R., Sciotti M. 1984 Slope Orvieto: an interdisciplinary project. Proc. 2nd Int. Symposium on
Failures and Cliff Instability in the Orvieto Hill Proc. 4rd Int. Geotechnical Engineering for the preservation of monuments and
Symp. on Landslides 2, 115-120, Toronto historic sites. Associazione Geotecnica Italiana, in print
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Manfredini G., Martinetti S., Ribacchi R., Sciotti M., 1980. Problemi di (4) 336-339
stabilità della Rupe di Orvieto. XIV Conv. Naz. di Geotecnica, 1, Tommasi P., R. Ribacchi and M. Sciotti 1997. Geotechnical aspects in
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Martinetti S. 1981. Saving old towns on hill top. Proc. X ICSMFE, Symposium Geotechnical Engineering for the Preservation of
Stockholm 4, 841-846 Monuments and Historic Sites. 849-858 C. Viggiani ed.,
Mascardi C. 1992 Ipotesi di consolidamento strutturale e di restauro. Il A.A.Balkema, Rotterdam.
Duomo di Pienza, Cinque Secoli di Restauri. Atti Conv. Pontignano Tommasi P., Ribacchi R., 1998. Mechanical behaviour of the Orvieto
69-83 Soprintendenza BB.AA.AA., Siena tuff. 2nd Int. Symp. Hard-Soils and Soft-Rocks 2, 901-909, Napoli
Migliacci A. 1992 Ipotesi di consolidamento strutturale e di restauro. Il Tommasi P., Boldini D., Ribacchi R., 2005. Twenty-year monitoring of
Duomo di Pienza, Cinque Secoli di Restauri. Atti Conv. Pontignano the Orvieto overconsolidated clayey slope (Italy). XVI International
69-83 Soprintendenza BB.AA.AA., Siena Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering,
Ovando-Shelley E. and Santoyo E. 2001 Underexcavation of buildings 2595-2598 Osaka.
in Mexico City: the case of the Metropolitan Cathedral and The Tsatsanifos C. and Psarropoulos P. 2009. TC 19 Preservation of Historic
Sagrario Church Proc. ASCE Journal od Architectural Engineering Sites – Administrative Report, Proc. XVII ICSMGE, 3763-64
Ovando-Shelley E., Tamez E and Santoyo E. 1997 Geotechnical aspects Osaka
for underexcavating Mexico's City Metropolitan Cathedral: main Viggiani C. 1997. Laudatio Geotechnical Engineering for the
achievements after three years. Proc. Int. Symposium Geotechnical Preservation of Monuments and Historic Sites. 29-32
Engineering for the Preservation of Monuments and Historic Sites. A.A.Balkema, C. Viggiani ed., Rotterdam.
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Pane V. and Martini E.1997 The preservation of historical towns in Preservation of Monuments and Historic Sites. 3-9 C. Viggiani ed.,
Umbria: The Orvieto Case and its observatory. Proc. Int. A.A.Balkema, Rotterdam
Symposium Geotechnical Engineering for the Preservation of Viggiani C. 2013 Cultural Heritage and Geotechnical Engineering: an
Monuments and Historic Sites. 489-498 C. Viggiani ed., introduction. Proc. 2nd Int. Symposium on Geotechnical
A.A.Balkema, Rotterdam. Engineering for the preservation of monuments and historic sites,
Piccolomini E.S. 2008. Commentarii (Latin with Italian translation, L. A.A.Balkema, Rotterdam in print
Totaro ed). 1576, 1744-1771 Adelphi Edizioni, Milano

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lecture
McClelland Lecture
Analytical contributions to offshore geotechnical engineering
Conférence McClelland
Contributions des méthodes analytiques à la géotechnique offshore

Randolph M. F.
Centre for Offshore Foundation Systems, University of Western Australia

ABSTRACT: The theme of this paper, the written version of the 2nd McClelland Lecture, is the contribution of analysis to offshore
geotechnical engineering. The application areas considered range from the axial and lateral response of piles, to seabed infrastructure
associated with deep water applications, including shallow skirted foundations, anchors, pipelines and risers. The emphasis
throughout is on analytical solutions, including appropriately framed outcomes of numerical studies. Most of the material is
retrospective, summarising key contributions in an effort to facilitate access, and thus help close the gap between theory and practice.

RÉSUMÉ : L’objet de cet article, la 2e conférence McClelland, est de présenter les contributions des méthodes analytiques à la
géotechnique offshore. Il couvre plusieurs champs d’application, de la capacité axiale et horizontale des pieux au comportement des
structures géotechniques associées aux développements en eaux profondes, incluant notamment les fondations superficielles avec
jupe, les systèmes d’ancrages et les pipelines. L’accent est notamment porté sur les solutions analytiques, dont certaines sont basées
sur des résultats de solutions numériques. L’essentiel du contenu de cet article résume les contributions antérieures les plus
significatives, de façon à en faciliter l’accès et ainsi réduire l’écart entre théorie et pratique.
KEYWORDS: Analysis, consolidation, offshore engineering, penetrometers, pile foundations, pipelines, shallow foundations.

1 INTRODUCTION problem geometry or of the soil response, for example linear


elasticity for stiffness solutions, or perfect plasticity for capacity
I was privileged to meet Bram McClelland on a few occasions solutions. However, they still provide a framework linking the
and have always held him in the highest regard. Much of my outcome to the various input parameters, highlighting the
early exposure to the offshore world was through interactions critical sensitivities of the response, facilitating parametric
with the London and Houston branches of the consulting studies and quantifying the effect of different idealisations.
company, McClelland Engineers, that he founded. It was The paper takes a retrospective look at some of the analytical
therefore a great honour to be invited to give this, the 2nd, contributions relevant to offshore geotechnical engineering,
McClelland Lecture, and I am gratified that the written version drawing attention to the potential application of the solutions in
of the lecture is to form part of the proceedings of the 18th design guidelines and day to day practice. The first part of the
International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical paper revisits solutions for the axial and lateral response of pile
Engineering. Following in the footsteps of the first McClelland foundations, which are still the main type of foundation for
Lecturer, Don Murff (Murff, 2012), is no easy feat, although I offshore structures in moderate or shallow water depths and for
must admit to having become somewhat accustomed to this tension leg platforms in deeper water. The remainder of the
during my career. More times than I can remember I have found paper then focuses more on applications relevant for deep water
(often retrospectively) that an analytical contribution I have developments, including subsea foundations, anchors and
offered has been covered elegantly by Don in a prior pipelines. Of necessity, restrictions on the length of the paper
publication. It is fitting, therefore, to continue the theme of his have required me to focus on a few specific issues within each
own McClelland lecture, in targeting the gap between theory topic, in particular where solutions point the way towards
and practice, drawing attention to and summarising various improved design recommendations, and recent work addressing
analytical contributions. developing areas of offshore geotechnical engineering.
In an era where virtually any geotechnical application can be Before discussing the applications themselves, I should
modelled numerically, with idealisations potentially limited clarify what I intend by the word ‘analytical’ within the present
only to those associated with the constitutive response of the context. I include within this term appropriately conceived
soil, it is tempting to wonder whether true analytical solutions parametric studies undertaken through numerical analysis.
still have a role. At the opposite extreme, design guidelines such These should lead to algebraic expressions or charts that may be
as API (2011) and ISO (2003, 2007) are inevitably slow to used in design, identifying the relative contribution of non-
evolve and in many places rely on somewhat dated suggestions, dimensional groups of parameters that affect the result. By
either empirical or quasi-analytical. There is limited incentive to contrast, an algebraic fit through experimental data will rarely
refine them through analysis without clear evidence of lack of provide comparable insight, and should instead be taken as
conservatism, or the reverse, excessive conservatism. encouragement to quantify the phenomenon through analytical
The potential of analysis is its ability to provide a direct, or numerical means. That said, I have always been a strong
ideally quantitative, link between a required output and the proponent of the need for high quality experimental data, but
various input parameters for a given application. At a basic with the primary objectives of stimulating understanding of the
level, dimensional analysis should indicate appropriate non- problem for subsequent analysis, and where necessary to
dimensional forms for input and output quantities. Analytical calibrate specific areas of uncertainty in analytical models.
solutions will typically contain idealisations, either of the

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Proceedings of the 18 International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013

2 PILE FOUNDATIONS stress is expressed as a function of h/D. These two approaches


result in quite similar forms of expression for the shaft friction,
2.1 Axial shaft friction but the underlying conceptual models differ. Friction
degradation according to h/D, rather than h/Deq seems more
Arguably the most important aspect of pile design, estimation of logical, since the soil at depths shallower than the pile tip no
the profile of limiting shaft friction, has proved resistant to longer has any knowledge of (or influence from) the area ratio
analytical treatment, although understanding of the processes in respect of subsequent densification within the shearing zone
involved has gradually developed. This has allowed appropriate adjacent to the pile. The influence of the area ratio on the initial
non-dimensional quantities on which the limiting shaft friction radial stress is also supported by analysis (White et al. 2005).
depends to be identified. A full discussion of the current design It is acknowledged that the use of the distance, h, to quantify
recommendations for shaft friction was provided recently by friction degradation is really a surrogate for the number of shear
Jeanjean (2012), and so the remarks below are limited to stress cycles to which the soil is exposed, since it is the cyclic
relatively high level principles underlying the guidelines. shearing that provides the underlying mechanism (White and
In clays and other fine-grained soils, where installation of Lehane 2004). Normalisation by D pre-supposes that piles of
driven piles occurs over a shorter time scale than dissipation of different diameter are subjected to broadly similar numbers of
excess pore pressures, the main quantities to be considered are hammer blows per diameter advance. Relatively easy or hard
the undrained shear strength, su, of the sediments, the vertical driving will affect the rate of friction degradation with h/D.
effective stress, 'v0, and pile geometry: diameter, D, and Indeed, ad hoc experimental evidence suggests that hard
embedment length, L. It may also be necessary to consider the driving, with limited advance per blow, can cause greater harm
distance, h, of the element in question from the pile tip. With due to friction degradation than any benefit obtained by
these parameters as input, empirical correlations have then been advancing the pile tip further.
used to establish guidelines for the limiting shaft friction, f, A missing element from current friction degradation models
normalised by su or 'v0, as a function of su/'v0, L/D and h/D. is any quantified minimum value of shaft friction, below which
Other quantities such as the internal angle of friction, and in situ degradation ceases, because the density of the sand at the pile-
stress ratio, K0, are captured to some extent by the strength soil interface has reached its maximum value for the particular
ratio, su/'v0, at least within the accuracy of the empirical effective stress level. This type of stabilisation has been
database. In some clays it may also be necessary to consider the explored through constant normal stiffness (CNS) shear box
extent to which shaft friction may be limited by a low interface testing, and the framework of a predictive model proposed,
friction angle between pile and soil, or immediately adjacent to based on concepts of critical state soil mechanics (DeJong et al.
the pile, due to the formation of residual surfaces in the clay. 2006). The secondary influence on the rate of degradation of the
For sands, the cone resistance, qc (more strictly the net cavity stiffness, which is proportional to Gmax/D, would
resistance, qnet) essentially replaces the undrained shear strength probably be too elusive to extract from the database of pile load
in terms of providing a normalising quantity for f and 'v0. The tests, but offers a suitable basis with which to refine predictive
interface friction angle must also be considered, although approaches.
spanning a relatively small range for typical pile surfaces.
The area ratio of open-ended driven piles, relating the cross- 2.2 Post-installation consolidation
sectional area of steel to the gross cross-sectional area of the
pile, affects the external soil displacement and hence the stress The increase in pile shaft capacity following installation is
changes in the soil around the pile. For fine-grained soils this amenable to analysis, since it corresponds to dissipation of
will influence the extent of the excess pore pressure field excess pore pressure through (primarily) radial consolidation.
generated during pile installation, and hence the time scale of Analytical solutions for radial consolidation, following insertion
excess pore pressure dissipation and increase in shaft friction of a solid object such as a pile or piezocone, give the normalised
(Randolph 2003), as discussed further below.  excess pore pressure, U = u/uinitial, as a function of a non-
It has always been intriguing that the database of pile load dimensional time T = cvt/D2, where cv is the consolidation
tests in clay does not show discernible differences in shaft coefficient (Randolph and Wroth 1979). The solution depends
capacity depending on whether the pile was open-ended or on the rigidity index, G/su, associated with cavity expansion
closed-ended (including solid), even though the external stress (i.e. the penetration phase). For G/su ~ 100, the relationship
changes during installation must be affected to some degree. between U and T may be approximated by
However, cavity expansion analysis shows that, for typical wall
thickness ratios (or ratios of Deq/D), the expansion stress is not 1
significantly less (perhaps 15 to 20 %) than for a solid pile, and U (1)
also some proportion of the total stress increase is lost during 1T/ T500.75
the consolidation process, moderating the difference. By
contrast, suction caissons have much higher D/t ratios, and even where T50 is the time for 50 % dissipation and is about 0.6. The
more so when allowance is made for some of the soil displaced corresponding value of T90 is about 12.
by the tip entering the caisson. Hence the final shaft friction will The consolidation coefficient is that associated with radial
be lower than for a driven pile in similar soil (Randolph 2003). consolidation and, just as for piezocone dissipation, is biased
For sands, the area ratio, Ar (or more precisely the effective more towards conditions of swelling, which occurs in the mid to
area ratio, Lehane et al. 2005) influences the magnitude of the far field, rather than the compression and loss of water content
radial stresses established in the soil as the pile tip passes, and that occurs close to the pile. For an open-ended pile or caisson,
which subsequently decrease as the pile is driven deeper. A the outer diameter, D, should be replaced by the equivalent
subtle difference among the different cone-based design diameter, Deq, so that T is defined as (Randolph 2003)
methods is the manner in which the area ratio is implemented in
the estimation of shaft friction (Schneider et al. 2008). In the cvt cvt
Imperial College method (Jardine et al. 2005), the shaft friction T2
 (2)
is taken to degrade from its initial value as a function of the Deq ArD2
distance, h, normalised by the equivalent diameter, Deq, (where
Deq2 = ArD2). By contrast, in the UWA approach (Lehane et al. There is very limited field data with which to compare the
2005), while the area ratio is used to modify the ratio of radial solution for excess pore pressure dissipation, although some
stress (close to the pile tip) to qc, the subsequent decay in radial recent studies have reported increases in pile driving resistance

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(Dutt and Ehlers 2009), and of suction caisson extraction 1


resistance (Colliat and Colliard 2010). 0.9
Figure 1 shows a comparison of the radial consolidation

Relative increase in shaft resistance


solution with the driving resistance data from Dutt and Ehlers, 0.8
Radial consolidation solution
taken from sites off the coast of West Africa and in the Gulf of 0.7 (cv = 10 m2/yr; Deq = 0.3 m)
Mexico. The long term driving resistance was estimated directly
0.6
from the API design guidelines, since the longest re-drive delay
was only 8 days (West Africa) to 12 days (Gulf of Mexico). The 0.5
data were plotted together, even though the pile diameters 0.4
varied between 2.7 m (West Africa, diameter to wall thickness
D/t = 40, so Deq = 0.85 m) and 2.1 m (Gulf of Mexico: D/t = 48, 0.3
Data from suction anchors
so Deq = 0.6 m). The initial driving resistance was around 20 % 0.2 (Colliat & Colliard 2011)
of the (estimated) long term resistance, so the analytical
0.1
consolidation solution has been adjusted to give a proportion of
long term resistance of 0.2 + 0.8U. The solution matches the 0
Gulf of Mexico data reasonably, with a plausible consolidation 0.1 1 10 100
coefficient of cv = 20 m2/yr. The data from West Africa do not Time (days) - scaled for Deq = 0.3 m
show a clear trend, but are mostly bounded by a theoretical Figure 2 Increase in suction caisson extraction resistance with time
curve for cv = 100 m2/yr. Although this seems quite high, these following installation.
piles were driven to a depth of 150 m, twice the depth of the
Gulf of Mexico piles, and so is reasonable as an upper bound. The time scale of consolidation reported by Colliat and
Data from suction caissons from offshore West Africa are Colliard (2010) is similar to that noted by Jeanjean (2006), for
shown in Figure 2. The suction caissons were extracted (by suction caissons with diameters 2.9 to 3.7 m (equivalent
pumping water into them) at different periods following diameters of 0.39 to 0.53 m). Unfortunately, though, the latter
installation (Colliat and Colliard 2010). The diameters ranged dataset did not include any short term restart or retrieval data,
between 3.8 and 8 m, and penetration depths from 16.5 to with the earliest being after a time delay of 50 days (equivalent
20.5 m. Although much greater diameter than typical driven to 16 days for Deq = 0.3 m). As such, all cases showed relative
piles, the values of wall thickness were only 20 or 25 mm. increases in excess of 50 %. The average long term (~1000 day)
Allowing for only 50 % of the soil displaced being pushed increase in shaft resistance was only 75 %, compared with
outwards (Zhou and Randolph 2006), the equivalent diameters 100 % for the West Africa suction caisson data.
are only 0.28 to 0.45 m. It is perhaps disappointing that greater use is not made of
The relative increase in shaft resistance has been obtained by rigorous consolidation analysis in estimating the time scale for
normalising by the original shaft resistance. The longest elapsed the increase in shaft resistance of piles and suction caissons.
time was 1260 days, where the reported shaft resistance was Commentary on the topic is partly obscured by musings on
2.03 times the installation value (the data point is plotted at a thixotropy, which may play a role but with no guidance
reduced time of 100 days, in order to limit the time axis). All provided on how to scale from laboratory to field. Ultimately
data points on Figure 2 have been plotted after first scaling the the shaft resistance results from the increase in normal effective
actual time by (0.3/Deq)2 in order to give a common basis of stress, which is adequately modelled by consolidation analysis.
comparison. Inevitably there is some scatter in the data, but the
theoretical consolidation curve for cv = 10 m2/yr (and 2.3 Axial load-displacement response
Deq = 0.3 m) lies within a factor of about 2 for all but one
In the offshore industry it is customary to use load transfer
datapoint. The coefficient of consolidation seems reasonable,
methods to evaluate the axial load-displacement response. Non-
given that the average depth is almost an order of magnitude
linear load transfer curves allow the full pile response to be
lower than for the driven piles in Figure 1.
evaluated, from the initial quasi-linear response right up to
failure. It is instructive, though, to consider the form of the load
cv = 100 m2/yr; transfer curves, and elastic solutions for the complete pile that
Deff = 0.85 m are applicable at low load levels.
Analytical solutions for axial pile response abound, with
gradually increasing degree of sophistication, starting with
Murff (1975) for the case of a linear load transfer stiffness, ka,
uniform with depth. Randolph and Wroth (1978) related the
load transfer stiffness to the soil shear modulus, G, and
Radial consolidation solution
extended the solution in an approximate manner to consider a
(cv = 20 m2/yr; Deq = 0.6 m)
linear variation of modulus with depth. This was later extended
in a more rigorous manner by Guo and Randolph (1997) for
power law variations of modulus with depth, and by Mylonakis
and Gazetas (1998) for layered profiles, and with allowance for
interaction effects between piles.
The solutions for uniform soil modulus with depth may be
expressed in the generic form of

Pt K  S tanhL 
K axial  S b
 (3)
wt S  K b tanhL 

with

Figure 1 Increase in pile shaft capacity with time following driving k EAp
(field data and original figure from Dutt and Ehlers 2009). L  a L andS L
 EAp k a (4)
EA p L

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where Pt and wt are the load and displacement at the top of the The analytical solution for the pile head stiffness allows the
pile, Kb is the base stiffness (Pb/wb), L the embedded pile length effect of pile compression (or extension), which is controlled by
and (EA)p the cross-sectional rigidity of the pile. The solution the quantity L, to be explored. For a stiff pile (high ratio of
may be extended for linear variation of modulus with depth by (EA)p/L to kaL), the overall pile head stiffness, Kaxial, is just the
pre-multiplying the tanh(L) term in the numerator by , the sum of the shaft and base stiffness acting in parallel (i.e.
ratio of average modulus to that just above the pile base Kb + kaL). However, as L increases, tanh(L) approaches
(Randolph and Wroth 1978); for layered profiles, the base unity and the pile head stiffness asymptotes to
stiffness, Kb, can be replaced by the load-displacement stiffness
of the pile segment below the one under consideration, nesting K axial 
SEAp k a ~ 1.25 EAp G (8)
subsequent layers in the same way.
The load transfer stiffness, ka, (ratio of axial load transfer per
unit length of pile to the local axial displacement) may be The above relationship is useful for estimating the dynamic
related to the soil shear modulus, G, by stiffness of a pile (substituting G0 for G). It also provides a
guide to evaluate the load at which failure first occurs at the
2  2L  pile-soil interface, which may be expressed as
ka  G where  ~ ln ~4 (5)
  D
Pslip 1 1 EAp 0.8 EAp
  ~ (9)
Randolph and Wroth (1978) provided more explicit guidance on Qshaft L L ka L G
the parameter , which arises due to a logarithmic singularity in
integrating the shear strains around the pile. However, within
the accuracy to which G may be determined, a value of 4 is This has particular relevance for assessing the cyclic robustness
sufficiently accurate for piles of moderate L/D. of piles under axial loading. There is substantial experimental
The ratio of shear strain in the soil adjacent to the pile to the evidence that suggests degradation in load transfer under cyclic
normalised displacement, w/D, is given by /2 (i.e. about 2). loading occurs very rapidly once local slip has occurred
This leads to a first estimate for the pile displacement required (Erbrich et al. 2010). Stability diagrams for cyclic loading are
to mobilise full shaft friction as wf/D ~ 2f/G (where f is the generally expressed in terms of the cyclic and mean loads
limiting shaft friction), which would fall in the range 0.5 to 2 % applied at the pile head, normalised by the pile (shaft) capacity,
for G/f of 100 to 400. For a hyperbolic soil response where the as illustrated in Figure 3 (Poulos 1988, Puech et al. 2013).
secant shear modulus decreases inversely with the strength However, such diagrams do not take account of the relative
mobilisation, /f, the parameter  may be replaced by (Kraft et compressibility (or extensibility) of the pile within the soil. For
al. 1981) high ratios of (EA)p/GL2, slip will occur at relatively low
proportions of the shaft capacity, which will allow degradation
to occur, reducing the shaft friction in the upper part of the pile

 ~ 4  ln(1  ) where  
Rf (6) to a cyclic residual level.
f

with the hyperbolic parameter, Rf, typically around 0.9 to 0.95. 1


This gives a reduction in secant load transfer stiffness by a
factor of approximately 2 between low and high shaft friction
mobilisation. More general forms of hyperbolic soil model, 0.8
such as suggested by Fahey and Carter (1993), may be
Normalised cyclic load, Qcyclic/Qshaft

integrated to provide alternative estimates for the evolution of


the load transfer stiffness.  Unstable
0.6 N < 10 Increasing cycles
The generic form of axial load transfer curves suggested in
(N) to failure
the offshore guidelines are consistent with this reduction in
secant stiffness, with normalised ratios of (/f)/(w/wf) that 0.4 N ~ 300
reduce from 1.875 to unity. In a welcome step forward, the
latest version of the API guidelines (API 2011) now Metastable
recommends a similar shape of load transfer curve, and 0.2
mobilisation displacement, wf, for sand as for clay, replacing the Stable N
> 10,000
previous recommendation of 2.5 mm for sand (an anachronism
based on experimental data for relatively small pile diameters). 0
Jeanjean et al. (2010) outlined the logic for mobilisation 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
distances for sand, with correlations for G/'v0 and /'v0
suggesting values around 0.5 % of the diameter, but Mean load, Qmean/Qshaft
experimental data generally grouped above 1 % of the diameter. Figure 3 Typical form of cyclic stability diagram.
The net result was to propose a similar range for the
displacement, wf, to mobilise failure, for both sand and clay, in Cyclic stability diagrams are therefore of limited use for a
the range 0.5 to 2 %. complete pile (unless it is relatively stiff), although they are
The underlying theoretical link between the load transfer useful to describe the soil response at a local level, rather like
stiffness and the soil shear modulus should, however, be borne similar diagrams for element tests (Andersen 2009). An
in mind. Where values of small strain shear modulus are alternative approach is to use shakedown theory to arrive
available, it would be more sound, theoretically (particularly for iteratively at a profile of mean and cyclic shear stresses down
assessing dynamic stiffness), to link the initial load transfer the pile that all lie within the stable zone of a stability diagram
gradient to the small strain shear modulus of the soil. Thus the (based on soil element response). Residual shaft friction
initial gradient should be conditions should first be assumed throughout the upper region
of the pile where slip occurs under the maximum operational
 d  G loading.
  ~ 0 or k a initial ~ 1.5G 0 (7)
 dw  initial 2 D

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2.4 Post-peak strain softening With this definition, the reduction factor can be approximated as

Axial compression or extension of the pile leads to non-uniform


 1 
mobilisation of shaft friction down the length of the pile, with R pf ~   1   tanh 
 (12)
slip between pile and soil generally being initiated at the  C
mudline and gradually propagating down the length of the shaft.
Any strain softening in the load transfer response will therefore as illustrated in Figure 5.
allow a form of progressive failure, such that the maximum This expression provides an initial estimate to assess the
shaft resistance will be less than the ideal value for a extent to which progressive failure may reduce the net shaft
hypothetical rigid pile. resistance. The actual reduction factor will depend on the
Alternative forms of load transfer curve are shown in precise form of the load transfer curve, particularly in respect of
normalised form in Figure 4, with the linear degradation to degradation, and should therefore be evaluated through
70 % of peak shaft friction being consistent with API and ISO numerical analysis. A detailed investigation of the performance
design guidelines for clay. A difficult consideration is how to of steel jacket structures in Gulf of Mexico hurricanes found
scale the degradation response from laboratory to field scale, that the one case where axial pile failure occurred could be
and the extent to which a given degree of degradation should be explained by progressive failure using the API (2011)
based on absolute displacement or displacement scaled to pile recommended form of load transfer curve with degradation to
diameter. Even though the degradation occurs locally at the 70 % of peak friction (Gilbert et al. 2010).
pile-soil interface, the surrounding stress field (and even the
width of the main shearing zone) is affected by the pile size, so 1
that scaling with pile diameter seems at least partly justified. In  = 0.75
some soil types, much more significant degradation can occur
(Erbrich et al. 2010), possibly occurring over rather greater Reduction factor, Rpf 0.75
displacement than the 1 % of pile diameter suggested in  = 0.5   D f L2
offshore design guidelines. C
EAp w f  w res 
0.5
1  1 
 = 0.25
linear R pf ~   1   tanh 

exponential
 C
fully 0.25
Normalised shear stress, /f

brittle
0.75 =0

wres/wf 0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
0.5
Inverse of square root of pile compliance, C
 Figure 5 Reduction factor due to progressive failure.
0.25
2.5 Lateral pile resistance – clay
Design methodology for the lateral response of piles is almost
0 universally based on load transfer approaches. These are well-
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 suited to capture the significantly non-linear soil response,
particularly in the upper few diameters of the pile. However, the
Normalised displacement, w/wf
proposed load transfer curves are labyrinthine in formulation
Figure 4 Alternative forms of post-peak softening in axial load transfer
and with no obvious link to any analytical basis. Jeanjean
curves.
(2009) has argued for an overhaul of the API guidelines for soft
The actual shaft resistance, Qs, may be expressed as a clay conditions, proposing an alternative formulation based on a
proportion, Rpf, of the ideal shaft capacity, Qshaft: combination of (centrifuge) model test data and finite element
analysis, but with the ultimate lateral resistance at any depth
Qs  R pf Qshaft where Qshaft
 DLf (10) linked to upper bound solutions (Murff and Hamilton 1993).
The Murff and Hamilton solution addresses soil failure at
shallow depth, based on a three-dimensional conical wedge
The value of Rpf will be a function of the degree and brittleness mechanism. Below the wedge, the lateral resistance is limited
of strain softening and the compressibility of the pile. by plane strain flow around the cylindrical pile (Randolph and
An analytical solution for the extreme case of ‘ìnstant’ strain Houlsby 1984, Martin and Randolph 2006). The solutions take
softening was given by Murff (1980), who expressed the account of the relative roughness between pile and soil, with the
reduction factor, Rpf, as a function of the strain-softening ratio, limiting (plane strain) resistance at depth varying with the
 = res/f, and a non-dimensional pile compressibility, 3. The friction ratio,  as:
latter quantity may be shown to be identical to L. For strain
softening over a finite distance, wres, Randolph (1983)
Pu
proposed an alternative non-dimensional pile compressibility or  N p ~ 9.14  4.14  1.34 2 (13)
compliance, C, substituting the displacement to failure, wf, for su D
the displacement from peak to residual, wres. Numerical
experiments suggest, however, that a more robust measure of From a design perspective, a simple linear fit of Np = 9 + 3 is
pile compliance, in respect of progressive failure, is the total sufficiently accurate, being generally about 3 % conservative
displacement to residual, i.e. wf + wres, with C defined as: apart from at the limit of a fully rough pile when it rounds to 12
instead of 11.94.
D f L2 There is an incompatibility at the transition depth between
C (11) the wedge and the plane strain flow, but this does not appear to
EAp w f  w res  have a significant effect on the overall pile resistance, judging
by comparisons with full finite element analyses. The
discontinuity can be removed by allowing a gradual transfer

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from the wedge mechanism to the flow mechanism (Klar and Although Jeanjean’s study was for soft clays, in principle the
Randolph 2008). same general approach should be applicable to stiff clays but
Although the Murff and Hamilton upper bound solution with some caveats:
treats the conical wedge mechanism as a whole, to provide an  Where stiff clays occur at the seabed surface, a gap is much
overall lateral resistance for that section of the pile, they more likely to develop than for soft clays (since higher
explored suitable variations of Np with depth, z, that fitted the su/'D, and much greater suctions required to be sustained in
overall upper bound resistance for piles of different embedment. order to prevent a gap forming). As such, the surface factor
This led to proposed factors of (N1 - N2) should be halved, while retaining the same
limiting (plane strain) value of Np.
N p N1  N 2e  z / D
 (14)  A lower friction ratio, , is likely to be appropriate, just as
for axial shaft friction.

with  adjusted for different strength profiles idealised as 2.6 Lateral pile resistance – sand
su = sum + z, according to 
For sand, design recommendations for limiting lateral resistance
 s  still rely on a limit equilibrium calculation for a putative passive
Min 0.25  0.05 um , 0.55
 (15) wedge of soil failing ahead of the pile. There is also an
 D  overriding maximum limiting resistance, proportional to depth,
although this is extremely high (such that, in practice, it would
The value of Np therefore increases from a surface value of not be reached shallower than depths exceeding 15 pile
N1 – N2, to a limiting value at depth of N1 (corresponding to diameters). The resulting profiles of limiting resistance are not
Equation (13)). Assuming a double sided mechanism (with consistent with results from numerical modelling, or even with
negative excess pore pressures behind the pile causing the soil empirical data that appear to follow a linear trend, below a
to move with the pile) the Murff and Hamilton mechanism leads depth of about 1 diameter, that is broadly proportional to the
to an almost constant value of 5 for N2. Thus the surface value square of the passive earth pressure coefficient, Kp.
of Np increases approximately linearly with  from about 4 for a However, any design approach requiring what is ultimately a
smooth pile ( = 0) to 7 for a rough pile ( = 1). bearing resistance, but is couched in terms of friction angle, ',
Jeanjean (2009) has recommended adoption of N1 = 12 and suffers from the problems of (a) how to ‘measure’ ', and
N2 = 4, without consideration of the friction ratio, . Even for (b) the need to adjust ' according to the resulting implied
fully rough conditions this is slightly optimistic in respect of the effective stress level. Typically values of ' must be deduced
surface value of Np (8 instead of the upper bound value of 7). from the results of cone penetration tests. It is therefore far more
Also, as commented by Murff and Hamilton (1993), the logical to link the lateral pile resistance directly to the cone
additional resistance provided by a fully rough pile compared resistance, following the path taken for axial pile capacity.
with a smooth pile “would seem to be particularly susceptible to Empirically based approaches that express the lateral pile
degradation due to cyclic loading, and thus it may not be resistance as a function of the cone resistance have been
prudent to count on it for design”. A compensating factor to this proposed for carbonate sands (Wesselink et al. 1988, Novello
(intuitive) consideration is the gradual hardening that occurs due 1999, Dyson and Randolph 2001). Recently, a numerical study
to consolidation between periods of cyclic perturbation (Zhang has been undertaken by Suryasentana and Lehane (2013) to
et al. 2011). The net effect of this is that the post-cyclic provide a more theoretical link between lateral pile resistance
monotonic pile responses showed slight increases in resistance and cone resistance, the latter being simulated as spherical
for a given pile displacement. Similar hardening was observed cavity expansion. Material properties were based on those for a
in centrifuge model tests simulating the interaction of steel typical silica sand.
catenary risers with the seabed (Hodder et al. 2013). Systematic dimensional analysis, with a parametric study
Equally important for lateral pile design is the mobilisation covering a wide range of the various dimensionless groups,
of lateral resistance with displacement. Variations in the allowed relationships to be developed between normalised
stiffness at small displacements for elements at some depth values of pile resistance, cone resistance, depth and lateral
down the pile can have a significant effect on the pile head displacement. The eventual relationship incorporated an
response. The current API and ISO guidelines for load transfer exponential term to give a true limiting lateral resistance at large
curves appear too soft at moderate displacements (Jeanjean displacement. The lateral resistance was then expressed as
2009), although the initial data point, with P/Pu = 0.23 for a (Suryasentana and Lehane 2013):
displacement of y = 0.1yc = 0.2550D, implies a rather high
stiffness. Here 50 is defined as the strain in a (triaxial)  q 
0.68 0.61   1.1 0.94 
P z 1  exp  8.9 z  y 
compression test at half the failure deviator stress, which is  2 c      (17)
v 0 D  v 0   D    D D 
equivalent to su/3G50. Hence for Pu = 9suD, the initial gradient is   
P/y = 9×0.23×3G50/0.25 = 25G50.
Theoretical solutions for the load transfer response, either This study represents an important step towards a more rational
based on an analogy with cavity expansion or closed form approach to the estimation of load transfer responses for lateral
solutions (Baguelin et al. 1977), lead to a gradient of kpy ~ 4G, pile design in sand. The rather gradual development of the
and hence a maximum gradient of 4G0. Applying this as a limit ultimate resistance (the terms outside the square bracket in
at small displacements to the hyperbolic tangent function Equation (17)) is in stark contrast to the hyperbolic tangent
suggested by Jeanjean (2009) leads to relationship in the current design guidelines, which leads to the
 ultimate resistance being mobilised at displacements of 1 or 2 %
P   G y  4G 0  of the pile diameter.
 Min  tanh 0.01 0 , y (16)
Pu   s u D  Pu 
  3 SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS

For Pu = 12suD, the transition point occurs at y/D = 0.0009, so Design guidelines for shallow foundations that are provided in
P/Pu = 0.0003G0/su or 0.12 for G0/su = 400. the main geotechnical guides (ISO 2003, API 2011) have
developed from guidance for temporary mudmat foundations to
support steel jacket structures, prior to pile installation. Large

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gravity foundations and spudcan foundations are dealt with in expressions for failure envelopes. As is the nature of analysis,
separate documents focusing respectively on concrete structures idealisations of the real system have to be made, with each
and mobile drilling rigs. The main geotechnical guidelines focus study tending to focus on a different set of restrictions. There is
on bearing capacity, based on classical solutions for strip a wealth of information in the various contributions, to which
foundations, modified using heuristic adjustment factors for justice cannot be done here. Instead, one or two salient points
foundation shape and embedment, and the influence of will be commented on and suggestions made for practical
horizontal and moment loading. approaches for use in design.
The largest use of shallow foundations offshore is now for The focus is on rectangular foundations, with relatively
deep water subsea systems, where they are widely used for shallow skirts, since these are of particular relevance to deep
pipeline end terminations and manifolds. In the main, the water developments. A schematic of the problem is shown in
seabed sediments in deep water comprise fine-grained soil, with Figure 6. In the most general case, six independent loads and
relatively low strength at mudline. The foundations are steel moments may act on the foundation, and the dimensionless
mats, generally rectangular in plan with shallow skirts, and with groups that need to be considered include the foundation aspect
a high cost incentive to minimise the size to allow installation ratio, B/L, embedment ratio, d/B, and normalised soil strength
from pipe-lay vessels. The emphasis in design for geotechnical gradient,  = B/su0. (Relevant ratios for a circular foundation
capacity is on horizontal and moment loading from the attached of diameter, D, where the loading can generally be simplified to
pipeline and jumpers, rather than on vertical bearing capacity. the three components, V, H and M, in the plane containing the
Along with the changing nature of shallow foundation resultant horizontal load, are d/D and D/su0.)
applications, the last decade or so has seen increasing analytical
emphasis on the development of failure envelopes in vertical L
(V), horizontal (H) and moment (M) load space. The most B Mx x
recent API guidelines (API 2011) now include a commentary Hx
that permits (encourages would be too strong a word) the use of mudline LRP Hy sum su
yd su0
failure envelopes as an alternative approach; this is timely since
My 
it suits better application to shallow foundations for subsea
systems, where failure tends to be by sliding or overturning. T
V
z z
Table 1 Summary of analytical and numerical studies of failure
envelopes for shallow foundations for undrained conditions Figure 6 General loading applied on a rectangular skirted foundation