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MAJLIS PEPBRIKSAAN MALAYSIA


(MALAYSTAN EXAMINATIoNS CoTNCIL)

Instructions to candidates:

DO NOT OPEN THIS QUESTION pApER UNTIL yOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

There rtre forty-five questions in this test. For each question, choose the most appropriate
answer. Indicate your answer on the separate answer sheet given.
Reqd the instructions on tlte answer sheet carffilly.
Attempt all questions.

This question paper consists of 16 printed pages.


O Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia 2011

MUET 8OO/3/M [Turn over


*This question paper is CONFIDENTIAL until the test is over. CONF'IDENTIAL*
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Questions I to 7 are bqsed on thefollowing passage.

1 At a time when most industries are predicting gloomy days ahead, the country's
rubber glove manufacturers see a bright future. Global demand is expected to
remain strong, especially for medical gloves. Historically, the rubber glove industry
has been blessed with rapid growth in globai demand - estimated at 8oh to l}oh
per annum. The growth in demand is anticipated to continue, driven mainly by
the traditional medical market and an aging population. Malaysian glove makers
are the world's leading players, accounting for 55o/o to 65Yo of the market share.
Industry players have also begun to focus on nitrile gloves as these gloves have
become more popular in hospitals due to their low protein content versus latex
gloves. 10

2 A leading glove manufactureq Mr Lim, expects demand for medical gloves


to be stable, if not increase. "Greater emphasis will be placed on healthcare in
companies' annual budgets as no one can afford to fall sick or incur heavy medical
expenses in such times. Therefore, the medical glove industry is resilient in any
economic climate," he said. Nevertheless, he predicted a slight decrease in demand l5
for industrial and laboratory gloves from the non-medical sectors, including the
electrical and electronics and food and beverage sectors during periods of economic
slowdown which could lead to lower business activities and thus lower usage.
"While we are more prudent in terms of expansion, we will focus on research and
development to offer higher value products. We aim to achieve double-digit growth 20
in revenue for the next two or three years. With our new plant which produces
premium grade nitrile gloves scheduled to run soon, we are confident of achieving
our targeted growth," he said.
3 Another leading glove company reported that the group had allocated some
RM80 million for capital expenditure, which would include expansion andpotential 25
acquisitions. "We continue to focus on producing high quality products efficiently
and at a low cost. The main challenge for the industry is the volatility of latex
price, crude oil price and also foreign exchange. As long as all these factors remain
stable, it will be good for us. As rubber gloves constitute less than 1% of the total
cost of healthcare centres, any increase in selling price is deemed too insignificant 30
to affect overall demand," he said.

Figure 1: Profitability of Glove Companies

30
()
Szo
E
()
Bro
0
2010
Year

W Gnlim Co. ffi Century Holdings Co.

NlMangal Rubber Industries Co. [TIllTl Corbel Corp Co.

(Adapted from The Star, Jantary 2,2009)


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1 8 per cent to10 per cent ofrubber gloves produced are for export.
A True

B False

C Not stated

2 Malaysian glove makers captured more than half of the world's market share.
A True
B False

C Not stated

3 The rubber glove industry is recession-proof.

A True
B False

C Not stated

4 Natural latex gloves are more expensive than other fypes of gloves.
A True

B False

C Not stated

5 A decrease in dernand for gloves is a more serious problem for glove makers than rising
manufacturing cost.
A True

B False

C Not stated

Glove makers are reluctant to increase the price of gloves as this will affect demand.
A True

B False

C Not stated

Century Holdings Co. is the biggest manufacturer of gloves in Malaysia.


A True
B False

C Not stated

800/3/M [Turn gver


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Questions 8 to 14 are based on the following passage.

I Europe's population is, right ncw, peaking, after more than six centuries of
continuous growth. With each generation reproducing only half its number, this
looks like the start of a continent-wide collapse in numbers. Some predict wipe
out by 2100.
2 Half a century ago, Europe was basking in a post-war baby boom, with 2.8 5
babies per woman in Britain, 2.9 in France, and 3.2 in the Netherlands. Then,
levels sank back. Demographers assumed that fertility would settle down at about
the level required to maintain the population - slightly more than two babies per
woman. The trouble is nobody told Europe's women.
3 In the real world, even the swinging 60s did not see a lot of procreation. 10
By the mid-60s, alarrn bells were ringing. "Europe is entering a demographic
w'inter," declared demographer Gdrard-Frangois Dumont. Ron Lesthaeghe at
the Free University of Brussels blamed "post-materialistic values, in which self-
development becomes the primary aim."
4 Aresolution at the Eurcpean parliament in 1984 warned that Europe's share 15
of the world's population rvas set to halve between 1950 and 2000, and was likely
to halve again as soon as 2025. This trend, it said, "will have a decisive effect on
the significance of the role Europe will play in the world in future decades." The
twentieth century began with western Europe producing 10 million babies a year:'
by the end it couldn'tmanage 6 million-2 million fewer than it needs to maintain 20
the population in the long term. That baby famine is now heading into a second
generation; it is no longer a blip.
5 Demographically, Europe is living on borrowed time. It already badly needs
foreign hands to keep its societies and economies functioning, and should stop
pretending otherwise. 25

6 Thirty years ago,23 European countries had fertilify above replacement levels;
now none does, with only France, Iceland, Albania, Britain and Ireland anywhere
near. And last year's economic downtum threatens to depress fertility further.
7 Once a country has very low fertility for a generation, it begins to run out of
young women able to gestate future generations. Germany is there already: it has 30
only half as many children under 10 as adults in their 40s. Demographer Peter
McDonald calculates that if Italy gets stuck with recent ferlility levels, and fails
to top up with foreign migrants, it will lose 86% of its population by the end of
the century falling to 8 million compared with today's 56 million. Spain will lose
850%, Germany 83% andGreeceT4o/o. 35

8 Jesse Ausubel, a futurologist at Rockefeller University in New York, fears


"the twilight of the west" as Europe's population thins and ages. But, population
historianDavid Reher told the jourcal Science in 2006 that, "As population and tax
revenues decline in Europe, urban areas could well be filied with empty buildings
and crurnbling infrastructure . . . surrounded by large areas which look more like 40
what we might see in some science-fiction movies."
(Adapted fromThe Guardian, February 1,2010)

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The current desired family size in Britain is three.

A True

B False

C Not stated

The population of Europe has started to decline.

A True

B False

C Not stated

10 Ron Lesthaeghe's opinion is that Europeans have become self-centred.

A True
B False

C Not stated

ll The trouble is nobody told Europe's women (line 9). This implies that the writer
A is not putting the blame on women

B is acknowledging the importance of women

C is accusing demographers for making a wrong assumption

12 Which of the following statements is true of paragraph4?


A Europe's population will be reduced by half from 1950 tifl2A25.
B Europe's population will be maintained with six million babies ayear.

C Europe's population is declining fwice as fast between 2000 and2025.

13 Peter McDonald believes that

A low fertility among Europeans is due to economic considerations


B Spain will be the worst hit by population decline

C Italy should welcome foreign migrants

T4 Inthelastparagraph,DavidReherpresentsa-pictureofEurope.
A gloomy
B futuristic
C promising

800/3/1\4 [Turn over


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Questions 1,5 to 21 are based on the following passege.

1 A l5-second scene for a Chinese movie, Bodyguards and Assassins, is being shot
not on location but on an elaborate set built on the outskirts of Shanghai" As big
as 10 football fields, this full-scale replica of a section of the former British colony
took a year to build, costs $5 million - a fifth of the film's budget - and includes the
fogades ofabout 200 shops.
2 lt also syrabolises a massive investment in the future of Chinese cinema.
Grand historical sets are a staple of Chinese epics. But in the past, most of those
films were shot with intemational money for an international audience. Bodyguards
and Assassir?s represents a new model of Chinese filmmaking. It has i00 per cent
Chinese flnancing - half private and half public - and is being shot primarily for 10
a Chinese audience. In the past, the size of the mainland Chinese market alone
vrould not have supported such a big-budget frlm. But in the last coLrple of years
the Chinese market has exploded, and for the first time fiims are being produced for
just that audience. Foreign sales are no longer the biggest slice of the pie in terms
of recoup. The rnajorily of the investments, if not all, can be recouped with the 15
projected revenue of the Chinese market alone.
3 Compared with Hollywood or even Bollyw'ood, the Chinese film industry
is still in its infancy. Private companies have been allowed to film independently
only since 2002, and private-equiry players began to invest in the industry just
in 2A07 . But with a domestic box office that ballooned from $117 million five 20
years ago to $630 million in 2008, it is becoming easier for Chinese films to atffact
private domestic capital. They got a boost from international blockbusters as well
as acciaimed local films. Total box-offrce revenues for 2009 reached $800 million.
That is still a long way from the $9.8 billion the U.S. box offrce earned in 2008, but
mainland China so far has only 4100 movie screens, compared with 38 834 in the 25
United States.
4 The race is now on. New movie theaters are opening every week, increasingly
in smaller cities. Dadi Cinemas Co., a Hong Kong-based firm that started building
cinemas on the mainland less than three years ago. will have 300 screens by the end
of the year; Dadi's chairman, John Sham, says the company's objective is to build 30
1500 screens within the next five years. Dadi's strategy has been to concentrate on
second-tier cities, u'here there are often no movie theaters, and to keep ticket prices
at a quarler to a third of those for cinemas in larger cities.
5 Five years ago, Chinese filmmakers had to go to Hong Kong producers to
finance their films, since those people controlled the distribution pipeiine outside 35
China, where a big-budget film would have to show to recoup its money. Though
they are still looking 1o Hong Kong firms for their expertise, Chinese production
houses are increasingly in the driver's seat.
6 But for all the rising box-office revenues, Chinese cinema has yet to mine a
key stream ofpotential riches: spin-offs. In Hollywood. box-office receipts account 40
for just 30 per cent of a film's revenues, with the rest coming from television rights,
DVD sales, and merchandising. "Residual income outside box-office receipts
is very low in China -- no more than 20 per cent-- because television is still a
monopoly, there is no video-on-demand platform, and DVD piracy is still a very
big issue," says Sham. "There is a lot of room for residual income to grow." China 45

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proved with its Olympic mascots that it can fully capitalise on merchandising. It
won't be long before filmmakers figure out how to turn their work into millions of
sword-fi ghting action fi gures.
(Adapted from Newsweek, September 21,2009)

l5 Grand historical sets are a staple of Chinese epics (line 7). This implies that
A the Chinese are proud of their culture

B the Chinese enjoy watching historical movies

C the Chinese love movies with spectacular settings

16 The biggest slice of the pie (line 14) in paragraph 2 refers to

A the highest earnings

B the largest investors

C the biggest budget movies

17 The current strategy of movie producers is to

A invest heavily in epic movies


B target movie-goeru in China

C attract foreign investors

18 Which of the following statements is not true of paragraph 3?

A There are almost ten times more cinemas in the United States compared to China.
B Earnings from Chinese movies peaked at $800 million in 2009.

C Moviemaking as a lucrative industry is not new in China.

19 The race is now on (line 27). This refers to


A building more cinemas
B producing more big budget films
C selling more movie tickets at lower price

20 The Chinese movie producers no longer need Hong Kong counterparts. Why?

A They have distribution channels outside China.

B They do not need Hong Kong experlise.


C They can earn enough within China.

21 The main idea of paragraph 6 is

A revenue from spin-offs is expected to overtake box-office revenues

B China's movie industry is capable of making money from spin-offs


C China's film makers should emulate Olympic organisers in marketing spin-offs

800/3/M [Turn over


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Questions 22 to 29 are based on the following passage.

1 When Kellogg introduced breakfast cereal to India 14 years ago, it underestimated


the tradition of cooked breakfasts. The few customers for cornflakes ate them with
hot milk, because until recently milk was rarely pasteurised in India, and they were
disappointed by the soggy results.
2 Kellogg responded with an extensive advertising campaign and, to adapt to
local tastes, introduced products like Basmati rice ffakes and mango-flavoured
cereal. To entice customers, the company also produced small packs that sold for
10 rupees, or 25 IJ.S. cents. "It would be foolhardy for me to say Kellogg has
replaced cooked breakfast. I don't think we can ever hope for that. But we've
become a parl of the consideration set for breakfast in many Indian homes, and l0
that's a tipping point," saidAnupam Dutta, the managing director of Kellogg India.
3 Getting a foothold in India's processed-food market, estimated to be worth
$90 billion, requires persistence and a willingness to adapt products to food and
cultural preferences. Rising incomes, more working women, modem stores and
greater culinary choices are helping companies like PepsiCo, Nestle, Unilever l5
and McDonald's get a piece of the market. Adaptation appears to be essential for
success in the sector. PepsiCo for example, has produced strong sales from ethnic
salty snacks and sells aam panna, or green mango nectar, along with its colas.
4 Nestle promoted Milkmaid, a condensed milk, as being ideal for traditional
Indian sweets. But it had better results with Maggi noodles, a bold step in a country 20
divided between eaters of ric e and roti, a flat wheat bread. Maggi soon became a
staple in school lunch boxes, helped by masala, or mixed spices. Nestle recently
introduced packaged yogurt, competing with another time-honoured Indian
tradition. A few years ago, Indian and foreign companies struggled to sell packaged
foods. But now it is much easier to break into the lndian market because of a 25
younger population, higher incomes, new technologies and a growing middle class,
estimated at 50 million households.
5 Hemant Kalbag of A.T. Kearney, a consulting company, estimates that
processed foods will grow at 15 per cent annually over the next four years. "We
have a young population with higher disposable incomes, living away from the 30
large joint families and seeking greater convenience. The market is constantly
evolving and creating demand for products that you never thought would have had
a chance. Increasingly, Indian consumption patterns are mirroring global trends
such as a preference for protein and for functional foods," said Kalbag.
6 McDonald's which is doubling its outlets in India to nearly 300 this yeaq does 35
not sell beef products in the country. Half its menu is vegetarian, with popular
offerings like the McAloo Tikki Burger, which is essentially a potato patfy. The
company also has more sit-down restaurants for large Indian families and home
delivery a first.
7 Indian companies are imitating these fast-food rivals to attract young 40
customers. For instance, Jumbo King, an Indian fast-food chain, is mass producing
vada pav, a spiced potato patfy in a bun, using modified cookie-dough machines
and temperature-controlled stoves. Their inspiration is clearly McDonald's.

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8 Despite the opporhrnity, there are longstanding hurdles. Cumbersome tax


rules give an advantage to smaller local companies. And the refrigerated system of 45
transportation and storage is inadequate. Problems in this cold chain result in waste
ofnearly 40 per cent ofall fresh produce. There is a need for stronger legislation
on food safety, more robust supply chains and improvements in the cold chain.
The govemment and modern retailers are addressing these issue3 with new laws on
packaging and labelling, as well as greater investment in the supply chain. 50
(Adapted from Herald Tribune, March 20, 2008)

22 In the first paragraph, the writer implies that


A Indians do not eat breakfast cereals with cold milk
B it is dififlcult to break the habit of eating cooked breakfasts
C breakfast cereals are relatively recent food products in India

23 The writer mentions Basmati riceflakes and mango-flavoured cereal (lines 6 andT) to
illustrate the
A attempts to include ethnic options
B many varieties of breakfast cereals

C new way of packaging snacks in small packets

24 The main reason for the success of global food companies in India is

A theirproducts are relatively cheap


B they have invested heavily in technology

C they take into account cultural food preferences

25 The market for processed foods has grown in India primarily because of
A a growing middle class

B huge population growth

C a desire to follow global consumption trends

26 Why is the introduction of Maggi noodles considered a bold step (line 20)?
A Indians are mainly rice and bread eaters.
B Indian spices were added to the noodles.
C It became the main item of school lunches.

27 The following statements are true of McDonald's in India except

A it offers products unique to India


B it is the fastest growing global company in India
C it has influenced the operations of Indian companies

800i3/M [Thrn over


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CONFIDBNTIAL* t0

28 The passage is particularly rich in

A restatements

B opinions of experts
C illustrativeexamples

29 Which of the following best summarises the central idea of the passage?
A Indian consumer patterns are adapting to global trends.
B Global food companies adapt to local markets for success.
C In India, food products are constantly evolving to meet local taste.

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Questions 30 to 37 ere based on the.following passage.

1 Rosette Babkian knew that something was seriously wrong. She had woken up
with a burning discomfort in her chest and an upset stomach and vomited soon
after she got to work. Her doctor called an ambulance and before she knew it, the
43-year-old Sydney mother of three was in the emergency unit. For the next seven
hours, hospitai staff ran a battery of tests, but couldn't find the problem. "They
kept on giving me Mylanta. They thought it was a stomach ulcer or a bit of this
or a bit of that," says Rosette. By late aftemoon, a cardiologist was finally called
and diagnosed what the other staff had missed: Rosette had suffered aheart attack.
2 Amazingly, her story is not dn unusual one. Men and women often present
different sets of symptoms when they experience heart attacks. Yet, because 10
hospital protocols - the rvay staff are trained to react and subsequently act - are
typically based on the symptoms that men present, women are often misdiagnosed,
wait ionger for correct treatment or may even be sent home untreated.
3 Men and women are not the same. That is hardly an earlh-shattering revelation.
Yet traditionally, women have been viewed by the medical profession as simply l5
smaller versions of men. Now, however, scientists are revealing how wrong - and
dangerous - that assumption really is. Researchers are uncovering tiny biological
ditierences at every level - from the cells up - which influence the way men and
women experience disease and how.they need to be treated for it.
4 "Men and women share more than 99 per cent of their genetic material. 20
But sometimes the small genetic differences result in dramatic differences as far
as diagnosis and treatrnent go," says Dr Susan Philips of Queen's University in
Ontario, Canada.
5 For example, researchers now know that men and women rnetabolise drugs
in different ways - the balance of hormones and distribution of body fat play a parl 25
in determining how the chemicals are stored and used. Women's brains are mole
"plastic" than men's, meaning they recover more easily from strokes. And men's
bodies respond to certain types of pain in diff'erent ways from women's bodies and
may need different treatment fbr it.
6 That is not all. As well as the way our bodies are put together, our gender 30
also affects our health outcomes, thanks to the rvay in which society shapes us as
men and women. Women are more likely to see their doctor and take care of their
health. Men, on the other hand, generally do not visit the doctor until their disease
has progressed further, so they are more likeiy to die from it. Men also sufler
higher rates of accident and injury, including suicide. Yet much of the evidence on 35
which medicine is based does not take gender differences into account.
7 Iinforfunately, that is what happened to Rosette Babkian. Her heart attack
symptoms fell into a definition of "atypical" symptoms which are based on male
experience. As a result of the delay in her treatment, she suffered permanent
damage to her heart muscle. 40
8 Why is this happening? Around the world, more clinical trials have been
carried out on young white men. [t is more complicated for researchers to include
women, because they have had to factor in complexities such as fluctuating hormone
levels through menstruation or menopause. In addition, drug companies are wary
of testing their new products on women who might be pregnant. 45

800/3/M [Turn over


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9 There is also the question of how medical studies are funded, "the more
homogeneous the group, the more rapidly you can explore the question you're
asking," explains Dr Jo Wainer, director of the Gender and Medicine Research
Unit at Monash University. o'As soon as you introduce confounders like sex and
ethnicity, the more complicated the study is and the more expensive it becomes." 50
10 However, it is not just women who have missed out on important research.
One in eight cases of osteoporosis involves a male, but little research has been
done into the disease in men: the evidence on which their treatment is based is
extrapolated from studies on women. It is the same for reproductive medicine:
there is not even a male equivalent to the discipline of gynaecology. 55
11 Ten years ago, the US National Institute of Health made it a prerequisite for
government funding that if the research is on health issues that affect both men and
women, both sexes must be included in trials and the data analysed for any gender
differences. As well as changing the way research is conducted, it is also important
to consider gender when it comes to the way doctors are trained and health services 60
are delivered, Dr Wainer says.
(Adapted from Readers' Digest, July 2009)

30 In paragraph 1, the writer tells us Rosette Babkian's story to make the point that
A misdiagnosis by doctors are common occuffences
B heart attack symptoms of females are often wrongly diagnosed

C doctors at the emergency unit are not trained to handle heart attacks
D a cardiologist is needed to diagnose heart attacks suffered by females

31 The word protocols (line 11) can be replaced by

A training
B diagnosis

C treatments
D procedures

32 ...that assumption (line 17) refers to the belief that


A men and women are not the same

B women are smaller version of men


C men's response to treatment is different from women's
D there are biological differences befween men and women

33 The examples given in paragraph 5 explain

A the effects of drug metabolism on men and women

B the reasons why men take longer to recover from a stroke

C the differences between men and women that affect ffeatment


D the similarities and differences of men's and women's genetic material

800i344
*This question paper is CONFIDENTIAL until the test is over.
CONFIDENTIAL*
CONFIDENTIAL* 13

34 Women are more likely to see their doctor and take care of their health (lines 32 and 33). This
highlights the point that
A gender affects health

B society influences behaviour

C women are concerned about their health


I
D doctors seldom recognise gender differences
35 The word this (line 41) refers to

A delay in treatment for women


B permanent damage to heart muscle

C using young white men for clinical trials

D treating women based on symptoms exhibited by men

36 Why were clinical trials traditionally carried out on young white men?
,d Data analysis of a homogenous sample was more straightforward.

B Pharmaceutical companies forbid the use of female subjects.

C Male subjects were paid less compared to female subjects.


D Researchers prefer working with men.

37 The writer mentions osteoporosis and gynaecology in paragraph 10 to make the point that

A the two diseases affect mostly women

B men have been neglected in some research

C gender differences determine the type of study

D treatment for some branches of medicine is based on studies on women

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Questions 38 to 45 are bctsed on the.following passage.

Man has changed the landscape and the atmosphere. It would be odd if the seas,
which he has for centuries used for food, for transporl, for dumping rubbish and,
more recently., for recreation, had not also been affected. Man has brought about a
hotter atmosphere and warmer seas.
Melting sea ice affects ecosystems and cunents. It does not affect sea levels, 5
because floating ice is already displacing water of a weight equal to its own. But
melting glaciers and ice sheets on land are bringing quantities of fresh water into
the sea, whose levei has been rising at an average of nearly 2 millimetres a year
for over 40 years, and the pace is getting faster. Recent studies suggest that the sea
level may well rise by a total of 80 centimetres this century though the figure could 10
plausibly be as much as 2 metres.
The burning over the past I 00 years or so of fossil fue ls that took half a billion
years to fonn has suddenly, in geological terms, released an enoffitous amount
of carbon dioxide (COr) into the atmosphere. About a third of this CO, is taken
up by the sea, where it forms carbonic acid. The plants and animals that have 15
evolved or,'er time to thrive in slightly alkaline surface waters their pH is around
8.3 are now having to adapt to a 30 per cent increase in - the acidity' of their
-
suroundings. Some will no doubt flourish, but if the trend continues, as it will
for at least some decades, clams, mussels, conches and all creatures that grow
shells made of calcium carbonate will struggle. So will corals, especially those 20
whose skeletons are composed of aragonite, a parlicularly unstable form of calcium
carbonate.
Man's interference does not stop with COr. Knowingly and deliberately, he
throws plenty of rubbish and toxic waste into the sea. Inadvertently, he also lets
flame retardants, bunker oil and hear,y metals seep into the mighty ocean, and often 25
invasive species too. Much of the harm done by such pollutants is invisible to the
eye: it shows up only in the analysis of dead polar bears or in tuna served in New
York sushi bars.
Increasingly, though, swimrners, sailors and even those who monitor the sea
with the help of satellites are encountering highly visible aigal blooms known as red 30
tides, which have increased in frequency, number and size in recent years, notably
since man-made nitrogen ftrtilisers came into widespread use in the 1950s. When
rainwater contaminated with these fertilisers and other nutrients reaches the sea, an
explosion of (oxic algac and bacteria takes place. killing fish. absorbing almost all
the oxygen and leaving a nricrobially-dominared ecosysrem.) 35
Each of these phenomena would be bad enough on its own, but all appear to be
linked, usually synergistically. Slaughter one species in the food web and you set
off a chain of alterations above or below. Thus, the near extinction of sea otters in
the northern Pacific led to a proliferation of sea urchins, which then laid waste an
entire kelp forest that had hitherlo sustained its own ecosystem. 4A
whereas, misfortunes that came singly might not prove fatal, those that come
in combination often prove overwhelming. The few coral reefs that remain pristine
seem able to cope with the warming and acidification that none can escape, but
most of the reefs that have also suffered overfishing or pollution have succumbed to
bleaching or even death. Biodiversity comes with interdependence, and the shocks 45
administered by mankind in recent decades have been so numerous and so severe
that the natural balance of marine life is disturbed.

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8 fue these changes reversible? Most scientists believe that fisheries, for instance,
could be restored to health with the right policies, properly enforced. But many of
the changes are speeding up, not slowing down. Some, such as the acidification of 50
the seas, will continue for years to come simply because of events already in train
or past. And some, such as the melting of the Arctic ice cap, may be close to the
point at which an abrupt, and perhaps irreversible, series of happenings is set in
motion.
9 It is clear, in any event, that man must change his ways. A world of 6.7 billion 55
souls, set to become 9 billion by 2050, cannot afford to treat the sea as an infinite
resource.
(Adapted from The Economist, December 30, 2008)

38 The main message in paragraph 1 is

A man is responsible for a hotter climate and warmer seas

B man has exploited the sea just as he did with the landscape and atrnosphere

C the destruction of the sea is worse than that of the landscape and atmosphere

D like the landscape and the atmosphere, the sea also suffers from man's interference

39 'Ihe rise in sea level cannot be credited to the melting of


A sea ice

B glaciers

C arctic ice cap


D ice sheets on land

40 The trend (line 18) refers to

A increasing acidity in the sea

B declining number of shell creatures


C the continued burning of fossil fuels

D adapting of marine and plant life to the surroundings

41 How would you describe the writer's tone in paragraph 4?


A Condescending
B Commanding
C Convincing
D Critical

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42 Artificial fertilisers washed into the sea will lead to


I increase ofred tides

II growth of microbes
ilI absorption of oxygen
IV evolution of new marine species
A I, II andIII
B I, II and IV
C I, III and IV
D II,IIIandIV
43 The writer cites the example of sea otters and sea urchins (lines 38 and 39) to support the idea
that
A when the population of sea otters decreases, the numbers of sea urchins multiply
B the individual marine species can maintain its own balances in the food web
C the increasing sea urchins will destroy the kelp forest
D the ecosystem of marine creatures can be threatened

44 Inparagraph 7, the writer is of the opinion that


A fisheries can be restored to health if man changes his ways
B it will be difflcult to stop the changes to the marine ecosystem
C the implementation of right policies will slow down the acidification of the seas
D the melting of the Arctic ice cap will speed up the changes to the marine ecosystem

45 The passage is mainly about

A how to reverse the damage done to the sea

B how man has slowly destroyed the sea

C the effects of a warmer sea


D the pollution of the sea

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