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Laboratory

 Experiment  6  

Mohd  Ashraf  Mohd  Ismail  


 

Name : Mohammed Ashraf Bin Mohammed Ismail


Student No: N0806406
Contact No: 98225529
Date Submitted:
Lab. : Anti Skid Braking Systems
Course Instructor: Mr Roger Chua
   
Table of Contents

ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................. 3

INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................... 4

OBJECTIVES................................................................................................................ 5

EXPIREMENT PROCEDURE ..................................................................................... 6

EXPIREMENT RESULT.............................................................................................. 7
TEST 1................................................................................................................... 7

DISCUSSION OF RESULT........................................................................................ 10

CONCLUSION............................................................................................................ 11

REFERENCE .............................................................................................................. 12

APPENDIX.................................................................................................................. 13

2    
Abstract
This experiment provides an overview of the aircraft anti-skid system, which is design
to provide training on functional aircraft anti-skid braking system. The major features
of the system are its multiple disc braking system and associated anti-skid controls.

Introduction  to  Aerospace  Engineering  Lab  6   3  

 
Introduction
An aircraft anti-skid system is to prevent the wheel from locking while applying
brakes. This system will allow the wheel continue to roll forward and create a lateral
control as directed by the pilot during take off or landing.

The primary function of antiskid control is to reduce the force applied to the brakes
when a skid condition is detected. The antiskid system detects an incipient skid of the
aircraft tires on the runway during braking. The goal of the antiskid system is to
control braking such that braking efficiency is maximized, tire damage is minimized,
and loss of aircraft control is prevented.

As the pilot applies pressure to the brake pedals, in the absence of an incipient skid,
the antiskid system does not interfere. When an incipient skid is detected, the antiskid
system overrides the pilot commanded pressure and reduces brake pressure by
dumping hydraulic pressure through an antiskid control valve, allowing the wheel to
spin up. When tire slip is reduced, the controller allows brake pressure to be
reapplied.

4    
Objectives
To  provide  training  on  a  functional  aircraft  anti-­‐skid  braking  system.  

Introduction  to  Aerospace  Engineering  Lab  6   5  

 
Experimental Procedure

Anti-­‐Skid  System  –  Trainer  Operation.  

1.  Preflight  [aircraft  stationary]  


1.1  Make  sure  all  power  switches  (master,  drive  wheel,  hydraulic  pump,  and  24  VDC  
power  supply)  are  turned  off  before  plugging  the  unit  in.  
1.2  Release  pressure  between  friction  drive  wheel  and  the  tyre  with  the  tension  
adjuster.  The  friction  drive  wheel  should  not  be  engaged  with  the  tyre  when  
starting  the  drive  wheel  motor.  
1.3  Place  gear  switch  in  down  position.  
1.4  Place  anti-­‐skid  switch  in  Anti-­‐Skid  mode  position.  
1.5  Place  squat  switch  in  on  ground  position.  [Squat  Switch  Open]  
1.6  Switch  on  the  main  power  supply  (AC  230V)  on  the  wall.  
1.7  Turn  on  the  24  VDC  power  supply  located  on  rear  of  trainer.  
1.8  Turn  master  switch  on.  
1.9  Buss  light  and  gear  down  light  should  be  illuminated.  
 
2.  Before  Takeoff  [Start  moving]  [Squat  Switch  is  still  open]  
2.1  Simulate  engine  start  by  turning  on  hydraulic  pump.  When  the  hydraulic  system  
is  
functioning  normally  and  brake  pressure  is  available,  the  system  pressure  should  be  
indicating  500  to  1000  psi,  brake  pressure  0  psi.  
2.2  Apply  brake.  Brake  pressure  should  register  on  the  brake  pressure  gauge.  
2.3  With  brake  depressed,  set  anti-­‐skid  switch  to  Normal/Test/Reset.  Brake  
pressure  should  register  on  the  brake  pressure  gauge.  [Test  Mode]  
2.4  If  the  system  is  operating  properly,  this  will  cause  the  anti-­‐skid  solenoid  valve  to  
direct  normal  pressure  to  the  brake.  
2.5  The  system  warning  light  should  remain  illuminated  and  normal  brake  pressure  
should  be  shown  on  the  pressure  gauge.  
2.6  Return  anti-­‐skid  switch  to  anti-­‐skid  mode  position.  [The  system  warning  light  
should  go  off.]  
 
3.  Takeoff  
3.1  Turn  on  the  drive  wheel  switch  to  turn  on  the  drive  motor  and  engage  drive  
wheel.  The  main  landing  gear  wheel  assembly  spins  up  to  simulate  takeoff.  The  
rotation  of  the  wheel  at  full  system  rpm  represents  an  actual  ground  speed  of  
approximately  40  mph.  
3.2  Place  squat  switch  up  to  the  airborne  (in  flight)  position  [Squat  Switch  Closed].  
Depress  the  brake  pedal  and  observe  any  changes  on  brake  pressure.  [The  anti-­‐skid  
control  valve  opens  and  releases  all  brake  pressure.]  
3.3  Disengage  the  friction  drive  wheel.  [At  this  point,  you  may  turn  off  the  drive  
wheel  switch.]  This  simulates  the  aircraft  takeoff.  After  the  wheel  leaves  the  ground  
its  rotation  reduces  until  the  wheel  stops  turning.  
3.4  Move  the  landing  gear  selector  to  the  gear  up  position.  
 
4.  Cruise  
4.1  Apply  brakes.  Normal  brake  action  will  occur.  The  brake  pressure  should  
register  on  the  brake  pressure  gauge.  

6    
 
5.  Before  Landing  [Squat  Switch  is  still  closed]  
5.1  Move  landing  gear  selector  to  the  gear  down  position.  
5.2  This  system  features  Touchdown  Protection  which  prevents  the  application  of  
pressure  to  the  brakes  until  the  wheels  have  spun  up.  This  prevents  inadvertent  
(unknowingly)  brake  application  at  touch  down.  
5.3  To  illustrate  this  feature,  press  the  brake  pedals.  No  pressure  should  register  on  
the  brake  pressure  gauge.  
5.4  With  the  brake  pedals  depressed,  select  the  Normal/Test/Reset  position  on  the  
anti-­‐skid  system  switch.  Brake  pressure  should  register  on  the  brake  pressure  
gauge.  
5.5  In  this  position  the  switch  sends  a  signal  through  the  wheel  speed  sensors,  
simulating  a  wheel  speed  of  greater  than  20  mph.  
5.6  If  the  system  is  operating  properly,  this  will  cause  the  control  valve  to  direct  
normal  pressure  to  the  brake.  
5.7  The  warning  light  should  remain  on  as  long  as  the  test  switch  is  in  the  
Normal/test/  reset  position.  Normal  brake  pressure  should  be  shown  on  the  
pressure  gauge.  
5.8  When  the  anti-­‐skid  system  switch  is  returned  to  Anti-­‐Skid  mode  brake  pressure  
will  drop  to  zero,  indicating  that  the  anti-­‐skid  system  is  releasing  pressure  off  the  
brakes.  The  antiskid  warning  light  should  go  out,  indicating  that  the  system  is  in  the  
anti-­‐skid  operation  mode.  
 
6.  Landing  
6.1  To  simulate  landing,  turn  the  drive  motor  on  and  engage  the  drive  motor  on  and  
engage  the  drive  wheel,  causing  the  aircraft  wheel  and  tyre  assembly  to  rotate.  
6.2  Move  the  squat  switch  to  the  on  ground  position.  [Squat  Switch  Open]  
6.3  Apply  maximum  pressure  to  the  brake  pedal.  Note  that  it  is  impossible  to  stop  
the  rotation  of  the  wheel  to  induce  a  skid.  
6.4  The  brake  pressure  rises  until  the  wheel  starts  to  slow.  The  system  senses  the  
slowing  of  the  wheel  and  opens  the  brake  valve  and,  releasing  the  brake  pressure.  
6.5  The  wheel  then  accelerates  to  94%  of  the  simulated  aircraft  speed.  The  brake  
valve  closes  and  the  cycle  starts  again.  [Note:  If  the  warning  light  comes  on,  
increases  drive  wheel  tension.]  
6.6  This  continues  until  the  speed  of  the  aircraft  is  less  than  20  mph.  At  this  point  the  
brake  valve  closes.  Skidding  is  no  longer  a  significant  operation  factor.  
6.7  At  this  point  the  anti-­‐skid  system  is  automatically  deactivated  to  give  the  pilot  
full  control  of  the  brakes  for  maneuvering  and  parking.  
Note:  As  soon  as  the  airplane  touches  down,  the  squat  switch  opens  and  the  wheel  
starts  to  spin  up.  By  the  time  it  reaches  a  speed  of  about  20  mph,  the  voltage  being  
sent  by  the  wheel  speed  sensor  is  high  enough  to  cause  the  locked  wheel  detector  to  
remove  the  touchdown  control  signal  from  the  amplifier,  and  the  control  valve  will  
allow  full  pressure  to  be  applied  to  the  brakes.  

Introduction  to  Aerospace  Engineering  Lab  6   7  

 
Discussion of Result

Reports  
I.  Observations  
1.  What  are  the  three  fluid  lines  that  connect  to  the  power  brake  valve?  
The  three  fluid  lines  are  System  Pressure  Line,  Brake  Line  and  Return  Line.  

2.  

When  you  are  testing  the  brake  [Before  Takeoff,  step  2.2  and  step  2.3],  discuss  
where  the  output  flow  from  the  pump  goes  to,  with  reference  to  the  movement  of  
the  spool  of  the  power  brake  valve,  when  the  brake  pedal  is    
 
(i) Depressed  and  held  steady  -­‐  When the brake pedal is depressed, the
plunger spring moves the spool to the left, shutting off the passage to the
return line and connecting the pressure port to the brake line. If the brake
pedal is pressed continuous steady, the combined force from the return
spring and fluid pressure on the spool moves the spool to the right just
enough to shut off the passage to the pressure line. Thus it maintains a
constant pressure to set the brakes  
 
(ii) Released  -­‐  When  the brake pedal is released, the spool moves to the right,
opening the passage between the brake and return line, thus releasing the
brakes.  

3.  In  step  3.2,  did  you  observe  any  pressure  reading  in  the  brake  pressure  gauge  
when  you  depressed  the  brake  pedal?  Give  reason.  
In the airborne mode, the squat switch closes there deactivating the anti-skid. There is
no pressure reading in the brake pressure gauge when you depressed the brake pedal.
 
4.  During  step  5  [Before  Landing],  which  mode  is  the  anti-­‐skid  switch  set?  
It  is  set  to  “  Touchdown  Protection  Mode”.  

8    
 
5.  (i)  When  you  are  performing  step  5.3,  what  did  you  observe?    
There is no pressure indication on the brake pressure gauge
 
ii)What  do  you  think  the  possible  causes  are?    
When the aircraft is in the air mode, the brakes are deactivated to prevents
inadvertently setting of brakes on at touchdown. The lock-wheel detector circuit to
send a signal through the amplifier to the antiskid control valve to port the hydraulic
pressure to the return manifold until the wheels have spun up minimum speed of
20mph.
 
(iii)What  system  feature  is  illustrated  in  this  operation?  
It  is  set  to  “  Touchdown  Protection  Mode”.
 
6.  In  steps  6.1  to  6.5,  what  function  does  the  anti-­‐skid  control  system  perform?  
It  performs  the  Normal  Skid  Control  and  the  Locked  Wheel  Skid  Control.  
 
II.  Write  down  the  answers  to  the  following  questions:  
 
1.  Write  down  the  names  of  the  three  basic  components  of  an  Anti-­‐Skid  Control  
System.  
a) Wheel-­‐Speed  Sensor  (Wheel  Driven  Generator)  
b) Control  Box  
c) Anti-­‐Skid  Solenoid  Valve  
 
2.  Draw  a  block  diagram  for  the  above  three  components  only,  showing  the  direction  
of  signal  flows  in  the  right  order.  

Wheel-­‐  Speed   Control  Box   Anti-­‐Skid  


Sensor   Solenoid  
  Valve  

 
   
3.  Name  FOUR  functions  performed  by  anti-­‐skid  control  system  on  an  aircraft.  
a) Locked  Wheel  Skid  Control  
b) Touchdown  Protection  
c) Normal  Skid  control  
d) Fail-­‐Safe  Protection.  
4.  What  is  a  squat  switch?  Briefly  explain  its  function/s.  
Squat switch is an electrical device which senses the weight on wheel ( hence, it is
sometimes known as WOW switch ) to find out whether the aircraft is on the ground
or in flight.
 
 
 
 
 
 

Introduction  to  Aerospace  Engineering  Lab  6   9  

 
III.  From  the  internet  or  any  other  appropriate  source,  find  out  about  the  new  
development  in  aircraft  anti  skid  braking  technology.  

The latest development on the anti-skid is to use a Pulse Width Modulated (PWM)
anti-skid control valve.
The conventional approach to aircraft antiskid control is to use a servo valve to
control brake pressure. The latest development in Anti skid uses a Pulse Width
Modulated (PWM) antiskid valve. The resulting system gives state of the art
performance at less weight and cost. Internally developed control algorithms drive
the PWM valve, perform the antiskid function, and incorporate features for safety,
performance, and maintainability.

Pulse-width modulation (PWM) of a signal or power source involves the modulation


of its duty cycle, to either convey information over a communications channel or
control the amount of power sent to a load.
An example of PWM: the supply voltage
(blue) modulated as a series of pulses
results in a sine-like flux density
waveform (red) in a magnetic circuit of
electromagnetic actuator. The
smoothness of the resultant waveform
can be controlled by the width and
number of modulated impulses (per
given cycle)

The advantage of using the Pulse Width Modulation are:

• Shorter stop distance by optimizing tire slip force during braking and cornering
• Excellent reliability through reduced mechanical complexity in the control valve
• Fault Detection with modes for power up and operation as well as data storage
• Fail Safe Design through redundancies and if-then fault response
• Compact size controller, antiskid valve and wheel speed transducer
• Light Weight overall system through reduced power and complexity

10    
Reference
1. “Anti Skid” Goodrich
<http://www.fus.goodrich.com/productlines/brakecontrol/antiskid.html.> 5th
October 2008.

2. Micheael J. Kroes, Willism A. Watkins, Frank Delp. Aircraft Maintenance &


Repair. Sixth Edition. Macmillan/McGrraw-HillSchool Publishing Company,
1993.

3. “Brake antiskid Control System control.” General Atomics.


<http://www.ga.com/atg/SED/BACS_Data_0708.pdf> 5th October 2008.

4.

Introduction  to  Aerospace  Engineering  Lab  6   11  

 
Appendix

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