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Solutions Manual

CHAPTER 1

( 230) 2
1.1 (a) 100 = ; Eq (1.21)
R
or R = 529 W
230
(b) I = = 0.435 A
529
(c) W = 100 ´ 8 = 800 Wh

1.2 (i) (b) i =


1
2 z v dt

10 ´ 2
Element is inductance; L= =4 H
5
dv
(c) i = C
dt
Element is Capacitance; C=4 F
(d) v = Ri
10
Element is resistance; R= = 2W
5
1 2 1
(ii) (b) Peak energy = Li = ´ 4 ´ (5)2 = 50 J
2 2
Peak power = 10 ´ 5 = 50 W
Basic Electrical Engineering

1 1
(c) Peak energy = Cv2 = ´ 4 ´ (5)2 = 50 J
2 2
Peak power = 10 ´ 5 = 50 W
(d) Energy storage is zero.
Peak power = 10 ´ 5 = 50 W
(iii) 0 < t < 2s
5
v = 5t, i = t
2

W1 = z
0
2
vi dt = z FH
0
2 25 2
2
IK
t dt = 33
1
3
J

2 < t < 6s
10
v = 10 – (t – 2)
4

W2 = 50 z FH
t

0
1-
1
4
1 FH
(t - 2 ) 1 - (t - 2 )
4
IK IK dt = 66 2
3
J

1 2
W = 33 + 66 = 100 J
3 3
i C
dv + v –
1.3 (a) i= C
dt
d
i = 100 ´ 10 – 6 ´ (200 2 sin 314t) = 8.88 cos 314t
dt

(b) 90°
v
p
i

314 t

i leads v by 90°

(c) p = vi (see figure)


instantaneous power at double frequency (628 rad/s)
Average power = 0
p = 200 2 ´ 0.888 sin 314t cos 314t
= 100 2 ´ 0.888 sin 628t = 125.56 sin 628t W

z i L
1
1.4 (a) i= v dt + v –
L

=
103
500
´ 200 2 z sin 314t dt = – 1.8 cos 314t
Solutions Manual !

(b) i lags v by 90°


v
90°
p
i

314 t

i L

(c) p = vi = – 200 2 ´ 1.8 sin 314t cos 314t v


+ –
= – 180 2 sin 628t W
Power oscillates at double frequency 628 rad/s with zero average value
1.5 (a) v = 200 2 sin 314t V i R

200 2 v
i= sin 314t A + –
1000
= 2 /5 sin 314t A
p
(b) v

pav

314 t
i

p= 200 2 ´ 2 /5 sin2 314t


= 40 (1 – cos 628t)
Pav = 40 W; Frequency of oscillating component of power = 628 rad/s
1.6 p= i2 R = I 02 R e–2R t/L

W= z
0
¥
p dt = I 02 R z
0
¥
e - 2 Rt / L dt +
V1 – V2
4

1 1
= LI02 –
2
2 +
2 2
+ Vs – V1 + +
1.7 (a) Vs = 4V V1 V2
4 4
(b) At node 1 – – –

V1 V1 - Vs V1 - V2 V1 - V2
+ + + = 0
4 2 4 2
3 3 V
or V – V = s (i)
2 1 4 2 2
" Basic Electrical Engineering

At node 2
V2 V2 - V1 V2 - V1
+ + = 0
4 4 2
3
or – V + V2 = 0 (ii)
4 1
(c) 6V1 – 3V2 = 2Vs = 8 (iii)
– 3V1 + 4V2 = 0 (iv)
Solving Eqs. (iii) and (iv)
32
V1 = V, V2 = 1.6 V
15
1.8 1 1 (R2) 2 1 (R4) I2

(a) I1 = 4 – 1 = 3 A I1 1A
+
V1 = 1 ´ 3 = 3 V 4A 1 1 1 2 Vs
(b) KVL for mesh 1 (R1) (R3) –

3 + 1 ´ 1 + V2 = 0
or V 2 = 2V (voltage across R3)
2
I2 =– 1 = 1 A (V1 – V3)
1 + –
Voltage drop across R4 = 1 ´ 1 = 1 V R4
(c) KVL for mesh 2 (V1 – V2) 2 (V2 – V3)
+ + – + –
– 2 – 1 + Vs = 0 1 3
+ +
or Vs = 3 V (V1 – Vs) R1
+ V2 R5 R6 V3
1.9 (a) – Vs Is
– – –
(b) At node 1
V1 - Vs V1 - V2 V1 - V3
+ + = 0
R1 R2 R4

FG 1 + 1 IJ 1 1 V
or
HR R K
1 2
V1 – V –
R2 2 R4 3
V = s
R1
(i)

At node 2

1 FG 1 1 1 IJ 1
– V +
R2 1 HR2
+ +
R3 R5 K V2 – V = Is
R3 3
(ii)

At node 3

1 1 FG 1 1 1 IJ
– V –
R4 1
V +
R3 2 HR 3
+ +
R4 R6 K V3 = 0 (iii)

Observe the symmetry in these equations


Solutions Manual #

1.10 +
iL
is 1H 2F 6W v

i L = e–2t
d –2t
v =1 ´ e = –2e –2t
dt
dv d
iC = 2 = 2 (–2e –2t ) = 8e –2t
dt dt
v
iR = = – e–2t
2
Hence
is = iL + iC + iR = e –2t + 8e –2t – e –2t = 8e –2t
1H
1.4
+ i
is v 2W 1F 4W

i = sin 2t
d
vH = 1 ´ sin 2t = 2 cos 2t
dt
vR (4W) = 4 sin 2t
\ v = VH + vR = 2 cos 2t + 4 sin 2t
v
iR (2W) = = cos 2t + 2 sin 2t
2
dv
iC (IF) = 1 ´ = – 4 sin 2t + 8 cos 2t
dt
is = i + iR + iC = 9 cos 2t + 2 sin 2t

1.12 4W
+ +

Is V1 1V
6W 8 W V0
4 1
– –

4 FH 16 - 1 V IK
1 + 16 = V1 or V1 = 12 V
8 4

Is =
12
+ FH 2 - 1 ´ 12IK = 1 A
6 4
$ Basic Electrical Engineering

1.13 Vab = 12V, Vac = 20 V


Vbc = Vba + Vac = – 12 + 20 = 8 V
8
Ibc = = 1 A
8
Vab = 2 ´ 1 + V1 = 12 or V1 = 10 V
Vac = V2 – 1 ´ 4 = 20 or V2 = 24 V

1.14 +
I1 I2

4A 2W V 4W 8A

V V
+ = 4 + 8 = 12 or V = 16 V
2 4
16 16
I1 =
= 8 A, I2 = = 4 A
2 4
Power supplied by 4 A source = 16 ´ 4 = 64 W
Power supplied by 8 A source = 16 ´ 8 = 128 W

1.15 5 mH
+

i (t ) 100 mF 100 mF 10 W v (t )

v = 10 2 sin 314t V
i (10W) = 1.414 sin 314t A
d
i (100 mF right) = 100 ´ 10 –6 (10 2 sin 314t)
dt
= 0.444 cos 314t A
i (through as 5 mH) = 1.414 sin 314t + 0.444 cos 314t
= 1.48 sin (314t + 17.4°) A
d
v (as 5 mH) = 5 ´ 10–3 [1.48 sin (314t + 17.4°)]
dt
= 2.32 cos (314t + 17.4°) V
v (across 100 mF left) = 10 2 sin 314t + 2.32 cos (314t + 17.4°)
= 13.43 sin 314t + 2.21 cos 314t
= 13.63 sin (314t + 9.3°) V
d
i (100 mF left) = 100 ´ 10–6 13.63 sin (314t + 93°)
dt
Solutions Manual %

= 0.428 cos (314 t + 9.3°) A


i(t) = 1.48 sin (314 t + 17.4°) + 0.428 cos (314 t + 9.3°)
= 1.59 sin (314 t + 32.8°) A

1.16 2W A 6W B

+
Vs 1 4W 2 4W Is

(a) V s = 12 V, I = 0
12
VBN = ´ 4 = 8 V
2+4
VBN = VAN or 8 = 4 Is or Is = 2 A
(b) V s = 14 V, I = 1 A
KVL loop 1 – clock wise
– 14 + 2 (1 + I1) + 4 I1 = 0
or I 1 = 2A
VAN = VAB + VBN
or 2 ´ 4 = 1 ´ 6 + (1 + Is) ´ 4
1
or Is = – A
2
1.17 4/9 W

Voltage across 3 W resistance = 3 ´ 1 = 3 V +


1A
\ V (2 W) = 3 V V 2W 3W

3
I (2 W) = A
2
3 5
I (4/9 W) = 1 + = A
2 2
5 4
V = ´ + 3 = 4.1 V
2 9

CHAPTER 2

2.1 I V1
+ –
+ I2 +
25 W 2.5 W
10 V 10 W 50 W 20 W Req V2

– –
& Basic Electrical Engineering

1 1 1 1
= + + or Req = 5.88 W
Req 10 50 20
10
I = = 0.3 A
25 + 2.5 + 5.88
V 1 = 0.3 ´ 2.5 = 0.75 V
V 2 = 0.3 ´ 5.88 = 1.764 V
1.764
I2 = = 0.035 A
50
2.2
I1 I2 I3
All resistances are 1 W
+
By series-parallel combinations +
13 V V1
2 ´1 2 5
= +1= W –
2 +1 3 3 –

5
´1
3 5 13
= +1= W
5 3 8
+1
3
13 1
I 1 = 13 ¸ = 8 A, I2 = 8 ´ = 3 A
8 5
+1
2
7
1
I3 = 3 ´ = 1 A 3
3
V1 = 1 ´ 1 = 1 V 6

2.3
3´7 6´4 4
Req = + = 4.5 W
3+7 6+4
2.4 A

(i) RAB
Converting star to delta 4
5 10
4´5+5´6+6´4 74 N
rab = = || 10
6 6 6 5
C B
74 74 25
rbc = || 25, rca = || 5
4 5
By series-parallel combination
74 74 74
´ 10 ´ 25 ´5
6 4 1850 5 370
= 5.522, = , =
74 74 174 74 99
+ 10 + 25 +5
6 4 5
Solutions Manual '

1850 370
+ = 14.37
174 99
5.522 ´ 14.37
RAB = = 3.99 » 4 W
5.522 + 14.37
(ii) RAN
Converting star with star point c to delta
5 ´ 6 + 6 ´ 25 + 25 ´ 5
ran = = 12.2 W
25
305 305
rbn = = 61 W, rcn = = 50.83 W
5 6
A
By series-parallel combination
12.2 ´ 4
= 3.01 W 12.2 4 50.83
12.2 + 4 10

U| N 5
10 ´ 50.83
= 8.36 W
10 + 50.83
V|
B
= 8.36 + 4.62 = 12.98
5 ´ 61 61
5 + 61
= 4.62
W
3.01 ´ 12.98
RAN = = 2.44 W
3.01 + 12.98

2.5
2 6 V1 2 V2

+
7A 5 10 12V ∫ 7A 5 10 6 2A

V1 V - V2
Node 1: –7+ + 1 = 0
5 2
or 0.7 V1 – 0.5 V2 = 7 (i)
V2 V2 V2 - V1
Node 2: –2+ + + = 0
10 6 2
or – 0.5 V1 + 0.767 V2 = 2 (ii)
Solving

22.2 V 17.1 V 22.2 - 171


.
V1 = , V2 = ; I12 = = 2.55 A
V1 = 22 V V2 = 17.1 V 2
 Basic Electrical Engineering
W W
2.6 1 2W 2 4W 3

W
4A 3W 6A
5A

Node 1: – 4 + 2 (V1 – V2) = 0


or 2V1 – 2V2 + 0V3 = 4 (i)
Node 2: – 5 + 3 V2 + 2(V2 – V1) + 4 (V2 + V3) = 0
or – 2 V1 + 9V2 – 4 V3 = 5 (ii)
Node 3: – 6 + 4 (V3 – V2) = 0
or 0V1 – 4 V2 + 4 V3 = 6 (iii)
Generalized conclusions:
(aii) Diagonal element = sum of all admittances
connected to node ii
(aij) Off-diagonal element = – (sum of all admittances
connected between nodes i and j)
Solving
168 56 140
V1 = = 3V, V2 = = 1V, V3 = = 2.5 V
56 56 56

2.7 8W 4W

+ 6W +
16 V + 6W V
– 30 V –
I1 I2

(i) Mesh analysis


Mesh I: 14 I1 – 6 I2 = –14 (i)
Mesh II: – 6 I1 + 16 I2 = 30 (ii)
Solving 1 10
I 1 = – 0.234 A, I2 = 1.787 A
V = 6 ´ 1.787 = 10.72 V 2A 8 6
(ii) Nodel analysis 5A

Converting practical voltage sources to current sources

Node 1: –2 – 5 + FH 1 + 1 + 1 IK V1 = 0 or V1 = 17.87 V
8 6 10
6
V = 17.87 ´ = 10.72 V
10
Solutions Manual 

2.8
Writing mesh equations 100 I 100
260I1 – 10I2 – 150I3 = 0 (i)
– 10I1 + 310I2 – 200I3 = 0 (ii)
– 150I1 – 200I2 + 360I3 = 0 (iii) I1
I2
Solving 150 200
10
I 1 = 0.0529 A, I2 = 0.05834 A,
I 3 = 0.0878 A I3
+ –
I = I1 – I2 = 0.0054 A
12 V
2.9 Converting voltage source to current source
V1 V
Node 1: –5+ + 1 – 5 = 0
1 2 5A
1 5W 2
V V
Node 2: 5+ 2 + 2 = 0
2 3
5A 1W 2W 2W 3W
20
or V1 = V, V2 = – 6V
3
20 / 3 - 5 5
i(1W) = = A (away form node 1)
1 3
20 10
i(2W left) = = A
3´2 3
i(5W) = 5 A
-6
i(2W right) = = –3 A
2
-6 5W
i(3W right) = = –2 A
3
2W 4W
2.10
V1 - V2 V1 - V5 +
Node 1: –1 + + = 0 1A 2W 5V
2 5

V2 - V1 V2 V2 - 5
Node 2: + + = 0
2 2 4
or 0.7 V1 – 0.5 V2 = 2 (i)
– 0.5 V1 + 1.25 V2 = 1.25 (ii)
Soiving V 1 = 5V, V2 = 3 V
1 1
(a) i12 (5W) = (V1 – 5) = (5 – 5) = 0 A
5 5
(b) Power output current source = 5 ´ 1 = 5 W
 Basic Electrical Engineering

5-3 5-5 1
Current out of voltage source = + = A
4 5 2
1
Power output voltage source = ´ 5 = 2.5 W
2
2.11 Converting current sources to voltage sources
60 W 20 W 40 W 100 W

+ 15 W +
30 V + 60 V
– 10 V –
I1 I2

Writing mesh equations


95I1 – 15I2 = 20 (i)
– 15I1 + 155I2 = – 50 (ii)
Solving I1 = 0.162 A, I2 = – 0.307 A
I3 = I1 – I2 = 0.469 A
0.5 A source
i(60W) = 0.5 – 0.162 = 0.338 A
v(current source) = 0.338 ´ 60 = 20.28 V
p(current source) = 20.28 ´ 0.5 = 10.14 W
0.6 A source
i (100 W) = 0.6 – 0.307 = 0.293 A
v(current source) = 0.293 ´ 100 = 29.3 V
p(current source) = 29.3 ´ 0.6 = 17.58 W

2.12
V1 20 W V2

I1
2A 6W 10 W 10 W 4A
2 I1

(i) Nodal method of analysis:


Converting voltage sources to current sources

Node 1: – 2 + 2I1 + V1 FH 1 + 1 IK + 1 (V1 – V2) = 0


6 10 20
1 1
Node 2: –4+ V + (V2 – V1) = 0
10 2 20
or 0.317 V1 – 0.05 V2 = 2 – 2I1, (i)
Solutions Manual !

– 0.05 V1 + 0.15 V2 = 4 (ii)


1
But I1 = (V1 – V2) (iii)
20
Substituting (iii) in (i)
0.417 V1 – 0.15 V2 = 2 (iv)
Solving (ii) and (iv)
V 1 = 16.35 V, V2 = 32.12 V
16.35 - 32.12 -15.77
I1 = =
20 20 6W 20 W
(ii) Mesh method of analysis:
V(10W) = 16.35 – 15.77 + 10 W 10 W
= 0.58 V 12 V – +
– 20I1 40 V
Writing mesh equation I2 I1

+
Mesh 1: 20I1 + 10 (I1 – I2) + 30I1 + 40 = 0
Mesh 2: – 12 + 6I2 + 10 (I2 – I1) – 20I1 = 0
or 60I1 – 10I2 = – 40 (i)
– 30I1 + 16I2 = 12 (ii)
Solving
I 1 = – 0.788 A, I2 = – 0.727 A
12.13 V(10W) = (0.788 – 0.727) ´ 10 15 W
= 0.61 V
1 2
V 1
Node 1: – 5 + 1 + (V1 – V2) + 4I1 = 0 4 I1
10 15
5A 10 W 5 W 4A
V 1
Node 2: – 4I1 + 4 + 2 + (V – V1) = 0 I1
5 15 2
Rearranging
0.167 V1 – 0.067 V2 = 5 – 4I1 (i)
– 0.067 V1 + 0.267 V2 = – 4 + 4I1 (ii)
V2
But I1 = = 0.2 V2 (iii)
5
Substituding Eq. (iii) is Eqs (i) and (ii)
0.167 V1 + 0.733 V2 = 5 (iv)
– 0.067 V1 – 0.533 V2 = – 4 (v)
Solving
V 1 = – 6.675 V, V2 = 8.325
V2
I1 = = 0.2 ´ 8.325 = 1.665 A
5
" Basic Electrical Engineering

12.14 500 W 1 2

V1 V - 0.5 I1 I2
Node 1: + 1 = 0 + + 0.3V1
1 ´ 10 3 500 0.5 V 1 kW V1 50 kW 5 kW
– –
V2 V2
Node 2: 0.3 V1 + + = 0
50 ´ 10 3
5 ´ 10 3
Rearranging
3V1 = 1 or V1 = 1/3 V

300 V1 + V2 FH 1 + 1 IK = 0
50 5
or 0.22 V2 = – 100 or V2 = – 454.5 V
1 1
(a) I1 = = mA
3 ´ 1 ´ 10 3 3
- 454.5
I2 = = – 90.9 mA
5 ´ 10 3
I2/I 1 = – 272.7
1 1
(b) Power supplied by 0.5 V source = 0.5 ´ = mW = Pi
3 6
5
Power coursumed by 5 kW resistence = (90.9)2 ´
10 3
= 41.3 mW = P0
P0 /Pi = 6 ´ 41.3 = 247.9

2.15
h11
I2

+ I1 + h21I1 +
1
V1 h12V2 RL V2
1 h22
– – –

V1 - h12V2
Mesh 1: I1 = (i)
h11

FG 1 IJ
Mesh 2: h21 I1 + V2 h22 +
H RL K = 0 (ii)

Substituting I1 from Eq. (i) in Eq. (ii)


FG 1 h h IJ = – h21
H
V2 h22 +
RL
- 12 21
h11 K V
h11 1
(iii)
Solutions Manual #

V2 FG h21 IJ
(ii) AV =
V1
= –
H
h11h22 - h12 h21 + h11 / RL K (iv)

FG 1 - h (V / V ) IJ
H h K
12 2 1
(i) I1 = V1
11

V2
I2 = –
RL

I2 V FG IJ 1
AI =
I1
= – 2
V1 H K R FG 1 - h (V / V ) IJ (v)

H h K
12 2 1
L
11

Substituting for V2/V1 from Eq. (iv) in Eq. (v)


h11h21
AI =
RL [( h11h22 - h12 h21 + h11 / RL ) - h12 h21 ]
h21h11 / RL
= (vi)
h11h22 - 2h12 h21 + h11 / RL
V1 h11
(iii) Zi = =
I1 1 - h12 (V2 / V1 )
h11 ( h11h22 - h12 h21 + h11 / RL )
or Zi = (vii)
h11h22 - 2h12 h21 + h11 / RL
2.16
(1) Open Is
Vs 4 V
I¢ = ´ = s A
4 ´ 14 4 + 14 32 4W 10 W
4+
4 + 14
+ I
(2) Shortcircuit Vs Vs 4W 4W Is

4 I
I ² = – Is ´ = – s A
4 + 12 4
Vs I s
\ I = I ¢ + I² = -
32 4
(a) I = 0; Vs = 16 V
16 I s
0= - or Is = 2 A
32 4
(b) I = 0; Is = 16 A
Vs 16
0= - or Vs = 128 V
32 4
$ Basic Electrical Engineering

2.17 0.1 W 0.6 W 0.1 W

(1) Short 40 –V (battery) + + I +


0.1 ´ 5 60 V 10 W V 5W 40 V
= 0.098 + 0.6 = 0.698 W – – –
51.
0.698 ´ 10
= 0.652 + 0.1 = 0.752 W
10.698
60 10
I¢ = ´ = 74.58 A
0.752 10.698
60 0.698
V¢ = ´ ´ 10 = 52.06 V
0.752 10.698
(2) Short 60 –V battery
0.1 ´ 10
= 0.099 + 0.6 = 0.699 W
10.1
0.699 ´ 5
= 0.613 + 0.1 = 0.713 W
5.699
40 5
I² = – ´ = – 49.22 A
0.713 5.699
40 5 0.1
V² = ´ ´ ´ 10 = 4.87 V
0.713 5.699 10.1
By superposition theorem
I = 74.58 – 49.22 = 25.36 A
V = 52.06 + 4.87 = 56.93 V
B
2.18
(1) Open circuit BD, i.e. remove the galvanometer 10 W 15 W
10
I (ABC) = = 0.4 A
25 A G 5W C
10
I(ADC) = = 0.357 A
28 12 W 16 W
VOC = VBD = VBA + VAD
VBA = – 0.4 ´ 10 = – 4 V D
VAD = 0.357 ´ 12 = 4.284 V + –
VOC = 4.284 – 4 = 0.284 V
(2) Short-circuit battery
10 ´ 15 12 ´ 16
R0 = + = 12.85 W 12.85 W
25 28
Thevenin equivalent + I0
0.284 V 5W
0.284 –
IO = = 0.0159 A
12.85 + 5
Solutions Manual %

2.19
V2 4 V1
V V - V2
Node 1: 0.5 V2 – I + 1 + 1 = 0
8 4
FH 1 + 1 IK + V
4A 4 6 0.5V2 8 I
2 - V1
Node 2: – 4 + V2 =0
4 6 4
But V2 = 0
Then, 0.25 V2 = I
0.667 V2 = 4 or V2 = 6 V
\ I = 0.25 ´ 6 = 1.5 A
2.20
a b
V V V - V2 VOC
Node 1: – 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 = 0 V1 30 W V2
4 12 30
V2 V2 - V1
Node 2: – 2 + + = 0
12 30 1A 4W 12 W 12 W 2A

or 0.367V1 – 0.033V2 = 1
– 0.033V1 + 0.117V2 = 2
Solving V 1 = 4.36 V, V2 = 18.26 V
a R0 b
VOC = V1 – V2 = – 13.9 V
Open circuiting current source
30 W
4 ´ 12 15 ´ 30 4W 12 W 12 W
= 3 + 12 = 15; = 10 W
16 45
Thevenin equivalent
For maximum power output
a
R = 10 W

FH 13.9 IK
+
2
13.9 V R
Pmax (out) = ´ 10 = 4.83 W –
20
b
2.21 11/8 W

1W 3W x

+
11 V 2W
– 11/8

y
x
Converting star (1W, 3W, 2W) into delta + 11/2
11 11 V 11/3 11
VOC = 11 ´ = 10 V –
11
11 + y
10
& Basic Electrical Engineering

short circuiting voltage source 11/10


x
11
11 ´
R0 = 10 = 1W 11/3 11 R0
11
11 +
10 y

2.22 1.5 1

+ I ¢1
6V 6 3 2

3´3 3´6
= 1.5, 1.5 + 1.5 = 3, = 2W
6 9
1.5 1
6 6
I ¢1 = ´ = 2 A
2 6+3 I ¢¢1
6 3 2 4A
3 ´ 1.5
= 1, 1 + 1 = 2
4.5
2 3 4
I ²1 = – 4 ´ ´ =– A
4 4.5 3
4 2
I = 2 – = A
3 3

1W 9V
2.23 + –
x

9A 5W 3W

1W 9V
+ –
x

5W
+ 3W VOC
45 V
– 1W
y
x

45 - 9
VOC = ´ 3 = 12 V R0
9 5W 3W

3´ 6
R0 = =2 W y
3+ 6
Solutions Manual '

CHAPTER 3

12
3.1 vc (0 +) = vc(0 – ) = 12 ´ = 8V 6W
8 ic(0+)
Using superposition + +
6V 12 W 8V
8
ic1(0+) = – = – 2 A, Req = 4 W – –
4
6
ic2(0+) = = 1 A
6
ic (0+) = – 2 + 1 = – 1 A
dv
ic = C
dt
1 d d
or –1 = (v (0+)) or v (0+) = – 4V/s
4 dt c dt c

3.2 20A
S t=0

20 W ic
30 W 50 W 0.01 F

Natural response
After switch is closed, open circuit current source (20 A) 20 W

50 ´ 50
Req = = 25 W
100 30 W 50 W 0.01 F
J = Req C = 25 ´ 0.01 = 0.25 s
icn = Ae – 4t
Forced response 20A

ic f = 0 (cap acts as open circuit)


\ ic = icn + icf = Ae–4t; t > 0 (i)
20 ic(0+)
At t = 0+
30 50
Cap acts as a short circuit
30
ic(0+) = 20 ´ = 12 A
30 + 20 At t = 0+

substituting in Eq. (i)


12 = A
\ ic = 12e – 4t, t > 0
 Basic Electrical Engineering

3.3 16 W 8W

Natural response
2 1 2H
J = = s
24 12
in = Ae–12t
Forced response
L acts as short circuit. Using superposition theroem
if = [32/(16 + 8)] + [1 ´ 8/(16 + 8)] = 2 A
\ J (t) = Ae–12t + 2; t > 0
i (0 + ) = 0 Þ 0= A + 2 or A = –2
–12t
Hence i(t) = 2(1 – e ); t > 0
3.4 Time Constant
1 3 1
Req = + = 2W, J = Req C = 2 ´ = 1s
2 2 2
Natural response 1W 3/2 W
–t
icn(t) = Ae
Forced response 1W 1/2 F
C acts as open circuit.
1
vc f = 4 ´ = 2 V
2
\ vc(t) = Ae – t + 2; t > 0 ;
vc(0 + ) = 0 Þ 0= A + 2 or A = –2
–t
Hence Vc(t) = 2(1 – e ) ; t > 0 or vc (t) = 2 (1 – e–t ) u(t)
To find vR(t):
1
vRn(t) = Be – t, vR f = 4 ´ = 2V
2
\ vR(t) = Be – t + 2 ; t > 0
LMFH1 || 3 IK FH1 + 1 || 3 IK OP =
v R (0 + ) = 4 ´
N 2 2 Q
3 V;
2

Cap acts as open circuit


Then B = – 1
2 6W 6W
Hence vR (t) = – ( 1 2 ) e –t + 2; t > 0
3.5 12 W 1/2 H
+ – 10 5
i(0 ) = i(0 ) = = A
12 6
Time constant
6 ´ 12 1 1
Req = 6 + = 10 W, J = L/Req = = s
6 + 12 2 ´ 10 20
Solutions Manual 

Natural response 6W 6W
–20t
ix (t) = A e + if
Forced response 10 V 12 W

10 12 2
if = ´ = A
6 ´ 12 18 3
6+
6 + 12
2
\ i(t) = Ae–20t + ; t > 0
3
5 2 1
= A+ or A=
6 3 6
Hence
1 – 20t 2
i(t) = e + ; t > 0
6 3
3.6 V1 1/2 H i

v1 = v +
1 d v FH IK +
2 dt 1 v
Iu (t ) 1/2 F 1W
1 dv
= v+ –
2 dt
1 dv1
I u(t) = + i
2 dt
F F IK I + v
H H K 1
1 d 1 dv
= v+
2 dt 2 dt
1 d 2 v 1 dv
or + + v = I u(t)
4 dt 2 2 dt
Source free equation is
1 d 2 v 1 dv
+ + v = 0 ; Let = v = Aest
4 dt 2 2 dt
FH A s 2
+
A IK
s + A est = 0
4 2
Ch. equation to
s2 s
+ + 1= 0
4 2
or s = (– 1 ± j2)
Resonant frequency
= = 1

M= = M 2d - = 2 = 2
or M0 = 5 rad/s
Basic Electrical Engineering

3.7
1 1H
Time constant J = L/R = s
2 2W
Natural response in(t) = A e–2t 2W
1
Forced response if (t) = A
2
Hence
1
i(t) = A e–2t + ; t > 0
2
1 1
0= A+ or A = –
2 2
1
\ i(t) = (1 – e–2t ); t > 0
2
10 6 2W
3.8 iL(0 + ) = iL(0 – ) = ´ = 1 A
6 ´ 6 12
2+
12 3H
Natural response 6W

2´6 15 6W
Req = +6= W
8 2
3´2 2
J = L/R = = s
15 5

iLn (t) = A e
c h
- 52 t

Forced response
5 6 1
iL f = ´ = A
6 ´ 6 12 2
2+
12
Hence
- 25 t 1
iL (t) = A e + ; t > 0
2
1 1
1= A+ or A=
2 2

\ iL(t) =
1 FH -5t
1+e 2 ; t > 0 IK
2
diL 3 5 -5t
v L(t) = 3 ´ = ´- e 2
dt 2 2
15 - 52 t
= – e
4
Solutions Manual !

v(t) = –
15 - 52 t
e +6 ´
1 -5t
1+ e 2 FH IK
4 2
3 - 52 t
= – e +3; t > 0
4
2
3.9 i (0 + ) = i(0 – ) = = 1 A
2
After switch closure
1
J = L/R = s
2
in (t) = Ae–2t
2
if = = 2 A
1
\ i(t) = Ae –2t + 2; t > 0
1= A + 2 or A = –1
\ –2t
i(t) = 2 – e ; t > 0
24
3.10 i(0 + ) = i(0–) =
= 3 A
8
With switch at “b the governing differential equation” is

8i + 1
di
+
1
dt 0.05 z i dt = 0 (i)

Differentiating once
d 2i di
2
+8 + 20i = 0 (ii)
dt dt
Let i = Aest
Then A(s2 + 8s + 20)est = 0
Ch. Eqn is
s2 + 8s + 2s = 0
or s = – 4 ± j2
Hence
i(t) = e –4t (B1 cos 2t + B2 sin 2t) (iii)
i (0 + ) = 3 = B1
\ i(t) = e –4t (3 cos 2t + B2 sin 2t) (iv)
di di(0 + )
v L (t ) = 1 ´ or vL(0 + ) =
dt dt
v c(0 + ) = 0
8i(0 + ) + vL(0 + ) + vc (0 + ) = 0
8 ´ 3 + vL(0 +) + 0 = 0 or vL(0 + ) = – 24
" Basic Electrical Engineering

di +
\ (0 ) = – 24 A/s
dt
From Eq. (iv)
di
= – 4e –4t (3 cos 2t + B2 sin 2t) + e – 4t
dt
(– 6 sin 2t + 2B2 cos 2t) At t = 0+
– 24 = – 4 ´ 3 + 2B2 or B2 = 6
Hence,
i(t) = e –4t (3 cos 2t + 6 sin 2t); t > 0
= 3.6e – 4t sin (2t + 56.3°); t > 0
3.11 i 2W
5
iss = = 1 A +
2+3 +
5V 4W 3W v
3 –
v ss =5 ´ = 3 V –
5
3.12
1 dvc
(a) i= + vc (i)
4 dt
di
10 = 4i + 2 + vc (ii)
dt
Substituting Eq. (i) in Eq (ii)
F 1 dv I F
d 1 dvc I+v
H 4 dt + vc
K H + vc
K
c
4 +2 c = 10
dt 4 dt

d 2 vc dvc
or 2
+6 + 10 vc = 20 (iii)
dt dt
(b) vc(0+) = vc (0–) = 0
From Eq. (iii)
20
vc(¥) = = 2 V
10
i(0+) = i(0– ) = 0
\ i(0+) = 0
1 dvc dvc
ic(0 + ) = (0+) or (0+) = 4 ´ 0 = 0
4 dt dt
(c) Ch. Eqn
(s2 + 6s + 10) = 0
or s = (– 3 ± j1)
vcn(t) = e–3t (B1 cos t + B2 sin t) (iv)
Solutions Manual #

1
v c f = 10 ´ = 2 V (v)
5
\ vc(t) = e–3t(B1 cos t + B2 sin t) + 2; t > 0 (vi)
At t = 0+
0 = B1 + 2 or B1 = – 2
\ vc(t) = e –3t (B2 sin t – 2 cos t) + 2; t > 0 (vii)
dvc
(t) = – 3e –3t (B2 sin t – 2 cos t) + e –3t (B2 cos t + 2 sin t)
dt
0 = 6 + B2 or B2 = – 6
\ –3t
vc (t) = e (2 cos t + 6 sin t) + 2 ; t > 0
= 2 – 6.32 e–3t sin (t + 18.4°) ; t > 0
3.13
dv
(a) iL = 1 ´ + 3v (i)
dt
1 diL
vs = + v (ii)
2 dt
d 2v dv
or 2
+3 + 2v = 2 (iii)
dt dt
(b) Ch. eqn is
s2 + 3s + 2 = 0
or s = – 2, – 1
Natural frequencies are: – 2, – 1
(c) iL (0 + ) = iL(0–) = 0 (iv)
v(0 + ) = v(0 – ) = 0 (v)
dv dv +
ic (0+) = 0 = 1 ´ (0+) or (0 ) = 0 (vi)
dt dt
(d) vn = A1e–2t+ A2e –t (vii)
vf = 1V
\ v = 1 + A1e–2t + A2e– t; t > 0 (viii)
A1 + A2 = –1
dv
= – 2A1e –2t – A2e –t (ix)
dt
0 = 2A1 + A2 (x)
Solving Eqs. (ix) and (x)
A 1 = 1 ; A2 = – 2
Hence
v(t) = 1 + e–2t – 2e –t; t > 0 (xi)
$ Basic Electrical Engineering

3.14
iL(0 + ) = iL(0 –) = 1 A, v(0+ ) = 0
(capacitance acts as short circuit when switch is closed)
1 dv
2 dt
+
3
2
v+ z v dt = 0 (i)

d 2v dv
or +3 + 2v = 0 (ii)
dt 2 dt
v(0 +) = 0 (iii)
1 dv dv
ic(0 + ) = –1 = (0+ ) or (0+) = – 2 (iv)
2 dt dt
Ch eqn is
s2 + 3s + 2 = 0 or s = – 2, – 1
vn (t) = A1e–2t + A2e–t (v)
vf = 0
Hence
v (t) = A1e–2t + A2e– t; t > 0 (vi)
dv
(t) = – 2A1e–2t – A2e–t (vii)
dt
Substituting initial conditions is Eqn (vi) and (vii)
0 = A1 + A2 (viii)
2 = 2A1 + A2 (ix)
Solving
A 1 = 2, A2 = – 2
Hence,
v(t) = 2e–2t – 2e–t; t > 0 (x)
3.15
i(0+) = 0 i (0+)
+
di 6V 3W
v2 (0 + ) = 6v = 2 (0+ )
dt –
vs (0+)
di +
or (0 ) = 3 A/s
dt
3.16 Open circuiting the current generator and short circuiting voltage generator.
8W

8W 1H 4W ∫ 2W 1H
Solutions Manual %

8W
1
t = L/Req = s +
2 +
– 2t
v n (t) = Ae (i) 16 V 8W 2A 4W vf
Forced response –

Inductance acts as a short circuit
vf = 0 (ii) 8W

\ v(t) = Ae –2t
(iii) +
+

Initial condition 16 V 8W 2A 4W v (0+)


At t = 0+ inductance acts as open circuit –

As per nodal eqn
v( 0 + ) v( 0 + ) v(0 + ) - 16
+ + = 2
8 4 8
or v(0 +) = 8V (iv)
Substituting in Eq. (iii)
8 = A; v(t) = 8e–2t; t > 0 (v)

CHAPTER 4

4.1 (a) (5)2 + (wL)2 = FH 240 IK 2

10 A
5W jwL

10
or L = 74.7 m H + –
(b) Iron loss = I 2R = (10)2 ´ 5 240 V, 50 Hz
= 500 W
23.47
(c) pf = cos tan–1 = 0.208 lagging
5
8W 0.1 H 160 mF
4.2
(a) X L = 314 ´ 0.1 = 31.4 W I

10 6 + –
(b) XC = = 19.9 W
314 ´ 160 230 V, 50 Hz

(c) Z = (8) 2 + (31.4 - 19.9) 2 = 14 W


230
I = = 16.43 A
14
31.4 - 19.9
pf = cos tan–1 = 0.57 lagging
8

(d) Vcoil = (8) 2 + (31.4) 2 ´ 16.43 = 532.4 V


V C = XC I = 19.9 ´ 16.43 = 327 V
& Basic Electrical Engineering

4.3
6W r xL

120 V 200 V 240 y


200
q f
+ – 120 x I = 5A
240 V

V(6W) = 20 ´ 6 = 120 V
( 240) 2 + (120) 2 - ( 200) 2
cos q =
2 ´ 240 ´ 120
or q = 56.3°
x = 240 cos 56.3° – 120 = 13.2 V
y = 24 sin 56.3° = 199.7 V
200
(a) Z(coil) = = 40 W
5
5 ´ r (coil) = 13.2, r (coil) = 2.64 W
5 ´ c (coil) = 199.7, c (coil) = 39.94 W
(b) p (coil) = 52 ´ 2.64 = 66 W
(c) pf (coil) = cos tan–1 (199.7/13.2) = 0.066 lagging
4.4
45 10 6 50 y
= 35 or c c = 1.286 = 40
cc w ´ 50 q
25 x
106
or f = = 2.475 kHz
.
1286 ´ 2p ´ 50

( 25) 2 + ( 50) 2 - ( 40) 2


cos q = ; q = 52.4°
2 ´ 25 ´ 50
x = 50 cos 52.4° – 25 = 5.5 V
y = 50 sin 52.4° = 39.61 V
35 ´ r = 5.5 or r = 0.157 W
35 ´ 24 ´ 2475 L = 39.61 or L = 0.073 mH

V(applies) = (25 + 55
. ) 2 + (5.35) 2 = 30.97 » 31 V
25 V 5.5 V
25
R = = 0.714 W (45 – 39.61)
36 = 5.35 V
4.5 v

q L = + 250 tan cos–1 0.866 = 250 kVAR


Q (total) = + 250 tan cos–1 0.866 = 144.4 kVAR
Solutions Manual '

q c = 250 – 144.35 = 105.65 kVAR


(2300) 2 1
= 105.65 ´ 103 or c c = 50.07 W =
cc 314C
or C = 63.6 mF
10 ´ j 2
4.6 Z = R+ = R + 0.385 + j 1.923
10 + j 2

(R + 0.385)2 + (1.923)2 = FH 100 IK 2

40
or R2 + 0.77 R – 2.4 = 0
or R = 1.21 W
Z = 1.21 + 0.385 + j 1.923 = 1.595 +j 1.923
1.923
pf = cos tan–1 = 0.638 lagging
1.595
4.7 w = 314 rad/s
0.0255 H ® 314 ´ 0.0255 = 8 W
10 6
318 mF ® = 10 W
314 ´ 318
0.038 H ® 314 ´ 0.0382 = 12 W

5 j8
7 j 12

10A
8 – j 10
V –
+

( 5 + j 8) (8 - j10)
Z = + (7 + j12) = 21.44 Ð42.3° W
13 - j 2
V = ZI = 21.44 ´ 10 = 214.4 V
pf = cos 42.3° = 0.74 lagging
4
4.8 (i) IL = = 0.5 Ж 45° A
2 ( 4 + j 4)
4 ´ j 2C 8 Is IL
(ii) IC = =j C A
2 2
Io 4W
4 +
For I s to be in phase with Vs Ð0° V
2 1
– j 2C
8 j4 W
C = 0.354 or C = 0.0626 F
8
! Basic Electrical Engineering

jw
9w A
3 ´ 16 + j +
4.9 (a) Z AB = 2
9w j 9w
9+ j +
2
2 V1 = 1 V 3 V2

3w 6
2+ j
= 2 –

1+ j
w B
2

FH 2 + j 3w IK FH1 + j w IK
2 2
V2 = V1
F
H 2 K H1 + j 2 IK
jw + 2 + j
3w I F w

V2 4 + j 3w
or =
V1 4 + j 5w - w 2
(b) w = 2
V2 4 + j6 4 + j6
= = = 0.6 – j0.4
V1 4 + j10 - 4 j10

V2 = 1Ð0° ´ (0.6 – j0.4) = 0.721 Ж33.7° V


v2 (t) = 2 ´ 0.721 sin (2t – 33.7°)
= sin (2t – 33.7°)
j1 W
4.10 V
+ V – I
1 Ð 0° L
(a) I = = – j1 A Is 1
W
1
W 1W
j1 2 j2

V (1W) = 1 ´ – j1 = – j1 V
V = (1 – j1) = 2 Ж 45° V
1 - j1
I (1F) = = 8 Ð45° A
1
j2

FH 1 WIK = 1 - j1 =
I
2 FH 1 IK 8 Ж 45° A
2
I s = – j1 + (2 + j2) + (2 – j2) = 4.123 Ж 14° A
(b) is(t) = 2 ´ 4.123 cos (2t – 14°) = 5.83 cos (2t – 14°) A
(c) Ss = V I s* = 2 Ж 45° ´ 4.123 Ð14°
= 5.83 Ж 31° = 5 – j3
Solutions Manual !

P s = 5 W, Qs = – 3 VARS (leading) 2W
1–0°A
(d) p(1W) = 12 ´ 1 = 1 W –j2 W

p F WI = (
H2 K
1 1
8) ´2
= 4 W + V2 j2 W
2
V
4.11 – V1
2W
V = ( 2 ) + (2 2 )
2 2
= 10 V

2 V1
f = tan–1 = 26.6°
2 2 j2
q = 45° – 26° = 18.4° 2 2
f V
45°
V = 10 Ð18.4° q

45° 2 1–0°A
v(t) = 20 cos (2t – 18.4°)
4.12 2

(2 + j 2) ( j 2 - j1) V2
Z =
( 2 + j 2) + ( j 2 - j1)
+
- 2 + j2 2 j2
=
2 + j3 1–0°A V
- 2 + j2 j2 –j 1
V = Z I = ´ 1 Ð0°
2 + j3 –

- 2 - j2
=– = – 0.783 Ж 101.3°
2 + j3
= 0.783 Ð78.7°
v(t) = 2 ´ 0.783 sin (2t + 78.7°) = 1.11 sin (2t + 78.7°)
pf = cos q = cos 78.7° = 0.196 lagging
P(source) = 1 ´ 0.783 ´ 0.196 = 0.153 W
4.13
V1 V1 - V2 3 3 3
Node 1: + = 1 or j V – j V + j V = 1
-j
2
j
4 2 1 4 1 4 2
3 3
V2 V V - V1 3 3
Node 2: + 2 + 2 = 0 or V2 + j2 V2 – j V + j V = 0
1 -j
1
j
4 4 2 4 1
2 3
Rearranging
3 3
j V + j V = 1 (i)
4 1 4 2
! Basic Electrical Engineering

j
3 FH
V + 1+ j
5
V = 0 IK (ii)
4 1 4 2
Solving
V1 = 1.91 Ж 65.3° ; V2 = – 0.894 Ж 26.6°
4.14
(a) I L = 1 Ð0° A V2 –j 1 V1

V1 = j2 V I2 I3 I1 IL
Is 1 j2
W 1W
I1 = j2 A 2

I3 = I L + I1 = 1 + j2
= 2.236 Ð63.4° A
V2 – V1 = – j1 (1 + j2) = (2 – j1) V
or V2 = j2 + (2 – j1) = 2 + j1 = 2.236 Ð26.0° V
I 2 = 2(2 + j1) = 4.472 Ð28.6° A
I s = I 2 + I 3 = (4 + j2) + (1 + j2) = 5 + j4 = 6.403 Ð38.7° A
(b) P s = Re [2.236 Ð26.6° ´ 6.403 Ж38.7°] = 14 W

(c) P FH 1 WIK = R e [2.236 Ð26.6° ´ 4.472 Ж 26.6°] = 10 W


2
P (1W) = 2 ´ 2 = 4 W Is

FH 1 WIK +
V1 I1 3
I3 40
cleck: P P (1W) = Ps 2 6.
2
36

I2
2.2

2
Phasor diagram .47
2
4
4.15 SLB = 12 + j12 = 16.97 Ð45° kVA 26.6° 38.7°
1
16.97 ´ 1000 63.4°
IL
I LB = = 77 A
220

0.15 0.35 0.3 0.7 ILB

+ PB + jQB
PG + jQG PL + jQL
Vg SLA B

PB = 12 + (77)2 ´ 0.3/1000 = 13.78 kW


QB = 12 + (77)2 ´ 0.7/1000 = 16.15 kVAR
SLA = 10 + j 7.5, SB = 13.78 + j16.15 = 21.23 Ð49.5° kVA
Solutions Manual !!

S L = (10 + 13.78) + j (7.5 + 16.15)


= 23.78 + j 23.65 = 33.54 Ð44.8° kVA
21.23 ´ 1000
V LA = = 275.7 V
77
33.54 ´ 1000
IL = = 121.7 A
275.7
PG = 23.78 + (121.7)2 ´ 0.15/1000 = 26 kW
qG = 23.65 + (121.7)2 ´ 0.35/1000 = 28.83 kVAR
SG = 26 + j28.83 = 38.82 Ð48° kVAR
38.82 ´ 1000
VG = = 320 V
121.7
pf G = cos 48° = 0.67 lagging

4.16
0.3 0.7 P ¢¢L + jQ ¢¢L 0.2 0.4 ILB

IG1 IL PL + jQL
+ PG1 + QG1 + P ¢L + jQ ¢L
G1 V1 G2 V2 Load
– –
PG2 + QG2

SL = 10 + j 7.5 = 12.5 Ð36.9°


12.5 ´ 1000
IL = = 54.34 A, I L = 54.34 Ж36.9°
230
P L¢ = 10 + (54.34)2 ´ 0.2 ´/1000 = 10.59 kW
Q L¢ = 7.5 + (54.34)2 ´ 0.4/1000 = 8.68 kVAR
S L¢ = (10.59 + j8.68) = 13.69 Ð39.3° kVA
S L¢ = V2 I L*
13.69 Ð 39.3° ´ 1000
V2 = = 251.9 Ð2.4° V
54.34 Ð 36.9°
SG2 = PG2 + jq G2 = 5 + j5 = 7.072 Ð45° kVA
P ²L = 10.59 – 5 = 5.29 kW
q ²L = 8.68 – 5 = 3.68 kVAR
S L¢¢ = 5.59 + j3.68 = 6.69 Ð33.4° kVAR
6.69 ´ 1000
I G1 = Ж33.4° + 2.1° = 26.56 Ж31.3° A
251.9
PG1 = 5.59 + (26.56)2 ´ 0.3/1000 = 5.80 kW
QG1 = 3.68 + (26.56)2 ´ 0.7/1000 = 4.17 kVAR
!" Basic Electrical Engineering

SG1 = 5.80 + j4.17 = 7.14 Ð35.7° kVA


pf G1 = 0.812 lagging
. Ð 35.7° ´ 1000
714
V1 = = 268.8 Ð4.4°
26.56 Ð 31.30
4.17 Mesh Equations
(200 + j240)I1 – (124 + j240) I2 = 16 (i)
– (124 + j240) I1 + (245 + j180) I2 = 0 (ii)
or Z1I1 – Z12I2 = 16
–Z12I1 + Z2I2 = 0 76 W

where Z1 = 312.41 Ð50.2°


Z12 = 270.14 Ð62.7° 120 W 1W
A
Z2 = 304.01 Ð36.3° +
4W –j 60 W
D = Z1Z2 – Z122 16–0° V
– I1 B
= 59648.6 Ð36.3°
j 240 W 120 W
Solving I1 = 0.0815 Ð0° I2

= 0.0815 + j0
I2 = 0.0724 Ð26.4°
= 0.0649 + j0.0322
To determine VAB consider the mesh – source, 76 W, 120 W – A, B, 120 W, source.
76 I1 + 120 (I1 – I2) + VAB + 120 I2 = 16
76 ´ 0.0815 + 120 (0.0815 – 0.0649 – j0.0322) + VAB
+ 120 (0.0649 + j0.0322) = 16
Solving
VAB = 0.018 Ð0° V

4.18 –j 1

2W 4W

V1 +
+ + 5W
10–0° V –j 2 vc + V2
– – 2v c
– –

V1 - 10 V1 V - V2
+ + 1 = 0 (i)
2 4 - j2 - j1
V2 - V1 V2 - 2Vc
+ = 0 (ii)
- j1 5
V1
Vc = ´ – j2 = (0.2 – j0.4) V1 (iii)
4 - j2
Solutions Manual !#

Rearranging Eq. (i)


FG 0.5 + 1 + j1IJ V - jV
H 4 - j2 K 1 2 = 5

or 1.304 Ð57.5° V1 + 1 Ж 90° V2 = 5 (iv)


Substituting Eq. (iii) in Eq. (ii)
(0.08 + j0.84) V1 + (0.2 + j1) V2 = 0
– 0.844 Ð84.6° V1 + 1.02 Ð78.7° V2 = 0 (v)
Solving Eqs. (iv) and (v)
V2 = 0.201 Ð13.5°
\ v2 (t) = 0.201 2 (cos 2t + 13.5°)
4.19 Writing mesh equations
(5 + j10) I1 – j10 I 2 = 15 (i)
– j10 I1 + (2 + j8) I 2 = 4 Ð60° (ii)

V1 2W V2 –j 2

5W +
–j 2 ¥ 2 –-30°
+ j10 W
I1 = –4–60° V
15–0° V I2 –

Solving
I1 = 2.089 Ð29.3° A
V1 = 15 Ð0° – 5 ´ 2.089 Ð29.3°
= 7.8 Ж40.9° V
I 2 = 2.816 Ð34.1° A
V2 = –j2 ´ I 2 – 4 Ð60°
= 8.21 Ж 81.9° V
4.20 Combining the parallel circuit part
12(10 - j 8)
Z = = 6.22 – j2.11
22 - j 8

j1 W P j 0.8 W
0.8 W V1 1W

I1 I2
6.22 W
120–0° V B 80–-30° A Vi
–j 2.11 W
!$ Basic Electrical Engineering

Writing nodal equations


V1 V - 120
+ 1 = 80 Ж30°
6.22 - j 2.10 0.8 + j1

LM 1 + 1 OP = 80 120 Ð0°
V1
N 6.22 - j 2.10 0.8 + j1Q Ж 30° +
0.8 + j 0.1
Solving
V1 = 202 Ð0° V
120 Ð 0° - V1 120 Ð 0° - 202 Ð0°
I1 = = = – 64.06 Ж51.3°
0.8 + j1 0.8 + j1

P = Re (V1 I1* )
= Re (202 Ð0° ´ – 64.06 Ж 51.3°) = – 8 kW
P(V) = Re (120 Ð0° I1* )
= Re [120 ´ – 64.06 Ð51.8°] = – 4.754 kW
Vi = V1 + (1 + j0.8) ´ 80 Ж30°
= 202 + 1.28 Ð38.7° ´ 80 Ж 30°
= 298.3 Ð2.8° V
P(I) = Re {298.3 Ð2.8° ´ 80 Ж 30°} = 21.225 kW
4.21 Z 0 = 0.644 – j0.786
R L = 0.644 W, XL = 0.786 W

FG 10.1 IJ 2
Maximum power transfer =
H 2 ´ 0.644 K ´ 0.644

= 39.6 W
R L = 0.8 W
X L = – XTH = – (– 0.786) = 0.786 W

FG 10.1 IJ 2
Maximum power transfer =
H 0.8 + 0.644 K ´ 0.8

= 39.14 W
4 - j6 2.6 – j 3.36
4.22 V0 = 12Ð90° ´ A
( 6 + j12) + ( 4 - j 6)
= 7.42 Ð2.7° V +
4W

( 6 + j12) ´ ( 4 - j 6) 7.42–2.7°
Z0 = = 7.6 – j3.36
(10 + j 6) – j6 W

7.42 Ð 2.7°
I = = 0.624 Ж 10.1° A
11.6 + j 2.64 B
Solutions Manual !%

I 2R = (0.624)2 ´ 4 = 1.56 W
I 2X = (0.624)2 ´ 6 = 2.34 VARS
Hence
SL = (1.56 + j2.34) = 2.81 Ð56.3° VA

CHAPTER 5
5.1
1
R2 +
V2 ( jw ) jwC
(a) H ( jw) = =
V1 ( jw ) ( R1 + R2 ) +
1
jwC
( j 2w + 1)
=
( j10w + 1)
Corner frequencies are:
1 1
= 0.5 rad/s, = 0.1 rad/s
2 10

db 40

20
0.1 0.5 1 10
log w

–45°

–90°

V2 ( jw ) R2
(b) H ( jw) = =
V1 ( jw ) R2 +
1
1
+ jwC
R1

FG R IJ ( jwCR + 1)
H R + R K ( jwCR + 1)
2 1
=
1 2

R1 R2
where R =
R1 + R2
!& Basic Electrical Engineering

Substituting values
( jw + 1)
H ( jw) = 0.5 ´
( j 0.5w + 1)
Corner frequencies: w = 1, w = 2
20 log 0.5 = – 6db

db

60

40

20

1 2 10 log w

45°

5.2 db
40

20
0.1 0.22 0.5 1 0.28 10

log w
f

45°

–45°

FG 2 + 2 IJ
V ( jw ) H jw K
H ( jw) = 2
V1 ( jw )
=
FG 2 + 2 IJ + 1
H jw K F 1 + j w I
H4 K2

1 ( jw + 1) ( j 2w + 1)
= ´
2 5 1
( jw ) 2 + ( jw ) +
2 2
Solutions Manual !'

1 ( jw + 1) ( j 2w + 1)
=
2
´
FH j IK FH
w +1 j w +1 IK
0.22 2.28
Corner frequencies are:
1
Upper w = 1, w = = 0.5
2
Lower w = 0.22, w = 2.28
5.3 jw L
r
1
Y ( jw) =
FH
1
r + j wL - IK 1
wC Y ( jw )
jw C
At C = 400 pF, current is max.
1
\ wL =
wC
1012
or 2p ´ 106 L =
2p ´ 10 6 ´ 400
or L = 0.0633 mH
1
At C = 450 pF, current is reduced to of max.
2

1 1
\
F I =
GH JK
10 12 2r
r + j 2p ´ 106 ´ 0.0633 ´ 10 - 3 -
2p ´ 106 ´ 450

1 1
or =
r + j 44 2r
or r 2 + (44)2 = 2r 2
or r = 44 W

wL 2p ´ 10 6 ´ 0.0633 ´ 10 - 3
q = =
r 44
= 9.04
230
5.4 r= = 657 W
0.35
I 0.35
VC = = 300 or C= = 3.72 mF
Cw 314 ´ 300
" Basic Electrical Engineering

1
wL =
wC
10 6
or L = = 2.73 H
3.72 ´ (314) 2
1
5.5 w 0L =
w 0c
1 1
or C= =
w 20 L ( 2p ´ 100) 2 ´ 7.5
= 0.338 mF
To fend w at I = 0.848 A

1 1 1.2
¸ 6
= = 2
40 10 0.848
40 + j 7.5w - j
0.338w

0.074 ´ 10 6
or 1 + j 0.1875w - j = 2
w

FG 0.1875w - 0.074 ´ 10 IJ 6 2
or 1+
H w K = 2

w = 630.666, 625.334 rad/s


or f = 100.37 Hz, 99.552 Hz
1 10 3
5.6 w0 = = = 400 rad/s
LC 1
´ 250
40
Hence excitation frequency is the resonant frequency
\ I R = I = 1Ð0°; iR = cos 400 t
IC = 50–90° A
V = 500 ´ 1Ð0° = 500 Ð0° V
500 Ð 0°
IL = = 50 Ж 90°
1
j 400 ´ IR = I = 1–0° A
40
i L = 50 sin 400 t V = 500–0°

500 Ð 0°
Ic = = 50 Ð90°
(10 / j 400 ´ 250)
6
IL = 50––90° A
ic = – 50 sin 400 t
Solutions Manual "

5.7 Circulating current = Vw 0C I

C R
= V +
LC
V–0° C
= V C/ L – L

At resonant frequency

V RC FH IK
1 ´ 10 4 ´ 10 -12 FG IJ
I =
L
RC
= V
L
= V
10 ´ 10 - 6 H
= 0.001 V
K
1 1
w0 = = = 3.16 ´ 106 rad/s
-6 -12
LC 10 ´ 10 ´ 10 ´ 10
4

w = 1.9 w 0 = 2.844 ´ 106 rad/s


1
Z ( jw) =
RC
+ j wC -FH1 IK ; Eq. (ii) of Ex. 5.2
L wL

RC 1 ´ 10 4 ´ 10 - 12
= = 1 ´ 10 –3 = 0.001 V
L 10 ´ 10 - 6
wC = 2.844 ´ 106 ´ 104 ´ 10 –12 = 0.02844
1 1
= = 1.03516
wL 2.844 ´ 10 ´ 10 ´ 10 - 6
6

1
wC – = – 6.72 ´ 10 –3
wL
I = V | 1 – j6.72 | ´ 10–3
= 0.0068 V
5.8
Find the series equivalent of the parallel circuit
1 10 5
Zs = =
1
+ j100 ´ 10 -12 w 0 (1 + j10 - 5 w 0 )
5
10
F 10 I F w I
GH 1 + 10 JK GH 1 + 10 JK
5
0
= - 10
– j - 10
w 20 w 20
At resonant frequency
w0
400 ´ 10–6 w 0 =
1 + 10 - 10 w 20
w 0 = 5 ´ 106 rad/s or 0.796 MHz
" Basic Electrical Engineering

10 5
Req = = 40 W
1 + 10 - 10 ´ 2500 ´ 1010
I = 1Ð0° m A
5 ´ 10 6
Z s = 40 – j - 10
1 + 10 ´ 2500 ´ 1010
= 40 – j2000 = 2000 Ж 88.9°
V 0 = 1 ´ 10 –3 ´ 2000 = 2V
w 0L 5 ´ 10 6 ´ 400 ´ 10 - 6
q0 = = = 50
Req 40
1 1
5.9 f0 = = = 0.318 MHz
2p LC 2p 5 ´ 10 -3
´ 50 ´ 10 -13
Q = w 0 RC = 2p ´ 0.318 ´ 106 ´ 60 ´ 63 ´ 50 ´ 10–12
= 37.7
w0 2p ´ 0.318 ´ 10 6
wb = = = 333 kHz
Q 6
5.10 At resonant condition
1
314 = or C = 13.52 mF
0.75 ´ C
Let the capacitance connected in parallel to the series RLC circuit be C1. Given w = 628
rad/sec
10 6
15 + j628 ´ 0.75 – j
13.52 ´ 628
= 353 Ð87.6°
1
Z ( jw) =
j 628C1 + 2.83 ´ 10 - 3 Ð- 87.6°
1
=
j 628C1 + 0119
. ´ 10 - 3 - j 2.83 ´ 10 - 3
For the imaginary part to be zero
628C1 = 2.83 ´ 10–3 15 W

or C1 = 4.51 mF
Z ( jw) C1 0.75 H
10 3
R = = 8404 W
0.119
13.52 mF
200
I = = 0.0238 A
8404
Solutions Manual "!

5.11 Using the period from – p to p


R|0 - p £ w t £ -p 2
v(t) = S|V m cos w t -p 2 £ wt £ p 2
T0 p £wt £p
2

Because of even symmetry sine terms would be absent.

am =
p
1
z p

-p 2
2
Vm cos wt cos m wt d (wt )

m= 1
1
a1 =
p z -p
p
2

2
Vm cos 2 wt d (wt ) =
Vm
2
m> 1

am =
1
p z p

-p 2
2
Vm cos wt cos m wt d (wt )

=
Vm
p z p

-p 2
2 1
2
[cos (1 + m) wt + cos (1 - m) wt ] d (wt )

LM OP
p
V sin (1 + m ) wt sin (1 - m ) wt 2
= m
2p 1+ m N +
1- m Q -p 2

2Vm mp
= cos ; m > 1
p (1 - m )
2 2
Hence
Vm Vm 2Vm
v(t) = + cos cot + cos 3 wt
p 2 3p
2Vm 2Vm
– cos 4 wt + cos 6 wt
15p 35p
5.12 From Eq. (5.33)

a0 =
1
2p
LM
N z 0
p
2
Vd (w t ) + z
3p 2
2p
Vd (w t )
OP
Q
V
=
2
Because of even symmetry sine terms will be absent. From Eq. (5.34)
1 LMz p

z 2p OP
N V cos m wt d (wt ) + V cos m wt d (wt )
Q
2
am =
p 0 3p 2

2V
= ± ; m = add; = 0, m = even
pm
"" Basic Electrical Engineering

Thus
V 2V 2V 2V
v(t) = + cos wt – cos 3 wt + cos 5 wt.
2 p 3p 5p
5.13
V ( jw ) 1
V0 ( jw) = ´
jw L +
1 jw C + 1
R
jw C + 1
R

1
= V ( jw) ´
wL
(1 - w LC ) + j
2
R
Substituting values
1
V0 ( jw) = V ( jw) ´ -6
(1 - 10 w 2 ) + j10 - 3 w
1 – DC component
V
V0 (dc) =
2
2 – Fundamental component
w = 314
2VÐ0° 1
V0 (1) = ´
2p (1 - 10 - 6 ´ (314) 2 ) + j 0.314
= 0.472 V Ж19.2°
3 – 3rd harmonic
w = 3 ´ 314 = 942
2V 1
V0 (3) = ´
3p 0.113 + j 0.942
= 0.158 V Ж83.2°
4 – 5th harmonic
w = 5 ´ 314 = 1570
2V 1
V0 (5) = ´ = 0.042 V Ж133°
5p - 1.455 + j1.57
Hence
V
v0 (t) = + 0.472 2 V cos (w t – 19.2°) – 0.158 2 V
2
cos (3wt – 83.2°) + 0.042 2 V cos (5wt – 133°)
V
= + 0.667 V cos (wt – 19.2°) – 0.233 V cos (3wt – 83.2°)
2
+ 0.059 V cos (5 cot – 133°)
Solutions Manual "#

5.14
2p
Fundamental frequency is w = rad/s
T
The wave over one period is expressed as
FI I q ; 0 < q < p
HpK
m
i(t) =

= I F 2 - q I ; p < q < 2p
H K
1
m
p

LMz F I I q dq + z
p 2p
FH IK OP
N HpK
1 I 1
q dq =
Im 2 -
Q
m
a0 = I
2p d p p 2 m
Because of even symmetry sine terms would be absent
1 LMz p Im
z 2p
FH 1 IK OP
am =
p N 0 p
q cos m q dq +
p
Im 2 -
p
q cos m q dq
Q
2 Im
= (cos mp – 1)
m 2p 2
= 0 ; m even
4Im
= – ; m odd
m 2p 2
5.15
2p
w = ´ 103 = 2000p rad/s
1
V0 1
= ; m = harmonic number
1
I j (2000 p m) ´ 0.2 ´ 10 - 6
2000
I m = 10 mA or 0.01 A
1
1 – V0(dc) = ´ 0.01 ´ 2000 = 10 V
2
2 – Fundamental
0.01 4 2000
V0 (1) = – ´ 2 ´
2 p 1 + j 2.51
= – 2.123 Ж 68.3° V
3 – 3rd harmonic
0.01 4 2000
V0 (3) = ´ ´
2 9p 2 1 + j 2.51 ´ 3
= – 0.083 Ж 82.4° V
"$ Basic Electrical Engineering

4 – 5th harmonic
0.01 4 2000
V0 (5) = – ´ ´
2 25p 2 1 + j 2.51 ´ 5
= – 0.018 Ж 85.4° V
Hence
10 - 3 cos ( 2000p t - 68.3° ) - 0117
. cos ( 6000p - 82.4° )
vc(t) =
- 0.025 cos (10000 p - 85.4° )
5.16
Fourier series are
1 2 2
v(t) = V + V cos wt – V cos 4w t + .......
p m 3p m 15p m
Substituting value
(Vm = 200 V, w = 314 rad/s)
v(t) = 63.7 + 42.4 cos (2 ´ 314) t – 8.5 cos (4 ´ 314) t
V0 100 1
= =
V 100 + j 314 n 1 + j 3.14 n
V0(dc) = 63.7 V
n= 2
V0 1
= = 0.157 Ж 81°
V 1 + j 6.28
v 0(2) = 42.4 ´ 0.157 cos (628 t – 81°)
= 6.66 cos (628 t – 81°)
n= 4
V0 1
= = 0.074 Ж 85.4°
V 1 + j12.56
v 0(4) = 8.5 ´ 0.079 cos (1256 t – 85.4°)
= 0.672 cos (1256 t – 85.4°)
Hence
v0 (t) = 63.7 + 6.66 cos (628 t – 81°) – 0.672 cos (1256 t – 85.4°)
5.17
(a) Part 2 open circuited, port 1 excited:
V1 1.52 Ð 45°
z11 = = = (1075 + j1075) W
I1 I2 = 0
10 - 3 Ð 0°

V2 2.29 Ð - 28°
z21 = = = (2022 – j1075) W
I1 I2 = 0
10 - 3 Ð 0°
Solutions Manual "%

Port 1 open circuited, port 2 shorted:


V2 1.31 Ð - 55°
z22 = = = (751 – j1073) W
I2 I1 = 0
10 - 3 Ð 0°
V1 1.075 Ð - 90°
z12 = = = – j1075 W
I2 I1 = 0
10 - 3 Ð 0°
(c) With reference to Fig. 5.16
z11 – z12 = (1075 + j1075) + j1075
= 1075 + j2150 = 1075 + j106 (2150 ´ 10–3 )
1
z12 = – j1075 = – j
10 ´ ( 930 ´ 10 -12 )
6

z22 – z12 = 751 – j1073 – (– j1075) = 751


z21 – z12 = (2022 – j1075) – (– j1075) = 2022
The equivalent circuit is drawn below:

I1 2022 I1 I2
1075 W 2.175 mH 751 W

+ – + +

V1 930 pF V2

– –

5.18 (a) As the network is resistive all voltages and currents would be in phase and therefore we
can work in terms of magnitudes only.
V1 = 200 I1 – 800 I2 (i)
I1 I2
V2 = 1200 I1 + 16 ´ 10 I2 3
(ii)
+ +
V2 RL
Given: R L = 8 ´ 10 W, I2 = –
3
(iii) 1–0° A 8W V1 V2
8 ´ 10 3 – –

I 1 = 1 – V1/800 (iv)
Substituting for I1 and I2 in Eqs (i) and (ii)
F1 - V I + 800 ´ V
H 800 K
1 2
V 1 = 200
8 ´ 10 3

V 2 = 1200 (1 – V1/800) – 16 ´ 103 ´ V2 / 8 ´ 103


or 1.25 V1 = 0.1 V2 = 200
1.5 V1 + 3 V2 = 1200
Solving V 1 = 184.6 V; V2 = 307.7 V
(b) To find Thevenin impedance, inject unit current at port 2 and open circuit current source
1
V 1 = – 800 I1 or I1 = – V (v)
800 1
"& Basic Electrical Engineering

I2 = 1
Substituting in Eqs (i) and (ii)
800
V1 = – = – 640 V
1.25
1200
V2 = – ´ – 640 + 16 ´ 103 = 16.96 ´ 103 V
800
or RTH = 16.96 ´ 103 W
\ RL (for max power output) = 16.96 kW
(c) Solving Eqs (i) and (ii) for I1 and I2
I 1 = 3.85 ´ 10–3 V1 + 0.192 ´ 10–3 V2
I 2 = – 0.288 ´ 10 –3 V1 + 0.048 ´ 10–3 V2
Hence
y11 = 3.85 m J y12 = 0.192 m J
y21 = – 0.288 m J y22 = 0.048 m J
5.19
Port 2 short circuited I1 I2
100 W V 40 W
Writing nodal equation
+
V - V1 V V V V1
V1
+ - 1 + = 0 200 W
500
100 200 500 40 –
or V = 0.3 V1
V1 - V V - 0.3 V1
I1 = = 1 = 0.007 V1
100 100
I1
or y11 = = 0.007 J
V1
Now
V 0.3 V1 I1 I2
I2 = – =– 100 W 40 W
40 40
+
I V1
V1 = 0 = 0 V2
or y21 = 2 = – 0.0075 J 200 W
500
V1 –
Port 1 short circuited
V2
I2 = = 0.009375 V2
40 + 100 || 200
I2
or y22 = = 0.009375 J
V2
200 200
Now I 1 = – I2 ´ = – 0.009375 ´ V
300 300 2
= –0.00625 V2
Solutions Manual "'

W
I1 I1 0.00625 mW I2
or y12 = = – 0.00625 J
V2 + +

3.125 mW
W
W
0.75 mW
Now V1 1.25, V
mA 2
y11 + y12 = 0.007 – 0.00625
– –
= 0.75 m J
y22 + y12 = 0.009375 – 0.00625
= 3.125 m J
y21 – y12 = – 0.0075 + 0.00625
= – 1.25 m J
5.20 V1 = h11I1 + h12V2 (i)
I2 = h21 I1 + h22V2 (ii)
Also V2 = – RL I2 (iii)
Solving Eqs (i) and (ii)
h11 I 2 - h21 V1
V2 =
h11h22 - h12 h21
Substituting for I2 from Eq. (iii)
h11
V2(h11h22 – h12h21) = – V – h21V1
RL 2
V2 h21
or GV = =–
V1 ( h11 h22 - h12 h21 ) + h11 / RL

5.21 V 1 = z11I1 + z12 I2 (i)


V 2 = z21 I1 + z22 I2 (ii)
Also V 2 = – RLI2 (iii)
Solving Eqs (i) and (ii)
z11 V2 - z21 V1
I2 = (iv)
det z

z11 z12
det z =
z21 z22

RL
V2 = – (z v – z21V1)
det z 11 2
2 4W
V2 z21 RL jw
or =
V1 det z + z11 RL 2 +
+ +
jw
5.22 The frequency domain form of the circuit is Vs 1W V1 2V1 V0
drawn here. – –

# Basic Electrical Engineering

Converting voltage source to current source

4W

2 +
+ +
j w V V
2 jw V1 2V1 V0
2 s jw 1W
– –

Writing nodal equations


w w w
– j V + j V + (V – V1 ) j + 0.25 ( V – V0 ) = 0 (i)
2 s 2 2
V2 = 2V1 (ii)

1 FG jw IJ
V1 =
1+
2
V =
H 2 + jw K V
jw
FG 2 + jw IJ
or V = V1
H jw K (iii)

Substituting Eq (iii) in Eq (i)

–j
w
V + FH jw + 1 IK V (2 + jw ) - V j w - 1 V = 0
2 s 4 1
jw 1
2 2 1

w
= M
L (1 + j 4w ) (2 + jw ) - 1 (1 + jw )OP V
j V
2 s N j 4w 2 Q
Solving yields
V0 2 ( jw ) 2
=
Vs 1
( jw ) 2 + ( jw ) + 1
2

2( j w ) 2
=
FH1 + j w IK FH1 + j w IK
3186
. 0.314

db
40

20
0.1
0.314 1 3.186 10 log w
20 log 2 ¥ (0.1)2
= 0.06db
Solutions Manual #

CHAPTER 6

230
6.1 Vp = = 132.8 V
3
Z y = 8 + j6 = 10 –38.9° W
132.8
IL = = 13.28 A
10
pf = cos 36.9° = 0.8 lag
P = 3 ¥ 230 ¥ 13.28 ¥ 0.8 = 4.232 kW
Q = 4.232 tan cos–1 0.8 = 3.174 kVAR

S= ( 4.232) 2 + (3.174) 2 = 5.29 kVA


100
6.2 Ip = = 57.74 A
3
1100
ZD = = 19.05 W
57.74
160 ¥ 1000 = 3 ¥ 1100 ¥ 100 cos f
or cos f = 0.84 lead, f = 32.9°
ZD = 19.05 –– 32.9° W
= 16 – j10.34 W
10 6
R = 16 W, C = = 308 mF
314 ¥ 10.34
6.3
ZD = 16 + j12 = 20 –36.9° W
230
Ip = = 11.5 A
20
I L = 11.5 3 = 19.9 A
pf = cos 36.9° = 0.8 log
P = 3 ¥ 230 ¥ 19.9 ¥ 0.8 = 6.34 kW
Q = 6.34 tan 36.9° = 4.47 kVAR

S= ( 6.34) 2 + ( 4.76) 2 = 7.93 kVA


6.4 pf = cos 37° = 0.8 lagging
I L = 30 3 = 52 A
P = 3 ¥ 400 ¥ 52 ¥ 0.8 = 28.82 kW
# Basic Electrical Engineering

Ic
Vca
Ica

Vab = 400 V
Ib 37°

Ibc Iab = 30 A

Vbc
Ia = 52 A

6.5 Z1 (Y ) = 16 + j20 = 25.6 –51.3° W


27 - j18
Z2 (Y) = = 9 – j6 = 10.8 ––33.7° W
3
Z (eq)/phase Y = (16 + j20) || (9 – j6)
= 9.69 ––11.7° W
400
IL = = 23.83 A
3 ¥ 9.69
pf = cos 11.7 = 0.979 leading
Q= 3 ¥ 400 ¥ 23.83 ¥ sin 11.7° = 3.15 kVAR
6.6 (a) I L = 10 3 = 17.32 A
f = 37°
(b) P = 3 ¥ 220 ¥ 17.32 ¥ cos 37° = 5.27 kW
5270
(c) I 2p R = or R = 17.6 W
3

CHAPTER 7

1 – st 1 1 - e - st
7.1 (a) £u(t) – u(t – t) = e =
s s s
e bt + e - bt
(b) cosh bt = ; t ≥ 0
2

£ cosh bt =
1 1LM
+
1
= 2
s OP
N
2 s-b s-b s - b2 Q
e jw 0 t - e - jw 0 t
(c) sin w0t = ; t ≥ 0
2
Solutions Manual #!

£ sin w0t =
1 1 LM -
1 OP = w0
N
2 j s - jw 0 s + jw 0 Q s + w 20
2

e jw 0 t + e - jw 0 t
(d) cos w0t = ; t ≥ 0
2

£ cos w0t =
1 LM
1
+
1 OP = s
N
2 s - jw 0 s + jw 0 Q s 2 + w 20
7.2
8 8 1 8 1
(a) = +
s( s + 2 ) s+2 s=0
s s s = -2 s+2

4 4
= -
s s+2
Taking inverse laplace transform
f (t) = (4 – 4e–2t ) u(t)
8( s + 1) 8( s + 1) 1 8( s + 1) 1
(b) = +
s( s + 2) s+2 s=0
s s s = -2
s+2

4 4
= +
s s+2
or f (t) = (4 + 4e–2t ) 4(t)

8( s + 1) 8( s + 1) 1 8( s + 1) 1
(c) = +
s( s + 2) 2
(s + 2) 2 s=0
s s s = -2 (s + 2)2

+ LM
d 8( s + 1) OP 1
ds s2 N Q s = -2
s+2

2 4 2
= + -
s ( s + 2) 2 ( s + 2)
or f (t) = (2 + 4t e–2t – 2e–2t) u(t)
12s 12 s
(d) F(s) = =
s 2 + 4s + 8 (s + 2 + j 2) (s + 2 - j 2)

A A*
= +
( s + 2 + j 2) ( s + 2 - j 2)

12 s
A= = 6(1 – j1)
s + 2 - j2 s = - 2 - j2
#" Basic Electrical Engineering

f (t) = 2Re [6(1 – j1) e– (2 + j2) t]


= 12e–2t (cos 2t – sin 2t) = 12 2 e–2t cos (2t + 45°) u(t)

7.3 £ LMz t
f (t ) dt =
z-•
0
f (t ) dt
+
F(s )
N-• s s
1
f (t) = te–2t u(t) ´
( s + 2) 2

z
-•
0
te - 2t u(t ) dt = 0

Hence

£ z
-•
t
te - 2 t u( t ) d (t ) =
1
s( s + 2) 2
7.4 v(t) = 10 u(t) – 20 u(t – 1) + 10 u(t – 2)
v
10 20 - s 10 -2 s 10
V(s) = - e + e
s s s 2
-s - 2s 1 t (s )
10(1 - 2e + e )
= –10
s
e- s
7.5 (i) ´ e–(t – 1) u(t – 1)
s +1

e-2s
(ii) ´ (t – 2) e–2 (t – 2) u(t – 2)
( s + 2) 2

7.6 Ri +
1
C z-•
t
i dt = u(t)

1 u ( 0) 1
RI (s) + I(s) + c =
Cs s s
1 - v c (0 )
or I (s) =
s R+FH 1 IK
Cs

1 - vc (0) 1 - vc (0 )
i (0 + ) = lim s ¥ =
sƕ FH
s R+
1 IK R
Cs

1 - vc ( 0 )
i(•) = lim s ¥ = 0
sÆ0 FH
s R+
1 IK
s
Solutions Manual ##

7.7

10 6
10 ¥ 10 3 ¥ 50 ¥ 103
20 s = 10 6
z(s) = =
10 6 20 s + 100 s+5
10 ¥ 103 +
20s

s
I (s) = £ cos 10t u(t) =
s 2 + 100

50 ¥ 103 s
Vc (s) = z(s) I(s) =
( s + 5) ( s 2 + 100)
vc (t) = [– 2 ¥ 103 e–5t + 4.46 ¥ 103 cos (10t – 63.4°)] u(t)
7.8
V ( s) 10 5
I(s) = = =
FH R + sL +
1 IK FH sR + s 2 L +
1 IK 2
( s + 2s + 4)
sc c

5
i (t) = e– t sin ( 3 t) u(t)
3
7.9

FG 200 + 50 ¥ 10 IJ 6
I(s) – 9V1(s) = V(s) (i)
H s K
V ( s) - V1 ( s)
I(s) = (ii)
200
Substituting Eq. (ii) in Eq. (i)

FG 200 + 50 ¥ 10 IJ V (s) - FG 200 + 50 ¥ 10 IJ V (s)


6 6
1
– 9
H s K 200 H s K 200
V1(s) = V(s)

0.25 ¥ 10 6 V ( s)
or V1(s) = (iii)
(10 s + 0.25 ¥ 10 6 )

V(s) = 1 50 ¥ 106/s
s 200 W
+ +
250 ¥ 10 3 + I (s ) –
\ V1(s) = (iv) V (s ) V1 (s) V0 (s)
s( s + 250 ¥ 10 3 ) 9V1 (s) +

– –
#$ Basic Electrical Engineering

Solving
3
v1 (t) = u(t) – e–25 ¥ 10 t u(t)
3
v0 (t) = 9v1(t) = 9 (1 – e–250 ¥ 10 t ) u(t) (v)
7.10
2
(2 + s )
Z(s) = s = 2( s + 2 )
+
2+s+
2 s 2 + 2s + 2
2W
s
2
s V (s )
10 ( s + 2) s
V(s) = Z(s) ¥ 5 = 2 s
s + 2s + 2

10 ( s + 2)
=
( s + 1 + j1) ( s + 1 - j1)

10 ( s + 2)
A = = 5(1 + j1)
( s + 1 - j1) s = - 1 - j1

v(t) = 2 Re [5(1 + j1) e–t e–jt ] u(t)


= 10 2 e–t cos (t – 45°) u(t)
7.11
+
1 + s
( s + 1) 1 1
Z(s) = s s
Z (s )
s
VC (s)
1
+ s+1 –
1
s

s +1
= 2
s + s +1
Z ( s) 1 s +1
Vc(s) = ¥ = 2
Z ( s) + 1 s s ( s + 2 s + 2)

=
s +1 1
+
LM
A
+
A* OP
2
s + 2s + 2 s=0
s N
s + 1 + j1 s + 1 - j1 Q
s+1 - 1 + j1
A = =
s( s + 1 - j1) s = - 1 - j1
4

vc(t) =
1
u(t) + 2 Re
LMF -1 + j1I e -t OP
e - jt u(t)
2 NH 4 K Q
1 1
= u(t) – e–t cos (t + 45°) u(t)
2 2
Solutions Manual #%

7.12 +

1 4 13 1
13 s V (s )
Z(s) = s 4
W s
4 1 1
+ s+
13 13 s –

13s
=
s 2 + 4s + 13

V(s) = 2
13s
¥
4 FH
+1 = 2
13 ( s + 4) IK
s + 4s + 13 s s + 4s + 13

A A*
= +
( s + 2 + j 3) ( s + 2 - j 3)

A =
13 ( s + 4)
= 13 FH 1 + j 1IK
( s + 2 - j 3) s =- 2 - j3
2 3

v(t) = 2 Re 13
LM FH 1 + j 1 IK e - 2t
e - j 3tOP u(t)
N 2 3 Q
= 15.6 e–2t Re (e– j (3t – 33.7°) ) u(t)
= 15.6 e–2t cos (3t – 33.7°) u(t)
7.13 +
1 s 4
Z(s) = 2 2s V (s )
1 1 s s 2 + 0.04 s
+ +
2 2s 4 –

4s
= 2
s + 2s + 2
4s s
V(s) = 2
¥ 2
( s + 2 s + 2) ( s + 0.04)

=
LM A + A OP + LM A + A OP
1
*
1 2
*
2

N s + j 0.02 s - j 0.02 Q N s + 1 + j1 s + 1 - j1Q


A 1 = 0.04 – j0.196, A2 = – 2e–j88.9°
u(t) = 0.4 cos ( 0.2t - 78.3∞ ) u( t ) - 4e - t cos ( t - 88.9∞ ) u( t )
 
Forced response Natural response

V (s ) V ( s) V (s )
7.14 + = I(s) + 101 ¥
200 4 ¥ 10 - 3 s 4 ¥ 10 - 3 s
200 s I ( s)
or V(s) =
( s - 5 ¥ 10 6 )
#& Basic Electrical Engineering

1
I(s) = £ t e–0.2t u(t) =
( s + 0.2) 2
200 s
\ V(s) =
( s + 0.2) ( s - 5 ¥ 10 6 )
2

A12 A11 A3
= 2
+ +
( s + 0.2) ( s + 0 .2 ) ( s - 5 ¥ 10 6 )

200 s
A12 = = 8 ¥ 10–6
s - 5 ¥ 10 6 s = - 0 .2

A11 =
d FG 200 s IJ = – 40 ¥ 10– 6
H
ds s - 5 ¥ 10 6 K s = - 0. 2

200 s
A3 = = 40 ¥ 10–6
( s + 0.2) 2 s = 5 ¥ 10 6

Hence
v(t) = 8 ¥ 10–6t e–0.2t u(t) – 40 ¥ 10 – 6 e–0.2t u(t)
6
+ 40 ¥ 10–6 e5 ¥ 10 u(t)
7.15 With switched closed (for long time) the capacitor gets fully charged and ic = 0; the
dependent current source is open. Hence
20 ¥ 30 I c (s )t +
v c(0) = ¥ 2 = 24 V
20 + 30
Vc(s)
4
12 W s 4 I c (s )
6
s-domain circuit after t = 0 is drawn.

By KCL
V ( s ) sV ( s)
+ –6–4 FH sV (s) - 6IK = 0
12 4 4
24
or V(s) =
1
s-
9
1t
\ v(t) = 24 e 9 u(t)
7.16 The transformed circuit is shown below:
Using nodal analysis at nodes i and 0.
Vi ( s) - Vs ( s) Vi ( s) - V0 ( s)
+
2 2
2 4 2
s i s 0
Vi ( s) + +
+ = 0 (i) + +
V1(s)

2 2 4V1 (s) V0(s)


4+ Vs(s) Vi (s)
3
s – –
V0(s) = 4 V1(s) (ii) – –
Solutions Manual #'

From Eqs (i) and (ii)


Vi(s) = (2s + 1) V1(s) (iii)
Substituting for Vi (s) from Eq. (iii) are V0(s) from Eq. (ii) in Eq. (i)
0.5
V1(s) = 2 Vs (s) (iv)
( s + 0.5)
2
(a) V0(s) = 4 V1(s) = Vs(s)
( s 2 + 0.5)
V0 ( s) 2
or = H(s) =
Vs ( s ) ( s 2 + 0.5)
1
(b) Vs (s) =
s
2 2
\ V0(s) = 2 =
( s + 0.5)
s s+ j
FG
1 IJ FG
s- j
1 IJ
H2 KH 2 K
FG
v0 (t) = 4e - 0.5t
F
+ 2 Re G - 2e
IJ IJ -j 1 t
2
u(t)
H H KK
- t2 t
= 4e u(t) – 4 cos u(t)
2

(c) Vs(s) =
FG s IJ
H s + 1K
2

2s
V0(s) =
( s + 1) s 2 +
2 FH 1 IK
2
Solving

v0 (t) =
FG 2 Re (- 2e ) + 2 Re FG 2e IJ IJ
- jt
-j 1 t
2
u(t)
H H KK
F
= G - 4 cos t + 4 cos
1 I
J u(t)
H 2K
7.17 Transformed circuit is shown below.

2s 4
– +
+
10
2 5 V (s )
1 1 2

V ( s) sV ( s) 5 V ( s) - 10
+ - + = 0
1 2 2 2s + 4
$ Basic Electrical Engineering

5 ( s + 4) A A*
or V(s) = = +
( s 2 + 4 s + 5) s + 2 + j1 s + 2 - j1

5 (s + 4) 5
A = = + j5
s + 2 - j1 s = - 2 - j1
2
Hence

u(t) = 2 Re LMF 5 + j 5I e - 2t
e - jt OP u(t)
NH 2 K Q
= 5e–2t (cos t + 2 sin t) u(t)
7.18 Steady state with switch at ‘a’
5
I = = 10 A
1
2
At t = 0 switch is thrown to ‘b’
1
iL(0) = 10 A Li (0 +) = ¥ 10 = 2
5
1
Vi (0) = 10 ¥ = 5 V Cvc(0 +) = 1 ¥ 5 = 5
2
s-domain circuit is drawn below:
Writing nodal equations
s/5
5
2V(s) + s V(s) + V(s) – 2) = 5 +
s +
1 1
2 s 5 V (s )
5 ( s + 2) 2

or V(s) = 2 –
s + 2s + 5

5 ( s + 2)
=
( s + 1 + j 2) ( s + 1 - j 2)

A =5 FH 1 + j 1 IK
2 4

L 1 O
u(t) = 5e Re MF1 + j I (cos 2t - j sin 2t P u(t)
–t
NH 2 K Q
= 5e F cos 2 t + sin 2t I u(t)
–t 1
H 2 K
10
7.19 Switch s open; steady state current = = 2.5 A
4
iL(0 + ) = 25; Li (0 + ) = 0.2 ¥ 2.5 = 0.5
Solutions Manual $

s-domain circuit 5 drawn in Fig below:


2 0.5 0.2s
10 – +
+ 0.5 2.5s + 50
I(s) = s = 10 + I (s )
2 + 0.2s s( s + 10) s –
i(t) = 5u(t) – 2.5 e–10t u(t)
= (5 – 2.5 e–10t ) u(t)
7.20
(a) y(t) = (1 – 3e–t + 4e–2t) u(t)
1 3 3 ( s 2 + 2)
y(s) = - + =
s s +1 s + 2 s ( s + 1) ( s + 2)
1
x(s) = £ u(t) =
s
Y ( s) ( s 2 + 2)
\ H(s) = =
X ( s) s( s + 1) ( s + 2)
(b) For forced response to be zero
s2 + 2 = 0
or s= ± j 2 or w= 2 rad/s
7.21
(a) y(t) = (2t + 1) e–2t u(t)
2 1 ( s + 4)
Y(s) = 2
+ =
( s + 2) ( s + 2) ( s + 2) 2
x(t) = e–3t u(t)
1
x(s) =
s+3
Y ( s) ( s + 4)
H(s) = = ¥ (s + 3)
X ( s) ( s + 2) 2
Poles: s = – 2, – 2
Zeros: s = – 3, – 4
(b) x (t) = e–3(t – 1) u (t – 1)
y(t) = (2(t – 1) + 1) e–2(t – 1) u(t – 1)
7.22
V2 ( s) 2 s +1
H(s) = = =
V1 ( s) 1 s +2
2+
1
+ 0.5s
2
v1 (t) = 10[u(t) – u(t – 2)]
$ Basic Electrical Engineering

10
Response to 10u(t) ´
s
10 ( s + 1) s +1 s +1
v2 (t) = £–1 = 10 ¥ u(t) + 10 ¥ e–2t u(t)
s ( s + 2) s+2 s=0
s s = -2
–2t
= 5u(t) + 5e u(t)
Response to 10 u(t – 2)
v2 (t) = 5u(t – 2) + 5e2(t – 2) u(t – 2)
Hence total response is
v2 (t) = 5[u(t) – u(t – 2)] + 5[e–2t u(t) – e–2(t – 2) u(t – 2)]
= 5[u(t) – u(t – 2)] + 5e–2t [u(t) – e 4 u(t – 2)]
7.23
V ( s) V ( s) - V1 ( s) V1 (s) 200 V (s )
+ s V(s) + = 0 (i)
10 200
100 1
sV1 ( s) V1 ( s) - V ( s) 0.5 s 10 s
+ = 0.5 (ii)
100 200
Solving
0.25 0.25
V(s) = =
( s 2 + 0.605s + 0.05) ( s + 0.506) ( s + 0.1)

0.25 0.25
u(t) = e–0.1t u(t) + e– 0.506t u(t)
( s + 0.506 ) s = - 0.1
( s + 0.1) s = - 0 .506
–0.1t –0.506t
= (0.616 e – 0.5e ) u(t)

CHAPTER 8
8.1
3 ¥ 10 - 3
BC = = 1.3 T
25 ¥ 0.9 ¥ 10 - 4
From Fig. 8.10
HC = 350 AT/m
AT = 350 ¥ 50 ¥ 10–2 = 175
8.2 HC = 350 AT/m
ATC = 350 (50 – 0.2) ¥ 10– 2 = 174.3
F lg I 2 ¥ 10 - 3
¥ 3 ¥ 10–3
ATair-gap = GH m A JK
g
f=
4p ¥ 10 - 7 ¥ 25 ¥ 10 - 4
= 1910
ATtotal = 174.3 + 1910 = 2084
Solutions Manual $!

2084
I = = 2.084 A
1000
B
8.3 AT = C lg + HC lC
m0
BC
1000 ¥ 1.5 = ¥ 2 ¥ 10–3 + HC (50 – 0.2) ¥ 10–2
4p ¥ 10 - 7
BC
or 1500 = + 0.498 HC (i)
4p ¥ 10 - 4
HC = 0, BC = 0.942
B C = 0, HC = 3012
Eq. (i) and the BH curve are both plotted in Fig. Q 8.3, from which
B C = 0.89
f = 25 ¥ 2.9 ¥ 10– 4 ¥ 0.89 ¥ 10–3 = 2 mWb

1.6

1.4
B (T )

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

H = AT/m

Fig. Q.8.3

AC 25 ¥ 0.9 2 mm
8.4 Ag = =
cos 45∞ 0.707 Ag
= 31.8 cm2
45°
2 ¥ 10 - 3
ATairgap = = 1501
4p ¥ 10- 7 ¥ 318
. ¥ 10- 4
25 cm2
$" Basic Electrical Engineering

ATtotal = 174 + 1501 = 1675


F2 = 500 AT
1675 f1 f2
I = = 1.675 A A
1000
R Rc
1 ¥ 10- 3
8.5 Rg = f R
4p ¥ 10- 7 ¥ 30 ¥ 10- 4 F1 Rg
= 2.65 ¥ 105
B
(15 - 01 . ) ¥ 10 - 2
RC =
4p ¥ 10 - 7 ¥ 4500 ¥ 30 ¥ 10- 4
= 8.78 ¥ 103
40 ¥ 10- 2
R= = 23.58 ¥ 103
4p ¥ 10 - 7 ¥ 4500 ¥ 30 ¥ 10- 4
f = 4 ¥ 10–3 Wb
F AB = f (R C + R g) = 4 ¥ 10–3 (2.65 ¥ 102 ¥ 8.78) ¥ 103
= 1095 AT
1095 ¥ 500
f2 = = 25.23 mWb
23.58 ¥ 10 3
f1 = f + f2 = 25.23 + 4 = 29.23 mWb
F 1 – R f1 = FAB
or F 1 = FAB + R f1
= 10.95 + 23.5 ¥ 103 ¥ 25.23 ¥ 10–3 = 1690 AT
1 ¥ 10 - 3
8.6 Rg = -7 -4
= 15.9 ¥ 105
4p ¥ 10 ¥ 2 ¥ 2.5 ¥ 10
F g = R gf = 15.9 ¥ 105 ¥ 0.25 ¥ 10–3 = 398 AT
lAB (right limb) = 2 ¥ 12 + 20 – 0.1 = 43.9 cm
lAB (right limb) = 2 ¥ 12 + 20 = 44 cm
0.25 ¥ 10- 3
B g = B right limb = = 0.5 T
2 ¥ 2.5 ¥ 10 - 4
H (right limb) = 220 AT/m (from Fig. Q 8.6)
FAB = 398 + 220 ¥ 43.9 ¥ 10–2 = 495 AT
493
H (left limb) = = 1125 AT/m
44 ¥ 10- 2
B (left limb) = 1.38 T (from Fig. Q 8.6)
f (left limb) = 1.38 ¥ 2 ¥ 2.5 ¥ 10–4 = 0.69 mWb
f (central limb) = 0.25 + 0.69 = 0.94 mWb
0.94 ¥ 10- 3
B (central limb) = = 0.94 T
4 ¥ 2.5 ¥ 10- 4
Solutions Manual $#

H (central limb) = 460 AT/m (from Fig. Q8.6)


F (care of central limb) = 460 ¥ 20 ¥ 10–2 = 92 AT
F coil =
FAB + F (care of central limb)
=
495 + 92 = 587 AT
587
Exciting coil current = = 0.587 A
1000

1.6

1.4
B (T )

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400

AT/m

Fig. Q.8.6

1 ¥ 10 - 3
8.7 Rg = = 6.63 ¥ 105
4p ¥ 10 - 7 ¥ 12 ¥ 10 - 4
Rg
(20 - 0.1) ¥ 10 - 2
Rc =
4p ¥ 10 - 7 ¥ m r ¥ 12 ¥ 10 - 4 R Rc R

0.132 ¥ 10 + 9 375 AT
= F1
mr 0.4 mW b

80 ¥ 10 - 2 1.06 ¥ 10 9
R= =
4p ¥ 10 - 7 ¥ m r ¥ 6 ¥ 10 - 4 mr
F
f=
Rg +Rc +R2
$$ Basic Electrical Engineering

875
0.6 ¥ 10–3 =
FG 6.63 +
IJ
0.662 ¥ 10 4
¥ 10 5
H mr K
or mr = 7609
2 ¥ 10 - 3
8.8 Rg = = 9.95 ¥ 105
4p ¥ 10 - 7 ¥ 4 ¥ 4 ¥ 10 - 4

[2 (25 + 20) - 0.2] ¥ 10 - 2


RC = = 1.11 ¥ 105
4p ¥ 10 - 7 ¥ 4000 ¥ 4 ¥ 4 ¥ 10 - 4
R g + R C = (9.95 + 1.11) ¥ 105 = 11.06 ¥ 105
400 ¥ 4
f= = 1.45 mWb
11.06 ¥ 10 5
1 1
Wf (air-gap) = R f2 = ¥ 9.95 ¥ 105 ¥ (1.45)2 ¥ 10–6 = 1.046 J
2 g 2
1 1
Wf (core) =R c f2 = ¥ 1.11 ¥ 105 ¥ (1.45)2 ¥ 10–6 = 0.036 J
2 2
Now mr (core) = • \ Rc = 0
400 ¥ 4
f= = 1.61 mWb
9.95 ¥ 105

1
Wf (air-gap) = ¥ 9.95 ¥ 105 ¥ (1.61)2 ¥ 10–6 = 1.29 J
2
Wf (core) = 0
(b) i = F/N = f R total/N
( 0.4 sin 314t ) ¥ 10 - 3 ¥ 11.06 ¥ 10 5
=
400
= 1.11 sin 314t A
e= wN fmax cos wt
= 314 ¥ 400 ¥ 0.4 ¥ 10–3 cos 314t
= 50.24 cos 314t
(c) L = N 2/R total
( 400) 2
= = 144.7 mH
11.06 ¥ 10 5

(400) 2
If mr = • R total = 9.95 ¥ 105, then L = = 161 mH.
9.95 ¥ 105
Solutions Manual $%

CHAPTER 9
25 ¥ 1000 25 ¥ 1000
9.1 (a) I2 = = 125 A, I1 = = 41.7 A
200 600
( 600) 2
(b) (i) = 25 ¥ 1000 or Z1 = 14.4 W
21
Similarity
( 200) 2
= 25 ¥ 1000 or Z2 = 1.6 W
Z2
V1 600
(c) fmax = = = 0.045 Wb
2p f N1 2 ¥ p ¥ 50 ¥ 60
The core flux will be the source when the transformer is excited at rated voltage in

secondary side
FG
V1 V2
=
IJ
H
N1 N 2 K
V1 V¢
(d) = 1
f f¢
60
or V1¢ = ( f ¢/f ) V1 = ¥ 600 = 720 V
50
720
V 2¢ =
= 240 V
3
600
(e) fmax = = 0056 mb
2 ¥ p ¥ 40 ¥ 60
The core flux density has increased. As the core loss is proportional to the square of
flux density and directly proportional to frequency, core loss would increase causing the
core to get overheated. Also the magnetizing current would increase which is detrimental
to transformer.
9.2 (a) On 600 – V side:
V SC = 600 ¥ 0.052 = 31.2 V
25 ¥ 1000
I SC = = 41.7 A
600
242
R1 = = 0.139 W
( 41.7) 2
X1 = (0.748) 2 - ( 0.139) 2 = 0.748 W
On 200 – V side:
0.139 0.735
R2 = = 0.0817 W; X2 = = 0.0817 W
9 9
PU values:
600
ZB(HV) = = 14.4 W
41.7
$& Basic Electrical Engineering

0.139
R(pu) = = 0.0097 or 0.97%
14.4
0.735
X(pu) = = 0.051 or 5.1%
14.4
(b) Since frequency is same (50 Hz) during SC test
(Core flux) SC
= 5.2%
(Core flux) Rated Voltage
(c) Core flux and also core density reduce to 5.2% of rated value. The core losses reduce
to (0.052)2 or 0.27% of core loss at rated voltage. Hence core losses during SC are of
negligible order and the total power input constitutes ohmic losses.
9.3
(a) Transformer impedance neglected:
200
I2 = = 110.6 A
|1.48 + j1.04 |
110.6
I1 = = 36.9 A
3
(b) Transformer impedance accounted for:
200
I2 = = 106.8 A
|( 0.0154 + 1.48) + j (0.0817 + 1.04)
106.8
I1 = = 35.6 A
3
% Error caused by neglecting transformer impedance
110.6 - 106.8
= = 3.4%
110.6
(c) V2 = 106.8 | 1.48 + j1.04 | = 1193.2 V
200 - 193.2
Voltage reg = = 3.4%
200
9.4 P0 = (91.1)2 ¥ 1.48 = 12.28 kW
I 22 R 2 = (91.1)2 ¥ 0.0154 = 127 W
PC = 195 W
PL = 127 + 195 = 322 W
12.28
h= ¥ 100 = 97.4%
12.28 + 0.322

9.5 R(HV) = 0.125 + 0.005 ¥ FH 1100 IK = 0.25 W


2

220

¥ F
H IK = 1.25 W
2
1100
X(HV) = 0.625 + 0.0025
220
Solutions Manual $'

Similarly
Z (LV) = (0.01 + j0.05) W
Now
50
Z (pu) = (0.25 + j1.25) ¥
. )2
1000 ¥ (11
= 0.01 + j 0.052
9.6 I = 1 pu
Z = (0.01 + j 0.052) pu
V 2 = 1 pu
(i) 0.8 pf lagging
V1 = V2 + I (R cos q + X sin q)
= 1 + 1 ¥ (0.01 ¥ 1.08 + 0.052 ¥ 0.6) = 1.039 pu
V1 (HV) = 1.039 ¥ 1100 = 1142.9 V ; % Req = 3.9
(ii) 0.8 pf leading
V1 = 1 + 1 ¥ (0.01 ¥ 0.8 – 0.052 ¥ 0.6) = 0.9768 pu
V1(HV) = 0.9768 ¥ 1100 = 1074.5 V; % Req = – 2.32
9.7 Pi = 580 W

Pi(3/4th fl ) =
F 50 ¥ 1000 ¥ 3 I 2
¥ 0.25 = 290 W
H 1100 4 K
P L = 580 + 290 = 870 W
3
P 0 = 50 ¥ ¥ 0.8 = 30 kW
4
30
h= = 97.2 %
30 + 0.87
9.8 Load current = 1 pu, 0.8 lag/lead pf
V2(pu) = V1(pu) – I(pu) (R/pu) cos q ± X (pu) sin q)
= 1.0 – 1 ¥ (0.01 ¥ 0.8 ± 0.052 ¥ 0.6)
= 0.9688 pu, 1.0232 pu
V 2 = 0.9688 ¥ 220 = 213.1 V (0.8 lag pt)
= 1.0232 ¥ 220 = 225.1 V (0.8 lead pf )
Note: Full load is assumed to mean full load current.
9.10
( 200) 2
(a) Pin = Pi = = 40 W
1000

I0 = FH
200 200
-j
200 IK = (0.1 – j0.2) A
400 1000 500
I 0 = 0.233 A, pf = 0.45 lag
% Basic Electrical Engineering

5 ¥ 1000
(b) I LV ( fl ) = = 25 A
200
V SC = 25 ¥ | 0.18 + j0.5 | = 13.3 V
Pi = Pc = I 2R = (25)2 ¥ 0.18 = 112.5 W
0.5
pf = cos tan–1 = 0.34 lag
0.18
9.11
52.7
Z(HV) = = 6.27 W
8.4
287
R(HV) = = 4.07 W
(8.4) 2
X(HV) = 4.77 W
(a) For max efficiency
I2(HV) ¥ R(HV) = Pi
287
I(HV) = = 8.33 A
4.07
P0 (for h max) = 2200 ¥ 8.33 = 18.33 kW
18.33
h max = = 96.96%
18.33 + 2 ¥ 0.287
R
(b) pf = cos tan–1 = 0.76 leading
X
9.12
25 ¥ 1000
I2 = = 125 A
200
1200 ¥ 125
(kVA) Auto = = 150
1000
25 ¥ 1000
I1 – I2 = = 25 A
1000
9.13
S I1
I1 =
V
S I1
I1 + I2 =
aV I1 + I2
V
I2 = FH S - S IK = S FH 1 - 1IK
aV V V a I2 av
I1 1 a
= =
I2 1 1- a
-1
a
Solutions Manual %

(a) a = 0.5
I1 0.5
= = 1
I2 1 - 0.5
(b) a = 0.1
I1 0.1 1
= =
I2 1 - 0.1 9
9.14
20 ¥ 1000
I2 = = 100 A
200
2640 ¥ 100
Auto transformer output = = 264 kVA
1000
kVA transformed = 20
kVA conducted = 264 – 20 = 244
Full-load output = 264 ¥ 1 = 264 kW
As two-winding transformer
0.975 (20 ¥ 0.8 + PL) = 20 ¥ 0.8
or P L = 0.41 kW
264 ¥ 1
hauto = = 99.84%
264 + 0.41

9.15 C

a
I:a
N Load
b
B
c
A
22/345 kV

Transformation ratio of each transformer unit


1
= 22/345/ 3 =
a
or a = 9.054
Let us take VA (Y side voltage of phase A to neutral N) as the reference phasor
Vphase = 345/ 3 = 199.2 kV
VA = 199.2 –0°, VB = 199.2 –– 120°, VC = 199.2 –– 240° kV
1
Rating of each transformer unit = | 500 + j100 | = 170 MVA
3
VAB = 345 –30°, VBC = 345 –– 90°, VCA =345 –– 210° kV
% Basic Electrical Engineering

500 100
VA I A* = + j
3 3
500 + j100
I A* = = 0.837 + j0.167 kA
3 ¥ 199.2
I A = 0.837 – j0.167 = 0.853 –– 11.3° kA
I B = 0.853 –– 131.3° kA
I C = 0.853 –– 251.3° kA
On D-side:
199.2
Vab = –0° = 22 –0° kV
9.054
Vbc = 22 –– 120° kV
Vca = 22 –– 240° kV
I ab = 9.054 ¥ 0.853 –– 11.3° = 7.723 –– 11.3° kA
I bc = 7.723 –– 131.3° kA
Ica = 7.723 –– 251.3° kA
I a = I ab - I ca = 3 ¥ 7.723 –– 41.3° = 13.376 –– 41.3° kA
Similarly
I b = 13.376 –– 161.3° kA
Ic = 13.376 –– 281.3° kA
Note: It is easily observed from above that the line voltages and currents on star side lead
those on delta side by 30° the same holds for phase voltages and current.

9.16
6.6 3 kV

Z Z
22 3 kV

IZ
6.6 kV

22 kV

I1 I2

( 22 3 ) 2
= 3 MVA
Z
or Z = 484 W
3 ¥ 22 3 ¥ I2 = 9 ¥ 1600 or I2 = 136.4 A
(transformer current secondary)
Solutions Manual %!

22
I 1 = 136.4 ¥ = 454.5 A (transformer primary current)
6.6
I2 136.4
IZ (current in leg of delta) = = = 78.75 A
3 3

9.17
I1

I 1/ 3
6.6 kV

Z Z

22 3 kV
22 kV IZ

As before (Problem 9.16)


I 2 = 136.4 A (current in transformer secondary)
I Z = 78.75 A (current in leg of a connected load)
I1/ 3 = current in transformer primary
22
= 136.4 ¥ = 454.6 A
6.6
I1 (primary line current) = 454.6 3 = 787.4 A

CHAPTER 10
10.1 slots/pole = 3 ¥ 3 = 9
180∞
g = = 20°
9
Short pitching angle, b = 20°
sin m g 2 sin 3 ¥ 20∞ / 2
Kb = g = = 0.96
m sin 2 3 sin 20∞ / 2
Kp = cos 20°/2 = 0.985
300 ¥ 20
10.2 f = = 50 Hz
120
180 ¥ 8
Total turns = = 720
2
720
Nph (series) = = 240
3
180
m= = 3
3 ¥ 20
180∞ ¥ 20
g = = 20°
180
%" Basic Electrical Engineering

Kb (as calculated in Problem 10.1) = 0.96


E p = 4.44 ¥ 0.96 ¥ 50 ¥ 240 ¥ 0.05 = 426 V
El = 426 3 = 738 V
120 f 120 ¥ 50
10.3 P = = = 8
ns 750
m= 4
S = 4 ¥ 3 ¥ 8 = 96
180∞ ¥ 8
g = = 15°
96
96
Full pitch = = 12 slots
8
Coil pitch = 11 slots
Short pitching angle, b = 15°
2 ¥ 8 ¥ 96
Total armature turns = = 768
2
768
Nph (series) = = 128
3¥2
sin 4 ¥ 15∞ / 2
Kb = = 0.96
4 sin 15∞ / 2
Kp = cos 15°/2 = 0.99
E p = 4.44 Kw f Nph (series) f
= 4.44 ¥ 0.96 ¥ 0.99 ¥ 50 ¥ 128 ¥ 0.05
= 1350 V
El = 1350 3 = 2338 V
Iconductor = 10 A
IP = 2 ¥ 10 = 20 A = Il
kVA = 3 ¥ 2338 ¥ 20 = 81
10.4
120 ¥ 50
P = = 24
250
180∞ ¥ 24
g = = 15°
288
f = Bav ¥ Polc aue

= FH 2 ¥ 1.2IK ¥ FH p ¥ 3.2 ¥ 0.8IK = 0.256 Wb


p 24
288 ¥ 8
Total turns = = 11.52
2
Solutions Manual %#

(a) Single-phase case


288
m= = 12
24
sin 12 ¥ 15∞ / 2
Kb = = 0.638
12 sin 15∞ / 2
N(single-phase) = 1152
E = 4.44 ¥ 0.638 ¥ 50 ¥ 1152 ¥ 0.256
= 41.77 kV
kVA = 41.77 ¥ 10 = 417.7
(b) 3-phase case
288
m= = 4
3 ¥ 24
Kb = 0.96 (see Prob. 10.3)
1152
Nph (series) = = 384
3
Ep = 4.44 ¥ 0.96 ¥ 50 ¥ 384 ¥ 0.256
= 20.96 kV
kVA = 3 ¥ 20.96 ¥ 10 = 6.28.5
Observation: For the same winding/same amount of copper) 3-phase winding has 33.5%
higher kVA capacity.
10.5
S = 24
180∞ ¥ 2
g = = 15°
24
f = 2.2 Wb
(a) Single-phase winding
24
m= = 12
2
sin 12 ¥ 15∞ / 2
Kb = = 0.638
12 sin 15∞ / 2
24 ¥ 2
Nph(series) = = 24
2
E = 4.44 ¥ 0.638 ¥ 50 ¥ 24 ¥ 2.2
= 7478 V
kVA = 7.478 ¥ 8 = 59.8
(b) Two-phase winding
24
m= = 6
2¥2
%$ Basic Electrical Engineering

sin 6 ¥ 15∞ / 2
Kb = = 0.9
6 sin 15∞ / 2
24
Nph (series) = = 12
2
E p = 4.44 ¥ 0.9 ¥ 50 ¥ 12 ¥ 2.2
= 5272 V
El = 5.272 2 = 7458 V
kVA = 2 ¥ 5.272 ¥ 8 = 84.4
(c) Three-phase winding
24
m= = 4
3¥2
sin 4 ¥ 15∞ / 2
Kb = = 0.96
4 sin 15∞ / 2
24
Nph (series) = = 8
3
E p = 4.44 ¥ 0.96 ¥ 50 ¥ 8 ¥ 2.2
= 3751 V
El = 3751 3 = 6497 V
kVA = 3 ¥ 6.497 ¥ 8 = 90
m 0F r
10.6 Br =
g
2
Bav = B
p r

fr = F p Dl I Bav =
FG 2 Dl ¥ m IJ
0
Fr
H PK H P gK
2 Dl m 0
P = ¥ Wb/AT
P g
120 ¥ 50
10.7 Set speed = = 3000 rpm
2
120 ¥ 400
P (gen) = = 16
3000
10.8 n(no-load) = 990 rpm
n(full-load) = 950 rpm
ns = 1000 rpm
120 ¥ 50
(a) P = = 6
1000
Solutions Manual %%

10
(b) s(no-load) = ¥ 100 = 1%
1000
50
s(full-load) = ¥ 100 = 5%
1000
(c) No-load case
120 ¥ 0.5
Speed of rator field wrt rotor surface =
6
= 10 rpm
Speed of rator field wrt stator = 990 + 10 = 1000 rpm
Speed of rator field wrt (rotor field = 0 rpm
Full-load case:
f = 0.05 ¥ 50 = 2.5 Hz
Speed of rotor field wrt rotor surface = (120 ¥ 0.5)/6 = 50 rpm
Speed of rotor field wrt stator surface = 950 + 50 = 1000 rpm
10.9 ns = 1000 rpm
1000 - 960
(a) s= ¥ 100 = 4% R2
1000
(b) P = 6 I2
(c) T = kI2 cos q2 (Eq. (10.45)) sV 2

q2 = 0
\ T = kI2
For same torque I2 should remain the same. If R2 is doubled, the slip will became double
i.e., s = 2 ¥ 0.04 = 0.08 or n = 1000 (1 – 0.8) = 920 rpm. Thus adding external resistance
in rotor circuit gives control over motor speed. This is only possible in slip ring induction
motor and not in squirrel cage motor where rotor bars are premanentaly short circuited.

CHAPTER 11
11.1 VOC for the OCC is now reduced in the ratio of 1600/1000. The revised data are as under:
VOC (V) 35.6 66 100 135 189 208 220 236 247
If (A) 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 3.5 4.0 5.0 6.0
The OCC is drawn in Fig. Q–11.1
(a) V0(Rf = 50 W) = 220 V, If = 4 A
130
(b) R (critical) = = 65 W
2
110
n(critical) = 1600 ¥ = 1354 rpm
130
%& Basic Electrical Engineering

VOC(V)

300 Rcritical

Rf = 50 W

250

200

150

100

50

0 1 2 3 4 5 6
If (A)

Fig. Q.11.1

(c) V will come down from 220 V as in part (a) because of IaRa drop.
Let V = 200 V
220 If IL
If = = 3.6 A +
55 Ia
Rf = 55 W
E a = 210 Ea Ra V RL = 8 W

200
IL = = 25 A –
8
I a = 25 + 3.6 = 28.6 A
V = 210 – 28.6 ¥ 0.5 = 195.7 V
Let V = 190 V
190 190
If = = 3.45 A, IL = = 23.75 A, Ia = 27.2 A
55 8
E a = 205
V = 205 – 27.2 ¥ 0.5 = 191.4 V (almost converged)
Solutions Manual %'

11.2 If IL
If IL
Ia + Ia +
50 W 50 W
250 V 250 V
0.02 W 0.02 W
– –

400 rpm
(a) Genrator (b) Motor

As generator:
50 ¥ 1000
IL = = 200 A
250
250
If = = 5 A \ Ia = IL + If = 205 A
50
Eag = 250 + 205 ¥ 0.02 = 254.1 V
254.1 = k¢E If ng = k¢E ¥ 5 ¥ 400 (i)
As motor:
50 ¥ 1000
IL = = 200 A
250
If = 5 A
I a = 200 – 5 = 195 A
Eam = 250 – 195 ¥ 0.2 = 246.1 V
246.1 = k¢E ¥ 5 ¥ nm (ii)
Dividing Eq. (i) by Eq. (ii)
nm 246.1
=
400 254.1
or nm = 387.4 rpm
11.3
At rated output and speed:
100
Input = = 111.1 kW
0.9
600
(a) Field current = = 1.2 A
500
1111 . ¥ 1000
(b) IL = = 185.2 A
600
I a = 185.2 – 1.2 = 184 A
(c) E a = 600 – 184 ¥ 0.13 = 576 V
(d) Mechanical power developed
= Ea Ia
= 576 ¥ 184 = 106 kW
& Basic Electrical Engineering

2p ¥ 1200
(e) T ¥ = 106 ¥ 1000
60
or T = 843.5 Nm
11.4
Running light:
Ia1 = 6.32 – 0.92 = 5.4 A
Ea1 = 250 – 5.4 ¥ 0.252 = 248.6 V
248.6 = k¢E ¥ 1280 (i)
Motor current 85 A:
No change in field current
Ea2 = 250 – (85 – 0.92) ¥ 0.252 = 228.8
228.8 = k¢E ¥ n2 (ii)
From Eqs (i) and (ii)
n2 228.8
=
1280 248.6
or n2 = 1178 rpm
Motor current 60 A:
No change in field current
Ea2 = 250 – (60 – 0.92) ¥ 0.252 = 235 V
235 = k¢E ¥ n2 (iii)
From Eqs (i) and (iii)
235
n2 = 1280 ¥ = 1209 rpm
248.8
11.5 Speed 750 rpm:
1.67 A IL
I L = 28 A, If = 1.67 A
Ia = 28 – 167 = 26.33 A Ia +
300 W
Ea = 500 – 0.8 ¥ 26.33 = 479 V 500 V
0.8 W
479 = (Kaf) ¥ F 750 ¥ 2p I –
H 60 K
or Kaf = 6.1
T = (Kaf) Ia = 6.1 ¥ 26.63 = 160.6 Nm
Speed 1000 rpm:
2p
500 – 0.8Ia = Kaf¢ ¥ 1000 ¥ (i)
60
160.6 = Kaf¢ Ia (ii)
Dividing
500 - 0.8 I a 100 ¥ 2p / 60
=
160.6 Ia
Solutions Manual &

or 0.8 I a2 – 500 Ia + 160.6 ¥ 104.72 = 0


or I 2a – 625 Ia + 210225 = 0
I a = 589.33 or 35.67 A (Note: the first solution is not feasible)
E a = 500 – 0.8 ¥ 35.67 = 471.5 V
1.67 ¥ 750 a 479
If ¥ 1000 a 471.5
471.5 750 ¥ 1.67
or If = ¥ = 1.23 A
749 1000
500
Rf (total) = = 406.5 W
1.23
Rf (Ext) = 406.5 – 300 = 106.5 W
I L = 35.67 + 1.23 = 36.9 A
11.6 At no-load (300 V mains)

E a ª V = 300 V = Kaf ¥ F 1200 ¥ 2p I


H 60 K
300 ¥ 60
or Kaf = = 2.387
1200 ¥ 2p
On load (600 V mains)
E a = 600 – 150 ¥ 0.2 = 570 V
n ¥ 2p
570 = 2.387 ¥
60
or n = 2280 rpm
11.7
At no load:
E a ª 230 V
2p ¥ 1000
230 = Kaf ¥
60
or Kaf = 1.464
On load:
E a = 230 – 200 ¥ 0.1 = 210 V
210 1
n = 1500 ¥ ¥ = 1427 rpm
230 0.96
T = 1.464 ¥ 0.96 ¥ 200 = 281 Nm
11.8
E a = kafw = k a¢ Ia w
2p ¥ 1200
12 = k a¢ ¥ 1 ¥
60
& Basic Electrical Engineering

or k a¢ = 0.0955
T = Kaf Ia = K¢a I a2
44 = 0.0955 ¥ Ia2
or Ia = 20.5 A
2p ¥ n
250 – 20.5 ¥ 0.6 = 0.0955 ¥ 20.5 ¥
60
or n = 1159 rpm
11.9 Ea1 = 250 – 85 ¥ (0.12 + 0.1) = 231.3 V
2p ¥ 600
231.3 = K a¢ Iaw = k a¢ ¥ 85 ¥
60
or K a¢ = 0.0433
(a) Ia = 100 A
Ea2 = 250 – 100 ¥ (0.12 + 0.1) = 228 V
2p ¥ n2
228 = 0.0433 ¥ 100 ¥
60
or n2 = 503 rpm
(b) Ia = 40 A
Ea2 = 250 – 40 ¥ (0.12 + 0.1) = 241.2 V
2p n2
241.2 = 0.0433 ¥ 40 ¥
60
or n2 = 1330 rpm
(c) n2 = 800 rpm or 83.78 rad/s
Ea 2 = 0.0433 ¥ Ia2 ¥ 83.78 (i)
250 - Ea2
Ia2 = (ii)
0.22
Eliminating Ia2 in Eqs. (i) and (ii)
0.0433 ¥ 83.78
Ea2 = ¥ (250 – Ea2 )
0.22
or Ea2 = 235.6
250 - 235.6
Ia2 = = 65.6 A
0.22
11.10
At 600 V1, 80 A, 70 rpm
Ea1 = 600 – 80 ¥ (0.215 + 0.08) = 576.4 V
2p ¥ 750
576.4 = K¢a ¥ 80 ¥
60
or K¢a = 0.092
Solutions Manual &!

At 95A current:
Ea2 = 600 – 95 ¥ (0.215 + 0.08) = 572 V
2p ¥ n2
572 = 0.092 ¥ 95 ¥
60
or n2 = 625 rpm
T = K¢a Ia2
= 0.092 ¥ (95)2 = 830.3 Nm
11.11
(a) I a = 220 A
E a = 600 – 220 ¥ 0.15 = 567 V
507
n = 600 ¥ = 709 rpm
480

480 = Kaf ¥ F 2p ¥ 600 I = K¢ ¥ 220 ¥ F 2p ¥ 600 I


H 60 K a H 60 K
or K a¢ = 0.037
T = K a¢ Ia2 = 0.0347 ¥ (220)2 = 1681 Nm
600
(b) I a = 300 =
R( total )
or R(total) = 2W
R(ext) = 2 – 0.15 = 1.85 W
T(start) = 0.0347 ¥ (300)2 = 3132 Nm
Observation: With an armature current which is 36% more than the full-load current,
the motor give 186% full-load torque. The series motor has therefore excellent starting
characteristic and is capable of starting high torque loads.
11.12
(a) I a = 220 A
E a = 600 – 220 ¥ 0.15 = 567 V
567
n = 600 ¥ = 756 rpm
450
2p ¥ 600
450 = Kaf ¥
60
or Kaf = 7.162
T = Kaf Ia = 7.162 ¥ 220 = 1576 Nm
(b) R (ext) = 1.85 W (as before)
2p ¥ 600
518 = Kaf ¥
60
Kaf = 8.244
T(start) = 8.244 ¥ 300 = 2473 Nm
Remark: Because of saturation torques have reduced
&" Basic Electrical Engineering

11.13
From the solution of Example 11.13
KaKf Nsc = 0.0955
T = 59.7 Nm (field halves in series)
Field halves connected in parallels:
0.0955
59.7 = (Ka Kf Nsc /2) Ia2 = ¥ Ia2
2
or I a = 35.36 A
Ea = (Ka Kf Nsc /2) Ia w
0.0955
250 = ¥ 35.36 ¥ w
x
or w = 148 rad/s
148 ¥ 60
or n= = 1413 rpm
2p
11.14
When cold (20°C ):
R a = 0.15 W, Rf = 200 W
At no load; Ea1 ª V = 500 V
n1 = 1000 rpm
500
If 1 = = 2.5 A
200
E a = kaf n = k ¢e If n
Substituting values
500 = K E¢ ¥ 2.5 ¥ 1000
or K E¢ = L/5
when had (20° + 40° = 60° C):
234.5 + 60
R a = 0.5 ¥ = 0.579 W
234.5 + 20
234.5 + 60
Rf = 200 ¥ = 232 W
234.5 + 20
500
If 2 = = 2.18 W
232
Ea 2 = 500 – 70 ¥ 0.579 = 459.5 V
1
459.5 = ¥ 2.16 ¥ n2
5
or n2 = 1063.6 rpm
11.15 Neglecting windage, friction and iron losses the load torque equals developed torque.
With linear magnetisation characteristic
E a = K e¢ ¥ If ¥ n (i)
T = k ¢T ¥ If ¥ Ia (ii)
Solutions Manual &#

At n1 = 800 rpm
Ea1 = 220 – 40 ¥ 0.3 = 208 V
220
If 1 = = 1.1 A
200
Substituting in Eqs (i) and (ii)
208 = K e¢ ¥ 1.1 ¥ 800 (iii)
T = K¢T ¥ 1.1 ¥ 40 (iv)
At n2 = 1050 rpm
Ea2 = 220 – 0.3 Ia2 = K ¢e ¥ If 2 ¥ 1050 (v)
T = K¢T ¥ If 2 ¥ Ia2 (vi)
Dividing Eq. (v) by (iii) and (vi) by (iv)
1050 I f 2 220 - 0.3 I a 2
= (vii)
208 . ¥ 800
11
I f 2 Ia 2
= 1 (viii)
. ¥ 40
11
Solving Eqs (vii) and (viii)
Ia22 – 733.3 Ia2 + 36400 = 0
or I a 2 = 53.65 A, 679.7 A
The higher value of current i not an acceptable solution as the motor would operate at too
poor on efficiency
Thus Ia2 = 53.65 A
11. ¥ 40
If 2 = = 0.82 A
53.65
Hence
220
Rf2 = = 268 W
0.82
Rf (ext) = 268 – 200 = 68 W
11.16 Since field excitation remains constant
E a = K¢E n (i)
T = K ¢T Ia (ii)
T L = KLn2 (iii)
At n1 = 1500 rpm
Ea1 = 250 – 35 ¥ 0.2 = 243 V (iv)
T 1 = K T¢ ¥ 35 (v)
At n2 = 1200 rpm
1200
(i) Ea2 = 243 ¥ = 195 V
1500
T 2 = K¢T ¥ Ia2
&$ Basic Electrical Engineering

But T = TL
Thus
FG T IJ
2
=
I a2
= FH 1200 IK 2

HT K1 35 1500
or Ia2 = 22.4 A
Now 195 = 250 – 22.4 ¥ (Ra (1 ¥ t) + 0.12)
or Ra(1 ¥ t) = 2.25 W
Loss in external armature resistance
= (22.4)2 ¥ 2.25 = 1129 W
(ii) Ea2 = 195 V as calculated in part (i)
K T¢ ¥ 35 = K T¢ ¥ Ia2
or Ia2 = 35 A
195 = 250 – 35 ¥ (Ra (ext) + 0.2)
or Ra (ext) = 1.37 W
Loss in external armature resistance
= (35)2 ¥ 1.37 = 1678 W
11.17 Assume linear magnetisation characteristic
Ea = K¢E If n ; T = K T¢ If Ia
(1) Motor operating at Tfe at 1500 rpm
Ea1 = 115 – 25 ¥ 0.3 = 107.5 V
107.5 = K E¢ ¥ If 1 ¥ 1500 (i)
Tf e = K T¢ ¥ If 1 ¥ 25 (ii)
(2) n2 = 1400 rpm
Ea 2 = K¢e ¥ If 2 ¥ 1400 = 115 – Ia2 (0.3 + 0.6)
or 115 – 0.9 Ia2 = K¢e ¥ If 2 ¥ 1400 (iii)
Dividing Eq. (iii) by Eq. (i)

115 - 0.9 I a2 FI I =
f2 1400
107.5
= GH I JK
f1 1500

If2
Let = k
I f1
\ 115 – 0.9 Ia2 = 100.33 k (iv)
1 1
T2 = T = ¥ K T¢ If 1 ¥ 25
2 fl 2
1
K T¢ If 2 Ia2 = K ¢ I ¥ 25
2 T f1
or Ia 2 = 12.5/k (v)
Solutions Manual &%

Substituting Eq. (v) in Eq. (iii)


12.5
115 – 0.9 ¥ = 100.33 k
k
100.33 k2 – 115 k + 11.25 = 0
or k = 1.037, 0.108
Smaller value of k is rejected because it would mean a very large reduction in field
current resulting in heavy current in the armature circuit which is practically not
acceptable (efficiency would be too low)
If2 Rf1
k = = 1.037 =
I f1 Rf 2

Rf 2
or = 0.965
Rf1
Thus a reduction of 3.5% is needed in the shunt field resistance
11.18 For maximum efficiency of 215 A input current
(2/5)2 ¥ Ra = 3300
or R a = 0.071 W
Note: Less resistance would mean larger copper conductor cross-section and therefore more
volume of copper to be used in the machine
Now P L = 2 ¥ 3300 = 6600 W
P n = 230 ¥ 215 = 49.45 kW
49.45 - 6.6
h= = 86.65%
49.45
11.19
I L = 79.8 A, If = 2.6 A
I a = 79.8 – 2.6 = 77.2 A
E a = 220 – 77.2 ¥ 0.18 = 206 V

206 =
f ¥ 1200 ¥ 620
¥FH IK
4
60 2
(a) or f = 8.31 ¥ 10–3 or 8.31 mWb
(b) EaI a = Tw
206 ¥ 77.2
or T = = 126.6 Nm
2p ¥ 1200
60
(c) Net output = 15000 W
Mech power developed = 206 ¥ 77.2 = 15903 W
Rotational loss = 15903 – 15000 = 903 W
&& Basic Electrical Engineering

(d) Armature copper loss


= (77.2)2 ¥ 0.18 = 1073 W
Field copper loss = 220 ¥ 2.6 = 572 W
Total copper loss = 1073 + 572 = 1645 W
Total loss = 1645 + 903 = 2548 W
15
h= ¥ 100 = 85.5%
15 + 2.548

CHAPTER 12
12.3
No-load voltage = 400 V
If (nl ) = 5 A
At 125% full-load, 0.8 pf lagging
62 ¥ 1000 ¥ 1.25
Ia = = 112 A
3 ¥ 400
I a = 112 –– 36.9° A
400
Ef = + 112 –– 36.9° ¥ j1.08
3
= 303.65 + j96.76
E f = 318.6 V or 552 V (line)
By linear interpolation
2.5
I f = 7.5 + ¥ 32 = 8.83 A
60
xs Ia
12.4
(i) Unity pf + – +
Ef Vt
I a = 25 –0° A –

E f = 231 – j6.1 ¥ 25 –0° = 231 – j152.5


E f = 276.8 V or 479.4 V(line)
Pe = 3 ¥ 400 ¥ 23 ¥ 1 = 17.32 kW
Qe = 0
(ii) 0.8 pf leading
I a = 25 –36.9°
E f = 231 – j6.1 ¥ 25 –36.9° = 322.6 – j122
E f = 345 V or 579 V (line)
Solutions Manual &'

Pe = 3 ¥ 400 ¥ 25 ¥ 0.8/1000
= 13.86 kW
Qe = + 3 ¥ 400 ¥ 25 ¥ 0.6/1000
= + 10.39 kVAR
12.5
11 Ia
Ef =
11 3
(a) V t = Ef = kV ° I ax s
3 15.7
q
F 3 ¥ FG 11 IJ 2
I 31.4°
VL =
11
GH H 3 K JK
4.2 sin d = 15 3

or d = 31.4°
11
(b) Ia xs = 2 ¥ sin 15.7° kV = 3.44 kV
3
3440
Ia = = 819 A
4.2
q = 15.7°
pf = cos q = 0.96 leading
(c) Qe = + 3 ¥ 11 ¥ 819 sin 15.7°
= + 4222 kVAR
12.6 48 W Ia
2W
(a) 3 ¥ 12.5 ¥ 60 cos q = 1050 + +
cos q = 0.81 pf leading Ef Vt
– –
(b) I a = 60 –36.1°
12.5
Ef = – (2 + j48) ¥ 60 –36.1°/1000
3
= 8.86 – j2.4
E f = 9.18 kV or 15.9 kV(line)
(c) Mechanical power developed
3 ¥ (60) 2 ¥ 2
= 1050 –
1000
= 1028.4 kW
ns = 1000 rpm, ws = 157 rad/s
1028.4 ¥ 1000
T = = 6650 Nm
157
(d) V t = 7.22 kV, Ef = 9.18 kV
' Basic Electrical Engineering

Ia xs = 9.18 – 7.22 = 1.96 kV


1.96 ¥ 1000
Ia = = 40.8 A
48
pf = cos 90° = 0° leading

48 W Ia
Ia –
+ +
jIaxs
Ef Vt
Ef –
Vt jIaxs

12.7
13.2
Ef = = 7.62 kV (= OC Voltage)
3
Ia
11.5 120 W
Vt = = 6.64 kV
3 + – +
Ef L–d Vt L0°
At max load d = 90°

7.62 ¥ 6.64
Pe (max) = 3 ¥ = 1.264 MW
120
ns = 1500 rpm, ws = 157 rad/s
1.264 ¥ 10 6
T = = 8051 Nm
157
From phase diagram 7.62
q
Iaxs = (7.62 ) 2 + (6.60 ) 2 I ax s
6.64
= 10.09 kV
10.09 ¥ 1000
Ia = = 84.1 A
120 Ia
6.62
p f = cos q = = 0.656 lag
10.09
12.8
1.5 W Ia
22
V t = Ef = = 12.7 kV + – +
3 Ef Vt
200 ¥ 100 –
Ia = = 5249 –0°
3 ¥ 12.7
5249
E f = 12.7 + ¥ j1.5 = 12.7 + j7.87
1000
= 14.94 –31.8° kV
Solutions Manual '

(i) Ef is increased to
E¢f = 17.18
E ¢f = 14.94 ¥ 1.15 = 17.18 kW
27.3° q y
. ¥ 12.7
1718
3 ¥ sin d = 200 Vt = 12.7
1.5 q x
d = 27.3°
From the phase diagram
Ia
y = 17.18 sin 27.3° = 7.88
x = 17.18 cos 27.3° – 12.7
= 2.57

Ia x s = ( 2.57) 2 + (17.88) 2 = 8.28 kV

8.29 ¥ 1000
Ia = = 5527 A
1.5
7.88
cos q = = 0.95 lag
8.29
(ii) At E f¢ = 17.18, turbine power increased to 250 MW
. ¥ 12.7
1718
3 ¥ sin d = 250 MW
1.5
d = 35°
From the phasor diagram
17.18 q
y = 17.18 sin 35° = 9.85
y
x = 17.18 cos 35° – 12.7 = 1.37 35°
12.7
Ia x s = (9.85) 2 + (1.37) 2 = 9.94 kV q x

9.94 ¥ 1000 Ia
Ia = = 6627 A
1.5
9.85
pf = cos q = = 0.99 lag
9.94
12.9 750 kW, 0.8 leading
750
Ia = –36.9° = 164 –36.9° A
3 ¥ 3.3 ¥ 0.8
3300 xs Ia
Ef = – 164 –36.9° ¥ j5.5
3
+
= 2446 – j721 Ef L–d Vt L0°
E f = 2550 V –
1000 kW, same excitation
Vt E f
Pe = sin d
xs
' Basic Electrical Engineering

1000 ¥ 1000 1905 ¥ 2550


= sin d or d = 22.2°
3 5.5
From the phasor diagram
(Vt leads Ef for motoring) Ia

x = 2550 sin 22.2° = 963


y = 2550 cos 22.2° = 456 q y
1905
2 2 22.2°
Iaxs = x +y = 1065.5 V
x
2550
1065.5
Ia = = 193.7 A
5.5

pf = cos FH tan -1 456 IK = 0.9 leading


963
12.10 xs Ia

22000 +
(a) Vt = = 12702 V Vt
3 Ef

1000
Ia = = 26.24 V
3 ¥ 22
Iaxs = 26.24 ¥ 250 = 6560 V Ia
From the phasor dirgram q 12.702 y
x = Ef sin d = 0.259 Ef
y = 12.702 –Ef cos d = 12.702 – 0.966 Ef 6.56 x
Ef q
(6560)2 = (0.259 Ef )2 + (12.702 – 0.966 Ef)2
or E f2 – 24.54 Ef + 118.3 = 0
or Ef = 17.95 kV; 6.59 kV (rejected; would give lagging pf )
= 31.1 kV(line)

pf = cos tan–1 F y I ; x = 4.05, y = 4.64


H xK
= 0.708 leading
Vt E f 12.702
(b) = pe q
xs
I ax s
12.702 E f 800 1
= ¥ Ef
250 3 1000 (min)
or Ef = 5.25 kV Ia

= 9.09 kV (line)

Ia x s = (12.702) 2 + ( 5.25) 2 = 13.744 kV


Solutions Manual '!

13.744 ¥ 1000
Ia = = 54.98 A
250
5.23
pf = cos q = = 0.382 lagging
13.744
12.11
120 ¥ 50
(a) ns = = 750 rpm
8
n = (1 – 0.03) ¥ 750 = 727.5 rpm, w = 76.18 rad/s
Ts ¥ 76.18 = 40 ¥ 1000
Ts = 525 Nm
40
(b) Motor input = = 44.64 kW
0.896
3 ¥ 440 ¥ 68.9 ¥ pf = 44.64 ¥ 1000
pf = 0.85 lag
12.12
As per Eq. (12.46) (stator impedance negligible)
2
3 s(V1 / a)
T = ◊
ws r2
= KT V 12 s
or T = KT V 12 ¥ 0.04
1.25 T = KT (0.8V1)2 ¥ s
Dividing
0.64 s
= 1.25
0.64
or s
= 0.078
= 1000 rpm
ns
= (1 – 0.078) ¥ 1000
n
= 922 rpm
12.13 Windage and friction losses are included in the no-load test data. The torque developed is
therefore assumed to the net torque.
(a) ns = 1500 rpm
n = 1500 (1 – 0.05) = 1425 rpm, w = 149.2 rad/s
Mechanical output = 95.6 ¥ 149.2 = 14.26 kW

(b) Pm = 3I ¢22 r2 =
FG s IJ Pm
H 1 - sK
0.05
= ¥ 14.26 = 751 W
0.95
'" Basic Electrical Engineering

(c) Stator iron, windage and friction loss


( 400 / 3 ) 2
=3 ¥ = 661 W
242.2
14.26
h= = 91.1%
14.26 + 0.751 + 0.601
12.14

Pm = 3I ¢22 r¢2 FH 1 - 1IK


s
copper loss = 3I ¢ 22 (r1 + r¢2 )

Pm = 3I ¢22 r2
LM F 1 - 1I + (r + r ¢)OP
N Hs K 1 2
Q
= 3I¢ 22
FG r + r ¢ IJ
2
H sK
1

(1 - s) r1¢
\ h=
sr1 + r2¢
Substituting parameter values
0.496 (1 - s)
h=
0.975s + 0.496
0.496 (1 - 0.04)
h (s = 0.04) = = 83%
0.975 ¥ 0.04 + 0.496
0.496 (1 - 0.1)
h (s = 0.1) = = 75.2%
0.975 ¥ 0.1 + 0.496
0.496 (1 - 0.5)
h (s = 0.5) = = 25.2%
0.975 ¥ 0.5 + 0.496
Remark: At high values of slip h drops off very sharply. The induction motor should be
operated at two steps (2 to 8%)
12.15
No-load test
( 400) 2
ri = = 360 W (inclusive of windage and friction loss)
444.5
444.5
cos q0 = = 0.183
3 ¥ 400 ¥ 3.5
xm = ri / tan q 0 = 67 W
Blocked rotor test
2220
r1 + r 2¢ = = 2.65 W
3 ¥ (16.7) 2
Solutions Manual '#

r1 = 1.25 W, r¢2 = 1.4 W


200 / 3
z= = 6.91 W
16.7

x1 + x¢2 = (6.91) 2 - (2.65) 2 = 6.38 W


Running
2p ¥ 1000
ns = 1000 rpm, ws = = 104.7 rad/s
60
n = 935 rpm s = 0.065
1.4
r1 + r ¢2/s = 1.25 + = 22.79 W
0.065

400 / 3 –0∞
I 2¢ =
22.79 + j 6.38
= 9.76 –– 15.6° = 9.40 – j2.62
I 0 = 3.5 –– cos– 1 0.18.3 = 3.5 –– 79.5°
= 0.64 – j3.44 A
I1 = I 0 + I 2¢ = 10.04 – j6.06 A
= 11.73 –– 31.1° A
I 1 = 11.73 A, pf = 0.856 lag
Pi (input) = 3 ¥ 400 ¥ 11.73 ¥ 0.856 = 6.956 kW

P0 (output) = 3I ¢ 22 r 2¢ FH 1 - 1IK
s

= 3 ¥ (9.76)2 ¥ 1.4 FH 1 - 1IK = 5.75 kW


0.65
5.755
h= = 82.7%
6.956
Breakdown torque
r2¢
smax, T = ; (Eq. (12.46))
r12 + ( x1 + x 2¢ ) 2

1.4
= = 0.215
(1.25) + (6.38) 2
2

Now for s = 0.215


z = (1.25 + 0.14/0.215) + j6.38
= 10.05 –39.4°
'$ Basic Electrical Engineering

400 / 3
I ¢2 = = 23 A
10.05
3 ¥ ( 23) 2 ¥ 1.4 / 0.215
Tmax =
104.7
= 98.7 Nm
Speed = 1000 (1 – 0.215) = 785 rpm
12.16

3 V12 r2¢
(a) Ts = ◊ ; Eq. (12.41)
w s ( r1 + r2¢ ) 2 + ( x1 + x 2¢ ) 2
with s = 1 (i)
Parameter values as calculated in Example 12.8 are:
r1 = 0.42 W, r 2¢ = 0.463 W; r1 + r ¢2 = 0.883 W
x1 + x 2¢ = 2.25 W
Substituting the values in Eq. (i)

3 ( 400 / 3 ) 2 R2¢ ( total)


250 = ◊
78.54 (0.42 + R2¢ ( total)) 2 + ( 2.25) 2

2037 R2¢
=
0.1764 + 0.84 R2¢ + R2¢ 2 + 5.06
or 250 R ¢22 – 2097 R 2¢ + 1265 = 0
or R ¢22 – 8.39 R ¢2 + 5.06 = 0
or R ¢2 = 0.655 W, 7.735 W 0.655 W

It is seen from the figure that with 7.735 W the


motor cannot start though it has a Ts of 250 Nm. 250 Nm
Thus
R ¢2 = 0.655 W 7.735 W
Resistance to be added in rotor circuit
= (0.655 – 0.463)/(2.45)2 = 0.032 W
(a) (i) Added resistance left in circuit

3 (V1 ) 2 ( R2¢ / s)
T = ◊
w s (0.42 + R2¢ / s) 2 + ( x1 + x 2¢ )

3 ( 400 / 3 ) 2 ( R2¢ / s )
or 250 = ◊
78.54 (0.42 + R2¢ / s) 2 + ( x1 + x 2¢ ) 2
From the solution of part (a)
R ¢2 /s = 0.655 or 7.735
But R ¢2 = 0.655 W
Solutions Manual '%

0.655
\ s= 1 or = 0.085
7.735
n = 750 (1 – 0.085) = 686.25 rpm
(ii) Added resistance cut and
Again r¢2 /s = 0.655 or 7.735
But r ¢2 = 0.463 W
s = 0.707 W or 0.06
n = 750 (1 – 0.06) = 705 rpm
This illustrates the speed control action of added rotor resistance
3 (V1 ) 2 ( r2¢ / s)
(c) T = ◊ , r ¢2 = 0.463 W
w s (r1 + r2¢ / s) 2 + ( x1 + x 2¢ ) 2
s = 0.085 shift
3 (V / 3 ) 2 ( 0.463/ 0.085) 2
or 250 = ◊
78.54 ( 0.42 + 0.463/ 0.085) 2 + ( 2.25) 2
V = 377.3 V
(d) Efficiency comparison:
With external resistance in rotor circuit
2p ¥ 686.25
P 0 = 250 ¥ = 17.966 kW
60

P 0 = 3I ¢22 R ¢2 FH 1 - 1IK
s

17966 = 3I ¢22R ¢2 FH 1 - 1IK


0.085
or 3I ¢22 R¢2 = 1.669 kW
Power lost in iron loss, windage and friction
V2 ( 400) 2
= = = 1.21 kW
ri 132.2
Stator loss cannot be estimated and is ignored in this comparison.
17.966
h= = 86.2%
17.966 + 1.669 + 1.21
With reduced stator voltage
Power lost in iron loss, windage and friction
(377.3) 2
= = 1.077 kW
132.2
P 0 = 17.966 kW
3I¢22R ¢2 = 1.669 kW
'& Basic Electrical Engineering

17.966
h= = 86.74%
17.966 + 1.669 + 1.077
Remark: Observe that efficiency is slightly higher for the reduced stator voltage case.
However, the equipment to reduce voltage would be more expensive than the resistance
to be added in rotor circuit and would have associated loss not considered above.
12.17
(a) From Eq. (12.46)

3 V12 ( r2¢ / s)
T = ◊
w s ( s1 + r2¢ / s) 2 + ( x + x2¢ ) 2

Load torque, T L = 75 ¥
FG n IJ = 75 (1 – s) 2
Hn K
s

At steady speed

3 V12 ( r2¢ / s)
◊ = 75 (1 – s)2
w s (r1 + r2¢ / s) 2 + ( x1 + x 2¢ ) 2

CHAPTER 14
14.1 Limiting error (dA) = guarantee error ¥ full-scale reading
d A = 0.01 ¥ 150 = 1.5 V
\ the limiting error is (1.5/85) ¥ 100 = 1.765%
14.2 Resistance in series, R = G 2/2 KJ
K = 2.4 ¥ 10–6 Nm
J = 1.6 ¥ 10–7 kg m2
G = BldN = 0.12 ¥ 0.02 ¥ 0.025 ¥ 250 = 0.015

\ External resistance R = (0.015)2/2 (2.4 ¥ 1.6 ¥ 10 - 13 )


= 181.546 W
14.3 If R1 and R2 are the shunt resistances, then, for a range of 15 A,
R2 ¥ 14.975 = 5 ¥ 0.025
R 2 = 0.0083 W
and for a range of 10 A
(R1 + R2) ¥ 9.975 = 5 ¥ 0.025
R 1 = 0.0042 W
14.4 Error in W1 = 0.5 ¥ 1500/100 = 7.5 W
Error in W2 = 0.5 ¥ 1500/100 = 7.5 W
tan q = 3 (W1 – W2)/(W1 + W2 )
q = tan–1 3 (500 ± 15)/(1500 ± 15)
Solutions Manual ''

q = tan–1 3 (500 ± 3%)/(1500 ± 1%) = tan–1 3 (1/3 ± 4%)


Hence, three different values of q are
q = tan–1 3 (1/3 + 4%) = 30.98°
q = tan–1 3 (1/3 – 4%) = 29°
q = tan–1 3 (1/3) = 30°
The three different cosines of q are
cos 30.98° = 0.8573 ; cos 29° = 0.8746
cos 30° = 0.866 Z1 B

\ maximum error in computing cos q is 0.0087. Z2

14.5 Let f be the frequency of the ac voltage. From the circuit E A D C


shown in Figure we have
Z 1 = 1000 W | | 1/jw (0.16 mF) Z3 Z4

Z 2 = Rx – j/w (0.65 mF ) D

Z 3 = 1000 W, Z4 = 500 W, Z1Z4 = Z2Z3


or 1 = 2Z2Y = 2[RX – j/w (0.65 mF )] ¥ [(1/1000) + jw (0.16 mF )]
Equating real and imaginary parts
1 = 2RX /1000 + 0.16/0.65
2Rx w (0.16 mF ) = 2/1000 w (0.65 mF )
\ Rx = (1 – 0.16/0.65) ¥ 500 W
= 376.92 W B
f = 803.857 MHz. C1 C3
14.6 From Fig. P14.6 we have R1

Z1Zx = Z2Z3 E1 D C

or Rx – j/wCx = (R2/( jwC3)) (1/R1 + jwC1) R2 Zx = Rx = j/wCx


Equating real and imaginary terms
Rx = R2C1/C3 = 200 W Fig. P14.6
Cx = C3R1/R2 = 5 ¥ 10–9 F
D = Rx/Xx = wCxRx = 6.28 ¥ 10–3
14.7 (a) From the condition of bridge balance, we get
(R + jwL) = R1R2 (1/R3 + jwC)
Equating the real and imaginary terms, we obtain
R = R1R2/R3, L = CR1R2
(b) Percentage error for R = ± 0.6%
Percentage error for L = ± 0.5%
14.8 Four diodes bridge is shown in Fig. P14.8
Now PMMC meter will read the average value of the signal. Hence the range for voltmeter is
E = 2 Erms = 282.8 V
 Basic Electrical Engineering

and maximum current through the meter is 30 mA.


\ the internal resistance required for the meter
Ri = 282.8/30 ¥ 10–3 ac input

To dc amplifier
= 9426.67 W
Thus, the external resistance is given by
Rx = Ri – Rm – 2 Rd
where Rm is the internal resistance of ammeter and
Rd the forward resistance of a diode. Fig. P14.8
\ Rx = 9426.67 – 150 – 600 = 8676.67 W
14.9 (a) f = sin–1 (0/5) = 0°
(b) f = sin–1 (3/5) = 36.87°
(c) f = sin–1 (3/5) = – 36.87°
14.10

Erms = 1/T z e 2 dt

From Fig. e = 50 t V
\ Erms = 200/ 3 V

Eav = (2/T) z 0
T
e dt = 100 V

\ k = 2/ 3 = 1.155
Now, the meter scale is calibrated in terms of the rms value of a sine-wave voltage, where
Em = kEav
\ Erms = 1.11 Eav.
But for sawtooth wave,
Erms = 1.155 Eav.
\ the meter indication for the square-wave voltage is low by a factor of
ksine wave/ksaw tooth = 1.11/155 = 0.96104
Thus, % error = (0.96104 – 1) ¥ 100/1 = – 3.896%
The meter indication is low.
14.11 For a 10 V peak and 25% duty cycle.
0 .5
Erms = LM 1 z T /4
10 2 dt OP = LM 1 100 ¥ T OP 0 .5
= 5 V
NT 0 Q NT 4Q
For 10 V dc supply

Erms = (1/ T ) z 10 2 dt = 10 V

14.12 Sensitivity = 1/Ifsd


\ Ifsd = 10 –4 A; Rm = Vs/Ifsd = 2 MW
Solutions Manual 

The diode will rectify the signal and the meter will measure the average value.
\ Imax = 800/4 ¥ 106 = 2 ¥ 10–4 A
The peak value of the voltage across the meter = 400 V
and the meter will read an average value of 200 V.
14.13 Self capacitance, Cd = (C1 – 4C2)/3
C1 = 450 pF and C2 = 100 pF
\ Cd = 50/3 pF.
14.14 Cd = (C1 – 4C2)/3 C1 = 500 pF and C2 = 60 pF
\ Cd = 260/3 pF.
14.15 Q = 1/wCR = 1/[2p 106 ¥ 70 ¥ 10 –12 ¥ 12] = 189.56
Insertion resistance = 0.1 W
\ Q2 = 1/wC (R + 0.2) = 186.45
Thus, % error = (189.56 – 186.45) ¥ 100/189.56 = 1.65
14.16 Sensitivity = (lowest full scale value) ¥ Resolution
Resolution = 10–4
\ Sensitivity = 10 mV ¥ 10–4 = 10–6 V
14.17
(a) Reading is 6.00 V
\ 0.5 % of reading = 0.030 V
Now 3 1 2 digits meter can show four digit. Hence, 6.00 will be shown as 06.00 V
\ 2 digit errror is ± 00.02 V
Thus, possible error is ± 00.05 V
(b) Reading is 0.20 V
\ 0.5 % of reading = 0.001 V
Now 3 1 2 digits meter can show four digits.
Hence, 0.20 will be shown as 00.20 V
\ 2 digit error is ± 00.02 V
Thus,
possible error is ± 00.021 V
(c) Error as a percentage of reading in part (b)
= 0.041 ¥ 100/0.20 = 20.5 %