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Agricultural Engineering Board

Review Materials

FARM MACHINERY AND MECHANIZATION

Prepared by

Paterno C. Borlagdan
Agricultural Engineer
RPAE No. 0003253

January 2000
(Reproduction with Permission Only)
FARM MACHINERY AND MECHANIZATION
Prepared by: Engr. Paterno C. Borlagdan

Define the following terms:

Agricultural Factor of safety Landside Pay back period


engineering
Automatic draft control Three-point hitch Share Cash flow
Theoretical field Coefficient of Moldboard Break-even point
capacity traction
Effective field capacity Traction efficiency Disc plow Salvage value
Headland Furrow Integrated pest Boom valve
mgt
Horizontal suction Back furrow Transgenic rice Market value
(in plow)
Vertical suction Furrow slice Global warming Elastic demand
(in plow)
Dead furrow Furrow wall Robotics Inelastic demand
Dynamometer Soil tilth Tilt angle Position control
Side draft Tillage Disc angle Nozzle (in sprayers)
Plow Primary tillage Spray angle Knapsack sprayer
Harrow Secondary tillage Boom sprayer Pulley
Weight transfer on PTO horsepower Drill planter Angle of wrap
Tractors
Compression ignition Indicated Transplanter Sprocket
Engine horsepower
Engine displacement Rated horsepower Broadcaster Lug wheel
Combine harvester Soil structure Pneumatic seeder Farmer
Field capacity Scouring Flat broken land Land
Bedded or listed land True line of draft Brake horsepower Drawbar
horsepower

Farm mechanization

1. Why is mechanization necessary?


• To increase labor efficiency and capacity
• To achieve timely operation (due to limited turn around time)
• To offset the problem of labor scarcity
• To minimize the drudgery of farm operation
• To attain quality products.

2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of mechanization?


• Increases labor efficiency
• Enables timely farming operation
• Reduce the drudgery of farm operations
• Increase safety of laborers
• Elevates the social status of the workers/farmers
• Displaces labor in some areas
• Require additional fixed investment

3. What are the current concerns in agricultural mechanization?


• Sustainability of the resource base
• Undesirable effect of machines such as soil compaction
• Gender issues in mechanization
• Contribution of machine emission to global warming

4. What are the current and emerging farm mechanization technologies?


• Application of geographical information system (GIS) in monitoring the
resource base
• Precision farming-maximum use of inputs such as fertilizers/chemicals
• Computer-controlled farming operations (such as remote-controlled
tractors and chemical sprayers)
• Application of robotics to high risk or hazardous farming operations

PLANTING EQUIPMENT

Definition: Planting Equipment –is any device used to place seed, seed
pieces, or plant parts in or on the soil for propagation and production of food,
fiber, and feed crops. it could be manually, mechanically (engine), or
remotely operated.

Classification of Planting Equipment


1. Row-crop planters
a. Trailing
1. drill
2. hill-drop
3. check-row

b. Front Tractor-mounted
1. drill
2. hill-drop
3. check-row

c. Rear Tractor-mounted
1. drill
2. hill-drop
3. check-row
4. transplanters or planters

2. Broadcast Crop
a. Endgate seeders
b. Narrow-and wide-tract and weeder-mulcher
c. Airplanes

3. Grain Drills
4. Planting attachments for other equipment

A. Row-crop Planters

1. Definition of Terms:
a. Row-crop planters – planters designed and constructed to plant
seeds in rows far enough apart to permit cultivation of the crop.
b. Transplanter – equipment for placing growing plants or plant parts
in the soil.
c. Lister Planters – are drill planters designed to plant corn in listed
furrows.
d. Drill planers – are row-crop planters designed to deposit seeds
continuously in straight columns.
e. Hill-drop planters – row-crop planters designed to deposit one or
more seeds in a hill in equal intervals.
f. Check-row – crop-crop planters equipped with valves, checkheads
and wire. Enable operator to perform hill planting at definite
spacing (in checks or squares) which facilitates mechanical weed
control and other operations.

2. Parts and Accessories for Corn Planters:


a. Cutoff pawl – acting under spring pressure pushes the extra kernels
back at the cell under the plate cover.
b. Knockout pawl – under spring pressure comes in contact with the
kernel, knocking through the cell into the seed tube, where it is
allowed to fall either upon the valve if checking or directly into the
soil if drilling.
c. Seed plates – used for planting corn.
1. Edge drop – carries the kernel of corn on edge in the cell plate.
2. Flat drop – carries the kernels flat in the cell of the plate.
3. Full-hill plate – consist of cells around the outer edge large
enough to admit several kernels at the same time.
d. Types of furrow openers
1. curve runner – generally used.
2. Stub runner – is suited to rough and stony ground.
3. Single-disk furrow opener
4. Double-disk furrow opener
e. Covering attachments – covers the seeds
f. Row marker – used to keep the rows straight, parallel and of equal
distance apart. It is intended for the machine operator as a guide.
B. Broadcast and Drill Planters:
1. Types of machine broadcasters
a. knapsack
b. endgate
c. tow-wheel
d. weeder-mulcher
e. airplane

2. The knapsack seeder is consists of a good-sized canvas sack fastened


to a seeding mechanism, the whole being slung over the shoulders. A
crank turned by hand revolves a wheel having several different radial
ribs for scattering the seeds. The ribs throw the seeds out to the font
and sides in a steady stream. A sliding gate regulates the quantity of
seeds. Wider gate opening result in higher seed density (seed per unit
area).

3. The tow-wheel drawn planter makes use of fluted wheels in sowing


seeds.

4. The weeder-mulcher drops seeds on the ground and then covers them
by means of a long spring-steel mulcher finges.

5. Grain drills are planters designed and built to place the seed of small
grains and grasses in the ground in narrow-spaced rows at a uniform
depth.

CULTIVATION AND CROP PROTECTION EQUIPMENT

A. Four general methods of controlling weeds, insects and plant diseases.


1. mechanical cultivation or weeding.
2. selective burning or flaming
3. chemical application through spraying
4. manual weed control
5. flooding

B. Factors influencing the selection of weed control method:


1. type and age of crop
2. type and size of the weeds or grasses
3. timeliness
4. equipment available
C. Mechanical Cultivation
1. Mechanical Cultivation – farm operation using appropriate tool to stir
the surface of the soil to a shallow depth to destroy young weeds and
promotes crop growth.
2. Cultivation may control weeds in three ways:
a uprooting the weeds
b. cutting off the stem of the weeds just below the ground surface
c. Smoothering the aerial parts of the weeds by covering with soil.
3. Mechanical row-crop cultivators may be classified according to their
attachment to the tractor.
a. front-mounted
b. rear-mounted
c. side-mounted
4. Factors influencing the selection of cultivating tools.
a. type and size of crop plants
b. soil type and field condition
c. purposes for which cultivation is being performed
5. Tools for cultivation
a. sweeps (full or half)
b. furrowers
c. weed knives or beat hoes
d. shovels (double-point, single-point, hoof shovel or spearheads)
e. rotational blades (I-shaped, rectangular blades)
6. Cultivator attachments
a. Rotary hoe – they are run directly over the rows and are used for
breaking, the soil crust over seedling and for destroying the weeds
in the early stages of plant growth. They also acts as sailed and
they allow sweeps to work at high speeds without covering even
when the plants are small.
b. Rolling cultivators – it has twisted blades, which have slicing action
that moves the soil laterally as well as uprooting small weeds and
mulching the soil.
c. Fertilizer attachments
d. Shield attachments – used in closed cultivation to prevent covering
of the plants with dirt or clods.
e. Disk-hilling and barring-off attachments – for hilling, the disk are set
to throw the soil to the plant row. Where the crop is quite grassy,
the disk are set to throw the soil away from the plant.
f. Knife attachment – it is used as barring-off tool, but it does not
leave an open furrow as do the disks.
g. Stabilizer – these are rigid disk plates found on both sides of the
frame of cultivating implement. They absorbed the side forces
exerted by the soil forces thus stabilizing the implement during the
operation.

7. Cultivator adjustments:
a. relative horizontal position
b. depth
c. pitch directional adjustments
8. Protective devices for cultivator standards – the purpose is to provide
overload protection in case the tool encounters a stone, root or other
solid objects.
a. spring-trip mechanism
b. friction-release

D. Flame Weeding
The theory of selective weeding is that the heat intensity and the
exposure time are adjusted so enough heat is applied to the weeds and
grasses to cause expansion of the liquid in the plant cells and consequent
rapture of the cell wells but not enough heat to cause actual combustion.
This method of weed control is usually applied during the stages of
growth of the crop in which it can already withstand the heat. The
forward speed of operation ranges from 3 to 4 mph.

E. Spraying
1. The primary function of the sprayer – is to break the liquid into
droplets of effective size and distribute them uniformly over the
surface or space to be protected and regulate the amount of chemical
solution to avoid excessive application that might prove harmful or
wasteful.
2. Spray particle size is significant in relation to:
a. penetration and carrying ability obtained with hydraulic sprayers
b. efficiency of catch of sprays or dusts by plant surfaces
c. uniformly and completeness coverage
d. effectiveness of individual particles after deposition
e. drift- is essentially a function of the rate of fall of particles in
relation to the horizontal velocity, which is related to particle size
and local climatology.
3. Recommended methods to prevent or reduce drift:
a. avoid high setting of nozzle
b. careful selection of nozzle size and working pressure
c. avoid spraying during unfavorable condition
4. Metering system for liquid sprayers:
a. constant speed, constant head pump-orifice system
b. compressed air orifice system
c. gravity flow system
d. displacement ground-driven metering system
5. Types of sprayers
a. Hand Sprayers
1. compressed-air sprayers
2. knapsack sprayers
b. Power sprayers
1. hydraulic sprayers or field sprayers
2. hydro-pneumatic sprayers
3. blower sprayers
c. Hydraulic sprayers – make use of pumps to build up spray pressure
of the spray solution.
1. Classification of hydraulic sprayers
a. boom-type field sprayers with maximum operating pressure
of 40 to 100 psi
b. high pressure, general purpose or orchard sprayers with
maximum operating pressure ranging from 250 to 800 psi but
mostly 400 to 800 psi
2. Basic components of hydraulic sprayer.
a. tank
b. agitator
c. framework for mounting the sprayer
d. pressure regulator
e. relief valve
f. pressure gauge
g. strainer and screen
h. control valves
i. pipes and fittings
j. boom and nozzles
k. pump
3. Pumps used in hydraulic sprayers
a. Positive displacement pumps – those types where only a
small amount of liquid leaks past the actuator and it can only
develop very high pressure (e.g. reciprocating pumps,
diaphragm pumps, gear pumps).
b. Non-positive displacement pumps –those that are unable to
develop more than 50 psi as used on farm sprayers (e.g.,
rotary pumps with flexible impeller, centrifugal pumps).
4. Rotary pumps – they are used for low pressure spraying. They
are mounted on the tractor PTO shaft. They have a capacity of
about 20-rpm. Their use is literally limited to sediment-free
types of spray materials.
5. Centrifugal pumps – these pumps employ centrifugal force to lift
liquids from a lower to a higher level. Because of their simplicity,
low cost, and ability to operate under wide variety of conditions,
they are one of the most popular types. They are adapted to
operate under practically any head up to several thousand feet,
will handle liquids at most any temperature up top 1000oF.
6. Agitators – used to keep the spray solution uniform. It can be
either mechanical or hydraulic agitators.
7. Air chamber – used to cushion the discharge-pressure
fluctuations, induce a uniform flow in sprayers using
reciprocating and diaphragm pumps.
8. Pressure gage – used to guide the operator in adjusting the
working pressure, located at the discharge line.
9. Pressure regulators – used to control and adjust the working
pressure on the nozzles. They also serve as protective device in
automatically unloading the excess pressure when the discharge
line is closed.
10. Spray boom and nozzles
a. Boom – is a pipe on which the nozzles are properly spaced
and mounted.
b. Nozzles – are used to direct the liquid in a thin film or stream
which will break up in a droplets.
11. Parts of Nozzles
a. body d. washer and whirl plate
b. cap e. strainer
c. orifice plates
12. Types of hydraulic nozzles
a. hallow-cone (side-entry or cone insert) – the liquid is fed into
a whirl chamber through a tangential side entry passage or
trough the spiral passage in a whirl plate or core insert to
give it a rotary velocity component. The orifice is located on
the axis of the whirl chamber and the liquid emerges in the
form of a hallow conical shoot which then breaks up into
droplets.
b. disk-type solid-cone- is the same as that of a hallow-cone
nozzle except or the addition of an internal axial orifice. The
axial stream is atomized and fills in the central section of the
hallow-cone pattern.
c. Fan-spray nozzle – has a narrow, elliptical orifice formed by
the intersection of a slot drilled across the face and semi-
spherical surface cut out from the inside. The liquid emerges
as a flat shaped sheet, which is then broken up into droplets.
d. Flooding nozzles – is commonly used as agricultural sprayers
because of wider spray angle and atomization even at a low
pressure, unlike hydraulic nozzles.
13. Liquid atomization
a. pressure or hydraulic atomization
b. gas atomization
c. centrifugal atomization
14. Factors affecting uniformity of distribution:
a. nozzle size
b. pressure on the spray solution
c. nozzle spacing
d. boom height
e. speed of travel
15. The proper height of the boom above the deposition
surface is a function of:
a. nozzle spacing
b. nozzle spray angle
c. amount of overlap required for uniform coverage, as
determined by the nozzle spray pattern.

TILLAGE

A. Objective of Tillage:
1. to develop proper soil tilth
2. to conserve soil and water
3. to effect control of some pests and diseases
4. to mix crop residues and fertilizers with the soil
5. to control weeds
6. to aerate the soil

B. Tillage Operation:
1. primary tillage
2. secondary tillage
3. rotavation

C. Tillage Equipment
1. Primary tillage equipment
a. Moldboard plow
1. share – cuts the furrow slice and partially lifts it
2. moldboard – breaking and inverting unit. Shin – the cutting edge
of the moldboard, just above the landslide.
3. Landside – stabilizer to make the plow run in straight path
counteracting the side pressure, exerted by the furrow slice on
the moldboard.
b. Moldboard plow accessories
1. Rolling colters – are round, flat sharpened steel disks,
either smooth or notch used to cut the furrow slice from the land
and leave a clean wall.
2. Jointer – a miniature plow ahead of the plow bottom used
to cut a narrow-shallow furrow slice- from the left upper side of
the furrow in such a way that complete coverage by the main
plow is initiated.
3. Weed hooks – rods attached to the plow beam used to
bend tall weeds in order to have a thorough weed coverage.
4. Concave rolling disk colter – turns and cuts a shallow furrow slice.
5. Spring – trip standard/hydraulic automatic reset standard –
allows the plow to move reaward when it meets an obstruction
during the field operation.
c. Disc plow – it is a perfectly round, concave disk of heat-hardened
steel, sharpened on the edge to aid in the penetration of the soil.
1. Accessories of the disk plow
a. rear furrow wheel – it serves in counteracting the side thrust
due to the soil pressure
b. scraper – set with cash disc to clear the disc of sticky soil and
to assist in inverting the furrow slice.

2. Secondary Tillage Equipment


a. Disk harrows
1. Single-action disk harrows – consist of two gangs of disc placed
end to end, which throw the soil in the opposite direction.
2. Double-action harrow – another set of two gangs plow behind the
single action harrow and is arranged so that the disc on the front
gangs throw the soil in the outward direction and the disc on the
rear gangs throw the soil I the opposite direction.
3. Offset disc harrows – consists of two gangs, one is located behind
the other.
b. Spike and spring tooth harrows
c. Chisel type – a tool with a rigid curved on straight shank with a
relatively narrow shovel point, usually arranged in staggered rows.
It is usually used to break through or shatter compact or otherwise
impermeable soil and to improve rainfall penetration. It is also used
for stubble-mulch or subsurface tillage.
d. Subsoiler – these are tillage equipment heavier and larger than the
chisel plow use to penetrate the soil to a depth form 20 to 36
inches. Form a tunnel at the subsoil to serve as drainage channel
for water.
e. Middle breaker or lister – these are left and right-hand moldboard
plow joined together. They are used to make furrows and to
reshape the field after heavy downpour.

3. Draft Requirement
a. Factors affecting draft of a plow
1. type and shape of bottom
2. sharpness of the cutting tool
3. over-all adjustments of the plow
4. depth and width of cut of the furrow
5. speed at which the plow is operated
6. type of soil

b. Effect of soil moisture on tillage operation


1. Effect of too dry soil
a. increases the rate of wear of the implement
b. increases the power requirements
c. increases likelihood of implement breakage
2. Effect of too wet soil
a. increases the power requirement
b. reduces the work output of the machine
c. increases the total time for operation
d. promote soil compaction

• The correct moisture content is at a level of between 50% to


75% of field capacity.

4. Advantages of Tillage-Equipment:
a. Moldboard plow – it eliminate back furrows and dead furrows leaving
the field more nearly leveled for irrigation and drainage.
b. Disk plow – it is suitable for sticky, waxy, non-scouring soils and soils
having a hard pan. It is also suitable for dry, hard, rough, stony and
rooty ground.
c. Rotary plow – effective for mixing chemical into the soil and for
cultivation in certain row crops. Also good for cutting up vegetative
matter and mixing throughout the tilled layer.
d. Chisel plow – effective in loosening hard and dry soil before the
regular plow is used.
e. Subsoil plow – effective in penetrating the soil to depth from 20-36
inches, effective in opening and breaking up compacter soils in order
that water nay seep into the opened spaces and stored.
f. Harrow – effective in leveling the round and crushing the clods,
striving the soil and preventing and destroying the weeds, effective
in putting the seal in better tilt for the reception of seeds.
g. Roller – effective as a clod crusher, effective in preparing the
seedbox by thoroughly pulverizing and forming the loose soil so that
there will not be any large air spaces or pockets.
h. Pulverizer – effective in pulverizing an area between rows and for
fieldwork rather than or row work.
i. Mulchers – a combination of pulverizing equipment and harrow
spring teeth.

Types of Implements:
1. Pull type or trailed implement – is one that is pulled and guided from a
single hitch point and is never completely supported by the tractor.
2. Mounted implement – is one that is attached to the tractor through a hitch
linkage in such a manner that it is completely supported by the tractor
when in the raised position. The linkage usually provides rotational
stability about the longitudinal axis and it permits depth or height control
by vertical support from the tractor, if desired, while the tool is in the
operating position.
3. Semi-mounted implement – is attached to the tractor through a horizontal
or nearly horizontal axis and is partially supported by the tractor, at least
during transport, but is never completely supported by the tractor. In the
usual situation then hinge axis is traverse at the near of the tractor and
the hitch provides rotational stability about the longitudinal axis. The
implement may respond directly to tractor steering, but if a vertical hinge
axis is superimposed on the horizontal axis (as on large, semi-mounted
plows), the rear of the implement is guided by its own wheels.
4. Self-propelled machine – is one in which the propelling power units is an
integral part of the implement.

Factor Affecting Field Capacity of a tillage machine:


1. time efficiency
2. width of cut
3. speed of travel

Difference between Traction Efficiency and Coefficient of Traction?

Coefficient of Traction – defined as the ratio of the tractor drawbar


pull to the dynamic load on the traction device. Some of the factors which
affect the coefficient of traction are types of traction device, tire inflation,
soil type and state, soil moisture content, lug design, dimension of tractor
device, and soil pressure distribution. Furthermore, it refers of the ratio of
forces.

Traction Efficiency – refers to the conversion of energy. It can be


defined as the ratio of the drawbar power to axle power. It is also a measure
of the efficiency with which the traction device transforms the torque of the
axle into a linear drawbar pull. Traction efficiency can be decreased by
factors such as steering, rolling resistance, slip, friction, and deflection of the
traction device.

Factors to be considered in designing and analyzing a system for


mounting implements:

1. Ease of attachment and adjustment, versatility, and safety.


2. Standardization to permit interchangeability.
3. Uniformity of tillage depth as the tractor passed over ground-surface
irregularities.
4. Ability to obtain penetration of the implement under adverse conditions,
particularly with implement such as disc harrows and disc plows.
5. Rapidly with which the tools such as plows and lister enters the ground.
6. Effect of the implement upon the tractive ability of the tractor (transfer
weight)
7. Effect of the raised implement upon the transport stability of the tractor.
PLANTERS

A. Methods of Direct Seeding:


1. Broadcasting – random scattering of seeds over the surface of the
field.
2. Drill seeding – random dropping and covering of seeds in furrows to
give definite rows
3. Precision planting – planting of single seeds at about equal intervals in
rows.
4. Hill dropping –placing group of seeds at about equal intervals in rows.
5. Minimum tillage planting – lister planting, till-and-plant combinations
following plowing or other primary tillage.

B. Function of a seed planter:


1. Open the seed furrow to the proper depth
2. Meter the seed
3. Deposit the seed in the furrow in an acceptable pattern.
4. Lower the seed and compact the soil around the seed to the proper
degree for the type of crop involved.

FARM MECHANIZATION INFOS

1. Methods of rice crop establishment


a. direct seeding or “sabog tanim”
b. transplanting

NOTES:

Rice is transplanted for the pet and weed control purposes. The golden
snail no longer eats a 20-day old rice seedling.

A transplanted rice plant have a head start over the weeds and with
proper management can develop canopy and eventually outgrow the
weeds.

Direct seeding has the advantage of reducing labor requirements and


cost. However the rice seeds are exposed to pests such as birds, rats,
and could be eaten by the golden snails as it germinates. Normally weed
control is difficult thus forcing farmers to use herbicides.
2. 4 major rice ecosystems:
a. irrigated or lowland ecosystem – with irrigation
b. rainfed lowland ecosystem – depend on the rain for irrigation
c. upland ecosystem
d. flood-prone rice ecosystem
3. Precision Farming – a modern farming technique to attain optimum
output or yield with minimum input possible utilizing geographical
information system (GIS), data base, and decision support system with
the aid of computers.
4. Sustainable farming system – farming practice aimed to increase
productivity while preserving the natural resources for future
generations.
5. Organic farming – a sustainable farming system that seeks to eliminate
the use of chemicals (fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides etc.) to avoid
hazardous residues.
6. Integrated pest management (IPM) – part of the sustainable farming
system that seeks to minimize and eliminate the use of pesticides in
controlling pests. It is based on the principle that some insect pest are
actually beneficial to the crop as they biological control other harmful
organisms, and that harmful organisms are only destructive when
they reach the critical level. It is only at this time that the chemical
control must be used.
7. Crop simulation and modeling – first put into use by engineers to
simulate and test the behavior of new design concepts such as
airplanes in wind tunnels. Simulation and modeling is now being used
by crop and other scientist to study and predict crop yields as affected
by environmental forces, soil properties pest and diseases, etc.
8. Robots/Robotics – been intensively used in car manufacturing
assembly lines to the jobs, which are routine and hazardous to human
workers such as painting, spot welding, etc. It is now being used in
agricultural production such as remote controlled tractors, sprayers,
etc. It’s a substitute to humans in highly hazardous jobs. It is
predicted that in the future robots will also work as house helpers to
cook foods, prepare coffee, clean the comfort rooms, etc.
9. Global warming – a universal concern of increasing temperature
attribute to ozone destruction due to methane emission, etc.
10. Transgenic rice – a genetically engineered rice where in good
varietal traits will be integrated such as high yield, disease resistance,
etc.
11. Dead furrow – the canal or trench formed by plowing away from
the furrow in both directions.
12. Headland – strip of untilled land at the end of a field.
13. Draft control – hydraulic implement hitch system that maintains
a constant draft o the implement.
14. Combine harvester – a self-propelled farm machine that harvest,
thresh, and clean a grain crop.
15. Factor of safety – the excess amount of material’s strength
designed into a machine so that it will not break down even beyond
normal load.
16. Automatic draft control – automatically raisers or lowers a soil-
engaging implement to maintain the draft at a pre-determined value.
17. Dynamometer – an instrument used to measure horsepower.
18. Side draft – the lateral or sideward force acting on a soil-
engaging implement such as plow.
19. Universal joint – a mechanism used to transit power between two
intersecting shafts, where the angle between them is variable.
20. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a chain and
sprocket transmission in agricultural equipment?

Advantages:
1. It’s relatively lightweight compared to gear transmission system.
2. It’s cheaper.
3. It’s easy to repair and maintain.
4. Has no slippage compared to belt and pulley transmission system.

Disadvantages:
1. It’s noisy
2. It cannot operate well if there is excessive misalignment.

Farm work classification based on movement:

A. Tractive Work
1. Land Preparation
a. plowing
b. harrowing
c. leveling
2. Cultivation
3. Harvesting

B. Stationary Work
1. Threshing
2. Irrigation pumping
3. Feed grinding
4. Transportation/hauling

TILLAGE AND TILLAGE EQUIPMENT

Definition of Terms:

1. Tillage – is the mechanical manipulation of the soil from a known


condition into a different desired condition.
2. Tilth – the physical condition of the soil in relation to plant growth.
3. Soil structure – is the physical constitution of the soil material is
expressed by size, shaped and arrangements of the solid particles and
associated voids to form the compound particles and the compound
particles themselves.
4. Field capacity – is the moisture content of the soil after it has been
saturated and allowed to drain for 24 to 72 hours.
5. Land – the unplowed soil.
6. Headland – unplowed soil at the end of the furrow strip.
7. Furrow slice – is the ribbon of soil cut, lifted, pulverized and thrown to
one side of the plow bottom.
8. Back furrow – is the raised ridge formed when a furrow slice is lapped
over another slice. This ridge is slightly higher that the other ridges.
9. Dead furrow – is the open trench, about twice the width of one bottom,
formed when two adjacent furrow slices are thrown opposite each
other.
10. Furrow – is the trench/left when the plow bottom cuts and turns
the furrow slice.
11. Furrow wall - is the unbroken side of the furrow.
12. Scouring – is defined as the soil sliding freely over the surface of
the plow bottom.
13. Primary tillage – is the initial breaking of the soil.
14. Secondary tillage – is the further breaking of the soil following
primary tillage operation.
15. Flat broken land – land broken by continuous lapping of furrows.
16. Bedded or listed land – land broken in alternative back furrows
and dead furrows.
17. True line of draft – is the line passing from the center of
resistance through the hitch point and to the center of pull.
18. Indicated horsepower (IHP) – is the power generated in the
cylinder and received by the piston.
19. Brake horsepower (BHP) – is the power delivered by the engine
crankshaft.
20. Drawbar horsepower (DHP) – is the power developed at the hitch
or drawbar and available for pilling dragging or similar tractive effort.
21. PTO horsepower – is the power developed at the power-take-off
(PTO) shaft of the tractor.
22. Rated horsepower – is the amount of power that the engine will
generate at some designated crankshaft speed or it may be
designated as a certain percentage of the maximum power output.

SAMPLE QUESTIONS:

1. Differentiate:
a. draft control from position control
b. down suction from side suction
c. tilt angle from disc angle
d. sod type moldboard from stubble type moldboard

2. Explain and illustrate how the height of the nozzle in a boom hydraulic
sprayer affects spray distribution (uniformity)

3. Give an advantage of one over the other.


a. moldboard plow vs disc plow
b.moldboard plow vs chisel plow
c. disc harrow vs rotary tiller
d.two-way plow vs one-way plow

4. A cooperative of sugarcane farmers with a total land holding of 300


hectares wants to mechanize all the field operations except harvesting.
Design a mechanization plan and determine the machinery
requirement.

5. A corn planter meters seed as follows:


single seed - 50%
two seeds - 35%
three seeds - 15%
If the row spacing is 75 cm and hill spacing is 25 cm, calculate the
number of seeds needed for one hectare. If the effective ground wheel
diameter is 75 cm and slippage is 5% determine the speed ratio of
ground wheel to seed metering device if the seed plate has 20 cells.

5. A fertilizer recommendation is 60 kg per hectare. The row spacing


is 1.25 m. If ammonium sulfate is to be used, determine the
fertilizer material needed.

6. A lime spreader has a 10 m effective swath. If the tractor forward


speed is 5 kph and the lime application rate is 5 tons per hectare,
determine the discharge rate in kg/min.

7. What are the advantages and disadvantages of minimum tillage?


Give at least two of each and explain why.

8. A carabao weighing 2,000 pounds is traveling 1,500 m/h t an


instant. It is pulling a plow whose width of cut is 10 inches and
depth of cut is 15 centimeters. How many horsepower is generated
by the carabao at this condition if the ddraft is b kg/m2?

9. In problem 9, if the carabao weighs 950 kg, what will be the


horsepower generated under the same condition?

10. If the draft in problem 9 is 0.9 b kg/m 2, what should be the


traveling speed to maintain the same horsepower?
11. In problem 10, if the depth of cut is reduced by 20%, should you
increase or decrease the traveling speed to maintain the same
horsepower?

12. Give at least 10 agricultural machines/implements and define


their function and explain under what field condition they are
applicable.

13. In a field demonstration of a rice reaper with a 1.2 m outer bar,


the following performance data were recorded:

Average speed of travel ------------------------------- 3 kph


Average width of cutter bar actually utilized ---- 1.0 m

Time lost:
Crossing dikes ------------------------------------------ 5 min/ha
Repair of broken belt ---------------------------------- 10 min/ha

Turning and other idle travel ----------- 10% of effective operating time
Removing field obstructions and clogging ------ 15 min/ha

14. A newly purchased grain drill for upland rice production is to be


calibrated to determine appropriate operating speed and seeding
rate. The drill has 10 furrow openers spaced 25 cm apart and is
equipped with pneumatic tires. When the grain hopper is filled at
half its capacity and the tires are inflated at recommended
pressure, the loaded radius is measured at 38 cm.

a. If the wheels are turned at the rate of 60 rpm, what is the


equivalent ground speed of the machine, in kph, assuming an
average wheel slippage of 15%?
b. Calculate the area covered by the drill, in ha, if the wheels were
turned 600 times.
c. After turning the wheels at 60 rpm for 10 minutes, 13.4 kg of
palay were collected from the seed tubes. What is the seeding
rate of the drill, in cavans per hectare, under the given
conditions? Assume 44 kg/cavan.

15. An engine rated at 2000 rpm will be used to operate a thresher,


which has to run at 600 rpm. If the engine’s drive pulley has a pitch
diameter of 8 cm., what diameter pulley should be installed on the
main drive shaft of the thresher?
16. If the thresher has a cleaning fan that should run at 800 rpm and
will be driven by the main drive shaft of the thresher, recommend
the appropriate drive and driven pulley diameters.

17. Describe Position Control and Draft Control in a tractor hydraulic


hitch system.

18. Explain “weight transfer” in a farm tractor hitch system and how
it improves field efficiency. If necessary, make a schematic drawing
of the tractor and implement and indicate the concept with arrows.

19. A farmer uses a carabao and a moldboard plow with a width of


cut of 13 cm. to till his rice fields. If he overlaps each pass of the
plow by twenty percent (20%), how many kilometers does he have
to walk behind the carabao to plow one hectare?

If his average walking speed in the rice field is 3 kph, how long will it
take him to plow one hectare (without rest)?

20. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using hydraulic


systems for transmitting power in farm tractors, implements and
other agricultural equipment?

21. Give three (3) reasons why farmers plow and harrow their fields
before planting.

22. Defend farm mechanization against the labor displacement


issue.

23. What is farm mechanization inappropriate?

24. What is gender issue in farm mechanization?

PRACTICE TEST #1

1. A compression ignition engine is also known as:


a. gasoline engine b. stem engine c. diesel engine d. electronic
ignition

2. Juan will plow a field 120 m wide and 426.4 feet long using a carabao
and moldboard plow with a 10-inch width of cut. If his speed of
plowing is 2 miles per hour, how long will he finish plowing if he plows
along the length of the field with no headland left unplowed?
a. 18.5 hrs b. 19.06 hrs. c. 20 hrs d. 20.5 hrs
3. How long will he finish plowing (#2) if he plows along the width of the
field (with 2m headlands unplowed)?
a. 18.40 hrs. b. 18.75 hrs. c. 18.95 hrs d. 19.00
hrs.

4. In problem #2, what is his plowing capacity (ha/hr)?


a. 0.07 b. 0.075 c. 0.082 d. 0.090

5. In problem # 3, what is his plowing capacity (ha/hr)?


a. 0.082 b. 0.085 c. 0.088 d. 0.090

6. In problem #2, if his plowing speed is 2 kph, how long will he finish
plowing if he plows along the length of the field with no headlands left
unplowed?
a. 30.70 hrs. b. 30.75 hrs. c. 30.90 hrs. d. 31.00
hrs.

7. In accordance with condition in problem #6, how long will he finish


plowing if he plows along the width of the field with no headlands left
unplowed?
a. 30.70 hrs. b. 30.75 hrs. c. 30.90 hrs. d. 31.00
hrs.

8. What is the plowing capacity (ha/hr) in problem # 6?


a. 0.045 b. 0.051 c. 0.055 d. 0.06

9. What is the plowing capacity (ha/hr) in problem # 7?


a. 0.051 b. 0.055 c. 0.06 d. 0.065

10. If the width of cut of his plow is 30 cm, by how much will his
plowing capacity (ha/hr) increase in accordance with the conditions in
problem #3?
a. 0.012 b. 0.015 c. 0.018 d. 0.020

SAMPLE PROBLEMS

Problem 1:

A 1000 kg carabao traveling at v kph is pulling a moldboard plow whose


width of cut is w centimeter at a depth of d inches. If the soil draft is s
kg/sq.cm.

1. What is the total pull (in lb) being exerted by the carabao?
a. 2,000 d. 5.95 swd
b. 5.85 swd e. 2,200
c. 5.59 swd f. none of the above (nota)

2. At the given velocity, how long will it take to plow a rectangular field
whose length is L meters and W meters wide? (in hrs.)
a. lw/10 VW d. LW/10 vw
b. Lw/10 vW e. all of the above
c. lW/10 Vw f. none of the above

3. If the weight of the carabao is increased to 1,500 kg by how many


percent is the total pull exerted by the carabao increased?
a. 50% d. 53.33%
b. 33.33% e. 0%
c. 30% f. cannot be determined

4. If each succeeding pass overlaps the previous pass by 10%, by how


much longer will it take to plow the same field in no. 2?
a. LW/90 vW d. Lw/90 vW
b. LW/9 vw e. all of the above
c. Lw/9 vW f. none of the above

Problem 2:

A two-hectare ricefield whose length is twice its width is to be harvested by a


stripper combine whose average speed will be 5 kph. Field sampling of the
crop showed 0.60 kg paddy per sq. meter. If the combine was able to finish
the area in two hours.

5. How wide is the swath of the combine?


a. 2 m. d. 2.2 yards
b. 79 in. e. all of dthe above
c. 6.6 ft. f. nota

6. Based on field area sampling what will be the total yield of the 2-
hectare field?
a. 12,200 kg. d. 26,840 lbs.
b. 423.288 oz. e. all of the above
c. 12,200 x 103 g. f. none of the above

Problem 3:
A 6-nozzle boom sprayer is mounted at the back of a four wheel-tractor. The
nozzles are arranged 150 cm apart along the boom length. Each nozzle has
a 60 degree spray angle. Each nozzle delivers k l/min.

7. At what height must the boom be raised, relative to the ground level,
so that the spray from each nozzle does not overlap upon reaching the
top of a rice plant canopy which is 50 cm tall?
a. 108 cm d. 309.8 cm.
b. 180 cm e. 136.6 cm
c. 93.3 cm f. nota

8. What is the effective swath of the boom sprayer in number 7?


a. 150 cm d. 900 cm.
b. 750 cm e. 90 cm.
c. 75 cm. f. nota

9. If the tractor travels at 5 kph with 95% field efficiency, what will be the
spraying capacity (in ha/hr) under the conditions in no. 8?
a. 4.25 d. 4.70
b. 4.52 e. 4.75
c. 4.28 f. nota

10. If each nozzle delivers one liter per minute, how many will the
boom sprayer deliver per hectare under the conditions in no. 9?
a. 84.11 li/ha d. 76.60 hi/ha
b. 84.71 li/ha e. 75.79 li/ha
c. 79.65 li/ha f. nota

REVIEW PROBLEMS:

1. A farmer uses a hand tractor with 20 cm moldboard plow. How many


kilometers must he walk to plow one hectare? (Ans. 50 km)

2. If he overlaps each pass by 10% how many kilometers more will he


have to walk to plow one hectare? (Ans. 5.56 km)

3. If his walking speed is 1.55 miles per hour, how long will it take him to
plow in each case (in #1 and #2)? What will be his plowing capacity
(ha/t) in each case? (Ans. Time case 1:20 hrs. case 2:22.22 hrs;
plowing capacity case 1:0.05 ha/ha, case 2:0.045 ha/t.)

4. An engine at 2000 rpm is to drive a pump to run at 1000 rpm. The


engine drive pulley is 15 cm in diameter and there is a 10% belt
slippage. What should be the diameter of the pulley on the pump?
(Ans. 27 cm)

5. A. How many hectares can be plowed in one hour by a tractor operating


at 5 kph and is pulling 3 moldboard plows with a total width of cut of
160 cm at a depth of 14 cm? (Ans. 0.80 ha/h)

B. What is the total draft in kilogram pull if there is a draft of 0.45


kg/cm2? (Ans. 1008 kg)

C. How many hectares can be plowed in 3 hours if 8% of the time is spent


on headland turning? (Ans. 2.208 ha)

6. A 2-hectare farm is to be planted by a 4-row rear mounted corn planter


traveling 5 km/h with a row spacing of 1 meter. The field is twice as
long as its width. If 3 minutes is spent for each head land turn:
A. How many turns will the planter make to plant the whole area?
(Ans. 24 turns)
B. How many hours is needed to plant the whole field if the plant rows
runs along the longer length? (Ans. 2.2 hours)
C. How many percent of the total planting time in (B) was spent in
headland turning? (Ans. 54.54%)
D. If the planter delivered an average of 12 seeds per linear meter,
how many seeds are needed for the entire area including the
headlands? Planting is along the longer side. (Ans. 240,000 seeds)

7. A sprayer is operating at 6 kph, covering 30 hectares in 6 hours 20% of


the time was spent on headland turning and tank filing.
A. What is the effective swat boom of the sprayer? (Ans. 10.42 meters)
B. If the area is increased to 40 hectares, what should be the operating
speed to finish spraying in 6 hours with 20% time loss? (Ans. 8.0
kph)
C. If the boom is 10 meters wide and delivers 25 liters/hour, what is
the application rate in l/ha in (A) and (B)? (Ans. In (A) 250 t/ha, (B)
187.5/ha)

8. A farmer will use an 8-row grain drill for planting paddy. Its ground
wheel is one meter in diameter designed for slip operation. Row
spacing is adjustable. He will follow a 100-kg/ha seeding rate
recommendation.
A. If the row spacing is 25 cm, how much paddy (in grams) must the
drill deliver for one revolution? (Ans. 62.8 grams)
B. If 1000 seeds weighs 25 grams and assuming uniform distribution,
how many seeds must there be per linear meter along the row?
(Ans. 100 seeds/m)
C. If the working speed is 5 km/h, how much time is needed to plant a
square 2-hectare field at 20 cm row spacing? (Ans. 2.5 hours).

FERTILIZER PROBLEMS:

1. Find the amount of fertilizer materials needed for one hectare to


satisfy the recommended application rate of 90 kg N, 60 kg P2O5, and
30 kg K2O per hectare.
Fertilizer Materials (FM): (Urea) 45-0-0
(Superphosphaste) 0-20-0
(Muriatic of potash) 0-0-60
(Ans. Urea: 200 kg:Superphosphate: 300 kg:Muriate of potash 50 kg)

2. Given the following commercial fertilizers:


Complete 14-14-14
Ammophos 16-20-0
Ammonium sulfate 20-0-0
Find the amount of each fertilizer material needed for 6,375 m 2, if the
recommended rate is 120+90+60? (Ans. Complete 273.2 kg. Ammophos
150 kg: Ammonium sulfate: 115.0 kg)

3. Given two fertilizer combination C1 and C2. Which is cheaper and by


how much?
C1 : 16-20-0 (P350/bag) plus 20-0-0 (P268/bag)
C2 : 0-20-0 (P298/bag) plus 45-0-0 (P393/bag)

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