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# COMMON FORMULAS FOR THERMODYNAMICS

All relations are for unit mass (or unit mole) of material

## S. No. Formula Comments

LAWS
First Law: dU = dQ + dW ; ∆U = Q + W Differential and Integral Forms
Second Law: ∆STotal ≥ 0 Total means System + Surroundings
dU = TdS + PdV 1st & 2nd Laws Mixed (Reversible Process)
dH = TdS + VdP 1st & 2nd Laws Mixed (Reversible Process)

dH ≡ dU + d ( PV ) ; ΔH ≡ ΔU + Δ( PV ) Definition of Enthalpy
dH = C p dT ; ΔH = ∫ C p dT Enthalpy calculation for ideal gas. (May be used
for real gases, liquid and solids with caution).
dU = Cv dT ; ΔU = ∫ Cv dT Internal Energy calculation for ideal gas. (May be
used for real gases, liquid and solids with caution).
dW = − P dV ; W = − ∫ P dV Work calculation for reversible process.

## Efficiency of Carnot Engine: TH and TC are temperatures of hot and cold

WNet T reservoirs respectively
= 1− C
Q TH
dQR dQR Definition of Entropy Change. Valid for all
dS ≡
T
; ΔS ≡ ∫ T
reversible process with or without work.

## dQ dQ Entropy Change for all processes (reversible or

dS =
T
; ΔS = ∫ T
irreversible) involving heat transfer (Q) only i.e. no
work involved.
Q Entropy Change for all processes (reversible or
ΔS = irreversible) involving heat transfer (Q) only if the
T
heating / cooling is at constant temperature.
∆STotal = 0 If all processes (isothermal, adiabatic, etc.)
between the system and surroundings are
reversible.
∆STotal > 0 If any one or more processes (isothermal,
adiabatic, etc.) between the system and
surroundings are irreversible
∆S = 0 For any reversible as well as adiabatic process

## Special Ideal Gas Processes

Isometric Process (∆V = 0)
• W=0 • Either reversible or irreversible process
• Q= ∫ Cv dT • Either reversible or irreversible process
Isobaric Process ((∆P = 0)
• W = − P ΔV • Reversible process only
• Q= ∫ CP dT • Reversible process only
Isothermal Process (∆T = 0)
• ΔU = 0 ; ΔH = 0 • Either reversible or irreversible process
• Q = − W = − ∫ PdV • Reversible process only
V2 P • Reversible process only
• W = − RT ln = RT ln 2
V1 P1
Adiabatic Process (Q = 0)
• dW = dU = CV dT • Either reversible or irreversible.
R
• W = Cv ΔT = 1 + • Reversible process with constant Cv
Cv
CP
• PV γ = Constant ; γ≡ • Reversible process only
CV
γ −1
γ −1
T2 ⎛ V1 ⎞ ⎛P ⎞ γ
• =⎜ ⎟ =⎜ 2⎟ • Reversible process only
T 1 ⎝ V2 ⎠ ⎝ P1 ⎠
γ −1 γ −1
⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤
1 1 ⎢⎛ P 2 ⎞
PV RT1 ⎢⎛ P 2 ⎞ γ
γ
• W= − 1⎥ = − 1⎥ • Reversible process only
γ − 1 ⎢⎜⎝ P1 ⎟⎠ ⎥ γ − 1 ⎢⎜⎝ P1 ⎟⎠ ⎥
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
Isentropic Process (∆S = 0) All correlations for adiabatic process are
applicable with additional constraint of
reversibility.
Equations of State etc.:
Ideal Gas: PV = RT May be used for real gases with caution.
Units of R to be used with care.
Real Gases: PV = ZRT Many other relations also exist. Z is given as a
function of reduced temperature and pressure.
Steam Tables Preferred choice for properties of water and steam.
Correlations and softwares are also available in
addition to tabulated values.
CP = CV + R For ideal gas (or nearly so)
CP , CV , and R must be used in molar units.
Liquids and Solids: Due to very low compressibilities
CP ≈ CV
∆H ≈ ∆U
Values of Gas Constant R

Units Value
atm-ft³/(lb mol-°R) 0.73024
atm-l/(g mol-K) 0.08206
bar-l/(g mol-K) 0.08314472
Btu/(lb mol-°R) 1.9859
cal/(mol-K) 1.9859
hp-h/(lb mol-°R) 0.0007805
J/(g mol-K) 8.314472
kWh/(lb mol-°R) 0.000582
lbf-ft/(lb mol-°R) 1545.349
mmHg-l/(g mol-K) 62.364