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1. Why do we call the course Chemistry, the Central Science?

2. What were Abu Ali ibn Sina's contributions to chemistry?

The chemical process for steam distillation was created, refrigerated coil for condensing
aromatic vapors

3. Give three reasons why Mendeleev's Periodic Table is one of the greatest achievements
in chemistry?
-Predict the chemical and physical properties of undiscovered elements
-Categorized like elements together
-Provided an orderly reference sheet for other scientist

4. Why Friedrich Wöhler's urea synthesis is considered the beginning of organic

Ammonium cyanate is considered an inorganic chemical and was changed into urea,
which is considered

5. Avogadro's hypothesis (explain) is considered a milestone in chemistry. Why?

Separated the concept of atoms from the concept of molecules

6. Why did Einstein keep a photograph of Faraday on his study wall?

Inspiration, his idol

7. What was Louis Pasteur's contribution to chemistry? Why was it so critical?


8. What was Fritz Haber's contribution? What is its importance?

Synthesizing ammonia. Used for fertilizing and explosives

9. What is the Maillard Reaction? Why is it important?

Reaction between amino acid and reducing sugar. It is used in many food preparations

10. What is the role of yeast in bread making?

Yeast lygase and produces small pockets of air in the bread, making it puffier

11. What are antioxidants? How do they work?

Antioxidants are low energy stable molecules that donate electrons to free radicals

12. What is starch? Explain starch gelatinization.

Starch is a complex carbohydrate. Starch gelatinization is the breaking down of the
intermolecular force in the presence of water and heat.

13. What is an orbital?

A region where the presence of electrons are highly probable

14. What is the critical contribution of Lewis to our understanding of chemistry?

He was able to simplify the properties of bonds amongst atoms in a molecule.

15. What is the connection between Linus Pauling and our understanding of molecular
By applying X-rays, he discovered electronegativity and dipole.
16. Why Justus Liebig's radical theory is important?
Developed laboratory instructions

17. August Wilhelm von Hofmann introduced the Type Theory. What is it and why is it
Hofmann proved that all hydrogens in an ammonia could be replaced by an organic group
to give off primary, secondary, and tertiary amines.

18. On what contribution did Jacobus Henricus van’t Hoff win the first Nobel Prize in
Solved the optical activities of organic compounds by assuming carbon for tetrahedral
shaped bonds with its neighbor

19. The formation of a new C-C bond is one of the most important reactions in organic
synthesis. What did Grignard do to deserve the Nobel prize in chemistry?
He formulated a method to separate unwanted groups like magnesium from an organic
molecule and allowed carbon to form new bonds thereafter

20. Diels and Alder were awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1950 "for their discovery
and development of the cycloaddition synthesis". What does it mean?
They developed a method for adding rings to different molecules

21. What makes a molecule a monomer?

A single unit of a long chain

22. Why does a polymer exist as a random coil?

Polymers are extremely long, flexible chains that are susceptible to random coiling

23. What is a homopolymer? How many types of heteropolymers you can think about?
Homopolymer- a polymer consisting of only one type of monomer
Hetero- infinite since polymers can be of any length

24. What is a branched polymer? How many types of branched polymers you know?
A branched polymer molecule is composed of a main chain with one or more substituent
side chains or branches. The H can be replaced by another polymer, therefore there's an
infinite possibility

25. What are polyelectrolytes? Is polystyrene a polyelectrolyte?

Polyelectrolytes are polymers whose repeating units bear an electrolyte group. No

26. Block copolymers are an important group of macromolecules? Why?

Used for making plastics

27. What defines the structure of block copolymers? Give two examples of block
copolymer structures.
Repeating blocks of different polymer chains. SAN & ABS

28. Why is it difficult to crystallize polymers?

Polymers are hard to crystallize since they are very long and flexible, creating a well-
defined shape will be very hard
29. What is a spherulite?
Spherical crystalline made of radiating crystal fibers often found in vitreous volcanic rock

30. What was Goodyear's discovery?


31. What is Bakelite? A plastic discovered by Baekeland used for electrical insulation

32. Polystyrene is one of the most important polymers. Give two examples of its use.
Can make Styrofoam and plastic

33. Nylon is a general name for what kind of polymers?

Synthetic polymers known as polyamides

34. What are Aramid fibers?

A class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibers

35. What are thermally stable polymer? Give an example.

Can withstand much higher heat without changing structure. Fluoro-rubbers

36. What are polyesters? Give an example.

A category of polymers which contain the ester functional group in their main chain.

37. What are polycarbonates? Give an example.

A category of polymers which contain the carbonate in their main chain. Lexan

38. What are polyurethanes? Give an example.

is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane (carbamate)
links. Paint

39. What is a free radical? Why is it reactive?

Free radicals are atoms that are missing 1 or 2 e- on its valence shell. It wants to have an
octet therefore highly unstable.

40. What is free radical polymerization? Give an example.

A method of polymerization in which a polymer is formed from the addition of a free
radical building block. Photolysis

41. What is an initiator?

A source species that initiate the formation of a polymer

42. Free radical polymerization has three stages. Define them.

Chain initiation- the initiation of adding monomers together
Chain propagation-reactive intermediates continue to gain more monomers
Chain termination- the stopping of monomer addition

43. What is Teflon?

Hydrophobic units of carbon and fluorine that can be used as lubricants and non-stick