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Analysis of

stream
sediments
of
GL-317
Mahaoya
ABSTRACT
[Analysis of stream sediments gives lots of important
information about process of the stream. The sedimentation
processes of Structurally controlled stream in headwater
regions are somewhat different from existing sedimentation
models of rivers channels. Because turbulence currents are
making different conditions place to place. Generalization of
pattern of sedimentation of Maha-Oya headwater region
somewhat difficult by considering small number of data
because Sedimentation process (velocity of stream flow) mainly
governed by underlying structure.]

A.N.P.W.M.R.B.M.B Athurupane (S/07/004)


G.G.M.S.Wickramasinghe (S/07/180)
M.A.K.Kumari (S/07/357)
N.A.U.S.Nishshanka (S/07/388)
Analysis of stream sediments of Mahaoya GL-317

Introduction

A method for determining the grain size distribution of clastic particles typically between 1.0
mm and 0.062 mm (from coarse silt to coarse sand) – a relatively accurate method for
determining depositional hydrology and for refining sedimentary environments

To study of the different sedimentation process along the stream, Cross section is done by
mechanical analysis of three different sediment samples along three different places of the
stream cross section.

The location that sediments collected is situated close to the University Christian church and it is
10m downstream from the bridge. SR, SM & SL samples were collected at the right side, middle
and left side of the stream respectively.

Locations details given below.

SR
SL SM

Fig 01. Sampling locations

2 ©Department Of Geology, University Of Peradeniya.


Analysis of stream sediments of Mahaoya GL-317

Photographs of samples

Fig 02. SL Fig 03. SM Fig 04. SR

METHODOLOGY AND APPARATUS

APPARATUS

Equipment Required

1. Balance - sensitive to 0.1 g.

2. Sieves - Canadian Metric Standard square mesh sieves of size as required for the type of
gradation for the material being tested.

3. Mechanical sieve shaker.

4. Containers - pans suitable for washing the sample.

5. Drying apparatus - suitable pans and stove for drying the samples

Fig 02. Sieving Instrument Fig 06. Analytical Balance

3 ©Department Of Geology, University Of Peradeniya.


Analysis of stream sediments of Mahaoya GL-317

PROCEDURE

1. Collecting samples.
Representative samples were collected using instruments that are shown bellow.

2. Drying samples.
Samples were dried by using electric ovens and drying under solar radiation.

3. Selecting representative sample.


Selecting representative samples using sample separation and then 500g of sample
weighted using triple bean balance (fig 04.).

Fig 07. Selecting representative sample.

4. Sieving.
Using following order sieving sample were stand in 10 minutes. Then the retained mass
on the each sewed were measured using Analytical balance.

4 ©Department Of Geology, University Of Peradeniya.


Analysis of stream sediments of Mahaoya GL-317

DATA AND CALCULATIONS

SL-Left Sample

sieve size retaining weight retaining percentage cumulative %


pan 0.5 0.100 0.100
0.063 3.35 0.672 0.773
0.125 3.63 0.729 1.501
0.15 7.38 1.481 2.983
0.18 3.62 0.727 3.709
0.212 20.34 4.083 7.792
0.25 167.35 33.591 41.383
0.5 228.98 45.961 87.344
1 58.53 11.748 99.093
2 6.14 1.232 100.325
499.82 100.325
Table 01. Cumulative percentage of retaining weight of SL

Graph 01. Grain size distribution curve of SL

5 ©Department Of Geology, University Of Peradeniya.


Analysis of stream sediments of Mahaoya GL-317

CURVE SIGNATURE:

D10
0.22

D60
0.31

CcL
1.41
Remarks:- Uniformly
graded sediment

Table 02. Calculation of SL

Graph 02. Retaining weight percentage of SL

6 ©Department Of Geology, University Of Peradeniya.


Analysis of stream sediments of Mahaoya GL-317

SM-Middle sample

sieve size retaining weight retaining % cumulative %


pan 0.12 0.024 0.024
0.063 0.47 0.094 0.118
0.125 0.81 0.163 0.281
0.15 2.08 0.418 0.699
0.18 1.49 0.299 0.998
0.212 9.05 1.817 2.814
0.25 47.38 9.510 12.324
0.5 122.97 24.683 37.007
1 164.96 33.111 70.118
2 148.87 29.882 100.000
498.2 100.000
Table 03. Cumulative percentage of retaining weight of SM

Graph 03. Grain size distribution curve of SM

7 ©Department Of Geology, University Of Peradeniya.


Analysis of stream sediments of Mahaoya GL-317

CURVE SIGNATURE:

D10
0.25

D60
0.80

CcM
3.20
Remarks:- Uniformly
graded sediment

Table 04. Calculation of SM

Graph 04. Retaining weight percentage of SM

8 ©Department Of Geology, University Of Peradeniya.


Analysis of stream sediments of Mahaoya GL-317

SR- Right sample

sieve size retaining weight retaining percentage cumulative %


pan 0.31 0.062 0.062
0.063 0.56 0.112 0.175
0.125 0.78 0.157 0.331
0.15 2.15 0.432 0.763
0.18 2.36 0.474 1.236
0.212 7.96 1.598 2.834
0.25 39.71 7.971 10.805
0.5 72.15 14.482 25.287
1 95.37 19.143 44.430
2 275.11 55.221 99.651
496.46 99.651
Table 05. Cumulative percentage of retaining weight of SR

Graph 05. Grain size distribution curve of SR

9 ©Department Of Geology, University Of Peradeniya.


Analysis of stream sediments of Mahaoya GL-317

CURVE SIGNATURE:

D10
0.25

D60
1.30

CcR
5.20
Remarks:- Well graded
sediments

Table 06. Calculation of SR

Graph 06. Retaining weight percentage of SR

10 ©Department Of Geology, University Of Peradeniya.


Analysis of stream sediments of Mahaoya GL-317

INTERPRITATION

Three samples are collected from three different places of the stream (along cross-
section of stream) namely Right sample (SR), Middle sample (SM) and Left sample (SL).

A B

SR A A’
SM
A A SL

A B’

Fig 08. Cross section traces

SL SR

SM

A’ Fig 08. Cross section along A’-A


A

Flow

SM Sediments

Bed rock

Fig 09. Cross section along B’-B


B’ B

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Analysis of stream sediments of Mahaoya GL-317

Turbulence currents
Barrier (Rock Boulder)
W E

Left bank
Right bank
Q
point bar Vertex currents with different
directional movement

Calm region

Sediment bar
Fig 10. Schematic flow pattern of location

This area is rich in sediments. This part of the stream act as pool (according to B’B cross-
section). Just above the upstream side flow velocity is much higher they carry most of the sediments as
suspend. Just below the B’ point flow velocity decreases due to underlying morphology. Therefore
terminal velocity of particles in suspended load is decreasing and they are starts to settle down.

According to the graphs 02, 04 and 06 retaining grain size range is 0.25-02 mm. Therefore sand-
gravel fraction is significant in the location. But sedimentation (velocity decreasing) is different in the
three sampling locations. Therefore three samples showing different distribution and some fractions have
high percentages.

Coefficient of uniformity

CcL 1.41 Uniformly graded sediment


CcM 3.20 Uniformly graded sediment
CcR 5.20 Well graded sediments

Left bank sediment and middle sediments are showing sorted nature. And right sample (point bar)
showing well graded nature.

According to fig 10 Place where left sample taken has vertex currents with both side rotating
nature because of that temporary calm area has formed. That area will facilitate to sedimentation.
Normally erosive bank away from point bar sedimentation is very less (only large grain) but in this case it
is somewhat different.

All of the samples do not have much amount of fine particles because velocity of stream in this
part comparably high than lower parts. this part of the stream is highly structurally controlled and
processes are different from normal sedimentation.

12 ©Department Of Geology, University Of Peradeniya.


Analysis of stream sediments of Mahaoya GL-317

CONCLUSION

o Right (point bar) sample has well graded nature. Middle and left samples have uniformly
graded nature that means sorted nature is there.

o Left sample has well sorted nature than other two samples but presences of fine particles
are greater than other two samples.

o All the samples containing lesser amount of fine particles.

o Stream with turbulence currents sedimentation process vary with the current pattern.

o Expressing general sedimentation processes of Structurally controlled streams in


headwater region is difficult with few number of data

13 ©Department Of Geology, University Of Peradeniya.