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3G Mobile Networks: An Overview
By Nishit Narang
Email: nishit.narang@flextronicssoftware.com
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Agenda
_ Introduction to 3G
_ CDMA Principles
_ 3G Standardization
_ UMTS Network Architecture
_ UMTS Protocol Architecture
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Mobile Networks
_ Started with First Generation Networks
_ No or minimum standardization.
_ Deployed and used within regional boundaries
_ Evolved to Second Generation Networks
_ Standards defined.
_ Roaming across network boundaries becomes possible.
_ GSM: one of the most prevalent standard for 2G mobile
networks.
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Radio Access Network Core Network

2G Network Architecture
_ GSM network view
BSC MSC
HLR/VLR
cell
PLMN
SS7 link
cell
BTS BTS
MS
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Second Generation Networks


_ 2G was serious effort to standardize wireless communication.
_ GSM developed by ETSI is the most prominent 2G technology.
_ CDMA (aka IS-95) developed by Qualcomm is popular in US and
Korea.
_ Japan has its Personal Digital Communications (PDC).
_ GSM suffers from serious limitations
_ 66Very low data rates
_ Poor support for packet-based data services
_ Multiplicity of Standards
_
Radio Access Scheme in GSM
_ Hybrid FDMA/TDMA
Time
Frequency
Single User
Bandwidth
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2.5 Generation Networks


_ Aims to remove some of the drawbacks of 2G.
_ High-Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD) uses multiple time
slots to increase speed.
_ General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) introduces the packet
domain and speeds of 115Kbps.
_ Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) and Enhanced
GPRS (EGPRS) uses better modulation techniques to provide
higher data rates.
_2.5G is an intermediate step towards 3G networks capable of
providing higher bandwidth and better services.
BSS MSC
HLR/VLR
cell
PLMN
SS7 link
cell
SGSN GGSN PDN
IP Link IP Link
GPRS Network Architecture
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A Need to Revamp the Air Interface


_ 2G networks built mainly to offer Voice-based services
_ With increase in customer expectations and requirements,
a need was felt to offer multimedia services
_ Air Interface of 2G networks not considered efficient
enough to offer these services
_ A need to overhaul the air interface in 3G networks was
therefore felt
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Requirement for 3G Air Interface


_ Primary requirements for 3G networks, relevant from the air
interface perspective include:
_ Support of bit-rates up to 2Mbps
_ Mechanisms to efficiently support “Bandwidth on Demand”
and Variable Bit Rate (VBR) services
_ Support for services with different quality requirements
_ Simultaneous co-existence with second-generation systems
with support for inter-system handover.
_ Higher spectrum efficiency
_ CDMA radio access scheme was proposed as a solution
for 3G radios.
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Agenda
_ Introduction to 3G
_ CDMA Principles
_ 3G Standardization
_ UMTS Network Architecture
_ UMTS Protocol Architecture
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CDMA Radio Access Scheme


_ CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access
Time
Frequency
Single User
Bandwidth
Codes
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CDMA
_ CDMA uses spreading codes, which are applied as part of
a secondary modulation of user signals
_ Codes are used to transform the user signals into a spreadspectrum-
coded version of the original signal, before
transmission
_ Receiver does the reverse process to recover the original
signal from the coded signal
_ Different users are allocated different spreading codes to
provide multiple access
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Spreading and De-spreading


_ A technique using which a user’s original signal is transformed
into a signal form, that is “spread” over a larger bandwidth than
what is required for the original signal
_ Codes used for this transformation of the signal are called
Spreading Codes (also sometimes called Channelization Codes)
_ Spreading involves transformation of the user signal by
multiplication (XOR) with bits in a spreading code.
_ Bits in the spreading code are termed as “chips”, while the bits
within the user signal are called “symbols”
_ Spreading Factor is defined as the ratio of chips to symbols

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Spreading Process
Original Signal
Spreading Code
(1100)
Symbol Chip
Spread Signal
Spreading
1
00
1
1100 0011 0011 1100
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De-spreading Process
Spreading Code
(1100)
De- Spreading
Original Signal
1
00
1
Spread Signal
1100 0011 0011 1100
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Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor Codes


SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4
c1,1 = (1)
c2,1 = (1,1)
c2,2 = (1,-1)
c4,1 = (1,1,1,1)
c4,2 = (1,1,-1,-1)
c4,3 = (1,-1,1,-1)
c4,4 = (1,-1,-1,1)
C8,1
C8,2
C8,3
C8,4
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Orthogonal Codes
Spreading Code
C4,2 = (1,-1,1,-1)
De- Spreading
De-spread Signal
Spread Signal
1100 0011 0011 1100
????
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Multi-user Spreading - Transmission
Spreading Code
(C4,2)
Original Signal
Symbol Chip
Spread Signal
Spreading
000
1
Original Signal
Spreading Code
(C4,1)
Symbol Chip
Spread Signal
Spreading
1
00
1
Composite
Spread Signal
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Multi-user Spreading - Reception


Spreading Code
(C4,2)
Composite
Spread Signal
De-Spreading
Despread
Signal
0010
Spreading Code
(C4,1)
Composite
Spread Signal
De-Spreading
Despread
Signal
1001
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Agenda
_ Introduction to 3G
_ CDMA Principles
_ 3G Standardization
_ UMTS Network Architecture
_ UMTS Protocol Architecture
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International Mobile Telecomm. 2000 (IMT-2000)


_ Provides Vision for Third Generation Networks.
_ Includes set of Five Radio Interface technologies.
_ Technological diversity fosters competition.
_ The FDD and TDD modes of WCDMA, as standardized by
3GPP, has become most popular.
3GPP 3GPP2 UWCC ETSI DECT
UTRA FDD
(Direct
Sequence)
UTRA TDD
(Time Code)
cdma2000
(Multi Carrier )
UWC 136
(Single Carrier)
DECT
(Frequency
Time)
IMT 2000 Radio Interface Technologies
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Third Generation Partnership Program (3GPP)


_3GPP was result of initiatives taken to create a single forum for
development of a common specification based on UTRA air i/f.
_ 3GPP formally came into existence in December 1998.
_ 3GPP consists of the following standardization bodies:
_ Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB) of Japan
_ Telecommunication Technology Committee (TTC) of Japan
_ European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI) of
Europe
_ T1 of USA
_ Telecommunications Technology Association (TTA) of Korea
_ China Wireless Telecommunication Standards Group (CWTS)
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Objective of 3GPP
_To produce globally applicable Technical Specifications (TS)
and Technical Reports (TR) for a 3G Mobile System.
_ TS are formal 3GPP Specifications.
_ TR are informal reports made for better understanding of the topic.
_ A TS is typically written as a TR before becoming a TS.
_ This may not always be true. Some are purely reports only.
_3GPP is also responsible for the maintenance and development
of the GSM TS and TR (developed by ETSI). Scope includes:
_ Second generation GSM
_ General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
_ Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution (EDGE)

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3GPP Roadmap Towards 3G


Evolution path towards 3GPP Networks (UMTS WCDMA)
GSM
W-CDMA
GPRS
EDGE/
EGPRS
_ Uses circuit switching
_ For voice and low speed
data (9.6 or 14.4 Kbps)
2.5G
_ Uses packet switching
_ For voice and medium speed data
_ GPRS offers speed upto 115Kbps
_ EGPRS offersspeed upto 284 Kbps
Second Generation (2G)
_ Uses circuit switching and
packet switching
_ For voice and high speed data
_ Speed upto 2Mbps
Third Generation (3G)
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Organization of 3GPP
Project Co-ordination Group
TSG CN
CN WG1
(MM/CC/SM)
CN WG2
CAMEL
CN WG3
Interworking
CN WG4
MAP/GTP/BCH/
SS
CN WG5
OSA
TSG GERAN
GERAN WG1
Radio Aspects
GERAN WG2
Protocol Aspects
GERAN WG3
BS testing, O&M
GERAN WG4
Terminal Testing -
Radio Aspects
GERAN WG5
Terminal Testing -
Protocol Aspects
TSG RAN
RAN WG1
Radio L1 spec.
RAN WG2
Radio L1 and L2
RAN WG3
Iur/Iub/Iu spec,
O&M
RAN WG4
Radio
Performance,
Protocol aspects
TSG SA
SA WG1
Services
SA WG2
Architecture
SA WG3
Security
SA WG4
CODEC
SA WG5
Telecom
Management
TSG Terminal
T WG1
MT Conformance
Testing
T WG1
MT Services and
Capabilities
T WG1
USIM

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3GPP Standardization Phases


_ Standardization of a feature goes through three stages:
_ Stage 1: In this stage, service is defined in terms of the
functionality it offers to end-user (i.e. requirements from the
service).
_ Stage 2: In this stage, the requirements from Stage 1 are
used to define broad functional blocks that will provide the
service. Using these functional blocks, an abstract
architecture is defined.
_ Stage 3: In this stage, the functional blocks are assigned to
actual physical entities. Further, the protocols used between
these entities are also defined in this stage.
_

3GPP Series Numbering


S erie s Su bjec t D esc rip tion
2 1 serie s Req uiremen ts Th ese are g en erally temporary spec ification s tha t gradu ate to o th er
spe cifica tio n s.
2 2 serie s Serv ice asp ects Th ese are ty p ically S tage 1 sp ecific atio n s tha t de fin e th e service
an d serv ice fe atures.
2 3 serie s Tech n ical rea liza tio n Th ese are ty p ically S tage 2 sp ecific atio n s tha t de fin e func tio n al
b lo ck s an d th e in fo rmation flow b etween the se b lo ck s.
2 4 serie s Sign allin g p ro to co ls Th ese are Stag e 3 sp ecific atio n s of p ro to co ls b etween U se r
Eq u ipmen t an d th e Co re N etw o rk .
2 5 serie s Rad io a sp ects Th ese are spec ificatio ns fo r th e radio asp ec ts.
2 6 serie s COD ECs In clu d e sp ecification s fo r co dec s fo r sp eech and v id eo .
2 7 serie s Data S pe cifica tio n s fo r su ppo rting d ata applicatio ns.
2 8 serie s Sign allin g p ro to co ls
(RS S -CN )
Th ese are Stag e 3 sp ecific atio n s of p ro to co ls b etween rad io
sub sy stem (e .g . BSS ) an d edg e o f Co re Netw o rk (e.g . MSC).
2 9 serie s Sign allin g p ro to co ls Th ese are Stag e 3 sp ecific atio n s of sig n alling p ro to co ls be tween
elemen ts o f th e Co re Netw o rk .
3 0 serie s Pro g ram man ag emen t In clu d es sp ecific atio n s for p ro ject p lans, project w ork p ro gram and
stan d -a lo ne do cuments fo r ma jor wo rk items.
3 1 serie s SIM/US IM S pe cifica tio n s fo r S IM/U SIM and its in te rfac es w ith o ther en tities.
3 2 serie s OAM D efin es sp ecific atio n s fo r app lica tio n o f TM N an d OAM.
3 3 serie s Security a sp ects D efin es sp ecific atio n s fo r security a sp ects.
3 4 serie s Test sp ec ificatio ns Th ese d efin e test spec ificatio n s.
3 5 serie s Security a lg orithms En cry ption alg orithms tha t p rov id e con fid entiality and
au th en tic atio n .

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3GPP Version Numbering


_ Each 3GPP specification has a version (x.y.z).
_ X is the release number.
_ 0: Implies that the specification is still a draft.
_ 1: Implies that the specification is presented to TSG for information.
_ 2: Implies that the specification is presented to TSG for approval.
_ 3 and onwards is the Release number

_ Y is the current version of the Release.


_ Z is used for editing.
_ For example: 3GPP TS 29.002 ver 4.6.1
_ Release number: 4
_ Version number: 6
_ Edited number: 1
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3GPP Standardization Releases


_ 3GPP standards are structures in various releases.
_ Each release has a set of supported functionality.
Year
3GPP Releases
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
?
Release 99
Release 4
Release 5
Release 6

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Agenda
_ Introduction to 3G
_ CDMA Principles
_ 3G Standardization
_ UMTS Network Architecture
_ UMTS Protocol Architecture
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UMTS Network Architecture
_A typical UMTS network can be modeled as comprising of three
basic parts:
_ User Equipment (UE)
_ Access Network (AN)
_ Core Network (CN)
To
other
Networks
(e.g. PSTN)
Uu interface Iu interface
User Equipment
(UE)
Access Network
(AN)
Core Network
(CN)
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Radio Access Network Core Network

UMTS Network Architecture - Detailed


RNC MSC
HLR/VLR
cell
PLMN
cell
Node-B Node-B
UE
SGSN GGSN PDN
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UMTS Network Architecture


_ Most of the change is in the Radio Access Network (RAN)
part of the mobile network
_ CN network elements in 3G are upgraded versions of their
2G counterparts
_ Radio Access Scheme in 3G is different from that used in
GSM/GPRS
_ Change in Radio Access Scheme allows operators to
support multimedia services
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User Equipment (UE)


_User Equipment (UE) is a device used by a subscriber/user to
access network services. It comprises of:
_ 1. Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM)
_ 2. Mobile Equipment (ME): This in turn has two parts:
_ Mobile Termination (MT)
_ Terminal Equipment (TE)
Mobile Equipment (ME)
Universal
Subscriber
Identity Module
(USIM)
Mobile Termination
(MT)
Terminal
Equipment (TE)
User Equipment (UE)
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Access Network
_ Access Network resides between UE and Core Network.
_ It performs the functions specific to the access technique.
_In case of UMTS, Access Network performs functions specific to the
access of WCDMA air interface.
_ Access Network is covered in detail in next module.
BSC
BTS BTS
BSS
RNC
RNS
Access Network
To Core Network To Core Network
Node B Node B
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Core Network
_ Core Network performs the important network functions like
mobility management, call handling, authentication, session
handling, subscriber data management.
_ Comprises of CS domain and PS domain.
HLRE IR
To
Access
Network
PS Domain
AuC
SGSN GGSN
HLR/AuC
CS Domain
MSC/
VLR GMSC
Core
Network
To
Packet
Network
To
PSTN
Network
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Hierarchical Organization of UMTS Network


URA 1 URA 2
RA 1
URA 3 URA 4
LA 2
LA 1
RA 2 RA 3
Hierarchical Organization of UMTS Network
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Hierarchical Organization of UMTS Network (2)


_ Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN): It is at the highest
level of the hierarchy.
_ Location Area (LA): LA is defined as an area in which an
MS may move freely without updating its current location at
the VLR.
_ Routing Area (RA): RA is defined as an area in which an
MS may move freely without updating its current location at
the SGSN.
PLMN identifier
MCC
(3 digits)
MNC
(2/3 digits)
LAI
MCC
(3 digits)
MNC
(2/3 digits)
LAC
(2 Octets)
RAI
MCC
(3 digits)
MNC
(2/3 digits)
LAC
(2 Octets)
RAC
(1 Octets)
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Hierarchical Organization of UMTS Network (3)


_ UTRAN Registration Area (URA): URA is an area covered by
a number of cells internally known in the UTRAN. The URA is
used to provide an abstraction between cells and RA.
_ Cells: At the lowest level of UMTS hierarchy is the cell. Each
cell is identified by the Cell Identity (CI). A CI is unique within
a location area. To identify a cell uniquely across PLMNs, an
identity called the Cell Global Identity (CGI) is defined. CGI is
obtained by the concatenation of LAI and the CI.
LAI
MCC
(3 digits)
MNC
(2/3 digits)
LAC
(2 Octets)
CI
(2 Octets)
CGI
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Addresses and Identifiers (1)


Identity Description Composition
IMSI Permanent identity that uniquely identifies a subscriber. MCC + MNC +
MSIN
MSISDN Service identity that is used for communication with a
subscriber.
CC + NDC+ SN
TMSI Temporary identity that is used to hide the permanent
identity IMSI of a subscriber.
4 octets (chosen by
operator)
LMSI Temporary identity that is used by VLR to optimize
database search.
4 octets (allocated
by VLR)
MSRN Temporary identity that is allocated by VLR and is used to
route calls directed to a MS.
CC + NDC+ SN
RNTI Temporary identity used as UE identifiers to exchange
signalling messages between UE and UTRAN.
Refer 3GPP TS
25.401
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Addresses and Identifiers (2)


Identity Description Composition
PDP
Address
Static or dynamic network address used to communicate
with other entities of a Packet Data Network (PDN).
Typically IPv4 or
IPv6 address.
IMEI Permanent identity that uniquely identifies an MS. TAC + SNR
Location
Number
Refers to the geographical position of the MS in terms
of standardized co-ordinates.
CC + NDC+ LSP
E.164
address
Used by MSC, GMSC, SGSN, GGSN, EIR, HLR and
VLR for the purpose of signalling.
CC + NDC+ SN
GSN
address
Used by the GSNs to communicate with each other over
IP backbone.
IPv4 or IPv6
address
RNC
identifier
Used to uniquely identify an RNC. MCC + MNC +
RNC-id.
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Agenda
_ Introduction to 3G
_ CDMA Principles
_ 3G Standardization
_ UMTS Network Architecture
_ UMTS Protocol Architecture
_ 3G Deployments
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Access Stratum (AS) and Non-Access Stratum (NAS)


_ Access Stratum (AS): Provides means to carry information over
the air i/f and the means to manage its resources.
_ Non-Access Stratum (NAS): Include protocols that apply between
UE and the Core Network
Non-Access Stratum (NAS)
UE Core Network
NAS
protocols
NAS
protocols
Access Network
Access Stratum (AS)
Relay
AS
entity
AS
entity
Uu Stratum Iu Stratum
Uu
interface
Iu
interface
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Radio Interface Protocols: AS and NAS Parts


Access and Non-access Stratum
PDCP
BMC
Physical Layer
MAC
RLC
RRC
Control Plane User Plane
Control
MM/GMM
CC SM SS SMS User Plane Protocols
(e. g. IP)
Non-Access
Stratum
Access
Stratum
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Access Network: Overview


_3GPP standards allow two different types of access
network systems to interface with the core network.
_Base Station Subsystem (BSS): BSS is a legacy of the GSM.
_Radio Network Subsystem (RNS): RNS is the newly
standardized access network for Rel99 onwards UTRAN.
_ The MSC (or SGSN) can connect to one of these Access
Network type or to both of them.
_ Apart from GSM RAN and UTRAN, there is GERAN.
_GSM RAN and GERAN are outside the scope of the
presentation.
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Architecture of Access Network


BSC RNC
Node B Node B
Abis
RNC
BTS BTS
Um
Iur
Iu_CS Iu_PS
PS Domain
A Gb
CS Domain
UE
Access
Network
Core
Network
BSS RNS
Abis Iub Iub
Um U u U u
Access Network
_

Base Station Subsystem (BSS)


_Base Station Controller (BSC): Controls one or more BTS. The
important functions performed by BSC include
_ Radio Resource Management,
_ Control of BTS,
_ Inter-cell handovers and
_ power control.
_Base Transceiver Station (BTS): BTS provides services in a cell.
The important functions performed by BTS include
_ Channel Coding,
_ Encryption/Decryption, and
_ Transcoding and Rate Adaptation.

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Radio Network Subsystem (RNS)


_Radio Network Controller (RNC): Controls one or more Node B.
The important functions performed by RNC include:
_ Radio Resource Management,
_ Control of Node B,
_ Encryption/Decryption,
_ Admission control and
_ Downlink power control and uplink outer loop power control.
_ Node B: Node B provides services in a cell. The important
functions performed by Node B include
_ Channel Coding,
_ Rate Matching
_ Spreading/Despreading
_ Inner-loop power control
_
Uu interfaces
Radio Interface: Types of Channels
PDCP
BMC
Physical Layer
MAC
RLC
RRC
Logical channels
Tranport channels
Control
Control Plane
Layer 1
Layer 2
Layer 3
User Plane
Signaling Radio Bearers
Physical channels
User Plane Radio Bearers
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Iu_CS Interface
Radio
Network
Layer
Transport
Network
Layer
RANAP
Control Plane
Transport Network
User Plane
Transport Network
Control Plane
AAL2 Signalling
Iu UP Protocol
User Plane
Transport Network
User Plane
SCCP
MTP3b
SSCF-N N I
SSCOP
AAL5
STC for MTP3b
MTP3b
SSCF-N N I
SSCOP
AAL5
Physical Layer
ATM
AAL2
Iu_CS interface
_
Iu_PS Interface
Iu_PS interface
Radio
Network
Layer
Transport
Network
Layer
RANAP
Control Plane
Transport Network
User Plane
Iu UP Protocol
User Plane
Transport Network
User Plane
Physical Layer
ATM
SCCP
AAL5
MTP3b
SSCF-NNI
SSCOP IP
SCTP
M3UA
AAL5
GTP-U
UDP
IP

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_
Iur Interface
Iur interface
Radio
Network
Layer
Transport
Network
Layer
RNSAP
Control Plane
Transport Network
User Plane
User Plane
Transport Network
User Plane
Physical Layer
ATM
SCCP
AAL5
Transport Network
Control Plane
AAL2 Signalling
STC for MTP3b
AAL5
MTP3b
SSCF-NNI
SSCOP IP
SCTP
M3UA MTP3b
SSCF-NNI
SSCOP IP
SCTP
M3UA
AAL2
DCH FP CCH FP
_
Iub Interface
Iub interface
Radio
Network
Layer
Transport
Network
Layer
NBAP
Control Plane
Transport Network
User Plane
Transport Network
Control Plane
AAL2 Signalling
User Plane
Transport Network
User Plane
SSCF-U N I
SSCOP
AAL5
STC for UNI-SAAL
SSCF-U N I
SSCOP
AAL5
Physical Layer
ATM
AAL2
DCH FP
RACH FP
FACH FP
PCH FP
DSCH FP
HS-DSCH
USCH FP

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_
Iu_BC Interface
Iub interface
Radio
Network
Layer
Transport
Network
Layer
SABP Protocol
SA Broadcast Plane
Transport Network
User Plane
Physical
ATM
AAL5
TCP
IP
_

Radio Interface Protocols


_ Includes AS protocols applicable over the radio interface.
_ Radio Interface protocol includes:
_ Medium Access Control (MAC)
_ Radio Link Control (RLC)
_ Broadcast/Multicast Control (BMC)
_ Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP)
_ Radio Resource Control (RRC)
_ Radio interface architecture is defined in 3GPP TS 25.301.
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_

Radio Interface Protocols: MAC (1)


_ MAC maps the data received on logical channels from RLC to
appropriate transport channels of the physical layer.
_ MAC layer is further divided into four different logical entities :
_ MAC-b: The MAC-b controls access to the Broadcast CHannel (BCH).
_ MAC-hs: The MAC-hs controls access to the High Speed-Downlink
Shared CHannel (HS-DSCH).
_ MAC-c/sh: The MAC-c/sh controls access to the common and shared
channels (except the broadcast and high-speed downlink shared
channel).
_ MAC-d: The MAC-d controls access to the Dedicated CHannel (DCH).
_ MAC is defined in 3GPP TS 25.321

Radio Interface Protocols: MAC (2)


Logical Channels and Mapping with Transport Channels
Mapping to Transport
Name of Logical channel
Channel Abbr. Description
Uplink Downlink
Broadcast Control Channel BCCH A downlink channel for broadcasting system control
information.
N/a BCH/ FACH
Paging Control Channel PCCH
A downlink channel that transfers paging information.
This channel is used when the network does not know the
location cell of the UE, or, the UE is in the cell-connected
state (utilizing UE sleep mode procedures).
N/a PCH
Common Control Channel CCCH
Bi-directional channel for transmitting control
information between network and UEs. This channel is
commonly used by the UEs having no RRC connection
with the network and by the UEs using common transport
channels when accessing a new cell after cell reselection.
RACH FACH
Dedicated Control Channel DCCH
A point-to-point bi-directional channel that transmits
dedicated control information between a UE and the
network. This channel is established through RRC
connection setup procedure.
RACH/ DCH/
CPCH (FDD)/
USCH (TDD)
FACH/ DSCH/
HS-DSCH/
DCH
Contort Channel (CCH)
Shared Channel Control
Channel SHCCH
Bi-directional channel that transmits control information
for uplink and downlink shared channels between
network and UEs. This channel is for TDD only.
RACH (TDD)/
USCH (TDD)
FACH (TDD)/
DSCH (TDD)
Dedicated Traffic Channel DTCH
It is a point-to-point channel, dedicated to one UE, for the
transfer of user information. A DTCH can exist in both
uplink and downlink.
RACH/ DCH/
CPCH (FDD)/
USCH (TDD)
FACH/ DSCH/
HS-DSCH/
DCH
Traffic Channel
(TCH)
Common Traffic Channel CTCH
A point-to-multipoint unidirectional channel for transfer
of dedicated user information for all or a group of
specified UEs.
N/a FACH

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Radio Interface Protocols: RLC


_ Provides link-layer services like reliable data transfer, segmentation
and reassembly, flow control, error control and sequence
numbering.
_ RLC layer provides three modes:
_ RLC Transparent Mode (TM): Most basic modes, performs very
primitive function.
_ RLC Unacknowledged Mode (UM): Adds sequence numbering facility.
_ RLC Acknowledged Mode (AM): Most comprehensive of the three
modes, provides segmentation and reassembly, concatenation, error
correction, flow control and ciphering.
_ AM mode operates over DCCH or DTCH logical channel.
_ RLC is defined in 3GPP TS 25.322
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Radio Interface Protocols: PDCP


_ PDCP is used to carry user-plane information for the PS-domain.
_ PDCP does not exist in the control plane.
_ PDCP does not exist for the CS domain.
_ PDCP carries data protocols like IP and PPP.
_ Compression of redundant header information forms one of the most
important functions of PDCP protocol.
_ Apart from this, PDCP provides means to transfer PDCP SDU
received from non-access stratum using the RLC layer.
_ Functions of PDCP are similar to that of Sub Network Dependent
Convergence Protocol (SNDCP) used in GPRS.
_ PDCP layer is detailed in 3GPP TS 25.323.

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Radio Interface Protocols: BMC


_ BMC is used to carry user-plane information in the downlink
direction.
_ The information is broadcast or multicast in nature and is sent in
unacknowledged mode.
_ PDCP layer is detailed in 3GPP TS 25.324
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Radio Interface Protocols: RRC


_ RRC is the most important of the Radio Interface protocols.
_ RRC is used for signaling between UTRAN and UE.
_ RRC controls all the lower layers including:
_ PDCP
_ BMC
_ RLC
_ MAC and
_ Physical layer.
_ RRC is used in the control plane; it is not used in the user plane.
_ RRC layer is defined in 3GPP TS 25.331.

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ATM-Based Protocols
_ Includes ATM-based protocols used in the Transport Network Layer.
_ ATM-based protocol includes:
_ Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
_ ATM Adaptation Layer 2 (AAL2)
_ ATM Adaptation Layer 5 (AAL5)
_ Service Specific Connection Oriented Part (SSCOP)
_ Service Specific Co-ordination Function for NNI (SSCF-NNI)
_ Service Specific Co-ordination Function for UNI (SSCF-UNI)
_ Message Transfer Part 3 for Broadband (MTP3b)
_ Signaling Transport Converter
_ AAL2 Signaling
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Radio Network Layer Protocols


_ Includes Radio Network Layer protocols used in UTRAN.
_ It includes:
_ Radio Access Network Application Part (RANAP)
_ Radio Network Subsystem Application Part (RNSAP)
_ Node B Application Part (NBAP)
_ Iu User Plane Protocol
_ Iu Framing Protocol
_ UTRAN architecture is defined in 3GPP TS 25.401.
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Radio Network Protocols: RANAP (1)


_RANAP controls the signaling between Access and Core Network.
_It is used between RNC and MSC/VLR and between RNC and
SGSN.
_ Thus it controls signaling for both Iu_CS and Iu_PS interfaces.
_ Thus, control plane for Iu_CS and Iu_PS is same.
_ This is not true for user plane which is different. This is why AAL2 is
used in Iu_CS and AAL5 in Iu_PS.
_ RANAP layer is defined in 3GPP TS 25.413.
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Radio Network Protocols: RANAP (2)


_ Important functions of RANAP are:
_ Radio Resource Management
_ Iu link management
_ Transport of NAS signalling information
_ Mobility Management
_ Security mode control
_ Tracing
_ Query of Geographical Information
_ Report Collection of unacknowledged data

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Radio Network Protocols: RNSAP


_ RNSAP controls the signaling between two RNC.
_One RNC acts as Serving RNC (SRNC) and other takes the role of Drift
RNC (DRNC).
_ It is used between over Iur interface.
_ RNSAP is primarily used for inter-RNC soft handover. Apart from
this, it is used for
_ Radio Link Management and Supervision (of DRNC)
_ Measurements on Dedicated and Common Resources
_ Rate Control
_ Paging
_ Relocation
_ Iur Interface Reset
_ RNSAP layer is defined in 3GPP TS 25.423.
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Radio Network Protocols: NBAP


_ NBAP controls the signaling between RNC and Node B.
_ It is used between over Iub interface.
_ NBAP is primarily used for the following
_ NBAP protocol is used by the RNC to control the resources of the Node
B.
_ The NBAP protocol is also used by Node B to send measurement
reports to RNC.
_ Besides this, NBAP protocol is used for fault management purposes.
_ NBAP layer is defined in 3GPP TS 25.433.
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….for your time and patience!!
Thanks….