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Stewart, D. P., Jewell, R. J. & Randolph, M. F. (1994). Gtktechnique 44, No.

2, 277-296

Design of piled bridge abutments on soft clay for

loading from lateral soil movements


Piles supporting bridge abutments on soft clay Les mouvements borizontaux du sol c&s par le
may be loaded laterally from horizontal soil move- remblai sont susceptibles d’engendrer des con-
ments generated by the approach embankment. traintes la&ales dans les pieux supportant les
The design of piles loaded by lateral soil move- c&es de ponts construites sur des argiles molles.
ments is problematic in that existing design La conception des pieux charg6s IatCralement par
approaches are generally inconsistent or show poor les mouvements due sol, pose des problemes
correlation with available data. New empirical puisque les approches conceptuelles existantes sont
design charts are presented to allow an assessment g&itrallement contradictoires et pr&sentent une
of maximum pile bending moment and pile bead mauvaise corrBation avec les don&s disponibles.
deflection based on the relative soil-pile stitiess L’article pr6sente de nouveaux abaques empiriques
and current loading level. A new analytical permettant d’accCder, i partir de la raideur rela-
approach is also developed on the basis of a simple tive sol-pieu et du niveau de cbargement courant,
deformation mechanism. The method accounts for au moment de flexion maximal du pieu et au d&-
the main features of the problem through an placement en t&te de pieu. Une nouvelle approche
approximate representation of the embankment- analytique, fondle sur un mbanisme de d&forma-
soil-pile interaction, and is shown to compare tion simple, est egalement developtie. La m&bode
favourably with centrifuge model test data. Rec- rend compte des principal= caractbristiques du
ommendations for the design of pile groups for problkme g&e i une reprkntation approcbCe des
loading from lateral soil movements are also given. interactions remblai-sol-pieu. La comparaison avec
les don&s issues de I’essai de centrifugation
semble bonne. L’article propose Cgalement des
recommandations pour la conception de groupes de
KEYWORDS: clays; deformation; design; embank- pieux soumis P un chargement par mouvements
ment; piles; soilstructure interaction. latbraux du sol.

INTRODUCTION empirical or theoretical analyses available have

When an embankment on soft clay forms an generally shown poor correlation with the limited
approach to a piled bridge abutment, time- data obtained from full-scale field trials (Poulos,
dependent movements within the clay may 1973; Tan, 1988). As would be expected, these
produce significant lateral loading and deflection data arise from situations with variable geometry
of the piles. Fig. 1 illustrates this situation, which and soil conditions, and are often of poor quality.
will occur when the piles are installed before full Thus there are major uncertainties in the estima-
deformation of the embankment has taken place. tion of bending moments and deflections induced
This loading, and any additional lateral loading in piles under these conditions. Because of this,
derived from backfill earth pressure in cases bridge designers often adopt a conservative
where the approach embankment is retained by design incorporating caissons to shield piles from
the abutment structure, will induce bending lateral soil displacements, or pile installation is
moments and deflections in the piles. In severe delayed until virtually full settlement of the
cases, these may lead to structural distress or embankment has occurred. The challenge is to
failure of the piles or bridge structure. derive a method of estimating accurately the
Lateral loadings predicted by the various semi- bending moments and deflections induced in the
piles, so that more cost-effective design and con-
struction procedures can be implemented.
Manuscript received 23 October 1992; accepted 24
March 1993. In this Paper, a brief overview of the observed
Discussion on this Paper closes 1 September 1994; for behaviour of piled bridge abutments on soft
further details see p. ii. ground is given, and is illustrated by centrifuge
* University of Western Australia. model test data obtained by Stewart (1992). The

Earth pressure from Stewart (1992) conducted further centrifuge

retained embankment
model tests to clarify the behaviour of pile groups
adjacent to embankments on soft clay. The
response of more flexible piles (steel H-piles) in
_= deeper soft clay deposits (8-18 m thickness proto-
type scale) was investigated, with particular
- emphasis on bridge abutment configurations. In
- this Paper, results from two of these tests are
described: test 9 with an 18m thick (prototype
Soft clay
scale) layer of soft clay, and test 11 with an 8m
thick layer of soft clay. In each of these tests, the
Lateral loading from /5
horizontal soll movements model pile groups consisted of 14 vertical piles
(two rows of seven) held in a rigid cap 2m above
the soil surface and able to deflect freely. The
St&r substratum
piles were installed through a soft clay layer and
into an underlying dense sand stratum, before
Fig. 1. Loads on piled bridge abutment originating from construction of a sand embankment in six stages
the approach embankment
adjacent to the group. The embankment had a
front slope of 1.5 horizontal to 1 vertical, and was
constructed to a maximum height of about 8.5 m.
range of current design methods is described, and Four instrumented piles were included in the pile
their shortcomings or disadvantages are outlined. group, with the response monitored in terms of
Two new and relatively simple design approaches pile bending moment distributions and pile cap
are then described. The first approach is empiri- deflection. The work has been described by
cally based, and combines data from a number of Stewart (1992) and Stewart, Jewel1 & Randolph
sources on to design charts. This approach (1994); only a brief review of the observed behav-
allows initial estimates of pile group response to iour is given here.
be obtained simply for a wide range of pile
stiffnesses, and thus is attractive to the designer.
The charts were derived from real data (including Observed behaviour
field results), and so there is high confidence in Pile bending moment distributions (scaled up
the predictions obtained, provided that the situ- to prototype units) from two typical centrifuge
ation being analysed is compatible with those tests are shown in Fig. 2, illustrating similar
from which the data were obtained. The second responses for different piles in the same row of the
design approach was developed to enable a com- group for each test. The distributions are indica-
prehensive study of pile group response to be per- tive of those developed in the other centrifuge
formed using a more analytical approach. The tests. The maximum bending moments in these
method is based on a simple deformation mecha- tests occurred close to either the pile cap level or
nism, and attempts to account approximately for the interface of the soft and stiff layers. The
the main features of the problem. Results from precise location of the maximum bending
this method are shown to compare favourably moment depended on the variation in stiffness of
with centrifuge test data. Recommendations for the soft stratum with depth and on the presence
the design of pile groups for loading from lateral of raking piles in the group. Interestingly, the
soil movements are also given. single test performed by Stewart (1992) with one
row of raking piles showed lateral pile cap dis-
placement reduced by up to 25%, compared with
an identical test with vertical piles. This reduction
EXPERIMENTAL DATA was less than expected, since raking piles nor-
A limited amount of field data has been mally reduce lateral displacements substantially
published regarding the behaviour of piles sub- when loads are applied directly to the pile cap.
jected to loading from lateral soil displacements. However, in the case described here, the lateral
However, the available data are largely qualit- load is acting along the length of the piles and
ative or of limited value. Springman (1989) con- therefore much less resistance to movement is
ducted a series of centrifuge model tests to available. It is not possible to draw general con-
examine pile loadings generated by a nearby clusions regarding the efficiency of raking piles in
surface load. The response of relatively stiff piles reducing displacements on the basis of this single
(equivalent to 1 m dia. reinforced concrete) test.
installed in a relatively thin layer of soft clay The response of a pile group with increasing
(6-8 m thickness prototype scale) was examined. embankment height is illustrated by typical data
Bending moment: kNm BendIng moment: kNm
-600 -300 0 300 600 -800 -400 0 400

-Pile cap I

25 ’ I I I I
(4 (b)
Fig. 2. Typical pile bending moment distributions from centrifuge tests (after Stewart, 1992): (a) test 9, 18 m thick soft
clay layer; (b) test 11, 8m thick soft clay layer

in Fig. 3, as the maximum bending moment M,,,

in each pile and the pile cap deflection y plotted
against the average vertical stress q applied by the
embankment. Two generally linear sections are
identifiable in the data, showing that bending
moments and deflections induced in the piles are
initially relatively small. A substantial increase
then occurs after a certain threshold loading is
passed. The threshold (at the intersection of the
two lines) was consistently observed to occur at
an embankment load of about three times a rep-
resentative undrained shear strength s, of the soft
stratum. This load corresponds roughly to a
factor of safety against failure of the embankment OT--

of about 1.7 (514/3). The increase in load applied

to the piles is caused by an increase in soil dis-
placement due to the initiation of significant
plastic deformation in the soft stratum. Thus the
threshold loading could effectively be considered
as a limit to elastic behaviour. This observation
compares well with field data on lateral soil dis-
placements and pile loadings, as detailed by
Stewart, Jewel1 & Randolph (1991) and Stewart
(1992). When plotted on logarithmic scales, the
data follow relatively linear trends, indicating
that relationships of the form y (or M,,,) = aq*
may be appropriate, where a and b are constants.
Therefore, the threshold loading is not a sharp
break but occurs gradually. 0 40 80 1
Pile cap deflection is plotted against embank- Embankment load: kPe
. ._
ment settlement for a typical centrrfuge test in Fig. 3. Pile group response with embankment loading
Fig. 4. The response for each embankment stage level for centrifuge teat 9 (after Stewart, 1992)

height, and time
Lateral deflection of pile cap: mm

E 600
I 900
E 1200



Fig. 4. Development of pile cap deflection with embankment settlement

for centrifuge test 9 (after Stewart, 1992)

shows lateral displacement of similar magnitude account of the soft clay thickness and the end
to the embankment settlement developing ini- fixity conditions, as described by Marche 8~
tially. This behaviour is consistent with initially Lacroix (1972). The centrifuge data are presented
undrained conditions during each stage, when as the ratio at the end of the test (i.e. the overall
relatively large lateral displacements are gener- response) and as the ratio during consolidation of
ated. A gradual change then occurs as pore pres- the final embankment stage. The data do not
sures dissipate, leading to smaller lateral show a distinct trend, which is not surprising
movements as vertical displacements become since the ratio is very dependent on the interval
more prevalent. The behaviour is similar to that over which it is measured. The ratio also depends
observed for soil displacements next to field on the presence of raking piles in the group, and
embankments (Stewart, 1992; Stewart et al. on any external pile cap loading such as from
1994), and was confirmed by reference to pore- earth pressures against a retaining wall (Stewart
pressure transducers installed in the models. et al., 1994). Therefore, care must be exercised
Inspection of the last stage of each test suggested when using relationships of this form to assess
that about 70% of the pile cap deflection likely pile deformations.
occurred during the undrained phase, with the
remaining 30% occurring during ongoing con-
solidation. Correspondingly, about 2530% of Tolerable movement criteria for bridge abutments
the embankment settlement occurred during the Design criteria for bridge abutments involve
undrained phase. These data compare well with both strength and serviceability considerations.
observations from field trials (Oteo, 1977) which Strength requirements for structural members are
show that about 75% of the peak pile loading covered by bridge design codes, but criteria for
developed immediately after embankment con- tolerable horizontal movement of bridge abut-
struction. ments are not well established. Moulton, Ganga
The centrifuge data are compared with field Rao & Halvorsen (1985) also found that ‘the
data of Marche & Lacroix (1972) in Fig. 5, where design practice of most agencies does not routin-
the ratio of horizontal abutment displacement y ely involve the consideration of tolerable bridge
to embankment settlement 6 is related to the rela- movements’.
tive pile flexibility s, L?/E, I,. In this expression, Some investigators have suggested criteria for
L is defined as an equivalent pile length taking tolerable horizontal movements of bridge abut-

1000 J .
Range Of y/d :
reported by
Seymour-Jones :
-’ : (1971)
4 m

. Field data
o Centrifuge - end of test
0 Centrifuge - final
consolidation stage
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 ( 6
Relative abutment displacement y/d

Fig. 5. Relative abutment displacement as a function of relative pile flexibility; field

data after Marche & Lacroix (1971), centrifuge data after Stewart (1992)

ments based on field performance. The most com- movement necessary to reduce the earth pressure
prehensive study was conducted by Moulton et acting on the abutment to active conditions (the
al. (1985), who found that relatively large hori- usual design state if movement is possible). There-
zontal abutment displacements might be tolerable fore, selection of earth pressure for the design of
where only horizontal movement occurred. the abutment clearly has implications with regard
However, damage was more prevalent where to movement of the wall.
both vertical and horizontal movements occurred,
and for bridges constructed from concrete. Hori-
zontal movements of less than 25mm were found EXISTING DESIGN TECHNIQUES
to be acceptable for almost all the bridges investi- A number of methods have been presented for
gated, and movements greater than 50mm were the analysis of piles and pile groups subjected to
generally unacceptable. On this basis, Moulton et lateral loading from horizontal soil movements.
al. (1985) recommended a limit of 38mm. These methods encompass the full range of geo-
Barker, Duncan, Rojiani, Ooi, Tan & Kim (1991) technical analysis categories (Table 2) proposed
provide a useful summary of the various rec- by Poulos (1989). Each method considered here
ommendations (Table 1). They suggest that the can be further classified into a broad grouping
criterion of 38mm, although possibly over- which describes the basic approach to the
simplified, is likely to be the most reasonable problem. The methods that comprise these
value to use in design. groups are presented in Table 3, which shows the
An issue related to tolerable horizontal move- general approach adopted and the extent of the
ments of bridge abutments is the amount of calculated results. The methods are described in

Table 1. Horizontal movement criteria for bridge abutments, after

Barker et al. (1991)

movement :
25 Not harmful Bozozuk (1978)
38 Tolerable in most cases Moulton et al. (1985)
50 Structural distress Walkinshaw (1978)
50 Harmful but tolerable Bozozuk (1978)
50 Usually intolerable Wahls (1990)

Table 2. Categories of geotechnical analysis and design techniques, after Poulos (1989)

Category 1 Division Characteristics Soil behaviour Method of parameter


1 _ Empirical-not based on Simple in situ or

soil mechanics principles laboratory tests, with

-i-j--r Based on simplified

theory or charts, uses soil
Linear elastic
(deformation) or rigid
Routine relevant
in situ tests-may
mechanics principles, plastic (stability) require some

amenable to hand correlations
2B Non-linear
(deformation) or elasto-
plastic (stability)

Based on theory using Linear elastic Careful laboratory

site-specific analysis, (deformation) or rigid and/or in situ tests
uses soil mechanics plastic (stability) which follow the
principles appropriate stress

Non-linearity allowed
for in a relatively
simple manner

Non-linearity allowed
for by way of proper
constitutive models of
soil behaviour

detailby Stewart (1992), who critically reviewed of design methods, Tan (1988) found this to be
them by comparison with experimental data. The the most suitable method for preliminary design.
broad groupings for these design methods are However, Stewart (1992) conducted a more com-
prehensive review and found generally poor
(4 empirical methods, where the pile response is
agreement with experimental data for most of the
estimated in terms of maximum bending
simple approaches.
moment and pile cap deflection on the basis
The displacement-based methods and finite
of charts developed from experimental data
element analyses allow more accurate representa-
(4 pressure-based methods, where a pressure dis-
tion of soil stratigraphy and loading conditions,
tribution acting against the piles is estimated
but require computer programs. A major problem
in a relatively simple manner, and is generally
with the displacement-based methods is estima-
used only to calculate the maximum bending
tion of the free soil displacement, because lateral
moment in the piles
soil displacements are notoriously diff%zult to esti-
(4 displacement-based methods, where the dis-
mate accurately, even if vertical displacements
tribution of lateral soil displacement is input
can be predicted well (Poulos, 1971). Finite
and the resulting pile deflection and bending
element analysis provides a good opportunity for
moment distribution are calculated
accurate representation of the entire problem.
(4 finite element analyses, where the piles are
Plane strain analysis, with the piles replaced by
represented in the mesh and the overall soil-
equivalent sheet-pile walls, is the most straightfor-
pile-surcharge response is calculated.
ward approach, although care must be taken to
The empirically-based and pressure-based select appropriate soil parameters. Stewart, Jewel1
design methods are attractive from a design per- & Randolph (1993) describe this approach in
spective, because they enable estimates of detail and show a favourable comparison with
maximum bending moment and pile cap deflec- centrifuge test data.
tion to be obtained relatively quickly and easily.
However, most of these approaches are simple
and limited in applicability. One of the more NEW EMPIRICAL RELATIONSHIPS
common simple design methods is that described Several empirical relationships have been pro-
by DeBeer & Wallays (1972). In a limited review posed on the basis of field data (Table 3),
Table 3. Existing analytical and design approaches

Grouping Category Reference Method output*

Empirical 1 Marche & Lacroix (1972) Horizontal abutment displacement related to embankment Y,,,
settlement through relative pile flexibility

1 Oteo (1977) Maximum bending moment related to relative pile length, M mar
with correction for embankment geometry

Stewart (1992)t Maximum bending moment and pile head deflection related M mar, Yeap
to the relative soil&pile stiffness and current loading level

Pressure-based 2A Begemann & DeLeeuw Approximate displacement compatibility between pile and soil M max
(1972) used to derive lateral pressure

1/2A DeBeer & Wallays (1972) Simple estimate of lateral pressure acting on piles. Two methods, M,,,
depending on factor of safety of the embankment against failure

1/2A Tschebotarioff (1973) Simple estimate of lateral pressure acting on piles based on M mar
estimates of soil stress

1/2A Fedders (1977) German design recommendations for limit state conditions M mai
Franke (1977)

2A Springman (1989) Parabolic-shaped pressure distribution estimated on the basis BMD, DS

of approximate relative soil-pile displacement

2AIB Stewart (1992)t Modifications to Springman’s approach for greater accuracy M mai, YC,,
and allowing for non-linear behaviour and geometrical effects

Displacement- 3B Poulos (1973) Finite difference analysis of a single pile with soil reactions BMD, DS
based calculated from elastic theory, including interaction:
limited parametric solutions presented in chart form (category 2B)

3B Marche (1973) Finite difference p-y analysis of a single pile BMD, DS

Bourges, Frank & Mieussens

Finite element 3A Carter (1982) Axisymmetric analysis of a single pile with unsymmetric BMD, DS
surface load

3 A/B/C Springman (1984), Plane-strain analysis of pile groups, with rows of piles BMD, DS
Stewart (1992) represented by equivalent sheet-pile walls

3A Springman (1989) Fully three-dimensional analysis BMD, DS

* BMD pile bending moment distribution, DS full deflected pile shape.

t Described in this Paper.

although these have been found to exhibit a great examined within a consistent framework
deal of scatter, or are plotted inappropriately
(Stewart, 1992). New empirical relationships that M, = AW&W-:~ (la)
were developed on the basis of centrifuge test y4 = AyE&AqdL4 =l (lb)
data and field data are described here.
K, = E, I,/E, h: (14
where q is the embankment load, d is the pile
Dimensionless groups diameter or width, L,, is the equivalent length of
Dimensionless groups were examined in order piles between points of fixity, E, is Young’s
to compare experimental data from various modulus of a pile, I, is the moment of inertia of a
sources. The data are plotted in Fig. 6 as the non- pile, E, is the representative stiffness of the soft
dimensional change in maximum bending clay layer and h, is the thickness of the soft clay
moment M, and in pile cap deflection y, against layer.
the relative soil-pile stiffness K,. The first two Data are shown for pre-threshold load levels
non-dimensional groups were chosen by reference (q < 3s”) with ranges corresponding to the gra-
to the solutions for moment and deflection of a dient of bounding lines through the origin. For
uniformly loaded beam, so that the data were post-threshold load levels (q > 3s,), a best fit to

I.000 ~



0.00011 10 4 10 3 10-z lo-’ 1

Relative stiffness KR

l Centnfuge data pre-threshold 0 Centrifuge data post-threshold

(Stewart. 1992) (Stewart, 1992)
l Centrifuge data pre-threshold 0 Centrifuge data post-threshold
(Springman, 1989) (Springman, 1989)
a Field data pre-threshold A Field data post-threshold

Fig. 6. Nondimensional change in maximum bending moment and pile

head deflection

the data was judged. Data from centrifuge tests interface between the active and passive zones
conducted by Stewart (1992) and Springman may not be well-defined. In these situations, an
(1989) are included from the end of each loading alternative effective pile length may need to be
stage. The available field data are generally specified, or the data may follow different trends
limited, although data presented by Heyman to those indicated in Fig. 6. However, in the
(1965) and Bigot, Bourges, Frank & Guegan absence of additional data this is not examined
(1977) were used by simplifying the relatively further.
complex soil conditions at those sites. The data The embankment and loading configurations
relate to medium-term to long-term conditions, were also different in some of the tests and field
ranging from several months to many years after trials, although these effects do not contribute
construction. The combination of these data is greatly to the scatter in the data. The available
believed to be relatively consistent because most data suggest that the post-threshold peak bending
lateral soil displacement has been found to occur moment is independent of relative soil-pile
immediately after embankment construction, and stiffness for K, > IO-‘. For pre-threshold load-
therefore time effects are of minor influence. ings, the peak bending moment is more depen-
The pile configurations for the data shown in dent on the value of K,. For very stiff piles, the
Fig. 6 include piles pinned at the head, free- pre-threshold and post-threshold values of M,
headed piles, and groups connected by a rigid converge, and thus a distinct threshold would be
cap. To account for different head fixity condi- less obvious.
tions, the case of a rigid pile cap preventing rota- The data in Fig. 6 can be used to construct
tion but not deflection was chosen as the design envelopes for maximum bending moment
reference configuration. Thus, the reference piles and deflection as shown in Fig. 7, although the
can be thought of as single beams under the envelopes are likely to be relatively coarse. The
action of a distribution load, fixed at the base of effect of such factors as pile spacing, group size
the soft stratum and with a moment loading at and configuration, and embankment shape are
the head to prevent rotation. Comparing the not accounted for fully.
solutions for head deflection and maximum
bending moment for this reference pile with those
for a cantilever (free head) and a propped cantile- Piles installed after embankment construction
ver (pinned head), an equivalent pile length can The charts presented here are for piles installed
be defined as the length of a reference pile to before or during a break in embankment con-
produce similar maximum moment and head struction. However, for piles installed after
deflection as the pile being considered. Therefore, embankment construction is complete, the charts
for each head hxity condition could be used approximately by defining an
equivalent modulus, considering the ralative mag-
(a) rotation prevented nitudes of lateral soil displacement during the
L,, = L undrained and consolidation phases. While this
will depend on a number of factors, including the
(b) pinned factor of safety against failure of the embankment,
a simple approximation can be postulated.
L,, = 0.6L
An idealized relationship of embankment set-
(c) free tlement 6 and maximum lateral soil displacement
beneath the toe y, is shown in Fig. 8. This
L,, = 1.3L

where L is the length of the piles from the head to

the base of the soft stratum. Obviously a pinned
head pile will have no head deflection, and so for
this case maximum bending moment only is con-
Where the soft clay stratum is underlain by a
stiffer layer of sand or clay, active pressures will
generally develop against the pile in the soft
stratum, with passive pressures occurring in the
stiffer layer below. In these empirical relation-
ships, the piles are effectively considered as being
actively loaded over the full thickness of the soft
clay. However, for very deep soft clay deposits, or Fig. 7. Construction of design envelopes on the basis of
where modulus increases rapidly with depth, the empirical relations shown in Fig. 6

here include both undrained and consolidation
-0.3 n,,,
deformations, an equivalent modulus for piles
installed just after undrained movements have fin-
ished could, on the basis of Fig. 8, be determined
7 as 0.4/(0.4-0.3) = 4E,. This equivalent modulus
should then be used to calculate a value of K,
relevant to these conditions. For piles installed at
Average Ay,/Ad = 1
3andard devatmn = 0 2 any other time, an equivalent modulus can be
defined if the proportion of total embankment
settlement at that time can be estimated.
This method of determining an equivalent
modulus is clearly approximate, and may be sig-
nificantly in error in some cases. Nevertheless, in
conjunction with the design charts in Fig. 6, this
/ procedure provides a simple yet powerful tech-
Average Ay,/Ad = 0 16 nique for estimating pile group response for
Standard devialm = O-09 various pile installation times after embankment
I construction.

Fig. 8. Ideal&xl relation of embankment settlement and
Curve fitting
The centrifuge test data for moment or deflec-
tion against embankment load follow relatively
linear trends when plotted on logarithmic scales.
Therefore, the data can be represented simply by
equations of the form y (or M,,,) = aq*. The data
maximum lateral soil displacement beneath the toe: were initially non-dimensionalized, and curves
derived from data of Stewart (1992) and observations of were fitted as follows
Tavenas et al. (1979)

relationship was derived from observations and

correlations reported by Tavenas, Mieussens &
Bourges (1979) and from data presented by
Stewart (1992). Tavenas et al. observed that the
maximum lateral soil displacement beneath the
toe increases roughly in direct proportion with where a and b are constants. The curve fitting
the embankment settlement during the undrained parameters a and b are plotted in Figs 9 and 10
phase. As pore pressures dissipate, settlements against relative soil-pile stiffness K,. Data are
predominate and lateral displacements continue included from centrifuge tests conducted by
at the rate of about 16% of the ongoing settle- Stewart (1992) and Springman (1989), and from
ment, although this ratio was found to be sensi- the field trial reported by Bigot et al. (1977).
tive to the stability condition of the embankment. Although the data show considerable scatter,
On the basis of the data summarized in Fig. 8, approximate trend lines are indicated in Figs 9
and taking average values of Ay,/A6, the and 10. The scatter in the data appears to be due
maximum lateral soil displacement during mainly to variations in soil stratigraphy and pile
undrained deformation would be expected to be spacing. The field data in particular are less con-
about 0.36,,, Maximum lateral displacement of sistent with the other results, although the soil
about 0.46,,, would be expected at the end of stratigraphy was more complex than for the cen-
consolidation. trifuge models, and the embankment was con-
Considering only the lateral soil displacements structed in only two stages.
that occur as consolidation progresses, an equiva- Equation (2) and Figs 9 and 10 provide a
lent (higher) modulus could be defined for this means for the estimation of maximum bending
phase, imagining the soil to be stiffer because less moments and pile head deflection as an alterna-
lateral deformation is occurring for a given tive to the design charts already described. The
embankment load. This equivalent modulus has estimates must be considered as relatively crude,
no physical significance, and is used purely to however, considering the scatter in the data and
account for the relative magnitudes of lateral soil because factors such as pile spacing, group size
movement occurring during the undrained and and configuration, and embankment shape are
consolidation phases. Since the charts presented not taken into account.


1 0.01



? 2

. Centrifuge data (Stewart, 1992) = Centrifuge data (Stewart, 1992)

. Centrifuge data (Springman, 1989)
+ Centrifuge data (Springman. 1989)
A Field data

0 1
10-d 10-Z 10-Z lo-’ 1 10-a 10-3
Relative stiffness KR Relativelkkess KR lo- ’

Fig. 9. Variation of curve-fitting parameters for Fig. 10. Variation of curve-fitting parameters for pile
maximum pile bending moment head deflection

NEW DISPLACEMENT-BASED DESIGN either pile cap level or at the soft-stiff interface.
METHOD Additionally, piles are usually uniform in cross-
A new design approach was developed on the section with depth, and in this case the location
basis of a method proposed by Springman (1989). of the peak moment is of little more than aca-
The method is based on a simple soil deformation demic interest because the entire pile is of the
mechanism, and relates the lateral pressure acting same strength. Thus the method was intended to
on a pile to the approximate relative soil-pile dis- provide a simple and approximate representation
placement. Springman’s approach was shown by of the overall embankment-soil-pile interaction
Stewart (1992) to yield the most acceptable pre- without being able to determine complex pile
dictions of pile group response when compared loading distributions or account for non-uniform
with the other relatively simple pressure-based pile properties.
design methods. However, problems were experi-
enced with the validity of the method when it was
applied to situations with low relative pile-soil Soil displacement and stress mechanisms
stiffness. The approach was therefore modified to Simple soil displacement mechanisms are being
eliminate the possibility of invalid solutions and used increasingly for a variety of soil-structure
to provide a better representation of pile group interaction problems (Bolton & Powrie, 1988;
behaviour. Bolton & Sun, 1991) because approximate soil
In deriving the new approach, it was felt that displacements can be related simply to structure
its greatest applicability would be in the estima- deformations. This approach is particularly
tion of attractive for problems of this nature, where the
interaction is relatively complex. The response of
(a) the maximum bending moment in the piles each individual element of the problem can be
(b) the pile cap deflection. incorporated approximately and the overall
The bending moment distribution may be of response calculated.
some interest, but it has been observed in test In this method, soil displacements are derived
data that the peak moments generally develop at from a simple triangular displacement mechanism

Uniform load q 7 pyw

Surface load = Q
Constant strain


Zone 1 Zone 2

9 + 0. 6

all ml

-o- -+-
Active Passive
Stkff layer
y_ = rhJ2G
Fig. 11. Soil displacement mechanism

(Fig. ll), as described by Bolton, Sun & Spring-

man (1991). The lateral soil displacement y, at
any depth is described in terms of the average
mobilized shear stress z,,,, in the soft layer
L& - 4
2Gm (b)
where z is the depth below surface and G, is the
Load carried
mean shear modulus of the soft layer. The r by wall
average mobilized shear stress is approximated + r+
by a lower bound plasticity solution for collapse
of an infinitely wide strip footing, as shown in
Fig. 12(a). This comprises a two-zone stress
system, with the piles represented as a frictionless _:;;
sheet-pile wall located at the stress discontinuity
below the edge of the strip footing. Mohr’s circles
of stress for cases with and without the sheet-pile w
wall are shown in Fig. 12(b) and (c). If the piles Fig. 12. Assumed stress system: (a) lower-bound plasti-
are neglected, this solution gives collapse of the city approach for collapse of a strip footing with one dis-
footing at a load of 4 = 4s,, -20% lower than continuity; (b) srress states at failure with a frictionless
the exact solution of (2 + K)S,. discontinuity; (c) stress states at failure with a friction-
The piles are assumed to carry a uniform pres- less sheet-pile wall placed at the discontinuity
sure loading p,, although they are loaded only
over a depth of h,, which is less than the thick-
ness of the soft stratum h, Thus, by assuming the as single beams with a fixed support at the base
mobilized shear stress to be the same in the active and a moment Mhead at the top to prevent rota-
and passive zones beneath the surface load, and tion but allow deflection (Fig. 13). No shear force
lumping the contribution of all rows of piles is allowed to act at pile cap level, leading to the
together, the mobilized shear stress in the soft assumption that the same load acts on all rows of
stratum can be expressed as piles. A uniformly distributed load of magnitude
p, is applied over the section of the pile where the
soil displacement is greater than the pile deflec-
tion (Fig. 13). Below the loaded section, the pile is
where p, is the pressure acting on the piles, s is considered to be unloaded over a length h,, since
the pile spacing across the face of the embank- relative soil-pile displacements are assumed to be
ment and n, is the number of rows of piles. The much smaller in this zone. Another unloaded
overall loading conditions assumed for the piles section, of length h,, was included near the head
are described in the following section, and shown of the pile to account for any freestanding length
in Fig. 13. above the surface, beneath the pile cap.
Pile deformation within the underlying stiffer
stratum is allowed for by representing this section
Pile displacement and loading of the pile as an equivalent cantilever, length I,,
To approximate the behaviour of a pile group which has similar deflection and rotation at the
connected by a rigid cap, the piles are represented soft-stiff interface as the pile in an elastic soil. The
moment to
prevent rotation

Pile cap 4 n
.9=0 _____._.._.............

determined from
relative displacement
at this point Equivalent

Displacements Pile loading

Fig. 13. Assumed displacement and loading conditions

length can be derived on the basis of elastic solu- soil-pile displacement at the mid-height of this
tions, depending on the soil and pile stiffness zone, as shown in Fig. 13. The differential dis-
(Springman & Bolton, 1989) placement is related to the lateral pressure acting
on the piles using the following relation, present-
, = 0.341, ed by Baguelin, Frank & Said (1977), for a
e JP, Poisson’s ratio of 0.5
where I, is the critical pile length for lateral
5.33G,(y, - Y,)
loading and pC is a parameter describing the rela- P= (8)
tive homogeneity of the soil, as defined by Ran- d
dolph (1981). The equivalent cantilever length 1, is where d is the pile diameter. In equation (S), G,
included in the length of the lower unloaded represents a reduced soil modulus in a zone
section h,, as shown in Fig. 13. around the pile, where the reduction is due to
Solutions for deflection at various points along softening attributed to installation effects and/or
the idealized pile are cumbersome, although rela- high strain levels (Springman & Bolton, 1989).
tively simple to obtain. The mean pressure acting on the idealized pile is
(4 At h, + hJ2 above the point of fixity (mid- obtained by substituting the soil displacement
height of loaded section) (equations (3) and (4)) and the pile displacement
(equation (6)) at the mid-height of the loaded
pmd F section into equation (8)
“= 24EI ’
P, =
@I at h, above the point of fixity (base of loaded
section) 4

” = 24EI

nr W, - W2)
+ 24EI 1
where (9)

F, = m4 - 4Lm3 + 6L?m2 - 4hu3m + hu4 By equating the pile and soil displacement at h,
above the point of fixity, and substituting for p,
- 2h,m2[3L + 3(L - h,) from equation (9), the following expression is
- 2m] - 2m[(L - h,)3 - hu3]/L obtained to define the length of the loaded section
m = h, + hJ2
C(h, - W/W, - (4 - W’, (k - 4) _ o
F, = h,*(L - h,)(3L + h,) 24EI 5.336,
- (L - hf)*h,(4L - h,)
- Ch,*(L - M3/L)l + hu5/L Equation (10) must be solved iteratively first, and
The average pressure acting on the piles over the the resulting value of h, substituted into equation
loaded section is determined from the relative (9) to obtain a solution for p,.

The bending moment distribution along the
piles can be determined relatively simply, con-
sidering the applied loading and the end condi-
tions. However, the method is intended only to
provide an estimate of the maximum bending
moment and the pile head deflection. For the
idealized pile group behaviour used in this
analysis, Stewart (1992) found that the maximum
bending moment along the pile is described by
the greater of the moment at pile cap level Mhead
and the moment at the interface of the soft and
stiff layers Mbase. Equations (11) and (12) are
expressions for these values; the pile head deflec-
tion can be determined from equation (13).

M head= g C(h, + Q3 - h”31 (11)

M base = Pm&
h, + $
- Mhead (12) 600
yhead = $$ [hU4 - 2hU3L + 2(L - hJ3L l

- (L - M41 (13)

Application of the proposed method is illus-
trated by comparison with centrifuge test data
obtained by Stewart (1992). Results from two 40 80
tests are utilized: test 9 (soft clay stratum 18m Embankment load: kPa
thick, with an average undrained shear strength
over the entire layer S, = 17 kPa, and relative Fig. 14. Comparison of results from the proposed
method with data from centrifuge test 9 (Mm thick soft
soil-pile stiffness K, z 10e4) and test 11 (soft
clay layer)
clay stratum 8m thick with S, = 11 kPa and
K, X 10-z).
Since the centrifuge tests involved piles at the extended up to an embankment load of 3s: (an
toe of an embankment with a front slope, calcu- approximate elastic limit), to be consistent with
lations were performed by assuming that the observations from the centrifuge data discussed
embankment could be represented by a uniform above. The calculated results provide a reason-
load adjacent to the piles, ignoring the effect of able approximation to the test data, although the
the front slope. A representative elastic shear initial response is overestimated. However, the
modulus for the soft stratum was chosen on the stress-strain behaviour of the soft clay is known
basis of G = 6OS,. Softening around the piles was to be highly non-linear, and therefore the selec-
ignored. The pressure distributions resulting from tion of a representative elastic modulus for the
the analysis (from equations (9) and (10)) were soft layer is problematic. Nevertheless, the pro-
posed method approximately models the signifi-
(a) test 9: 18 m thick clay, p, = 0.07q acting over
cant features of the embankment-soil-pile
O-8.4 m depth
interaction, and has been shown to yield consis-
(b) test 11: 8m thick clay, p,,, = 0.94q acting over
tent results for configurations of different relative
O-l .6 m depth.
soil-pile stiffness.
These distributions are not considered to be
indicative of the actual pressure distributions
acting during the tests, but are included to illus- Incorporation of non-linear behaviour
trate the analytical results. The calculated Non-linear stress-strain behaviour is relatively
maximum bending moments and pile cap deflec- important in the behaviour of embankments on
tions (equations (1 l)-(13)) are compared with the soft clay, since the factor of safety against failure
test data in Figs 14 and 15. The calculations are is generally relatively low (_ 1.5). For most other

. on soft clay, which indicate displacements

t increasing at a gradually greater rate as the
embankment height is raised. This further under-
: lines the importance of the non-linear stress-
: strain response of the soft stratum.
In order to model true behaviour more closely,
the effects of non-linear stress-strain response and
embankment geometry can be incorporated in
the proposed new method relatively simply. The
application of these non-linear effects to the
analysis of centrifuge model test data is described
Stress-strain response of the soft layer. To
approximate the stress-strain behaviour of the
kaolin used in the centrifuge model tests of
Stewart (1992) a modified hyperbolic curve fit
was used, of the form

G set
-_=l_-f z,,b (14)
GO ~nlax

In the standard hyperbolic equation that is often

used to describe soil behaviour,fand g are both
equal to 1. A good match to simple shear test
data at a range of overconsolidation ratios was
obtained using equation (14) with f = 0.985,
g = 0.2 and Go/r,,, = 250, as described by
Stewart (1992).
Corrections for embankment geometry.
Corrections were applied for the embankment
geometry, to account for distinct variations from
Embankment load: kPa the infinite strip load assumed in the proposed
analysis. A correction for the front slope
Fig. 15. Comparison of results from the proposed geometry is detailed below; other minor correc-
method with data from centrifuge test 11 (Sm thick soft tions relevant only to the centrifuge test configu-
layer) rations are described by Stewart (1992).
The length of the front slope of an embank-
ment affects the displacements that occur at the
soillstructure interaction problems, much higher toe. A series of simple linear elastic finite element
factors of safety are generally chosen in order to analyses was conducted to compare the average
limit deformations and to ensure an essentially horizontal displacement below the toe of an
linear response. The calculated results, shown in embankment j with that below the edge of a strip
Figs 14 and 15, suggest that if non-linear stress- footing Ystrip. The length of the front slope W was
strain behaviour were incorporated, more favour- varied in each analysis, with the average horizon-
able comparisons might be obtained. A similar tal displacement determined from numerical inte-
approach was adopted by Sun (1990), who used a gration of the results, since the shape of the soil
simple displacement mechanism in conjunction displacement profile alters with the loading
with a non-linear stress-strain curve to predict geometry. Results of the analyses are shown in
the behaviour of spread-base bridge abutments Fig. 16 as the ratio j/jstrip against the ratio W/h,,
on firm clay. A curve fit to the analytical results is also shown
Another non-linear effect is the changing in Fig. 16 and is described by
geometry of an embankment as it is built up in
jj/&, = 1.039 - 0.283( W/h,) + 0.0266( W/h,)’
height. If a linear elastic deformation analysis
were performed, incremental subsoil displace-
ments at the embankment toe would be found to
decrease with increasing embankment height, valid for 0.141 < W/h, < 5, with jj/jjstrip = 1 for
since the loading effectively moves further from W/h, < 0.141. Thus, on the basis of these results,
the toe. However, this trend is inconsistent with an equivalent strip load 4 can be defined: 4 =
field and centrifuge model data of embankments (j/jj,& y H, such that the average horizontal dis-

O-8 -

0.6 -
Finite element results

0.2. Curve fit

2 3

Fig. 16. Variation of average soil displacement ratio with relative length of the embank-
ment front slope

Non-linear G wth
Non-linear G with geometry correction
geometry correction

geometry correction

Non-linear G with
_ geometry correctIon

geometry correction

40 80 0
Embankment load: kPa Embankment load: kPa

Fig. 17. Comparison of results from the proposed Fig. 18. Comparison of results from the proposed
method (incorporating non-linear effects) with data from method (incorporating non-linear effects) with data from
centrifuge test 9 (Mm thick soft clay layer) centrifuge test 11 (Sm thick soft clay layer)

placement below its edge is the same as that be capable of including external loading at t1.e
below an embankment of density y and height H. pile head (i.e. from a retaining wall), and can be
A similar analysis can be used to provide another verified by comparison with centrifuge data pre-
correction factor for distance from the embank- sented by Stewart (1992). The influence of raking
ment toe if this is required. piles within a group could also be accounted for
Another relevant factor is three-dimensional approximately by including an elastic reaction
effects around the end of the embankment. In force at pile cap level. Further modifications
general, bridge approach embankments are three- could be performed to allow different loads to act
dimensional in shape, and will not be represented on each row of piles, and to allow some passive
well by a plane-strain load distribution, as used in pressure near the base of the soft stratum. These
this analysis. The model embankments in the cen- modifications may lead to more accurate solu-
trifuge were constructed with both side and front tions, although the representation of soil strati-
slopes in order to represent real conditions more graphy and deformation is still very simplistic
accurately. However, the side walls of the strong- and therefore further refinement is not believed to
box prevented truly three-dimensional deforma- be worthwhile.
tion from occurring. It was found that the model
embankments were adequately represented by an
equivalent plane-strain embankment considering RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DESIGN
the average load across the width of the embank- On the basis of work described by Stewart
ment. However, for fully three-dimensional condi- (1992), conclusions can be drawn regarding the
tions the approximation is probably not suitable, most suitable design approach for pile groups
and further examination is required. adjacent to an embankment on soft clay. In
Application. Calculations were performed general, if the magnitude of the applied embank-
using the proposed method, incorporating non- ment loading can be limited to below about three
linear stress-strain behaviour for the soft stratum times the undrained shear strength of the soft
and applying corrections for the embankment stratum, then significant plastic deformation in
geometry, as described above. An incremental the soft layer should be avoided. In this instance,
solution procedure was adopted, using equations the induced bending moments and deflections
(4) and (14) to define the current secant shear should be relatively small and problems are less
modulus. The results were compared with data likely to develop. However, calculations should
from the two centrifuge tests described above. be performed to estimate the likely pile response
Pressure distributions obtained from the regardless of the magnitude of the embankment
analysis were very similar to the previous results, load.
varying only slightly with changes in shear Initial estimates of loads and deformations
modulus as the embankment load increased. The should be made for piles installed before or
calculated maximum bending moments and pile during embankment construction. For this
cap deflections are compared with the centrifuge purpose, the empirical design charts in Figs 6, 9
test data in Figs 17 and 18. The analytical results and 10 allow the construction of broad design
now correspond extremely well to the experimen- envelopes on the basis of pile and soil stiffness
tal data, indicating the correct trends and provid- and site geometry. More accurate assessment of
ing a good match to the magnitude of the data. the effects of pile spacing, embankment configu-
To illustrate the relative effects of embankment ration and the stress-strain response of the soft
geometry and non-linear stress-strain behaviour, stratum can then be obtained using the proposed
a second set of curves is shown in Figs 17 and 18 new method described here. However, this
which uses a linear elastic modulus but includes method requires some further validation for more
the corrections for embankment geometry. An complex configurations than have been assessed
elastic modulus G = 60%, similar to that in the so far. Plane-strain finite element analysis
original linear calculations, was used. It is (Stewart, Jewel1 & Randolph, 1993) provides a
obvious that the non-linear stress-strain behav- more accurate representation of the overall
iour, rather than the geometrical correction, response, and may be utilized if a more com-
dominates the analysis. The results suggest that prehensive study is required. However, further
the method accounts for material non-linearity development of this technique is necessary to
relatively well (although approximately), and the enable non-linear soil behaviour to be modelled
method shows a great deal of promise, provided properly.
that the stratigraphy can be represented simply. If piles are installed after completion of
The success of these back-analyses is encour- embankment construction, their response is more
aging. Further work is required to determine how difficult to determine. However, the simple design
best to model situations with variable modulus approaches presented here could be utilized by
and strength with depth. The method should also specifying a higher modulus for the soft stratum,

to account for the relative magnitudes of soil dis- for piles installed before or during embankment
placement during the undrained and consoli- construction. The empirical design charts,
dation phases. Recommendations on the selection together with the new design approach described
of an appropriate modulus are given in this in this Paper, allow a rapid assessment of loads
Paper. Finite element analysis incorporating con- and deflections to be made. Recommendations
solidation may provide a more accurate assess- are also given on the application of these
ment of long-term pile behaviour, although this is approaches to situations where piles are installed
relatively complex, and is discussed further by after completion of embankment construction.
Stewart et al. (1993). More complex analyses could be undertaken to
supplement these calculations at later stages of
the design procedure if required. Stewart et al.
CONCLUSIONS (1993) describe a suitable finite element
Existing design techniques for piles subjected to approach.
loading from lateral soil movements have gener-
ally been found to be inconsistent, or to show
poor correlation with the available field data. A ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
recent comprehensive review of design methods The work described in this Paper was funded
(Stewart, 1992) has emphasized these short- by the Main Roads Department of Western Aus-
comings by comparison with high quality centri- tralia, and the support of the Commissioner of
fuge model test data. Main Roads is gratefully acknowledged. D. P.
On the basis of two independent sets of centri- Stewart was supported by a research scholarship
fuge model results, and limited field data, new from the University of Western Australia. Part of
empirical design charts have been developed to the work described here was facilitated by the
facilitate rapid assessment of pile group response. award of an ASEA Brown Boveri Postgraduate
These charts enable simple estimates of maximum Scholarship to D. P. Stewart. The award is
pile bending moment and pile head deflection, administered by the Institution of Engineers, Aus-
depending on the current embankment load level. tralia.
The charts are presented as a function of the rela-
tive soil-pile stiffness.
A proposed new design method is also NOTATION
described in this Paper. The method is based on a u constant
simple soil deformation mechanism, as suggested b constant
by Springman (1989), and relates the lateral pres- E, Young’s modulus of pile
sure acting on a pile to the approximate relative Es representative stiffness of soft clay layer
soil-pile displacement. The philosophy of f constant
developing the modified approach was to provide F,, F, factors in solutions for pile deflection
9 constant
a simple and approximate representation of the G, average shear modulus of soft layer
overall embankment-soillpile interaction without G, initial shear modulus (small strain)
determining complex pile loading distributions or G, reduced shear modulus around pile due to
accounting for non-uniform pile properties. The installation effects and large strain
objective was to estimate the maximum pile h, free-standing length of pile above surface
bending moment and the pile cap deflection, h, length of zone over which active pressure is
without attempting to reproduce the distribution assumed to act on pile
of bending moment with depth. h, thickness of soft clay layer
h, length of assumed unloaded section of pile
The extension of the method to account for
below loaded section
non-linear stress-strain behaviour of the soft
H embankment height
stratum, and applying corrections for the I, moment of inertia of pile
embankment geometry, is described above. Back- K, relative soil-pile stiffness E, Z,/E, h,“
analysis of centrifuge test data using the extended 1, critical pile length for lateral loading
method was very successful, and illustrated the IC equivalent cantilever length to give same
attractiveness of this relatively simple design deflection and rotation as the same pile in
approach. Additional work is required to validate elastic soil 0,34l,/Jp,
the approach further for more complex configu- L length of pile
L,, equivalent length of pile between points of
rations. However, it appears to be possible to
assess pile group response reasonably accurately M base pile bending moment at interface of soft and
using this method, or the empirical charts, before stiff layers
more detailed analyses are undertaken or more M head pile bending moment at head to give zero rota-
expensive construction options are examined. tion
Recommendations for design have been given M mar maximum pile bending moment
M, non-dimensional change in maximum bending Bozozuk, M. (1978). Bridge foundations move. Transpn.
moment AM_,JAqdL,,2 Res. Rec., No. 678, 17-21.
nr number of rows of piles Carter, J. P. (1982). A numerical method for pile defor-
p, assumed average active pressure acting on the mations due to nearby surface loads. Proc. 4th Int.
piles Conf Numer. Meth., Edmonton 2, 811-817.
q embankment load DeBeer, E. E. & Wallays, M. (1972). Forces induced in
s pile spacing across the face of the embankment piles by unsymmetrical surcharges on the soil
s, undrained shear strength around the piles. Proc. 5th Znt. Conf: Soil Mech.,
s; average undrained shear strength over thick- Madrid 1, 325-332.
ness of soft layer Fedders, H. (1977). Lateral earth pressure against piles
W length of embankment front slope in soft cohesive soil-recommendations for function-
y lateral displacement al and structural design. Proc. 9th Znt. Conf: Soil
y,,, pile cap deflection Mech., Tokyo, Specialty session 10.
yhead lateral displacement of pile head Franke, E. (1977). German recommendations on passive
y, maximum lateral soil displacement below piles. Proc. 9th Znt. Conf: Soil Mech., Tokyo, Spe-
embankment toe cialty Session 10, 193-194.
y, lateral pile displacement Heyman, L. (1965). Measurement of the influence of
ys non-dimensional change in pile head lateral earth pressure on pile foundations. Proc. 6th
deflection, = AyE, I,/AqdL,,4 Znt. Conf. Soil Mech., Montreal 2,257-260.
y, lateral soil displacement Marche, R. (1973). Discussion on Specialty Session 5,
j average horizontal soil displacement below toe Proc. 8th Znt. Conf: Soil Mech., Moscow 4,247-252.
of embankment Marche, R. & Lacroix, Y. (1972). Stabilite des culees de
jj,,+ average horizontal soil displacement below ponts etablies sur des pieux traversant une couche
edge of wide strip footing molle. Can. Geotech. .Z. 9, No. 1, l-24.
ylong average horizontal soil displacement below Moulton, L. K., Ganga Rao, H. V. S. & Halvorsen, G.
edge of long footing T. (1985). Tolerable mouement criteria for highway
z depth below surface bridges. Report FHWA/RD-85/107. Washington:
y embankment density Federal Highway Administration.
6 embankment settlement Oteo, C. S. (1977). Horizontally loaded piles-
A change deformation influence. Proc. 9th Znt. Conf: Soil
p, parameter describing the relative homogeneity Mech., Tokyo, Specialty Session 10, 101-106.
of the soil Poulos, H. G. (1971). Difficulties in prediction of hori-
T,,,~~mobilized shear strength zontal deformations of foundations. J. Soil Mech.
Fdn Engng Am. Sot. Civ. Engrs 98, SM8,843-848.
Poulos, H. G. (1973). Analysis of piles in soil under-
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