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Section Three - M1 Bayonet (Cut and Uncut):

For clarity in discussing these US bayonets, the following terminology will be used. It is the same
nomenclature that I used in my book and Bayonet Points, and as far as possible is the same as used by
the US Ordnance Department at the time the bayonet was manufactured.
Model of 1905 – 16 inch blade bayonet as made by Springfield Armory (SA) and Rock Island Arsenal
(RIA) during the period 1906 – 1922.
M1905 - 16 inch blade bayonet as made by American Fork and Hoe (AFH), Oneida Ltd (OL), Pal
Blade and Tool (PAL), Union Fork and Hoe (UFH), Utica Cutlery (UC) and Wilde Tool (WT) during
1942 – 1943.
M1905E1 – During the development of the 10 inch blade M1 bayonet, the designation M1905E1 was
used for the shortened blade. Although this nomenclature was not carried over into production,
collectors continue to use that terminology for those bayonets shortened from 16 inch to 10 inch blades.
M1 – 10 inch blade bayonets manufactured during 1943-1945 by AFH, OL, PAL, UC and UFH and in
1953 by Utica. (Note: The Ordnance Department also called those bayonets that were shortened from
16 inch blades to 10 inch blades the M1.)
Photos are from the CMP website showing the M1905E1 and M1 bayonets and scabbards.
PB003 Series Bayonets: GARAND BAYONET Model M1 Modified (Shortened) with Scabbard -
Used/serviceable. These bayonets have been converted/cut down to 10 inches in length from previous
16" Model 1905s. Bayonets and scabbards are in serviceable condition exhibiting scratches, dents,
dings and rust. Blade, button and handle of bayonet are not broken and no parts are missing. The
scabbard may be discolored, painted and/or cut down to match bayonet length. Bayonet and scabbard
show expected wear for age of item.

PB004 Series Bayonets- GARAND BAYONET Model M1 with Scabbard - Used/serviceable. These
bayonets were originally produced as M1, 10 inches in length. Bayonets and scabbards are in
serviceable condition exhibiting scratches, dents, dings and rust. Blade, button and handle of bayonet
are not broken and no parts are missing. The scabbard may be discolored, painted and/or cut down to
match bayonet length. Bayonet and scabbard show expected wear for age of item.

All 8 makers of the Model 1905, M1905 and M1 bayonets are represented in the group, and the CMP
sold them by maker, point shape and cut or uncut. The condition of these bayonets ranged from very
good to absolute junk. Many were rebuilt to some extent by the Greeks including refinishing and some
replacement of parts.

Some background information might be of interest in understanding how these US made bayonets
ended up in the Greek military.

Following World War 2, President Truman stated that "the policy of the United States will be to support
free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." By
1946, guerrilla forces controlled by the Greek Communist Party began fighting against the
internationally recognized Greek government which was formed after 1946 elections. The U.S.
Congress in May, 1947, responding to Truman's plea, granted Greece $400 million in military and
economic aid. Increased American aid helped defeat the Communists, after interim defeats for
government forces from 1946 to 1948.
The US supplied large numbers of small arms including M1903 and M1 rifles, as well as bayonets and
ammunition to Greece, often from stocks on hand in Europe as many had been left at various bases
when the majority of US troops were sent home after the war. The bayonets and scabbards given to the
Greeks at that time were US WW2 production and are the ones imported by the CMP in this group.

“Typical” M1 Bayonet from the CMP Greek Import Program

This bayonet shows all of the Greek characteristics sometimes found in the CMP imported M1
bayonets. The finish is the flat black “Greek Parkerizing”, there is a serial number added to the
replaced guard, and the grips are replacements that do not fit well.

Finish: During World War Two, the basic finish on M1905E1 and M1 bayonets was specified to be
Parkerizing. According to official sources, this finish was normally to be a zinc phosphate coating
basically similar to that patented by Van Darsey and assigned to the Parker Rust Proof Company of
Detroit under US Patent 2,293,716. From what I can find in the records, most of the companies that
made the bayonets did not do the Parkerizing themselves, but farmed it out to other companies in their
area. Due to the variables in the Parker Process, the color and texture of the finish will vary greatly.
Normally the WW2 finish is a medium to dark gray and in some cases almost black. Depending on the
polish of the metal under the finish, the surface will vary from dull (most common) to some degree of
shine. This is also affected by wear and oiling.

The finish on the bayonets sold by the CMP ranged from nearly perfect US finish to almost no finish at
all. Some of them were refinished in what has been called the “Greek Parkerizing”, which is a flat dark
gray finish that does not wear well and appears almost like a flat black paint/ It is quite difficult to
photograph well, but can normally be recognized by the very dull finish and strong wear patterns as
shown in the photo below. (The photo has been lightened to show the details better.)
Serial Numbers: Many of the M1905E1 and M1 bayonets have numbers individually hand stamped on
the right side of the guard, and sometimes on the left also. In some cases it appears that one number
was ground or filed off and a new number stamped. Most appear to start with what appears to be a
Greek letter rather than a number. It has been suggested that these numbers may relate to the rifle the
bayonet was issued with. This is certainly possible since it is well established that the fit of these
bayonets to the M1 rifle is often poor, and once a good fit is found, it would be sensible to keep that
bayonet with its own rifle. However, that is only a guess, and the actual reason for the number still is
not known,

Grips: Most of the M1 / M1905E1 bayonets appear to retain their US World War Two grips, However
due to Greek rebuilds, they can also be found with the grips from the EN-S made M1 bayonets to be
discussed in the next section of this series. More rarely they are fitted with what appears to be a
replacement grip possibly made or purchased by the Greeks as spares. These are unmarked inside, and
appear to have “shrunk” or be slightly undersized. They also do not fit well, as shown around the
pommel area of the bayonet shown in the photo above. In some cases, the grip screw has been replaced
by a poorly fitting one and in some limited cases by what appears to be a nail used as a rivet.

Guards: Some of the guards have been replaced by ones of different makers, or as in the case of the
one illustrated above ((an M1905E1 originally made by UFH) the WW2 counterbored guard has been
replaced by a Model 1905 guard originally made by either SA or RIA (no counterbore). This may have
been done in the US when the blade was shortened or done later by the Greeks. Some are found with
guards of the type used on the EN-S version.
Some scabbards have been found with initials or words carved into the body, apparently by the soldiers
who carried them at one time or another. A few have been reported marked with Korea and a date, and
the new owners have speculated about the soldier who carried that bayonet and the history that would
go with the bayonet. Unfortunately, the bayonet and scabbard are not “matched” in that they were
separated in Greek service and the CMP received the bayonets and scabbards in different boxes. Any
marks on the scabbard have nothing to do with the bayonet currently in that scabbard.

M1 Bayonets as received by the CMP in the process of sorting.

The Greeks did not waste much of anything. It appears that if a bayonet was damaged to an extent that
it could not be repaired, all the parts were salvaged and reused wherever needed. Guards were replaced
and in some cases the retaining pins were replaced with common nails. Grips are held on with odd
screws or even nails peened over to hold them on.

At the extreme end of the condition spectrum they had tangs or even blades brazed or welded back
together after apparently having been broken in service.
Brazed tang. T. W. Woodall Collection and Photo

Welded blade on a PAL bayonet. Chris Vorsten Collection and Photo


Brazed blade. Thomas Morton Collection and Photo

For more information on the US M1 and M1905E1 bayonets, see Bayonets Points

http://www.usmilitaryknives.com/bayonet_points.htm Numbers 2, 22, 23, and 24.

While you are there, browse both Bayonet Points and the rest of this website, absolutely the most and
best information on US Edged Weapons anywhere on the web. Most of the information is found
nowhere else, and if you are at all interested in US military knives and bayonets, you must bookmark
this site!