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Basic Circuit for 8051

8051 PIN OUT

 Power - Vcc, Vss

Reset - RST

Crystal - XTAL[1,2]

Extern al device interfacing


– EA, ALE, PSEN, WR, RD

 I/O Port
– P0[7;0], P1[7:0], P2[7:0], P3

P3 is shared with control lines


– Serial I/O RxD, TxD,
– external interrupts INT0, INT1
– Counter control T0, T1

P0 and P2 are multiplexed with Address and Data bus


BASIC CIRCUIT -THAT MAKES 8051 WORKS.

EA/VP Pin
The EA on pin 31 is tied high to make the 8051 executes program from Internal ROM

Reset Circuit
RESET is an active High input When RESET is set to High, 8051 goes back to the power on
state.
The 8051 is reset by holding the RST high for at least two machine cycles and then returning it
low.

Power- On Reset

- Initially charging of capacitor makes RST High


- When capacitor charges fully it blocks DC.

Manual reset

-closing the switch momentarily will make RST High.

After a reset, the program counter is loaded with 0000H but the content of on-chip RAM is not affected.

Register Content Register Content


Program counter 0000h IP XXX00000b
Accumulator 00h IEv 0XX00000b
B register 00h All timer registers 00h
PSW 00h SCON 00h
SP 07h SBUF 00h
DPTR 0000h PCON (HMOS) 0XXXXXXXbv
All ports FFh PCON (CMOS)v 0XXX0000b
Note: content of on-chip RAM is not affected by Reset.
Oscillator Circuit

The 8051 uses the crystal for precisely that: to synchronize it’s operation.
Effectively, the 8051 operates using what are called "machine cycles." A single
machine cycle is the minimum amount of time in which a single 8051
instruction can be executed. although many instructions take multiple cycles.

8051 has an on-chip oscillator. It needs an external crystal thats decides the
operating frequency of the 8051.

This can be achieved in two ways,,

The crystal is connected to pins 18 and 19 with stabilizing capacitors. 12 MHz (11.059MHz) crystal is often used and the capacitance ranges from 20pF to
40pF.

The oscillator can also be a TTL clock source connected with a NOT gate as shown

How fast 8051 works ?

A cycle is, in reality, 12 pulses of the crystal. That is to say, if an instruction takes one machine cycle to execute, it will take 12 pulses of the crystal to
execute. Since we know the crystal is pulsing 11,059,000 times per second and that one machine cycle is 12 pulses, we can calculate how many instruction
cycles the 8051 can execute per second:

11,059,000 / 12 = 921,583

Why is such an oddball crystal frequency?

11.0592 MHz crystals are often used because it can be divided to give you exact clock rates for most of the common baud rates for the UART, especially for
the higher speeds (9600, 19200). Despite the "oddball" value,
these crystals are readily available and commonly used.

Power Supply

C1-1000 mf ,C2-100 mf

The 78L05 is a 5V regulator. The input voltage ranges from 7V to 35V and the output voltage is about 5V.

Using Ports for I/O Operation

8051 is TTL logic device. TTL logic has two levels: Logic "High" (1) and logic "Low" (0). The voltage and current involved for the two levels are as follows:

Level Voltage Current


High Above 2.4V Virtually no current flow

1.6mA Sinking current from TTL input to


Low Below 0.9V ground
(Depends on logic family)
Port functions

Ports Function
Port 0 Dual-purpose port- 1. general purpose I/O Port.
2. multiplexed address & data bus
(Pin 32-39) Open drain outputs

Port 1

(Pin 1-8) Dedicated I/O port – Used solely for interfacing to external devices
Internal pull-ups

Port 2
Dual-purpose port- 1. general purpose I/O port.
(Pin 21-28) 2. a multiplexed address & data bus.
Internal pull-ups

Port 3 Dual-purpose port- 1. general purpose I/O port.


2. pins have alternate purpose related to special features of the 8051
(Pin 10-17) Internal pull-ups

The 8051 internal ports are partly bi-directional (Quasi-bi-directional). The following is the internal circuitry for the 8051 port pins:
1.Configuring for output

P0 is open drain.
– Has to be pulled high by external 10K resistors.
– Not needed if P0 is used for address lines

Writing to a port pin loads data into a port latch that drives a FET connected to the port pin.

P0: Note that the pull-up is absent on Port 0 except when functioning as the external address/data bus. When a "0" is written to a bit in port 0, the pin is
pulled low. But when a "1" is written to it, it is in high impedance (disconnected) state. So when using port 0 for output, an external pull-up resistor is
needed, depending on the input characteristics of the device driven by the port pin

P1, P2, P3 have internal pull-ups: When a "0" is written to a bit in these port , the pin is pulled low ( FET-ON) ,also when 1 is written to a bit in these
port pin becomes high (FET-OFF) thus using port P1,P2,P3 is simple.
2. Configuring for input

At power-on all are output ports by default


To configure any port for input, write all 1’s (0xFF) to the port
Latch bit=1, FET=OFF, Read Pin asserted by read instruction

You can used a port for output any time. But for input, the FET must be off. Otherwise, you will be reading your own latch rather than the signal coming from
the outside. Therefore, a "1" should be written to the pin if you want to use it as input, especially when you have used it for output before. If you don't do
this input high voltage will get grounded through FET so you will read pin as low and not as high. An external device cannot easily drive it high

so, you should not tide a port high directly without any resistor. Otherwise, the FET would burn.

Be Careful :

Some port pins serve multiple functions. Be careful writing to such ports. For example, P3.0 is the UART RXD (serial input), and P3.1 is the UART TXD (serial
output). If you set P3.0 to a '0', an external buffer (such as an RS232 level translator) cannot drive it high. Therefore you have prevented receiving any serial
input.

If an external interrupt such as EX1 on P3.3 is enabled, and set to be level sensitive, and you clear this pin's output latch to a zero, guess what? You've just
caused a perpetual interrupt 1. The pin's input buffer will read the output of it's latch as always low. Your controller will spend all of its time in the interrupt
handler code and will appear to have crashed, since it will have very little time for other tasks. In fact, it will get to execute a single instruction before re-
entering the interrupt handler, so the rest of your program will execute very, very slowly.
Interfacing to 8051 I/O ports.

SWITCH ON I/O PORTS

Good Circuit
It is always best connecting the switch to ground with a pull-up resistor as shown in
the "Good" circuit. When the switch is open, the 10k resistor supplies very small
current needed for logic 1. When it is closed, the port pin is short to ground.
The voltage is 0V and all the sinking current requirement is met, so it is logic 0. The
10k resistor will pass 0.5 mA (5 Volt/10k ohm). Thus the circuits waste very little
current in either state. The drawback is that the closure of switch gives logic 0
and people like to think of a switch closure gives logic 1. But this is not a matter
because it is easy to handle in software.

Fair circuit
The "Fair" circuit requires that the pull-down resistor be very small. Otherwise, the pin will rise above 0.9V when the resistor passes the
1.6mA sinking current. When the switch is closed, the circuit waste a large current since virtually no current flows into the pin. The only
advantage is that a switch closure gives logic 1.

Poor circuit
In the "Poor" circuit, the logic 1 is stable when the switch is closed. But when the switch is open, the input floats to a noise-sensitive high
rather than a low. An open TTL pin is usually read as logic 1 but the pin may picks up noise like an antenna.
To conclude, driving a TTL input should always consider current sinking (pulling input to 0V).
LED ON I/O PORTS

Since TTL outputs is designed to feed multiple TTL inputs, they are good at current sinking but poor
at current sourcing. The Standard TTL can sink up to 16mA and source 250uA. The LS logic family
can sink 8mA and source 100uA. The 8051 port pin can sink 1.6mA (3.2mA for port 0) and source
60uA. Therefore, if you drive significant current, try to arrange your circuits to use current sinking.

Unlike diodes, Light-emitting diodes have a forward voltage drop from 1.7 to 2.5 volts and most of
them flow a forward current 20mA.

Poor circuit
since the TTL output can't source above 1mA so the LED will be very dim.

Fair circuit
The LED will conduct heavily at about 2V and the extra 3V has to be dropped in the TTL circuitry. This causes high power dissipation in the
TTL or the LED fails.

Good circuit
The resistor limits the current. The resistance can be calculated by assuming its voltage is about 2.5V and the TTL output is 0.9V. For 2.2V
LED, 1.9V is across the resistor so the 220ohm would limit the current to 8.6mA (1.9/220). For 1.7V LED, 2.4V is across the resistor so it
would limit the current to 10.9mA (2.4/220). The resistor should not less than 100ohm or the LED would fail.

CODE EXAMPLE
Connection -Switch -P1.0 , LED - P2.0
Condition - Turn on LED when switch is pressed.

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE C LANGUAGE (SPJ )

SETB P1.0 ; input pin. BIT button p1.0 / * Using BIT keyword for p1.0 definition*/
LOOP: BIT LED p2.0
JB P2.0, LOOP ; not grounded then stay in loop void main ( )
CLR P0.0 ;To clear pin P0.0 when P1.0 is at 0 v {
while (1) {
LED = button ; /* Note LED=button is wrong */
}
}

RELAY ON I/O PORT (2CO Relay)


In A, NPN transistor (say a BC337 or BC338) is being used to control a relay with a 5 V coil. Series base resistor R1 is used to set the base
current for Q1, so that the transistor is driven into saturation (fully turned on) when the relay is to be energized. That way, the transistor will
have minimal voltage drop, and hence dissipate very little power as well as delivering most of the 5V to the relay coil.

How do work out the value of R1?.

Let us say RLY1 needs 50mA of coil current to pull in and hold reliably, and has a resistance of 24 Ohms so it draws this current from 5V. Our
BC337/338 transistor will need enough base current to make sure it remains saturated at this collector current level. To work this out, we
simply make sure that the base current is greater than this collector current divided by the transistors minimum DC current gain hFE. So as
the BC337/338 has a minimum hFE of 100 (at 100mA), we'll need to provide it with at least 50mA/100 = 0.5mA of base current.
In practice, you give it roughly double this value, say 1mA of base current, just to make sure it does saturate. So if your resistance will be
TTL Logic High Voltage (Min) /1ma ( 1K approx)
EXAMPLE

Connection -Port 0 is connected to eight LEDs, each of them is connected to 5V through a 330ohm resistor. Port 1 is connected to a DIP
switch and a 10Kohm resistor
Condition - Corresponding led should light up when switch pressed , i.e. if Switch at 1.0 is pressed -> LED at P0.0 should light up.

CODE EXAMPLE

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE C LANGUAGE (SPJ SIDE51)

LOOP: . 1.
mov p1,#0ffh ; To configure port for input.
mov a,p1 void main() {
mov p0 ,a while (1) {
sjmp LOOP ; Stay in infinite loop P0 = P1; /* Note P1=P0 will not work
}
}

2.

voided main() {
char port_value;
while (1) {
port_value = P1;
P0 = port_value;
}
}

USING ULN

Another option for driving relays would be to use a high-voltage, high-current, Darlington array driver IC such as the ULN2803. The ULN2803
can directly interface to the data outputs of the 8051 pins, and provides much higher drive-current. The ULN2803 also has internal diode
protection that eliminates the need for the fly-back diode as shown in the above relay driver schematics. You can connect 8 relay using this
IC.

So I think ULN is better choice if you have more than 3 relay. ( Simple design of circuit & PCB as well ! )

Serial Communication
RS-232 WAVEFORM
TTL/CMOS Serial Logic Waveform

The diagram above, shows the expected waveform from the UART when using the common 8N1 format. 8N1 signifies 8 Data bits, No Parity
and 1 Stop Bit. The RS-232 line, when idle is in the Mark State (Logic 1). A transmission starts with a start bit which is (Logic 0). Then each
bit is sent down the line, one at a time. The LSB (Least Significant Bit) is sent first. A Stop Bit (Logic 1) is then appended to the signal to
make up the transmission.

The data sent using this method, is said to be framed. That is the data is framed between a Start and Stop Bit .

RS-232 Voltage levels


1. +3 to +25 volts to signify a "Space" (Logic 0)
2. -3 to -25 volts for a "Mark" (logic 1).
3. Any voltage in between these regions (i.e. between +3 and -3 Volts) is undefined.
The data byte is always transmitted least-significant-bit first.
The bits are transmitted at specific time intervals determined by the baud rate of the serial signal.

This is the signal present on the RS-232 Port of your computer, shown below.

RS-232 Logic Waveform

RS-232 LEVEL CONVERTER


Standard serial interfacing of microcontroller (TTL) with PC or any RS232C Standard device , requires TTL to RS232 Level converter . A
MAX232 is used for this purpose. It provides 2-channel RS232C port and requires external 10uF capacitors.

The driver requires a single supply of +5V .

MAX-232 includes a Charge Pump, which generates +10V and -10V from a single 5v supply.

MICROCONTROLLER INTERFACING WITH RS-232 STANDARD DEVICES

• MAX232 (+5V -> +-12V converter)


• Serial port male 9 pin connector (SER)
SETTING SERIAL PORT.

SCON
8 bit UART ,RN enabled , TI & RI operated by program. - 50hex

Timer 1 Count
TH1 = 256 - ((Crystal / 384) / Baud) -PCON.7 is clear.
TH1 = 256 - ((Crystal / 192) / Baud)-PCON.7 is set.
so with PCON.7 is clear we get timer value = FDhex

CODE EXAMPLE

1. TRANSMITTING 'A' CONTINUOUSLY ON SERIAL PORT.

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE C LANGUAGE (SPJ SIDE51)

START #include <Intel\8052.h>


mov TMOD, #20H ;T1 is mode2 #include <standard.h>
mov TH1, #0fd ;9600 baud #include<stdio.h>
mov SCON, #50H ;8b, 1stop, 1start, REN enabled
anl PCON, #07fh ;To make SMOD =0
setb TR1 ;start T1 void main ()
{
AGAIN TMOD = 0x20;
mov SBUF, #’A’ ;letter A is transmitted TH1 = 0xfd;
PCON &= 0x7f;
HERE SCON = 0x50;
jnb TI, HERE ;poll TI until all the bits are transmitted TCON =0x40;
clr TI ;clear TI for the next character
sjmp AGAIN ;while(1) while (1) /*continues loop */
{
printf("a"); /* transmit a along with CR & LF.
}

2.TO RECEIVE DATA FROM SERIAL PORT AND SENT IT TO PORT 1.


ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE C LANGUAGE (SPJ SIDE51)

START: #include <Intel\8052.h>


mov TMOD, #20H ;T1 in mode 2 #include <standard.h>
mov TH1, #-3 ;9600 baud #include<stdio.h>
mov SCON, #50H ;8b, 1start, 1stop
anl PCON, #07fh ;To make SMOD =0 unsigned char a;
setb TR1 ;start T1 void main ()
{
AGAIN: TMOD = 0x20;
clr RI ;ready to receive a byte TH1 = 0xfd;
PCON &= 0x7f;
HERE: SCON = 0x50;
jnb RI, HERE ;wait until one byte is Rx-ed TCON =0x40;
mov A, SBUF ;read the received byte from SBUF while (1) /*continues loop */
mov P1, A ;display on P1 {
sjmp AGAIN ;while (1) a= getchar () ;
P1=a;
}
}

3. SENDING DATA IN STRING TO SERIAL PORT

In Assembly Lan. prog. : Data is stored in string at pointer DATA. 0 is appended at end of string. In transmit subroutine data in string is
transmitted till 0 is detected.

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE
(A51)
C LANGUAGE (SPJ SIDE51)

.org 0000h #include <Intel\8052.h>


ljmp START #include <standard.h>
#include<stdio.h>
DATA: .db "HI,I AM MAHESH",0dh,0ah,0 ;0 at end to detect
end of string(0d carrage return ,0a -line feed) void main ()
{
;********************TRANSMIT****************** TMOD = 0x20;
TRANSMIT: TH1 = 0xfd;
clr A ; clear A to get data PCON &= 0x7f;
movc A,@A+DPTR ; get data from string at data pointer SCON = 0x50;
jz EXITSTR ; if data zero, eos TCON =0x40;
lcall OUTCHAR ; else send character
inc dptr ; increment data pointer while (1) /*continues loop */
sjmp TRANSMIT ; continue, zero condition will terminate {
printf("HI I AM MAHESH\n"); /* transmit a along with CR & LF*/
EXITSTR: }
ret }

OUTCHAR:
mov sbuf,a ; place A into Serial Port 1 Buffer

WAITCHAR:
jnb ti,WAITCHAR ; wait buffer empty flag is set
clr ti ; clear buffer empty flag
ret

START:
;******************INITIALISATION****************
*
mov TMOD, #20H ;T1 in mode 2
mov TH1, #-3 ;9600 baud
mov SCON, #50H ;8b, 1start, 1stop
anl PCON, #07fh ;To make SMOD =0
setb TR1 ;start T1

;*****************To SEND DATA*******************


mov dptr,#DATA
lcall TRANSMIT
sjmp START
EXAMPLE - MOBILE PHONE AND GPS RECEIVER.

You can use same circuit for communicating with Mobile phones/GSM Module or GPS. Communicating with both of these require a
Multiplexer ,which can be implemented using NAND gates.

GPS serial output


Most GPS are capable of sending information through a simple serial link. Only the TXD and GROUND pins need to be connected . The GPS
must be set at 9600 bps (or 4800) , 8 bits, No Parity, and 1 stop bit.

NAND gate as 2:1 Mux. which connects Rx of GSM modem or GPS receiver according to select bit logic level (pin P1.0 of uC)
7 Segment Display
INTRODUCTION
For the seven segment display you can use the LT-541 or LSD5061-11 chip. Each of the segments
of the display is connected to a pin on the 8051 (the schematic shows how to do this). In order to
light up a segment on the the pin must be set to 0V. To turn a segment off the corresponding pin
must be set to 5V. This is simply done by setting the pins on the 8051 to '1' or '0'.

LED displays are


• Power-hungry (10ma per LED)

• Pin-hungry (8 pins per 7-seg display)

But they are cheaper than LCD display

7-SEG Display are available in two types -1. Common anode & 2. common cathode , but command anode display are most suitable for
interfacing with 8051 since 8051 port pins can sink current better than sourcing it.
CREATING DIGIT PATTERN

For displaying Digit say 7 we need to light segments -a ,b, c. Since we are using Common anode display , to do so we have to to provide
Logic -0 (0 v) at anode of these segments.

so need to clear pins- P1.0 ,P1.1,P1.2. that is 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 -->F8h .

Connection Hex Code

Segment number 8051 pin number


a P1.0
b P1.1
c P1.2
d P1.3
e P1.4
f P1.5
g p1.6
h(dp) P1.7

Seg. h Seg. g Seg. f Seg. e Seg. d Seg. c Seg. b Seg. a HEX


Digit
0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 C0
1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 06
2 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 A4
3 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 B0
4 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 99

You can also do this for some characters like A ,E .. but not for D or B because it will be same as
that of 0 & 8 . So this is one of limitation of 7-seg display.
Since we can Enable only one 7-seg display at a time ,we need to scan these display at fast rate
.The scanning frequency should be high enough to be flicker-free. At least 30HZ .Therefore – time
one digit is ON is 1/30 seconds

INTERFACING

Note that I am using Common Anode display. so the common Anode pin is tied to 5v .The cathode pins are connected to port 1 through 330

Ohm resistance (current limiting).

Common Anode display


CODE EXAMPLE

Connection - a:h to port p1.0:p1.7 , D0:D1 to p3.0:p3.1.

To Display - Consider example of vending machine where we want to display number of soft drink bottles on display entered by customer.
Suppose he enter 3 (03) bottles then we will use lookup table to see DIGIT PATTERN of these keys.
So DIGI[1]=c0 (hex code for '0') &
DIGI[2]=bo(hex code for '3').

Note: I have taken values for DIGI[1] & DIGI[2] directly in code.

Algorithm C LANGUAGE (SPJ SIDE51)

start : disable [D0:D1] #include <Intel\8052.h>


again : enable D0 #include <standard.h>
[a:h] - pattern for Digit1 #include<stdio.h>
delay #include<etc.h>
disable D0. Enable D1
void main( ){
[a:h] - pattern for Digit2 unsigned char DIGI[2];
delay unsigned char right,cnt;
Goto again
P1 = 0; /* initialize all P1 outputs to be zero*/
P3 = 0;
DIGI[1]=0xc0;/*(hex code for '0')*/
DIGI[2]=0xb0;/*(hex code for '3')*/

while(1) {
for (cnt=1;cnt<3;cnt++)
{
P3 = cnt; /*Enable D0 and then D1*/
P1=DIGI[cnt];/*P1=c0 when D0 is enabled & P1=b0 when d1 is enabled*/
delay_ms(20);
}
}
}

Interfacing to LCD Display


Most projects you create with the 8051 CPU require some form of display. The most common way to
accomplish this is with the LCD (Liquid Crystal Display). LCDs have become a cheap and easy way to get
text display for an embedded system Common displays are set up as 16 to 20 characters by 1 to 4 lines.

UNDERSTANDING LCD

Pinout

• 8 data pins D7:D0


Bi-directional data/command pins.
Alphanumeric characters are sent in ASCII format.

• RS: Register Select


RS = 0 -> Command Register is selected
RS = 1 -> Data Register is selected

• R/W: Read or Write


0 -> Write, 1 -> Read

• E: Enable (Latch data)


Used to latch the data present on the data pins.
A high-to-low edge is needed to latch the data.
• VEE : contrast control

NOTE: When writing to the display, data is transferred only on the high to low transition of this signal. However, when reading from the display, data will become
available shortly after the low to high transition and remain available until the signal falls low again.

Display Data RAM (DDRAM)

Display data RAM (DDRAM) is where you send the characters (ASCII code) you want to see on the LCD screen. It stores display data represented in 8-bit
character codes. Its capacity is 80 characters (bytes). Below you see DD RAM address layout of a 2*16 LCD.

In the above memory map, the area shaded in black is the visible display (For 16x2 display) .
For first line addresses for first 15 characters is from 00h to 0Fh. But for second line address of first character is 40h and so on up to 4Fh for the 16th character.

So if you want to display the text at specific positions of LCD , we require to manipulate address and then to set cursor position accordingly .

Character Generator RAM (CGRAM)-User defined character RAM

In the character generator RAM, we can define our own character patterns by program. CG RAM is 64 bytes ,allowing for eight 5*8 pixel, character patterns to
be defined. However how to define this and use it is out of scope of this tutorial. So I will not talk any more about CGRAM

Registers

The HD44780 has two 8-bit registers, an instruction register (IR) and a data register (DR). The IR stores instruction codes. The DR temporarily stores data to be
written into DDRAM or CGRAM and temporarily stores data to be read from DDRAM or CGRAM. Data written into the DR is automatically written into DDRAM or
CGRAM by an internal operation. . These two registers can be selected by the register selector (RS) signal. See the table below:

Register Selection
RS R/W Operation

0 0 IR write as an internal operation (display clear, etc.)

0 1 Read busy flag (DB7) and address counter (DB0 to DB6)

1 0 DR write as an internal operation (DR to DDRAM or CGRAM)

1 1 DR read as an internal operation (DDRAM or CGRAM to DR)

Busy Flag (BF)

When the busy flag is 1, the LCD is in the internal operation mode, and the next instruction will not be accepted. When RS = 0 and R/W = 1 (see the table
above), the busy flag is output to DB7 (MSB of LCD data bus). The next instruction must be written after ensuring that the busy flag is 0.

LCD Commands

The LCD’s internal controller accept several commands and modify the display accordingly. These commands would be things like:
– Clear screen
– Return home
– Shift display right/left
Instruction Decimal HEX
Function set (8-bit interface, 2 lines, 5*7 Pixels) 56 38
Function set (8-bit interface, 1 line, 5*7 Pixels) 48 30
Function set (4-bit interface, 2 lines, 5*7 Pixels) 40 28
Function set (4-bit interface, 1 line, 5*7 Pixels) 32 20
Entry mode set See Below See Below
Scroll display one character right (all lines) 28 1E
Scroll display one character left (all lines) 24 18
Home (move cursor to top/left character position) 2 2
Move cursor one character left 16 10
Move cursor one character right 20 14
Turn on visible underline cursor 14 0E
Turn on visible blinking-block cursor 15 0F
Make cursor invisible 12 0C
Blank the display (without clearing) 8 08
Restore the display (with cursor hidden) 12 0C
Clear Screen 1 01
Set cursor position (DDRAM address) 128 + addr 80+ addr
Set pointer in character-generator RAM (CG RAM address) 64 + addr 40+ addr

Entry mode set

This command sets cursor move direction and display shift ON/OFF. There are 4 possible function set commands;04, 05, 06, and 07. This command changes the
direction the cursor moves by setting the address counter to increment or decrement. This command is very important. If you do not understand it you may not
see anything or what you actually wanted to see on LCD screen. I have created 4 animated gifs to demonstrate what the function set command is all about.

Set cursor position (DDRAM address)


As said earlier if we want to display the text at specific positions of LCD , we require to
manipulate address and then to set cursor position accordingly.
I want to display "MAHESH" in message "Hi MAHESH" at the right corner of first line then I
should start from 10th character.
So referring to table 80h+0Ah= 8Ah.

INTERFACING LCD TO 8051

The 44780 standard requires 3 control lines as well as either 4 or 8 I/O lines for the data bus. The user may select whether the LCD is to operate with a 4-bit
data bus or an 8-bit data bus.

If a 4-bit data bus is used, the LCD will require a total of 7 data lines.
If an 8-bit data bus is used, the LCD will require a total of 11 data lines.

The three control lines are EN, RS, and RW.

Note that the EN line must be raised/lowered before/after each instruction sent to the LCD regardless of whether that instruction is read or write, text or
instruction. In short, you must always manipulate EN when communicating with the LCD. EN is the LCD's way of knowing that you are talking to it. If you don't
raise/lower EN, the LCD doesn't know you're talking to it on the other lines.

Checking the Busy Flag


You can use subroutine for checking busy flag or just a big (and safe) delay.
1. Set R/W Pin of the LCD HIGH(read from the LCD)
2. Select the instruction register by setting RS pin LOW
3. Enable the LCD by Setting the enable pin HIGH
4. The most significant bit of the LCD data bus is the state of the busy flag(1=Busy,0=ready to accept instructions/data). The other bits hold the current
value of the address counter.

If the LCD never come out from "busy" status because of some problems ,The program will "hang," waiting for DB7 to go low. So in a real applications it would
be wise to put some kind of time limit on the delay--for example, a maximum of 100 attempts to wait for the busy signal to go low. This would guarantee that
even if the LCD hardware fails, the program would not lock up.

CODE EXAMPLE
It is easy (and clean tech. ) to make different subroutines and then call them as we need.

Busy flag checking Data write Routine Command write Routine

ready: data: command:


setb P1.7 ;D7 as input mov P1, A ;move acc. data to port mov P1, A ;move acc. data to port
clr P3.6 ;RS=0 cmd setb P3.6 ;RS=1 data clr P3.6 ;RS=0 for cmd
setb P3.5 ;RW=1 for read clr P3.5 ;RW=0 for write clr P3.5 ;RW=0 for write
setb P3.7 ;H->L pulse on E setb P3.7 ;H->L pulse on E
again: clr P3.7 clr P3.7
setb P3.7 ;H->L pulse on E lcall ready lcall ready
clr P3.7 ret ret
jb P1.7, again
ret
Initialization Display clear Displaying "HI"

initialization: clear:
mov A, #38H ; Initialize, 2-lines, 5X7 matrix. setb p3.7 ;enable EN lcall initialization
lcall Command clr 3.6 ;RS=0 for cmd. lcall clear
mov A, #0EH ; LCD on, cursor on mov DATA,#01h mov A,#'H'
lcall Command clr p3.7 ;disable EN acall data
mov A, #01H ; Clear LCD Screen lcall ready mov A,#'I'
lcall Command RET lcall data
mov A, #06H ; Shift cursor right
lcall Command Note- As we need to clear the LCD frequently and
not the whole initialisation , it is better to use this
routine separately.

Let's now try code for displaying text at specific positions.


I want to display "MAHESH" in message "Hi MAHESH" at the right corner of first line then I should start from 10th character.

So referring to table 80h+0Ah= 8Ah.

So below is code and I don's think that you will need explanation comments.

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE
lcall Initialization
lcall clear
mov a,#'H'
lcall data
mov a,#'I'
lcall data

mov a,#8ah
lcall command

mov a,#'M'
lcall data
mov a,#'A'
lcall data
mov a,#'H'
lcall data
mov a,#'E'
lcall data
mov a,#'S'
lcall data
mov a,#'H'
lcall data
ADC-DAC Interfacing
Analog signals are very common inputs to embedded systems .Most transducers and sensors such as temperature ,pressure ,velocity
,humidity are analog. Therefore we need to convert these analog signals in to digital so that 8051 can read it.

ANALOG DIGITAL TO CONVERTER - ADC

Commonly used ADC device – ADC804

ABOUT IC

PinOut
• CS – Chip Select , active low
• RD – Read Digital data from ADC, H-L edge triggered
• WR -- Start conversion, L-H pulse edge triggered
• INTR -- end of conversion, Goes low to indicate conversion done
• Data bits -- D0-D7
• CLK IN & CLK R
– CLK IN is an input pin connected to an external clock source when an external clock is used for timing. However, ADC804 has an internal
clock
generator.
To use the internal clock generator of the ADC804, the CLK IN and CLK R pins are connected to a capacitor and a resistor. In that case,
the
clock frequency is determined by the equation.

f = 1/1.1RC
R=10K and C=150pF f=606Hz
the conversion time is 110us.

Vref/2 Vin
Input Voltage range Step size (mV)
(Volts) (Volts)
• Default 0-5V. Can be changed by setting different value for Vref/2 pin. Open (2.5) 0 to 5 5/256 = 19.53
Vin=Vin(+) – Vin (-) 2.56 0 to 5.12 5.12/256 =20
1.28 0 to 2.56 2.56/256 = 10
0.5 0 to 1 1/256=3.90
• Range = 0 to 2x Vref/2.
for Vin = 2x Vref/2. we get 256 as a digital output on D0-D7. (Refer Table)

•Step Size a Smallest change


– (2 x Vref/2)/ 256 for ADC804
for eg for step size 10mv ,digital output on D0-D7 changes by one count for every 10mv change of the input analog voltage.

Data Out
Dout = Vin / Step Size

for input vtg. of 2.56 volts (Vref=1.28 volts) and stepsize of 10mv Dout =2560/10 =256 or FF that is full scale output.
Conversion Time
Greater than 110us for ADC804

Resolution
8 bits for ADC804

INTERFACING ADC804 TO 8051

Signals to be interfaced (on the ADC804)


– D0-D7, RD, WR, INTR, CS
Can do both Memory mapping and IO mapping

Memory Mapping (timing is critical)


– Connect D0-D7 of ADC804 to the data bus of the 8051 system
– Connect RD, WR of the ADC804 to the 8051 system (ensure polarity)
– Connect CS of ADC804 to an appropriate address decoder output
– Connect INTR of ADC804 to an external interrupt Pin on the 8051 (INT0 or INT1)

IO Mapping (easiest - I prefer )


– Connect D0-D7, RD, WR, CS, INTR to some port bits on the 8051 (12 in all).
Algorithm
• Make CS=0 and send a low-to-high to pin WR to start the conversion.
• Keep monitoring INTR
– If INTR =0, the conversion is finished and we can go to the next step.
– If INTR=1, keep polling until it goes low.
• After INTR=0, we make CS=0 and send a high-to-low pulse to RD to get the data out of the ADC804 chip.

ASSEMBLY LANGUEGE (A51)

ADC_IO:
mov P1, #0xff ; To configure as input

AGAIN
clr p3.7 ;Chip select
setb P3.6 ;RD=1
clr P3.5 ;WR=0
setb P3.5 ;WR=1- low to high transition

WAIT:
jb P3.4, WAIT ;wait for INTR
clr p3.7 ;generate cs to ADC
clr P3.6 ;RD=0 -High to low transition
mov A, P1 ;read digital o/p
sjmp AGAIN

INTERFACING ADC804 TO 8051

ADC808/809 Chip with 8 analog channel. This means this kind of chip allows to monitor 8 different
transducers.
• ADC804 has only ONE analog input: Vin(+).
• ALE: Latch in the address
• Start : Start of conversion (same as WR in 804)
• OE: output enable (same as RD in 804)
• EOC: End of Conversion (same as INTR in 804)

Channel CBA
IN0 000
IN1 001
IN2 010
IN3 011
IN4 100
IN5 101
IN6 110
IN7 111
Algorithm

Notice that the ADC808/809 that there is no self-clocking and the clock must be provided from an external source to the CLK pin. (you can
use programmable clock oscillator to enable or disable clock by programmable bit. )

• Select an analog channel by provide bits to A, B, C.


• Enable clock
• Activate ALE with a low-to-high pulse.
• Activate SC with a high-to-low pulse (start conversion) The conversion is begun on the falling edge of the start conversion pulse. you can
use circuit like
• Monitor EOC Pin .After conversion this pin goes high.
• Activate OE with a high-to-low pulse to read data out of the ADC chip.
DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTER - DAC

Commonly used DAC808 (MC1408)


– R/2R ladder
– Iout = Iref (D7/2 + D6/4 + D5/8 + …… + D0/256)
– Iout converted to voltage by a resistive load or op-amp based isolator (Rf from Vout to V- and V+ to GND)

PinOut
– D0-D7 à Connected to the Processor’s IO port
– Vref+, Vref-, Vee

Usage:
– Just write a byte to the IO port and the DAC converts it to an
analog value

Sensors Interfacing
Transducer is a device capable of being actuated by an an energizing input from one or more
transmission media and in turn generating a related signal to one or more transmission systems. It
provides a usable output in response to specified input measurand , which may be in the form
physical, chemical, Mechanical or optical....

For eg. temperature transducer transduces temp. changes to equivalent resistance changes which
can further converted into electrical signal (voltage) for
measurements.

TEMPERATURE
1. LM35 Precision temperature sensor
• LM34 series are precision integration-circuit temperature sensors whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the Fahrenheit
temperature.
• LM35 series are precision integration-circuit temperature sensors whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius temperature.

Temperature
P/N Accuracy (oC) Output (mv/oC)
Range (oC)
LM35A -55 to 150 1.0 10
LM35 -55to 150 1.5 10
LM35CA -40 to 110 1.0 10
LM35C -40 to 110 1.5 10
LM35D 0 to 100 2.0 10

I am using LM35DT package to operate over a 0° to +100°C temperature range


R5 and C3 are used for capacitive load compensation.

INTERFACING TO MICROCONTROLLER USING ADC804

• The ADC804 has 8-bit resolution with a maximum of 256 steps and the LM35 produces 10mV for every degree of temperature change.

•We will do calibration such that ,


for temperature range of 0 to 100°C , voltage in at the input of ADC will be 0 to 2.56 v.
•we need to set Vref/2 = 1.28V
so step size will be 2560mv/256 = 10mv
also for every degree change in temp. LM35 output changes by 10mv ,so every degree change in temp. will produce 1 unit change in digital
out of ADC

•Thus resolution of our system will be 1deg C , which is Smallest temp. that we can measure with this system.

CALIBRATION

For Temperature range 0 to 100°C Output voltage 0V to 1V

Required gain of amplifier Required Max. voltage input for ADC / Vout at LM35 = 2560mv /100mv =2.56
Use preset for R2 --> 5.12KOhms so gain =R3/R2 =2.56

Although our theoretical design is correct , operational amplifiers are often needed to to be calibrated practically , what i mean to say is that
you need to adjust gain of amp. (Adjusting pot -R2) so that we get designed output at various temperature. That is if current temp. is 25°C ,
LM35 output will be 250mv and amp. output should be 250x2.56 =0.64v . if it is not, adjust R2.

LM35 has a limited ability


to drive heavy capacitive loads. The LM35 by itself is able to drive 50 pf without special precautions. you can improve the tolerance of
capacitance with a series R-C damper from output to ground.

2. P100 Platinum resistance temp. detector .

PT 1 00 - platinum resistance temp. detector


(PRTD) . PT 1 00 has a resistance of 100 W at zero
deg. Celsius .

• Linear
• Sensitivity-a0 =0.00385W/ deg. Celsius
• Response time - 0.5 to 5 s or more.
• DESIGN (0 to 85 deg. cel.)

1) R1*R4 = R2*R3 -----BRIDGE


BALANCE CONDITION
2) Rt = Ro [ 1 + a T] ----- RESISTANCE VARIATION FOR RTD
3) Vab = V*R3 / ( R1 + R3 ) - VR4 /( R2 + R4 ) --- BRIDGE OUTPUT (V=5v)
4) Vo = R2 / R1 ( Va – Vb )---- GAIN OF INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER

1. At 0oC
R1=R2=R3 =R4(100 W RTD )=100 ohms.
so bridge is balance -o/p vtg 0v

2.At 85 oC

R85 = 100 ( 1 + 0.00385 [ 85 ] )


= 132.72 ohms
Bridge output
Vab = 0.35V. (FOR R1=R2=R3=100ohms)

3.Gain of Amplifier
Vo = R2 / R1 ( Va – Vb )
For Vab = 0.351 & Vo = 0.351 V at 85 deg. Cel.
A = R2 / R1 = 14.62
For R1 = 1 k ohm ; We let R2 = 14.62 K ohm approx. R2 = 15 k ohm(use preset).

Since the change in resistance of RTD w.r.t. temp.is linear , the change in bridge output is also linear w.r.t. temp. i.e. change in temp. from 0
to 85 deg. Cel. causes bridge output to change from 0 to 0.351 V.

I have given Ref voltage of 5.12 v to ADC chip so step size will be ,5120mV/256 (8 bit ADC) =20 mV.
So bridge output voltage in the range 0 to 0.351 V corresponding to 0 to 85oC change in temperature is converted in to 0 to 5.12V using
Amplifier having gain of 14.62 . Interfacing is same as that I have shown in ADC-DAC page .

PROGRAM LOGIC:

Output of an ADC is from 00 TO FFH for an input voltage variation of 0 to 5.12V. I used lookup table method to display the proper
temperature. For this,I prepare a lookup table of 256 values(00 to FF)i.e output of ADC.. An small example of a lookup table has been shown
below. Values corresponding to output of ADC are selected from lookup table and displayed.

CONCEPT FOR LOOK- UP TABLE:

ADC OUTPUT TEMPERATURE IN DEG.CEL


0000 00
0001 00
0002 00
0003 01
0004 01
0005 01
Cntd

00FE 85
00FF 85
SONAR MODULE
Sonar's are basically a device that puts out an inaudible pulse, and counts the time it takes to get an echo. The Polaroid 6500 series sonar
ranging module has a range of 6" to 35 feet.

INTERFACING TO 8051

Polaroid makes the 6500 series sonar ranging module. Basically the init line is brought high and a timer is started, when the echo line goes
high the time counted is run through a simple formula of 0.9 ms per foot to calculate the distance traveled to an object detected. An
additional line may be brought to the MCU if object detection of distances less than 18 inches is desired.
+5v
+---------+ |
init | |---+
to MCU -------| sonar |
echo | module | /
-------| |===| transducer
| | \
+---| |
| +---------+
gnd

Stepper Motor
BASICS OF STEPPER MOTOR

Of all motors, step motor is the easiest to control. It's handling simplicity is really hard to deny - all there is to do is to bring the sequence of
rectangle impulses to one input of step controller and direction information to another input. Direction information is very simple and comes
down to "left" for logical one on that pin and "right" for logical zero. Motor control is also very simple - every impulse makes the motor
operating for one step and if there is no impulse the motor won't start. Pause between impulses can be shorter or longer and it defines
revolution rate. This rate cannot be infinite because the motor won't be able to "catch up" with all the impulses (documentation on specific
motor should contain such information). The picture below represents the scheme for connecting
the step motor to microcontroller and appropriate program code follows.

The key to driving a stepper is realizing how the motor is constructed. A diagram shows the
representation of a 4 coil motor, so named because 4 coils are used to cause the revolution of the
drive shaft. Each coil must be energized in the correct order for the motor to spin.

In Figure 3.3, as in Figure 3.1, boxes are used to represent switches; a control unit, not shown, is
responsible for providing the control signals to open and close the switches at the appropriate times in order to spin the motors. The control
unit is commonly a computer or programmable interface controller, with software directly generating the outputs needed to control the
switches.
As with drive circuitry for variable reluctance motors, we must deal with the inductive kick produced when each of these switches is turned
off. Again, we may shunt the inductive kick using diodes, but now, 4 diodes are required, as shown in Figure 3.4:

Step angle

It is angle through which motor shaft rotates in one step. step angle is different for different motor . selection of motor according to step
angle depends on the application , simply if you require small increments in rottion choose motor having smaller step angle.

No of steps require to rotate one complete rotation = 360 deg. / step angle in deg.

Steps/second

The relation between RPM and steps per sec. is given by ,


steps or impulses /sec. =(RPM X Steps /revolution ) /60

Pause between impulses can be shorter or longer and it defines revolution rate. This rate cannot be infinite because the motor won't be able
to "catch up" with all the impulses (documentation on specific motor should contain such information). So referring to RPM value in datasheet
you can calculate steps/sec and from it delay or pause between impulses

INTERFACING TO 8051.
To cause the stepper to rotate, we have to send a pulse to each coil in turn. The 8051
does not have sufficient drive capability on its output to drive each coil, so there are a
number of ways to drive a stepper,

Stepper motors are usually controlled by transistor or driver IC like


ULN2003.

Driving current for each coil is then needed about 60mA at +5V supply. A Darlington
transistor array, ULN2003 is used to increase driving capacity of the 2051 chip. Four 4.7k resistors help the 2051 to provide more sourcing
current from the +5V supply.

Coil A Coil B Coil C Coil D Step


0 1 1 0 1
0 0 1 1 2
1 0 0 1 3
1 1 0 0 4

CODE EXAMPLE

To move motor in forward direction continuously


Connection -P1.0 -P1.3 connected to Coils A -D.

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE C LANGUAGE (SPJ)

mov a,#66h ;Load step sequence void main ()


{
AGAIN TMOD = 0x20 ;
mov p2,a ;issue sequence to motor TCON = 0x40 ;
rr a ;rotate step sequence right clockwise=Next sequence TH1 = 0xf9 ;
acall DELAY ;~ 20 msec. TL1 = 0xf9 ;
sjmp AGAIN ;Repete again PCON = 0x80 ;
SCON = 0x50 ;
while (1) /*continues loop */
{
printf("a"); /* transmit a along with CR & LF.
}

CONTROLLING STEPPER MOTOR WITH TWO PORT PINS ONLY

For Forward
D0 D0 Coil energized
0 0 AB
0 1 BC
1 0 CD
1 1 DA

To reverse the motor just reverse the above sequence viz. 11,10,01,00.