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Chaîne de transmission GSM

Simulation système sous ADS et analyse vectorielle

Virgile Garcia
Matthieu Gautier

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SOMMAIRE

1 Prise en main du logiciel .............................................................................. 2


1.1 Les projets sous ADS................................................................................................ 3
1.2 Conception d’un système sous ADS........................................................................ 3
1.3 Simulation ................................................................................................................. 4
1.3.1 Les contrôleurs de simulation ............................................................................ 6
1.3.2 Harmonic Balance .............................................................................................. 7
1.3.3 Circuit Enveloppe............................................................................................... 8
1.3.4 DATA FLOW simulation controller ................................................................ 11
1.4 Analyse des résultats .............................................................................................. 11
2 Application : génération d’un signal RF modulé .................................... 13
2.1 Créer la schématique .............................................................................................. 13
2.2 Etude de la source temporelle ............................................................................... 15
2.3 Etude de la source fréquentielle............................................................................ 16
2.4 Etude du signal modulé.......................................................................................... 17
3 Etude de signaux GSM............................................................................... 20
3.1 La modulation GMSK ........................................................................................... 21
3.2 Etude des effets de la propagation du signal avec l’analyseur de spectre
vectoriel (en simulation)..................................................................................................... 21
3.3 Analyse d’une trame TDMA ................................................................................. 26
3.4 Analyse d’un signal GSM pour une liaison montante et descendante. ............. 34

1 Prise en main du logiciel


Cette partie est une présentation concise de l’utilisation du logiciel et de ses possibilités.

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1.1 Les projets sous ADS


A l’ouverture du logiciel la fenêtre principale suivante apparaît.

figure 1. fenêtre principale

C’est à partir de cette fenêtre que les projets sont gérés. ADS utilise des répertoires
appelés projets pour organiser et stocker les données générées lors de la création, la
simulation et l’analyse de systèmes. Un projet contient par exemple les circuits, les layouts,
ou encore tous les résultats de simulations effectuées... Lors de l’ouverture d’un projet, la
fenêtre suivante s’ouvre.

Projet

figure 2. fenêtre projet.


Le projet est un répertoire défini avec la syntaxe « nom_prj ». Dans chaque projet des
sous répertoires sont créés (voir figure 2), chacun d’entre eux correspondant à un type de
fichier (circuit, résultat de simulation…).
1.2 Conception d’un système sous ADS
Apres avoir ouvert un projet la conception d’un système peut être constituée d’une seule

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structure ou bien dans le cas de système complexe, de plusieurs systèmes incorporés comme
un sous réseau dans un fichier. Pour créer un système, il faut ouvrir une fenêtre appelée
« schématique ». Pour cela, il suffit de cliquer sur l’icône correspondant (« New Schematic
Window ») de la fenêtre principale, ou bien sur l’onglet « window/New schematic » de cette
même fenêtre. Il est aussi possible de créer un nouveau design dans l’onglet file de la fenêtre
principale (« File/New Design »). Dans ce dernier cas, à l’ouverture de la fenêtre, deux types
de « schématiques » sont possibles : schematic RF/analog Design (traitement analogique) ou
schematic DSP Design (analyse numérique). Dans cette fenêtre il est possible de :
 Créer et modifier des circuits et des « layout »
 Ajouter des variables et des équations
 Placer et configurer des composants, des contrôleurs de simulations
 Générer un layout à partir d’un système et inversement
 Ajouter des commentaires

Une fois la « schématique » ouverte, il est alors possible de placer des composants, des
sources de mesures, des contrôleurs de simulations… Pour cela, il suffit de chercher l’élément
voulu dans la bibliothèque correspondante. Chacun d’entre eux dispose d’un certain nombre
de paramètres réglables. Lorsqu’un élément est placé sur la schématique une définition de
celui-ci est disponible en appliquant un double clic sur cet élément puis en sélectionnant le
bouton « Help ».
Bibliothèque

1. Sélectionner un
composant
2. Définir son
orientation
3. Placer le
composant
4. Définir ses
paramètres

figure 3. fenêtre schématique

Une fois tous les éléments placés et correctement configurés, il faut les relier en plaçant
des fils (bouton « insert wire »).
1.3 Simulation
ADS propose des outils appelés contrôleurs pour simuler et optimiser un système.

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La simulation d’un système numérique (ex. DSP) nécessite l’utilisation d’un « Data
Flow controller » qui se trouve dans la librairie « Common components » (icône « DF »).
Pour une simulation analogique RF plusieurs contrôleurs variables sont disponibles
suivant le type d’analyse que l’on souhaite obtenir (AC, DC, paramètre[S], temporel,
fréquentiel…et ils se trouvent dans les bibliothèques « simulation-x »).

1. Cliquer et
placer le
contrôleur

2. Cliquer et
configurer les
paramètres

3. Cliquer pour
simuler

figure 4. simuler un système

Lorsqu’une simulation est exécutée, son avancement et les éventuels messages d’erreurs sont
affichés dans la fenêtre « Status/Summary » :

figure 5. résultat de la simulation

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1.3.1 Les contrôleurs de simulation

Un ou plusieurs contrôleurs peuvent être placés dans un « design » suivant le type de


simulation recherché. Ces éléments permettent de sélectionner la plage temporelle ou
fréquentielle de simulation ainsi que le type de résultats obtenus.

La liste des principaux contrôleurs disponibles est décrite dans le tableau suivant :

Type de contrôleur description Utilisation typique


Data Flow simulation Analyse de signaux numériques et
controller temporels lors d’une simulation DSP tous les systèmes type
utilisant le simulateur ptolemy DSP
DC simulation Il exécute un contrôle et une analyse du Tous les systèmes
controller comportement en régime continu RF/analog
AC simulation Permet d’obtenir la fonction de transfert
controller en petit signal tel que le gain ou le bruit en filtres, amplificateurs
tension et courant
S parameter simulation Fournit les paramètres S linéaires, filtres,
controller paramètres de bruit linéaires, oscillateurs,
transimpédance et transmittance amplificateurs
Harmonic balance Utilise des techniques non linéaires de mélangeur,
simulation controller balance harmonique pour trouver un état oscillateur,
stable du système dans le domaine récepteur,
fréquentiel ampli. de puissance
Circuit enveloppe Utilise une combinaison des techniques
simulation controller d’analyse dans le domaine temporel et
fréquentiel pour rapporter une analyse mélangeur, oscillateur,
rapide et complète d’un signal complexe, Ampli. de puissance,
tel qu’un signal RF avec une modulation récepteur,
complexe
LSSP simulation Etend l’analyse en paramètres S pour de
controller forts signaux pour visualiser le amplificateur
comportement non linéaire de puissance

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Transient/ Résout un système non linéaire dans le


Simulation controller domaine temporel utilisant des modèles mélangeur,
simplifiés tenant compte de la dépendance ampli de puissance,
en fréquence du comportement des « switch »
éléments distribués

Au cours du TP vous utiliserez surtout les contrôleurs « DataFlow », « Harmonic


Balance » et « circuit enveloppe ».

1.3.2 Harmonic Balance


Le contrôleur de simulation « Harmonic Balance » (HB) est un outil d’analyse dans le
domaine fréquentiel pour étudier les distorsions dans les circuits et systèmes non linéaires.
Pour une étude HB, il faut impérativement utiliser des sources contrôlées en fréquence qui se
trouvent dans la bibliothèque « frequency domain source ».

figure 6. contrôleur HB

Il faut définir les fréquences que l’on souhaite étudier et l’ordre des harmoniques pris en
compte. Il permet de calculer les composantes fréquentielles contenues dans les signaux en
tension et courant du circuit, d’évaluer la distorsion due aux harmoniques et à l’inter
modulation et les performances en termes de bruit non linéaire.
« Harmonic Balance » présente de nombreux avantages par rapport à une analyse avec
le contrôleur « transient ». En effet, HB capture directement la réponse spectrale stationnaire
alors que la méthode traditionnelle en temporel nécessite le besoin d’intégrer beaucoup de
périodes de la sinusoïde à la fréquence la plus basse pour atteindre l’état stable. Il résout assez
rapidement les problèmes aux hautes fréquences alors que « transient » ne peut pas les traiter
ou alors avec un coût temporel excessif. Enfin, il est plus approprié pour étudier les
phénomènes hautes fréquences où les modèles sont élaborés « pour et dans » le domaine
fréquentiel.

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1.3.3 Circuit Enveloppe


Ce contrôleur est le plus approprié à une analyse rapide et complète d’un signal
complexe tel qu’un signal numérique modulé. Il combine les caractéristiques dans les
domaines fréquentiels et temporels en permettant aux ondes en entrée d’être représentées
comme la somme d’une porteuse RF décrite et simulée dans le domaine fréquentiel et une
enveloppe de modulation représentée quant à elle dans le domaine temporel.

figure 7. contrôleur simulation enveloppe.

Le processus d’analyse avec le contrôleur d’enveloppe est le suivant :


1) Transformation du signal d’entrée

figure 8. définition du signal d’entrée

Chaque signal modulé peut être représenté comme une porteuse modulée par une
enveloppe, A(t)*exp j[f(t)]. L’amplitude et la phase de l’enveloppe échantillonnée sont
utilisées comme signal d’entrée pour l’analyse harmonique balance.

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2) Analyse dans le domaine fréquentiel

figure 9. Analyse dans le domaine fréquentiel.

L’analyse harmonique balance est exécutée à chaque pas temporel. Cette procédure crée
une succession de spectre qui caractérise la réponse du circuit pur chacun des points
temporels.

3) Analyse dans le domaine temporel

figure 10. Analyse dans le domaine temporel.

« Circuit Enveloppe » fournit une solution complète de l’état non stationnaire du circuit
par une série de Fourier avec des coefficients temporels variables.

4) Extraction des données du domaine temporel

figure 11. extraction des données du domaine temporel.

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En sélectionnant l’harmonique désirée dans le spectre (fc dans l’exemple), il est possible
d’analyser :
L’amplitude en fonction du temps (démarrage d’un oscillateur…)
La phase en fonction du temps (fréquence instantanée d’un VCO df/dt…)
L’amplitude et la phase en fonction du temps (constellation, BER,EVM…)

5) Extraction des données du domaine fréquentiel

figure 12. extraction des données dans le domaine fréquentiel.

En appliquant une transformée de Fourier du spectre temporel sélectionné, il est possible


d’analyser :
-Le rapport de puissance du canal adjacent (ACPR)
-Le rapport de la puissance de bruit (NPR)
-L’ordre supérieur d’inter modulation
Les étapes de la simulation sont les suivantes:
-Définir la modulation du signal en bande de base
-Prédéfinir les sources
-Equations
-Les données I et Q en fonction du temps pour les simulations DSP
-Définir la fréquence de la porteuse RF, le pas temporel et la durée de la simulation
-Calculer les coefficients de Fourier
-Post-process et visualisation des résultats

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Ou encore :
-Définir le signal d’entrée avec la modulation d’amplitude de phase ou de fréquence, I
et Q…
-Définir le pas temporel
-Simuler et calculer les coefficients de Fourier temporel
-Calculer les transformées de Fourier et visualiser le spectre en fréquence du signal
(module, phase).

1.3.4 DATA FLOW simulation controller


Ce contrôleur est utilisé pour contrôler le flux des signaux numériques et temporels pour
toutes les simulations de systèmes numériques avec ADS. Il permet de contrôler la plage
temporelle et le nombre de symboles simulés.

figure 13. contrôleur de simulation Data Flow

1.4 Analyse des résultats


Les résultats des simulations effectuées sont enregistrés dans le fichier « dataset » qui
est stocké dans le répertoire data du projet. L’icône « data display » permet d’accéder à la
fenêtre d’analyse des résultats. Dans cette fenêtre, il est possible de tracer des graphes,
d’écrire des équations pour effectuer des calculs, utiliser des marqueurs et illustrer les
analyses avec des annotations.
La procédure à suivre pour ouvrir une fenêtre d’analyse est représentée sur la figure 14
(voir page suivante).

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1. Cliquer pour
ouvrir la fenêtre
data display
2. Cliquer et choisir
le type de
graphique
3. Sélectionner les
données à tracer
et les options du
traceur

figure 14. ouverture fenêtre d’analyse.

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2 Application : génération d’un signal RF modulé


Le but de cette application est de vous familiariser et de prendre en main le logiciel de
CAO en concevant et en analysant un système simple. Pour cela il vous sera demandé de
générer un signal RF avec une modulation pi/4DQPSK. Le système sera composé d’une
source en fréquence, d’une source de donnée binaire pseudo aléatoire, d’un modulateur et
enfin d’un filtre. L’architecture du système est représentée sur la figure 15.

figure 15. Topologie du système

2.1 Créer la schématique


Dans un premier temps, créez un nouveau projet que vous nommez TP_source_mod et
ouvrez la fenêtre schématique.
Quand vous placez un élément, la signification de ses différents paramètres est
disponible en cliquant sur l’icône help de sa fenêtre de paramétrage. Vous accédez à cette
fenêtre en appliquant un double clic sur l’élément. A chaque fois que vous changez un
paramètre, cliquez sur l’icône « apply » pour le valider. Pour déplacer la zone de texte
décrivant les paramètres d’un élément appuyer sur F5 et sélectionner l’élément.
Placez les différents éléments nécessaires et pour chacun d’entre eux examinez en
détails leurs caractéristiques.
Dans la bibliothèque « source-freq domain » sélectionnez la source P_1tone et placez
cette source sur la schématique. Réglez les paramètres de la puissance et de la fréquence :

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P_1Tone
PORT1
Num=1
Z=50 Ohm
P=polar(dbmtow(PRF),0)
Freq=RFfreq

P=polar(dbmtow(PRF),0), la fonction dbmtow convertit la puissance de dBm en watt.


Les valeurs numériques de la puissance et la fréquence seront ensuite définies dans la
déclaration des variables.
Vous trouverez la source de donnée binaire pseudo aléatoire dans la bibliothèque
« source-time domain » (DT LFSR). Réglez les paramètres suivants la configuration
suivante :
VtLFSR_DT
SRC2
Vlow=-1 V
DT
Vhigh=1 V
Rate=2*sym_rate
Delay=0 nsec
Taps=bin("10000000000000100")
Seed=bin("10101010101010101")
Rout=1 Ohm

Cette source génère une séquence aléatoire de bits qui se répète après 8191 bits.
Le modulateur au format pi/4DQPsk se trouve dans la bibliothèque « system
mod/demod ».

PI4DQPSK_ModTuned
MOD1
Fnom=RFfreq
Rout=50 Ohm
SymbolRate=sym_rate
Delay=0 nsec

Le filtre se trouve dans la bibliothèque « filter band pass » :

BPF_RaisedCos
BPF1
Alpha=0.5
Fcenter=RFfreq
SymbolRate=sym_rate
DelaySymbols=Filt_delay_syms
Exponent=0.5
DutyCycle=100
SincE=no

Apres avoir placé et paramétré les éléments, il faut alors déclarer les variables utilisées.
Pour cela cliquez sur l’icône « VAR » de la fenêtre « schématique » et ajoutez les variables

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suivantes ci-après.
Var
Eqn
VAR
VAR1
numpts=256*10
sam_per_sym=10
tstep=1/(sym_rate*sam_per_sym)
PRF=10 _dBm
RFfreq=800 MHz
Filt_delay_syms=15
sym_rate=24.3 kHz

Cela correspond à un débit de symboles de 24.3 kHz, le nombre d’échantillon temporel


par symbole est 10. Le nombre de points simulés est représenté par numpts et le nombre de
symbole simulés=numpts/sam_per_sym.

2.2 Etude de la source temporelle


Dans un premier temps, vérifiez les données générées par la source pseudo aléatoire.
Pour cela il est nécessaire d’effectuer une simulation dans le domaine temporel, comme le
montre la figure suivante. Vous trouverez le contrôleur de simulation temporel dans la
librairie « Simulation-Transient » (Icône « trans »).

figure 16. schématique de la simulation transient

Pour désactiver un bloc cliquez sur l’icône représentant un élément barré par une croix
rouge puis cliquez sur l’élément souhaité. Placez une charge de 50 ohms en sortie du système
et les masses. Placez enfin une étiquette sur le fil ou l’on veut visualiser la tension (pour cela
cliquez sur l’icône « wire pin label », tapez le nom Vload, cliquez sur le fil et le label se
positionne sur le fil). Paramétrez le simulateur (time setup, freq…). Allez dans le menu

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Output et cliquez sur add/remove, sélectionnez Vload et Add, cela permettra de visualiser la
tension Vload.
Une fois que vous avez tout paramétré correctement, sauvegardez (icône « save curent
design ») et simulez le système (icône « Simulate »). Ouvrez une fenêtre « display » et tracez
Vload en fonction (vs sous ADS) du temps. Utilisez les marqueurs pour calculer le débit.
Vérifiez que la séquence générée correspond bien à celle définie dans le modèle utilisé dans la
« schématic » (débit, séquence…). Vous devez obtenir les résultats présentés sur la figure 17.

figure 17. résultat de la simulation

Pour visualiser les calculs dans un tableau, cliquez sur l’icône qui se trouve sur la barre
des taches à gauche de la fenêtre « display » et dans le menu « data set et equation »,
sélectionner équation. La liste des équations de votre fenêtre « display » apparaît alors dans le
cadre et sélectionnez celles dont vous voulez visualiser le résultat dans le tableau.

2.3 Etude de la source fréquentielle


Désactivez la source de données binaires et connectez la source fréquentielle, choisissez le
simulateur harmonique balance, et vérifiez que la source émet bien une puissance de 10dBm à
800MHz.

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figure 18. schématique de la simulation harmonique balance.

2.4 Etude du signal modulé


Placez maintenant le modulateur DQPSK, et utilisez le simulateur d’enveloppe.

figure 19. schématique de la simulation d’enveloppe.

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Simulez le système et dans la fenêtre display data, visualisez le spectre de l’enveloppe.


Pour cela utilisez l’éditeur d’équation comme indiquez ci-dessous. Attention à bien
respecter la syntaxe pour utiliser les variables (majuscules et minuscules).

Eqn spectre=dbm(fs(Vload[1],,,,,"kaiser"))
Eqn spectre = dbm(fs(Vload[1],,,,,"kaiser"))

figure 20. spectre sans filtre.

Sauvegardez ces résultats.


Placez maintenant le filtre et relancez la simulation. Comparez le spectre avec le
précédent. Tracez également la constellation.

Eqn sym_rate = 24.3 kHz


Eqn spectre = dbm(fs(Vload[1],,,,,"kaiser"))

Eqn const = constellation(real(Vload[1]),imag(Vload[1]),sym_rate,)

figure 21. résultats obtenus avec le filtre.

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Calculez la puissance sur une plage de 40 KHz puis la DSP, pour cela utilisez la
fonction chanel_power_vr (une définition des fonctions est disponible dans la fenêtre de
l’éditeur d’équation, en cliquant sur « functions help »).
Attention la fonction chanel_power_vr ne donne pas directement la DSP !
Commentez et concluez.

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3 Etude de signaux GSM


Dans cette partie, vous analysez la transmission de signaux GSM à l’aide d’exemples
déjà modélisés sous ADS. Certaines questions vous guideront dans cette partie mais à vous de
faire preuve d’initiative et d’analyser en détails ces exemples en apportant les modifications
que vous jugerez utiles. Dans un premier temps vous étudierez la modulation GMSK puis
vous regarderez plus précisément les canaux de transmission et l’analyse en lien montant et
descendant.
Quelques rappels sur la norme GSM et la modulation GMSK sont indiqués ci-dessous.

figure 22. norme GSM et DCS

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3.1 La modulation GMSK


Faites une copie du projet gsm_prj qui se trouve dans le répertoire
examples\com_sys\gsm_prj sous votre répertoire utilisez la fonction Copy project de la
fenêtre principale.
Dans le répertoire « network », ouvrez les fichiers modem.dsn et « gsm_sys.dsn ». Cet
exemple présente la modulation GMSK. Regardez les différents éléments du système ainsi
que leur configuration. Certains éléments sont des sous-systèmes (comme par exemple le
modulateur), avec l’icône suivant , vous pouvez accédez à ces sous systèmes.

Vous commencerez par étudier la schématique nommée « modem ». Analysez et


commentez ensuite l’évolution du signal pour les différentes étapes de la modulation.
Enfin, étudiez le système GSM_sys.

3.2 Etude des effets de la propagation du signal avec l’analyseur de


spectre vectoriel (en simulation)
Après avoir étudié en détail ce système, vous remplacerez la liaison filaire entre
l’émetteur et le récepteur par un système prenant en compte la propagation du signal entre ces
éléments.
Dans la bibliothèque « antennas & Propagation », sélectionnez les éléments
suivants : « Antbase, Prop GSM, AntMob » et positionnez les sur la schématique comme
indiqué sur la figure 16. Vous trouverez l’analyseur de spectre VSA_89600_1_sink dans la
bibliothèque « Instruments ».

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figure 23. schématique avec prise en compte de la propagation du signal.

Paramétrez l’antenne de la BTS avec un gain de 15 dBi et l’antenne mobile avec un gain
de 4 dBi. Pour la propagation commencez par regarder l’affaiblissement direct en espace
libre, c'est-à-dire configurez l’élément « PropGSM » avec « type=nomultipath » et
« pathloss=yes ». Simulez ce système pour différentes distances entre les 2 antennes 10, 100
et 1000 m. La distance se règle dans l’élément « AntMobile ».Concluez.
Lors de la première simulation lisez la partie fonctionnement du VSA 89600 afin
d’utiliser correctement cet outil (page 23). Pour une distance fixe, vous pouvez regarder ce
qui se passe pour différents modèles de propagation.

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Fonctionnement du VSA_89600 :
Lorsque vous lancez la simulation la fenêtre suivante s’ouvre :

figure 24. fenêtre du simulateur VSA

Cet outil d’analyse est un analyseur de spectre vectoriel identique à celui que l'on peut
utiliser en mesure réelle.
Le menu Input permet de sélectionner si vous travaillez sur une trace enregistrée (data
from recording) ou en mesure directe (data from hardware). « Range Coupling » et
« Trigger » sont des paramètres qui ne sont pas réglables en simulation, avec le VSA. En
mesure, par contre, ils permettent de configurer l’appareil en fonction du signal mesuré
(amplitude, synchronisation….)
Le menu MeasSetup permet de configurer la mesure : fréquence centrale, span (plage
de mesure) RBW (résolution), moyennage. Il est aussi possible dans ce menu de démoduler le
signal (cf partie 3-3).
Le menu Display permet de paramétrer la fenêtre d’affichage.
Le menu Trace permet de choisir le type de graphique tracé.

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Le menu Marker permet de positionner des marqueurs et d’utiliser des fonctions de


calculs.
Affichez une seule fenêtre d’analyse à l’écran (« single ») et sélectionnez le spectre.
Pour cela cliquez sur Trace/data/spectrum. Positionnez le pointeur de la souris sur le graphe
et cliquez sur le bouton droit et Y auto scale.
Puis dans le menu MeasSetup réglez le span à 2 MHz, le nombre de point de mesure à 3200 et
la résolution à 3KHz.
Placez un marqueur sur le pic (menu Markers/search/peak). Mesurez la puissance sur
une bande de 200 kHz, la bande passante occupée et le rapport de puissance avec les canaux
adjacents. Pour cela allez dans le menu Markers/calculation, une fenêtre s’ouvre, configurez
les trois calculs de la manière suivante :

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figure 25. fenêtre de paramétrage des calculs

Une fois ces paramètres réglés vous devez obtenir l’écran suivant avec le spectre et les
résultats des calculs en dessous de la courbe.

figure 26. spectre avec l’OBW et l’ACPR

Comparez les résultats de l’ACPR avec la norme GSM (cf figure 27 tableau norme
GSM).

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figure 27. ACPR norme GSM

Rajoutez un modèle de propagation urbain et relancez les mêmes simulations (pour ces
3 distances). Que constatez-vous ?
A une distance fixe, (par exemple 500m) vous pouvez comparer le spectre pour
différents modèles de propagation.
3.3 Analyse d’une trame TDMA
Rappel : Définition des slots et des trames pour la norme GSM.

figure 28. définition des trames GSM.

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Copiez le projet ads2003c\examples\gsm\measurement_TCH (utilisez copy project) sous


votre répertoire.

Les deux pages suivantes représentent la schématique complète du système.

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Avant d’analyser ce système, regardez comment la trame est constituée (durée des slots,
composition des slots…). Simulez le système pour différentes configurations (en désactivant
certains slots). Lors de la simulation vous visualiserez le diagramme de l’œil et la
constellation directement sur des fenêtres de visualisation. Une fois la simulation terminée
ouvrez les fichiers data set correspondant et analysez le spectre et le signal en bande de base.
Commentez les résultats.

L’analyse du signal va maintenant être effectuée en démodulant le signal à l’aide de


l’analyseur VSA89600. Modifiez la schématique comme indiqué sur la figure 29 suivante :

figure 29. schématique modifiée

Effectuez la simulation, la fenêtre d’analyse du VSA 89600 s’ouvre. Dans le menu


MeasSetup, sélectionnez Demodulator/DigitalDemod. Ensuite toujours dans le menu
MeaSetup cliquez sur Demod properties, la fenêtre de paramétrage de la démodulation
apparaît.

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Dans Format, cliquez sur Preset to Standard et


selectionnez cellular/GSM. Dans Search décochez
Pulse Search et activez Sync search.

figure 30. fenêtre de paramétrage de la démodulation.

Changez l’affichage en choisissant 4 fenêtres avec la configuration grid 2x2.


Normalement vous devez obtenir l’écran suivant avec la constellation, le spectre, le vecteur
erreur et un tableau récapitulatif de la qualité de la transmission (erreur de phase,
amplitudes…).

figure 31. fenêtre d’analyse du simulateur.

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Les tableaux suivants présentent quelques définitions des calculs effectués par le
logiciel. Pour plus de détails sur le fonctionnement du 89600, une aide est disponible en
cliquant sur Help/tutorials.

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Regardez les différents types de diagrammes disponibles.

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3.4 Analyse d’un signal GSM pour une liaison montante et


descendante.
Dans cette partie, vous étudierez deux sources GSM. La première génère un signal au
format GSM d’une liaison montante (mobile vers station de base), la seconde délivre un
signal suivant le format descendant.
Créez un nouveau projet.

Analyse de la voie montante :


Dans la fenêtre « schématique », prenez la source GSM qui se trouve dans :
DesignGuide\RFsystem\Additional Analog/RF Sources\ GSM/EDGE \reverse Link (GSM)
(barre des taches en haut de la fenêtre schématique)
Expliquez le fonctionnement de ce composant. Un descriptif de ce composant est
détaillé pages 35-36
Ouvrez la fenêtre d’analyse et les différentes courbes et équations. Simulez le système pour
différentes configurations (avec et sans saut de fréquences, différents trafics…)

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Component Name: GSM_EDGE_Uplink_GMSK_Src The GSM system utilizes channels having a bandwidth of 200 kHz. If
Parameter(s): (name: description, type, range of usage) frequency hopping is not enabled, the Carrier_Freq parameter
Carrier_Freq: The center frequency of the output RF spectrum specifies the carrier frequency of the generated signal. If frequency
(if frequency hopping is not used, Carrier_Freq is the carrier hopping is enabled, the carrier frequency of the generated signal
frequency of the modulated signal), real. changes from frame to frame in accordance with a frequency hopping
Pav: Relative average output power of the modulator, real. algorithm - see section 6 of [1] for an overview of frequency hopping
Slot_x: Specifies whether a data burst is to be transmitted within and section 6.2 (specifically, 6.2.3) for details of the frequency
slot x of each frame. Use a 1 for a full-rate channel, 2 for a half- hopping algorithm. The number of channels utilized when frequency
rate channel on sub-channel 0, 3 for a half-rate channel on sub- hopping is enabled is determined by the Mobile_Allocation
channel 1, and 0 for no traffic, integer, >= 0 and <= 3. parameter. For example, if the Mobile_Allocation parameter is set
TSC_Num: The training sequence code that is inserted into to N, the transmitted signal will hop amongst N 200 kHz wide
each data burst, integer, >= 0 and <= 7. channels whose centre frequencies are separated from one another
Symbol_Rate: The modulation symbol rate. This design and its by 200 kHz x Channel_Spacing. If N is an even number, the
sub-designs expect a symbol rate of 270.8333... ksym/s, Carrier_Freq parameter specifies the mid-point of the band of N
real, > 0. channels; whereas, if N is an odd number, the Carrier_Freq
Frequency_Hop: Enables or disables frequency hopping, string, parameter specifies the center frequency of the center channel of the
"Yes" or "No". band of N channels.
Mobile_Allocation: Specifies the number of RF channels utilized
for frequency hopping, integer, >= 1 and <= 64. The GSM_EDGE_Uplink_GMSK_Src component is able to operate
Channel_Spacing: The frequency difference (measured in terms of with 4, 8 or 16 samples per modulated symbol. The number of
200 kHz channels) between the channels making up the samples per modulated symbol will depend upon the size of the
Mobile_Allocation, integer, > 1. time-step of the simulation. If frequency hopping is no enabled 4
Hopping_Sequence_Num: The hopping sequence number, integer, samples per symbol can be used, however, if frequency hopping
>= 0 and <= 63. is enabled, 8 or 16 samples per symbol will have to be used, with
Mobile_Allocation_Offset: The RF channel index offset for this reference to the value of the Mobile_Allocation parameter.
mobile, integer, >= 0 and <= (Mobile_Allocation - 1).
Delay_Time: The first TDMA frame begins precisely 6 modulation A quadrature modulator is used here to implement GMSK. The
symbol periods after Delay_Time, real, >= 0. GSM_EDGE_Uplink_GMSK_IQ sub-component generates the
Input(s): required I and Q modulating signals. See the
None. GSM_EDGE_Uplink_GMSK_IQ sub-component for more
Output(s): information. GMSK modulation as implemented here is
Modulated GMSK signal, ports 1 and 2. described in section 2 of [4].
Description: GSM_EDGE_Uplink_GMSK_Src generates a TDMA Besides the limitations described above, this component does
GMSK modulated user/mobile station (MS) signal. This component is not implement the logical channel combinations and mapping
intended for use with envelope simulations. described in section 6.5 of [2], or those aspects of the
specifications describing the cordless telephone system (CTS)
GSM utilizes an 8 slot frame to implement TDMA. Each slot has a and COMPACT mode.
duration of 156.25 symbol periods. The slots of a frame are identified as
slot zero through seven. A single physical channel is equivalent to the
same slot of each frame being utilized to transmit a data burst. A
MS may be allocated one or more physical channels, depending upon
the uplink data bandwidth required by the MS. The 156.25 symbol All references are to Release 5 of the following GSM/EDGE specifications:
periods of a slot include a guard period that is at least 8.25 symbol [1] 3GPP TS 45.001 V5.3.0 (2002-04) "Physical Layer On the Radio Path"
periods in duration and tail bits/symbol periods that precede and follow [2] 3GPP TS 45.002 V5.5.0 (2002-04) "Multiplexing and Multiple Access On the Radio Path"
the portion of the slot during which useful data is transmitted. See [3] 3GPP TS 45.003 V5.5.0 (2002-04) "Channel Coding"
section 5 of [1] for an overview of the TDMA aspect of the GSM system. [4] 3GPP TS 45.004 V5.0.0 (2001-11) "Modulation" (Note: this document states that it is
from Release 4, however its version indicates that it is from Release 5, and the 3GPP
document status table states that it is from Release 5)
In regard to this component, the number of physical channels that will [5] 3GPP TS 45.005 V5.3.0 (2002-04) "Radio Transmission and Reception"
form the transmitted MS signal depends upon the Slot_x parameters.
If the Slot_x parameter is set to 1, a full-rate traffic channel is allocated A helpful document for interpreting the above specifications is
[6] 3GPP TR 21.995 V5.3.0 (2002-03) "Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications"
to slot x. If Slot_x is set to 2 or 3, a half-rate traffic channel is allocated
to slot x, with a 2 corresponding to sub-channel 0 and a 3 to sub-
channel 1. If Slot_x is set to 0 no traffic is allocated to slot x.
Although the GSM system utilizes four different types of data bursts for
transmission during a slot (namely: Normal, Frequency Correction,
Synchronization, and Access Bursts), this component only implements
a Normal Burst. See section 5.2 of [2] (and the
GSM_EDGE_Uplink_GMSK_IQ design) for more information.

The timing of the output signal is referenced to the start of the first
frame (or part thereof) transmitted. The start of the symbol period of
the first symbol (the first tail bit/symbol period) of slot zero is
precisely 6 symbol periods after Delay_Time.
The power of the transmitted signal is ramped up and down over the
course of three bit/symbol periods just before the start of the data
burst and after the data burst. The Normal Burst has a duration of
148 symbol periods, including the tail bits/symbols at the start and
end of the burst. During the ramp up and ramp down dummy bits
are used to determine the output state of the modulator. The shape
of the ramp up and ramp down is derived by time windowing the
modulator output with a raised cosine window.
Each normal burst transmitted includes an embedded training
sequence code. The same training sequence code is embedded
within all bursts that are transmitted. The training sequence code
is specified by the TSC_Num parameter and is selected from a
family of 8 (indexed 0 through 7) different codes. See section 5.2
of [2]. The data portion of each normal burst is generated
randomly using an independent identically distributed number
gnerator.

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Component Name: GSM_EDGE_Uplink_GMSK_IQ


Parameter(s): (name: description, type, range of usage) The actual spectrum shifting of the baseband GMSK signal is
SymRate: The modulation symbol rate. This design expects a carried out using a complex multiplication using the derived MAI
symbol rate of 270.8333... ksym/s, real, > 0. in combination with the ADS global variable 'time'.
Slotx: Specifies whether a data burst is to be transmitted within
slot x of each frame. A value other than 0 will result in slot x GMSK modulation for GSM is described in section 2 of [4]. The
containing a data burst, integer. specification provides for differential encoding, filtering using a
TSCNum: The training sequence code number that is inserted into Gaussian pulse shape and frequency modulation by the aggregate
each data burst, integer, >= 0 and <= 7. phase formed at the output of the Gaussian pulse shaping filter.
FrequencyHop: Enables or disables frequency hopping, string, In place of a frequency modulator, it is possible to use a
"Yes" or "No".
MobileAllocation: Specifies the number of RF channels utilized
quadrature modulator to form the same modulated signal.
for frequency hopping, integer, >= 1 and <= 64. Furthermore, since the Gaussian filter has a finite length, its
ChannelSpacing: The frequency difference (measured in terms of output can be determined using a finite number of input bits to
200 kHz channels) between the channels making up the form an address into a look-up table of prototype waveforms.
MobileAllocation, integer, > 1. For instance, see the ADS GSM signal processing component
HoppingSequenceNum: The hopping sequence number, integer, GSM_Rom.dsn, as well as: A. Bodas & K. Feher, "Low Complexity
>= 0 and <= 63. GSM Modulator for Integrated Circuit Implementation" 1996
MobileAllocationOffset: The RF channel index offset for this Proceedings Ninth Annual IEEE International ASIC Conference
mobile, integer, >= 0 and <= (Mobile_Allocation - 1). and Exhibit 103, A.E. Jones & J.G. Gardiner, "Generation of GMSK
DelayTime: The first TDMA frame begins precisely 6 modulation Using Direct Digital Synthesis" 1992 IEE Colloquium on
symbol periods after this time, real, >= 0. Implementations of Novel Hardware for Radio Systems 7/1, and
Input(s): Yik-Chung Wu & Tung-Sang Ng, "New Implementation of a GMSK
None. Demodulator in Linear Software Radio Receivers" vol. 2, 2000 The
Output(s): 11th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile
In-phase baseband GMSK signal, ports 1 and 2. Communications 1049.
Quadrature baseband GMSK signal, ports 3 and 4.
The starting point for the GMSK modulator is the formation of the bit
Description: GSM_EDGE_Uplink_GMSK_IQ generates the in-phase stream that is to be transmitted during a slot that is active. The bit
and quadrature baseband signals that toegether form a baseband stream is derived with the aid of an array that forms a template of
GSM TDMA GMSK modulated user/mobile station (MS) signal. This a normal burst. The template contains the bits that are fixed for
component is a sub-component of the GSM_EDGE_Uplink_GMSK_Src every burst, namely: the dummy bits that precede and follow the
component that is intended for use with envelope simulations. See tail bits of the burst, the tail bits themselves, and the Training
the notes accompanying the GSM_EDGE_Uplink_GMSK_Src design Sequence Code bits as specified by the TSCNum parameter. The
for more information. data bits of the burst are generated by an indepedent identically
distributed random number generator that produces zeros and ones
The operations performed within this component can be categorized with equal probability. The data bits are stored for the duration of
using three broad categores - those operations that pertain to TDMA, a symbol period at port 3 of the FDD7P component.
those that pertain to FDMA, and those that pertain to GMSK signaling.
The notes accompanying the GSM_EDGE_Uplink_GMSK_Src design The data bits are differentially encoded, with the resultant bits
give an overview of the TDMA and FDMA aspects of the RF GMSK stored in-turn for the duration of a symbol period at port 4 of the
modulated signal that it produces. Since the FDD7P component.
GSM_EDGE_Uplink_GMSK_Src design performs quadrature
modulation using a fixed carrier frequency (i.e. frequency hopping is Using the current differentially encoded bit, and the past four
implemented at baseband, not during modulation/upconversion), all encoded bits, a 5 bit index is generated and stored for the duration
of the same TDMA and FDMA aspects apply to the complex of a symbol period at port 7 of the FDD7P component. Using this
baseband GMSK signal formed by the in-phase and quadrature 5 bit index a base address is formed to reference a prototype
outputs of this component. waveform representing the aggregate phase of 5 consecutive
The primary TDMA elements are implemented using: symbols over the course of the symbol period of the center symbol
of the 5 symbols. To this 5 symbol aggregate phase must be
an 8 element array that is used to determine whether data is to be added the contribution due to the symbols that preceded the
transmitted during each of the 8 slots of a frame; current 5 symbol block. This contribution is calculated once per
symbol period and is stored at port 5 of the FDD7P component.
three alternative 26 element arrays that are used to determine
whether data is to be transmitted during each of the 26 frames of Once the aggregate phase is determined, it is used to calculate
a 26 frame multiframe; the amplitude of the in-phase and quadrature components that
together form the baseband GMSK signal and appear at ports 1
a raised cosine window at port 6 of the FDD7P component to ramp and 2, respectively, of the FDD7P component.
the output signals' amplitude on and off during a period of 3 symbols
prior to and following the 148 symbols of a burst;
All references are to Release 5 of the following GSM/EDGE specifications:
a time-step counter (that is reset after each frame) from which a [1] 3GPP TS 45.001 V5.3.0 (2002-04) "Physical Layer On the Radio Path"
symbol trigger and counter, slot trigger and counter, and frame [2] 3GPP TS 45.002 V5.5.0 (2002-04) "Multiplexing and Multiple Access On the Radio Path"
counter are derived and used to control the signal generation. [3] 3GPP TS 45.003 V5.5.0 (2002-04) "Channel Coding"
[4] 3GPP TS 45.004 V5.0.0 (2001-11) "Modulation" (Note: this document states that it is
from Release 4, however its version indicates that it is from Release 5, and the 3GPP
As stated, frequency hopping is implemented by shifting the spectrum document status table states that it is from Release 5)
of a baseband GMSK signal to the appropriate location in the [5] 3GPP TS 45.005 V5.3.0 (2002-04) "Radio Transmission and Reception"
spectrum according to the frequency hopping algorithm - see section
6.2.3 of [2]. The complete algorithm is implemented. The algorithm A helpful document for interpreting the above specifications is
[6] 3GPP TR 21.995 V5.3.0 (2002-03) "Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications"
utilizes the frame number associated with each TDMA frame as
described in sections 3.3.2.2.1 and 4.3.3 of [2]. It is assumed that the
first TDMA frame is frame number (FN) zero. Moreover, it is assumed
that the output of the frequency hopping sequence algorithm, namely
the Mobile Allocation Index (MAI) has a one-to-one, from lowest
frequency to highest frequency, correspondence with each of the
channels that make up the MobileAllocation. That is, if
MobileAllocation is set to N, the zero'th channel is the lowest of
the N channels that make up the band of channels amongst which
frequency hopping may occur, with the N-1 channel being the highest
channel in the band (MAI takes on a value between 0 and N-1).

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Analyse de la voie descendante :


Ouvrez un nouveau projet.
Dans la fenêtre « schématique », prenez la source GSM qui se trouve dans :
DesignGuide\RFsystem\Additional Analog/RF Sources\ GSM/EDGE \Forward Link (GSM).
La principale différence entre la voie montante et le voie descendante est la présence
d’un signal balise (BCCH) émis par la station de base pour se synchroniser avec un mobile.
La description des éléments utilisés dans ce système se trouve sur les 3 pages suivantes.

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Component Name: GSM_EDGE_Downlink_GMSK_Src The timing of the output signal is referenced to the start of the first
Parameter(s): (name: description, type, range of usage) frame (or part thereof) transmitted. The start of the symbol period of
Carrier_Freq: The center frequency of the output RF multicarrier the first symbol (the first tail bit/symbol period) of slot zero is
signal, real. precisely 6 symbol periods after Delay_Time (recall that all down-
Pav: Relative average output power of the modulator, real. link frames are time aligned).
BCCH_Channels: The number of BCCH physical channels (slots)
to be transmitted. The BCCH physical channels are always The power of the transmitted signal is ramped up and down over the
associated with the C0 RF carrier and utilize, in order, slot 0, 2, course of three bit/symbol periods just before the start of each data
4 and 6, depending upon the number of BCCH physical channels, burst and after the data burst. The Normal Burst has a duration of
integer, >= 0 and <= 4. 148 symbol periods, including the tail bits/symbols at the start and
BCCH_Gain: Relative gain of BCCH physical channel(s) and dummy end of the burst. During the ramp up and ramp down dummy bits
bursts on C0, real, >= 0.0. are used to determine the output state of the modulator. The shape
C0_Channel_Number: Index of the RF channel for the C0 (BCCH of the ramp up and ramp down is derived by time windowing the
carrier) RF carrier, integer, >= 0 and <= (Mobile_Allocation - 1). each burst that is to be transmitted with a raised cosine window.
Slot_Usage_BCCH_Tr0: An 8 element array that specifies whether
a data burst (traffic) is to be transmitted using each of the physical Each Normal Burst transmitted includes an embedded training
channels (slots) associated with the Tr0 group of traffic channels.
A value other than 0 will result in the associated slot being filled with
sequence code. The same training sequence code is embedded
a data burst and having a relative gain as specified by the value
within all bursts that are transmitted. The training sequence code
entered. Note: Slots 0, 2, 4, or 6 may be specified to be filled with is specified by the TSC_Num parameter and is selected from a
data bursts if not otherwise allocated for BCCH data, 8 element family of 8 (indexed 0 through 7) different codes. See section 5.2
real array, each element >= 0.0. of [2]. The data portion of each normal burst is generated
Slot_Usage_Trx: An 8 element array that specifies whether a data randomly using an independent identically distributed number
burst (traffic) is to be transmitted using each of the physical gnerator.
channels (slots) associated with the Trx group of traffic channels.
A value other than 0 will result in the associated slot being filled The GSM system utilizes channels having a bandwidth of 200 kHz.
with a data burst having a relative gain as specified by the value The Mobile_Allocation parameter specifies the number of RF channels
entered, 8 element real array, each element >= 0.0. (each having a bandwidth of 200 kHz) that are available for the
TSC_Num: The training sequence code that is inserted into each downlink. The centre frequency of the RF channels are spaced
data burst, integer, >= 0 and <= 7. 200 kHz x Channel_Spacing apart. The Carrier_Freq parameter
Symbol_Rate: The modulation symbol rate. This design and its specifies the centre frequency of the band of RF channels. If N is an
sub-designs expect a symbol rate of 270.8333... ksym/s, even number, the Carrier_Freq parameter specifies the mid-point of
real, > 0. the band of N channels; whereas, if N is an odd number, the
Frequency_Hop: Enables or disables frequency hopping, string, Carrier_Freq parameter specifies the center frequency of the center
"Yes" or "No". channel of the band of N channels. The band of RF channels is
Mobile_Allocation: Specifies the number of RF channels utilized indexed from the channel lowest in frequency to the channel highest
for frequency hopping, integer, >= 1 and <= 64.
Channel_Spacing: The frequency difference (measured in terms of in frequency, with the index running from 0 to N-1. The
200 kHz channels) between the channels making up the C0_Channel_Number parameter specifies the index of the RF channel
Mobile_Allocation, integer, > 1. that is to be the C0 carrier. The BCCH physical channels are
Hopping_Sequence_Num: The hopping sequence number, integer, transported on the C0 carrier at all times, whether frequency hopping
>= 0 and <= 63. is enabled or disabled. If frequency hopping is NOT enabled, each
Delay_Time: The first TDMA frame begins precisely 6 modulation group of traffic channels is associated with a single RF carrier, with
symbol periods after this time, real, >= 0. the Tr0 group being matched with the C0 carrier, and each
R_Out: The output resistance of the signal source, real, >= 0.01. successive traffic group being matched with the next higher RF
Input(s): channel (rolling over to the channel having index 0 if index N-1 is
None. exceeded). If frequency hopping is enabled, the carrier frequency of
Output(s): each physical channel (other than those associated with BCCH
RF GMSK modulated multicarrier signal, ports 1 and 2. logical channels) changes from frame to frame in accordance with a
frequency hopping algorithm - see section 6 of [1] for an overview of
Description: GSM_EDGE_Downlink_GMSK_Src generates a TDMA frequency hopping and section 6.2 (specifically, 6.2.3) for details of
multicarrier GMSK modulated base station (BS) signal. The output the frequency hopping algorithm. The physical channels of each
multicarrier signal can contain from 1 to 8 modulated carriers. This traffic group that coincide with the BCCH physical channels, i.e.
component is intended for use with envelope simulations. those physical channels occupying the same slot, hop over a
frequency range that does NOT include the C0 carrier. Whereas, the
GSM_EDGE_Downlink_GMSK_Src has two sub-components: physical channels of each traffic group (including all of the Tr0 traffic
GSM_EDGE_Downlink_GMSK_BCCH_IQ.dsn, and
GSM_EDGE_Downlink_GMSK_IQ.dsn. channels) that do not coincide with the BCCH physical channels
See the notes accompanying these sub-component designs files for hop over the entire frequency range defined by the
more information regarding their operation. Mobile_Allocation parameter.

GSM utilizes an 8 slot frame to implement TDMA. Each slot has a The GSM_EDGE_Downlink_GMSK_Src component is able to operate
duration of 156.25 symbol periods. The slots of a frame are identified as with 4, 8 or 16 samples per modulated symbol. The number of
slot zero through seven. A single physical channel is equivalent to the samples per modulated symbol depends upon the size of the
same slot of each successive frame being utilized to transmit a data time-step of the simulation. If frequency hopping is not enabled,
burst (note: this says nothing about the carrier frequency of the data 4 samples per symbol can be used, however, if frequency hopping
burst). A mobile station (MS) may be allocated one or more physical is enabled, 8 or 16 samples per symbol will have to be used, with
channels, depending upon the required downlink data bandwidth. The reference to the value of the Mobile_Allocation parameter.
156.25 symbol periods of a slot include a guard period that is 8.25
symbol periods in duration and tail bits/symbol periods that precede A quadrature modulator is used to implement GMSK. The
and follow the portion of the slot during which useful data is transmitted. GSM_EDGE_Downlink_GMSK_IQ and
The frames of all downlink RF carriers are time aligned - see section GSM_EDGE_Downlink_GMSK_BCCH_IQ sub-components
4.3.1 of [2]. See section 5 of [1] for an overview of the TDMA aspect generate the required I and Q modulating signals. See both of
of the GSM system. these sub-component for more information. GMSK modulation
as implemented here is described in section 2 of [4].
The number of physical channels that will form the transmitted BS signal
depends upon the BCCH_Channels, SlotUsage_BCCH_Tr0 and
SlotUsage_Trx parameters. The BCCH_Channels parameter determines Besides the limitations described above, this component does
the number of physical channels that are allocated to carry broadcast not implement the logical channel combinations and mapping
control channel (BCCH - a logical channel) information. The described in section 6.5 of [2] (other than iv and vi of section 6.4.1
BCCH_Channels parameter will typically be set to one, however, up that apply to the BCCH channel(s)), or those aspects of the
four physical channels can be allocated for BCCH information. These specifications describing the cordless telephone system (CTS)
BCCH physical channels, whether one or up to four, are associated and COMPACT mode.
with an RF carrier identified as channel C0. The C0 RF carrier never
hops. The BCCH channels are utilize slot(s) 0, 2, 4 and 6, depending
upon the number of BCCH channels. Slot 0 is always allocated a All references are to Release 5 of the following GSM/EDGE specifications:
BCCH channel first, then in order of decreasing priority, slot 2, 4 and 6.
The BCCH channel that is assigned to slot 0, also includes [1] 3GPP TS 45.001 V5.3.0 (2002-04) "Physical Layer On the Radio Path"
synchronization and frequency correction information. [2] 3GPP TS 45.002 V5.5.0 (2002-04) "Multiplexing and Multiple Access On
the Radio Path"
The SlotUsage_BCCH_Tr0 and SlotUsage_Trx parameters determine the [3] 3GPP TS 45.003 V5.5.0 (2002-04) "Channel Coding"
number of physical channels that are allocated for data traffic. A [4] 3GPP TS 45.004 V5.0.0 (2001-11) "Modulation" (Note: this document
physical channel is allocated for data traffic by setting its corresponding states that it is from Release 4, however its version indicates that it
element of one of the parameter arrays to a non-zero value - with the is from Release 5, and the 3GPP document status table states that it
first element of each array corresponding to slot 0, the second to slot 1, is from Release 5)
and so on. The non-zero value entered also specifies the relative [5] 3GPP TS 45.005 V5.3.0 (2002-04) "Radio Transmission and Reception"
power of that traffic channel. Each ...Trx group of traffic channels
refers to a set of channels having a common RF carrier. The A helpful document for interpreting the above specifications is
SlotUsage_BCCH_Tr0 parameter determines the status of the physical
channel traffic group whose size is reduced due to the existence of any [6] 3GPP TR 21.995 V5.3.0 (2002-03) "Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications"
BCCH channels. That is, if the BCCH_Channels parameter is set to one,
the value of the first element of the SlotUsage_BCCH_Tr0 array is
ignored. Each physical channel that is allocated for data traffic results
in a Normal Burst being transmitted. See section 5.2 of [2] (and the
GSM_EDGE_Downlink_GMSK_BCCH_IQ and
GSM_EDGE_Downlink_GMSK_IQ designs) for more information.

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Component Name: GSM_EDGE_Downlink_GMSK_BCCH_IQ GMSK modulation for GSM is described in section 2 of [4]. The
Parameter(s): (name: description, type, range of usage) specification provides for differential encoding, filtering using a Gaussian
SymRate: The modulation symbol rate. This design expects a
a symbol rate of 270.8333... ksym/s, real, > 0. pulse shape and frequency modulation by the aggregate phase formed at
BCCHChannels: The number of BCCH physical channels (slots) the output of the Gaussian pulse shaping filter. In place of a frequency
to be transmitted. The BCCH physical channels are always modulator, it is possible to use a quadrature modulator to form the same
associated with the C0 RF carrier and utilize, in order, slot 0, 2, modulated signal. Furthermore, since the Gaussian filter has a finite length,
4 and 6, depending upon the number of BCCH physical channels, its output can be determined using a finite number of input bits to form an
integer, >= 0 and <= 4. address into a look-up table of prototype waveforms. For instance, see
BCCHGain: Relative gain of BCCH physical channel(s) and dummy the ADS GSM library signal processing component 'GSM_ROM.dsn', as
bursts on C0, real, >= 0.0. well as: A. Bodas & K. Feher, "Low Complexity GSM Modulator for
SlotUsage: An 8 element array that specifies whether a data burst Integrated Circuit Implementation" 1996 Proceedings Ninth Annual IEEE
(traffic) is to be transmitted using each of the physical channels (slots) International ASIC Conference and Exhibit 103, A.E. Jones & J.G.
associated with the Tr0 group of traffic channels. A value other than Gardiner, "Generation of GMSK Using Direct Digital Synthesis" 1992 IEE
0 will result in the associated slot being filled with a data burst and Colloquium on Implementations of Novel Hardware for Radio Systems 7/1,
having a relative gain as specified by the value entered. Note: Slots 0, and Yik-Chung Wu & Tung-Sang Ng, "New Implementation of a GMSK
2, 4, or 6 may be specified to be filled with data bursts if not otherwise Demodulator in Linear Software Radio Receivers" vol. 2, 2000 The 11th
allocated for BCCH data, 8 element real array, each element >= 0.0.
TSCNum: The training sequence code that is inserted into each IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile
data burst, integer, >= 0 and <= 7. Communications 1049.
FrequencyHop: Enables or disables frequency hopping, string,
"Yes" or "No". The starting point for the GMSK modulator is the formation of the bit
MobileAllocation: Specifies the number of RF channels utilized stream that is to be transmitted during a slot that is active. The bit
for frequency hopping, integer, >= 1 and <= 64. stream is derived with the aid of an array that forms a template of the type
ChannelSpacing: The frequency difference (measured in terms of of burst to be transmitted. The template contains the bits that are fixed
200 kHz channels) between the channels making up the for every burst - for instance, in the case of a normal burst: the dummy
Mobile_Allocation, integer, > 1. bits that precede and follow the tail bits of the burst, the tail bits
HoppingSequenceNumber: The hopping sequence number, integer, themselves, and the Training Sequence Code bits as specified by the
>= 0 and <= 63. TSCNum parameter. The data bits of the burst are generated by an
MobileAllocationOffset: The RF channel index offset for the C0 carrier indepedent identically distributed random number generator that produces
and the Tr0 group of traffic channels, integer, >= 0 and zeros and ones with equal probability. The data bits are stored for the
<= (MobileAllocation - 1).
Delay: The first TDMA frame begins and is output precisely 4 modulation duration of a symbol period at port 3 of the FDD7P component.
symbol periods after this time, real, >= 0.
Input(s): The bits to be transmitted are differentially encoded in-turn, with each
None. encoded bit being stored for the duration of a symbol period at port 4 of
Output(s): the FDD7P component.
In-phase baseband GMSK signal, ports 1 and 2.
Quadrature baseband GMSK signal, ports 3 and 4. Using the current differentially encoded bit, and the past four encoded bits,
a 5 bit index is generated and stored for the duration of a symbol period at
Description: GSM_EDGE_Downlink_GMSK_BCCH_IQ generates port 7 of the FDD7P component. Using this 5 bit index a base address is
the in-phase and quadrature GMSK baseband signals that together form the formed to reference a prototype waveform that is the aggregate phase of 5
GSM TDMA GMSK signal made up from those physical channels allocated consecutive symbols over the course of the symbol period of the center
for the transmission of broadcast control channel (BCCH) information and symbol of the 5 symbols. To this 5 symbol aggregate phase must be
the physical channels of the Tr0 traffic channel group. This component is a added the contribution due to the symbols that preceded the current 5
sub-component of the GSM_EDGE_Downlink_GMSK_Src component that
is intended for use in envelope simulations. See the notes accompanying
symbol block. This contribution is calculated once per symbol period and
the GSM_EDGE_Uplink_GMSK_Src design for more information. is stored at port 5 of the FDD7P component.

The operations performed within this component can be grouped into three Once the aggregate phase is determined, it is used to calculate the
broad categores - those operations that pertain to TDMA, those that pertain amplitude of the in-phase and quadrature components of the baseband
to FDMA, and those that pertain to GMSK signaling. The notes GMSK signal. The spectrum of this complex signal is then shifted, if
accompanying the GSM_EDGE_Uplink_GMSK_Src design provide an necessary, to the C0 channel or to the desired channel as given by the
overview of the TDMA and FDMA aspects of the basestation multicarrier frequency hopping algorithm.
RF GMSK modulated signal that it produces. Since the
GSM_EDGE_Uplink_GMSK_Src design performs quadrature modulation
using a fixed carrier frequency (i.e. frequency hopping is implemented at
baseband, not during modulation/upconversion), all of the TDMA and FDMA All references are to Release 5 of the following GSM/EDGE specifications:
aspects that are described there apply to the complex baseband GMSK
signal formed by the in-phase and quadrature outputs of this component. [1] 3GPP TS 45.001 V5.3.0 (2002-04) "Physical Layer On the Radio Path"
[2] 3GPP TS 45.002 V5.5.0 (2002-04) "Multiplexing and Multiple Access On the Radio Path"
The primary TDMA elements are implemented by: [3] 3GPP TS 45.003 V5.5.0 (2002-04) "Channel Coding"
[4] 3GPP TS 45.004 V5.0.0 (2001-11) "Modulation" (Note: this document states that it is
an 8 element array that is used to determine whether data is to be from Release 4, however its version indicates that it is from Release 5, and the 3GPP
transmitted during each of the 8 slots of a frame, and if so, the relative document status table states that it is from Release 5)
power at which the data is transmitted; [5] 3GPP TS 45.005 V5.3.0 (2002-04) "Radio Transmission and Reception"
a raised cosine window at port 6 of the FDD7P component to ramp the A helpful document for interpreting the above specifications is
output signals' amplitude on and off during a period of 3 symbols prior to [6] 3GPP TR 21.995 V5.3.0 (2002-03) "Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications"
and following the 148 symbols of a burst;

a time-step counter (that is reset after each frame) from which a symbol
trigger and counter, slot trigger and counter, and frame counter are
derived and used to control signal generation,

a series of burst templates (normal, dummy, synchronization and


frequency correction) for constructing the burst to be transmitted.

The physical channels (slots) that transport BCCH information do not hop.
As a result of having a fixed carrier frequency, the spectrum of these
channels is shifted to the C0 frequency. The C0 frequency is determined
by the value of the MobileAllocationOffset parameter. Frequency hopping
is implemented by shifting the spectrum of the baseband GMSK signal
over the duration of each slot to the appropriate location in the spectrum
according to the frequency hopping algorithm - see section 6.2.3 of [2].
The complete algorithm is implemented. The algorithm utilizes the frame
number associated with each TDMA frame as described in sections
3.3.2.2.1 and 4.3.3 of [2]. It is assumed that the first TDMA frame is frame
number (FN) zero. Moreover, it is assumed that the output of the frequency
hopping sequence algorithm, namely the Mobile Allocation Index (MAI) has
a one-to-one, from lowest frequency to highest frequency, correspondence
with each of the contiguous channels that make up the MobileAllocation
(as is described in the notes accompanying the
GSM_EDGE_Downlink_GMSK_Src design).
The actual spectrum shifting of the baseband GMSK signal is carried out
through a complex multiplication using the derived MAI in combination with
the ADS global variable 'time'.

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Variables :
The BCCH channel of slot 0 implements the logical
channel combination iv) given in section 6.4.1 of [2] -
specifically: FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH. The
BCCH channel at slots 2, 4 and 6, if any, implement
the logical channel combination vi) given in section
6.4.1 of [2] - specifically: BCCH + CCCH. See
Table 3 of 9 in [2] for details regarding the mapping
of these logical channels onto physical channels.
The frame format for the iv) logical channel
combination is shown in Figure 8a of [2].
The BCCH channel(s) have a 51 frame multiframe
format - see Figure 8a of [2]. The appropriate burst
format is determined based upon the current location
within the 51 frame multiframe. The iv) logical
channel combination consists of three different types
of bursts:

1) Frequency Correction
2) Synchronization
3) Normal

The last frame of the 51 frame multiframe is an idle


frame, thus a Dummy burst is selected for
transmission during this frame.
The kburst variable is always assigned a burst,
however, the assigned burst may or may not be
transmitted. If the slot is part of a BCCH then
kBCCHburst is the burst selected. If the slot is a
traffic channel a Normal burst is assigned. The
default burst assigned to a slot is a Dummy burst.
The trig_output variable is used to control whether
the burst is transmitted.
The trig_output variable is used to control whether a
burst is transmitted during a slot. The controlling
parameters are the type of channel/slot (i.e. BCCH
or traffic channel) and the RF carrier. If the current
RF channel is C0, the assigned burst is always
transmitted. The BCCHs will always map to RF
channel C0. The traffic channels, if any, will always
map to CO if frequency hopping is disabled. If
frequency hopping is enabled, the traffic channels
will only periodically map to C0. Any slots that are
not associated with a BCCH or a traffic channel
(a dummy burst) are handled like a traffic channel -
if frequency hopping is disabled these
unassociated slots will always be transmitted since
they are assigned to C0. When frequency hopping
is enabled, these unassociated slots are
transmitted only when their RF carrier is C0.
The mobile allocation determines the range of
permissible RF carriers. If frequency hopping is
disabled, the C0ChannelNumber parameter is used
for all channels (see kMAIndex below).
Using the range of permissible RF carriers, as given
by kMA, the carrier applicable to each slot is:

a) C0ChannelNumber (kC0) for BCCH slots;


b) C0ChannelNumber (kC0) for all slots, if
frequency hopping is disabled; or
c) determined by the frequency hopping
algorithm.

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Component Name: GSM_EDGE_Downlink_GMSK_IQ GMSK modulation for GSM is described in section 2 of [4]. The
Parameter(s): (name: description, type, range of usage) specification provides for differential encoding, filtering using a Gaussian
SymRate: The modulation symbol rate. This design expects a pulse shape and frequency modulation by the aggregate phase formed at
a symbol rate of 270.8333... ksym/s, real, > 0.
BCCHChannels: The number of BCCH physical channels (slots) the output of the Gaussian pulse shaping filter. In place of a frequency
to be transmitted. The BCCH physical channels are always modulator, it is possible to use a quadrature modulator to form the same
associated with the C0 RF carrier and utilize, in order, slot 0, 2, modulated signal. Furthermore, since the Gaussian filter has a finite length,
4 and 6, depending upon the number of BCCH physical channels, its output can be determined using a finite number of input bits to form an
integer, >= 0 and <= 4. address into a look-up table of prototype waveforms. For instance, see
BCCHGain: Relative gain of BCCH physical channel(s) and dummy the ADS GSM library signal processing component 'GSM_ROM.dsn', as
bursts on C0, real, >= 0.0. well as: A. Bodas & K. Feher, "Low Complexity GSM Modulator for
SlotUsage: An 8 element array that specifies whether a data burst Integrated Circuit Implementation" 1996 Proceedings Ninth Annual IEEE
(traffic) is to be transmitted using each of the physical channels (slots) International ASIC Conference and Exhibit 103, A.E. Jones & J.G.
associated with this group of traffic channels. A value other than Gardiner, "Generation of GMSK Using Direct Digital Synthesis" 1992 IEE
0 will result in the associated slot being filled with a data burst and Colloquium on Implementations of Novel Hardware for Radio Systems 7/1,
having a relative gain as specified by the value entered, 8 element and Yik-Chung Wu & Tung-Sang Ng, "New Implementation of a GMSK
real array, each element >= 0.0. Demodulator in Linear Software Radio Receivers" vol. 2, 2000 The 11th
TSCNum: The training sequence code that is inserted into each IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile
data burst, integer, >= 0 and <= 7. Communications 1049.
C0ChannelNumber: Index of the RF channel for the C0 (BCCH
carrier) RF carrier, integer, >= 0 and <= (MobileAllocation - 1). The starting point for the GMSK modulator is the formation of the bit
FrequencyHop: Enables or disables frequency hopping, string, stream that is to be transmitted during a slot that is active. The bit
"Yes" or "No".
MobileAllocation: Specifies the number of RF channels utilized stream is derived with the aid of an array that forms a template of the type
for frequency hopping, integer, >= 1 and <= 64. of burst to be transmitted. The template contains the bits that are fixed
Channel_Spacing: The frequency difference (measured in terms of for every burst - for instance, in the case of a normal burst: the dummy
200 kHz channels) between the channels making up the bits that precede and follow the tail bits of the burst, the tail bits
MobileAllocation, integer, > 1. themselves, and the Training Sequence Code bits as specified by the
HoppingSequenceNumber: The hopping sequence number, integer, TSCNum parameter. The data bits of the burst are generated by an
>= 0 and <= 63. indepedent identically distributed random number generator that produces
MobileAllocationOffset: The RF channel index offset for this group of, zeros and ones with equal probability. The data bits are stored for the
traffic channels, integer, >= 0 and <= (MobileAllocation - 1). duration of a symbol period at port 3 of the FDD7P component.
Delay: The first TDMA frame begins and is output precisely 4 modulation
symbol periods after this time, real, >= 0. The bits to be transmitted are differentially encoded in-turn, with each
Input(s): encoded bit being stored for the duration of a symbol period at port 4 of
None. the FDD7P component.
Output(s):
In-phase baseband GMSK signal, ports 1 and 2. Using the current differentially encoded bit, and the past four encoded bits,
Quadrature baseband GMSK signal, ports 3 and 4. a 5 bit index is generated and stored for the duration of a symbol period at
port 7 of the FDD7P component. Using this 5 bit index a base address is
Description: GSM_EDGE_Downlink_GMSK_IQ generates the in-phase and formed to reference a prototype waveform that is the aggregate phase of 5
quadrature GMSK baseband signals that together form the GSM TDMA consecutive symbols over the course of the symbol period of the center
GMSK signal made up from those physical channels of the same traffic
channel group. This component is a sub-component of the symbol of the 5 symbols. To this 5 symbol aggregate phase must be
GSM_EDGE_Downlink_GMSK_Src component that is intended for use in added the contribution due to the symbols that preceded the current 5
envelope simulations. See the notes accompanying the symbol block. This contribution is calculated once per symbol period and
GSM_EDGE_Uplink_GMSK_Src design for more information. is stored at port 5 of the FDD7P component.

The operations performed within this component can be grouped into three Once the aggregate phase is determined, it is used to calculate the
broad categores - those operations that pertain to TDMA, those that pertain amplitude of the in-phase and quadrature components of the baseband
to FDMA, and those that pertain to GMSK signaling. The notes GMSK signal. The spectrum of this complex signal is then shifted, if
accompanying the GSM_EDGE_Uplink_GMSK_Src design provide an necessary, to the C0 channel or to the desired channel as given by the
overview of the TDMA and FDMA aspects of the basestation multicarrier frequency hopping algorithm.
RF GMSK modulated signal that it produces. Since the
GSM_EDGE_Uplink_GMSK_Src design performs quadrature modulation
using a fixed carrier frequency (i.e. frequency hopping is implemented at
baseband, not during modulation/upconversion), all of the TDMA and FDMA All references are to Release 5 of the following GSM/EDGE specifications:
aspects that are described their apply to the complex baseband GMSK [1] 3GPP TS 45.001 V5.3.0 (2002-04) "Physical Layer On the Radio Path"
signal formed by the in-phase and quadrature outputs of this component. [2] 3GPP TS 45.002 V5.5.0 (2002-04) "Multiplexing and Multiple Access On the Radio Path"
[3] 3GPP TS 45.003 V5.5.0 (2002-04) "Channel Coding"
The primary TDMA elements are implemented by: [4] 3GPP TS 45.004 V5.0.0 (2001-11) "Modulation" (Note: this document states that it is
from Release 4, however its version indicates that it is from Release 5, and the 3GPP
an 8 element array that is used to determine whether data is to be document status table states that it is from Release 5)
[5] 3GPP TS 45.005 V5.3.0 (2002-04) "Radio Transmission and Reception"
transmitted during each of the 8 slots of a frame, and if so, the relative
power at which the data is transmitted; A helpful document for interpreting the above specifications is
[6] 3GPP TR 21.995 V5.3.0 (2002-03) "Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications"
a raised cosine window at port 6 of the FDD7P component to ramp the
output signals' amplitude on and off during a period of 3 symbols prior to
and following the 148 symbols of a burst;
a time-step counter (that is reset after each frame) from which a symbol
trigger and counter, slot trigger and counter, and frame counter are
derived and used to control signal generation,

a burst template for constructing the burst to be transmitted.

If frequency hopping is disabled, all of the physical channels of the traffic


group are shifted to the RF channel specified by the
MobileAllocationOffset parameter. If frequency hopping is enabled, the
spectrum of the baseband GMSK signal is shifted over the duration of each
slot to the appropriate RF channel according to the frequency hopping
algorithm - see section 6.2.3 of [2]. The complete algorithm is implemented.
The algorithm utilizes the frame number associated with each TDMA frame,
as described in sections 3.3.2.2.1 and 4.3.3 of [2]. It is assumed that the
first TDMA frame is frame number (FN) zero. The range of RF channels
over which the traffic channels may hop depends upon whether a BCCH
channel coincides with each traffic channel, i.e. they have the same slot
number. For those traffic channels that have the same slot number as a
BCCH channel, frequency hopping avoids the C0 RF channel. For those
traffic channels that have a slot number that does not coincide with a BCCH
channel, frequency hopping is over the entire range of RF channels as given
by the MobileAllocation parameter. Thus, the traffic channels that have the
same slot number as a BCCH channel hop over a range of RF channels
that is one less than the range for the traffic channels that have a slot
number that does not coincide with a BCCH channel. In either case, it is
assumed that the output of the frequency hopping sequence algorithm,
namely the Mobile Allocation Index (MAI) has a one-to-one, from lowest
frequency to highest frequency, correspondence with each of the
contiguous channels that make up the MobileAllocation, with the C0 RF
channel being skipped in the case of the traffic channels that have a
reduced hopping frequency range.

The actual spectrum shifting of the baseband GMSK signal is carried out
through a complex multiplication using the derived MAI in combination with
the ADS global variable 'time'.

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Variables :
The kburst variable is always assigned a burst, The mobile allocation determines the range of
however, the assigned burst may or may not be permissible RF carriers. If frequency hopping is
transmitted. If the current slot is a traffic channel, disabled, the MobileAllocationOffset parameter
or, may be a traffic channel ('kslotstatus' of 2), a determines the RF channel for all slots assigned
Normal burst is assigned, otherwise a Dummy burst data traffic.
is assigned to the slot.
The variable 'outputcontrol' controls whether a burst If frequency hopping is enabled, two alternative RF
is transmitted during a slot by setting its value so that channel ranges exist, one for slots/physical channels
the amplitude of the output signal is equal to zero or is that coincide with BCCH channels and one for slots/
proportional to the desired relative gain of the slot. If physical channels that do not coincide with BCCH
frequency hopping is not enabled, the slots allocated channels. In the former case, the RF channel range
for data traffic are enabled by setting 'outputcontrol' to is equal in size to MobileAllocation, whereas, in the
be equal to the desired relative gain as specified by the latter case, the RF channel range does not include
appropriate SlotUsage array element. If frequency the C0 RF carrier, i.e. one less channel that can be
hopping is enabled, the 'outputcontrol' variable must utilized for hopping. The kMAIndexselect variable is
reflect that not only must the component output data assigned the appropriate RF channel index, either
bursts at the appropriate amplitude during the slots kMAIndex, in the case of no frequency hopping and
allocated for data traffic, but it must also output a a non-BCCH coincident slot in the case of frequency
dummy burst at the appropriate amplitude whenever hopping, or kMAIndex_radj, in the case of a BCCH
the RF channel of a non-traffic slot coincides with the coincident slot in the case of frequency hopping.
C0 carrier. When frequency hopping is enabled, even-
though the GSM_EDGE_Downlink_GMSK_BCCH_IQ
sub-component is responsible for transmitting the
BCCH channels, it AND this sub-component share the
responsibility of ensuring that non-BCCH channels on
the C0 RF carrier are always filled with data bursts,
whether traffic or dummy bursts.

The 'outputcontrol' variable is dependent upon the


'kslotstatus' array and the current RF channel
('kMAIndexselect'), in combination with the amplitude
assigned to each slot in the 'kslotgain' array.

If frequency hopping is not enabled, the 'kslotgain'


array alone is used to set the amplitude of the
output signal - the relative gain for traffic channels
being drawn from the SlotUsage array and for non-
traffic channels being equal to zero.
If frequency hopping is enabled, the 'kslotstatus'
array elements will be either 0, 1 or 2, with a 2
indicating that the slot coincides with a BCCH
channel, a 1 indicating that the slot is a traffic
channel and a 0 indicating that the slot does not
coincide with a BCCH channel, nor is it a traffic
channel. If a slot is a traffic channel, whether
coincident with a BCCH or not (i.e. a 'kslotstatus' of
either 1 or 2), its corresponding element in the
'kslotgain' array is set to the desired relative gain
for the channel. If a slot is not a traffic channel,
whether coincident with a BCCH channel or not, its
corresponding element in the 'kslotgain' array is set
to zero.
Using the above assignment procedure,
'outputcontrol' is equal to the appropriate 'kslotgain'
element, except in the case of a slot that is not
coincident with a BCCH channel and does not carry
traffic (i.e. 'kslotstatus' of 0), and where frequency
hopping results in transmission on the C0 RF carrier.
In this exceptional case, the 'outputcontrol' variable
must be assigned a value equal to the relative gain
of the BCCHchannel ('BCCHGain').

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Annexe ADS :

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44