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Encyclopedia of Chess Problems Contents


Foreword 4

Preface 5
Introduction 7

Introductory Notes 10
Themes and Terms 13
General Index 477

Index of Composers 506

Index of Names 512
"Pattern Themes": Quick Reference 516

Foreword Encyclopedia of Chess Problems


A lot of courage was needed to undertake, within an extremely tight timetable, the "impossible mis-
sion" of coping with such a comprehensive task as displayed in this book, which covers practically all
aspects of chess composition.

Behind this there stood a special situation, where the general manager of "Chess Informant" has
found it in his interest to invest in such a project, provided that the chief editor is GM Milan
Velimirovic. And indeed, one could not ask for a better qualified man for the job. In a lucky coinci-
dence, Kari Valtonen who happened to gather a lot of material suitable for the book joined forces with
Milan and these two with the help of several enthusiastic friends managed to present us with this
mammoth enterprise - the encyclopedia before you.

Every fan of chess composition can find in this book something of interest. The undersigned finds ap-
peal in most aspects of the book, but being biased by his personal composing activity, particularly so
in the core parts referring to themes and terms. For the undersigned, browsing through these exten-
sive parts has been a fascinating "journey among the stars".

Nowadays it seems that the time of basic themes is over. The time of the more complex themes has
come, but these must preserve a number of basic characteristics: internal coherence and logic, a high
prospective for inspiring composing and a strong survival capability which can only be verified over

The themes should expose the potentials hidden in the contingent rules of chess - their power to cre-
ate things of beauty, which in the case of chess compositions are dependent entities, as they are
man-made. Beauty in chess composition is not constant but a dynamic concept. Taste will change
over time, and like the stars in the skies, themes have their periods of flourishing and decline, depend-
ing on the amount of life or energy they possess, and how long it will take for each to bum its entire
vitality before turning into a white dwarf.

This book seems to have taken these or similar criteria into consideration. Hopefully the number of
counter-examples is negligible and can easily be adjusted in a future edition.

This comprehensive encyclopedia is special in our field of chess composition and will be enjoyed by
chess players as well. It is a must in the library of all lovers of chess problems and studies.

Uri Avner
GM of Chess Composition
Honorary President of the WFCC
Ramat Gan, July 12th 2012

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems Preface


The origin of this work dates back in the late 1960s, when the authors took their first steps as
problemists. In time, there arose a need to familiarize with the theory and terminology of chess prob-
lems, because our engagements as writers and editors called for deepening our knowledge of various
aspects of chess compositions.

Lack of reference works was not a problem, certainly not if you acquired even superficial command
of major languages: there were general chess encyclopedias, more problem-oriented guides, and a
great number of annotated problem collections etc. And of course, the "language of chess" is interna-
tional: chess problems speak for themselves, even without commentaries.

However, we feel that there was and still is need and demand for another work of reference, where not
only problemists and endgame study enthusiasts, but all chess-oriented persons, who come across
with special vocabulary pertinent to chess compositions, can find "first aid" for their terminological
needs. In particular, we have over-the-board players in mind.

For this purpose, our primary goal has been to gather in one volume as much as possible of what
could be obtained from other books dealing with chess problem and endgame study terms and
themes. If we had to list the books that have served as examples, the following ones stand out: Simple
Two-Move Themes (published in 1924) by Alain C. White And Frederic Bonner Feast, Antiform
(1929) by Franz Palatz and Alfred W. Mondgredien, Thema-boek (1948) by Albert M. Koldijk &
Frederik W. Nanning, Sahovski Problem (1949) by Nenad Petrovic, Chess Problems: Introduction to
an Art ( 1963) by Michael Lipton, Robin C. 0. Matthews and John M. Rice, Problemschach ( 1968)
by Werner Sidler, A Guide to Fairy Chess (1963) by Anthony S. M. Dickins, Dizionario
Encic/opedico degli Scacchi (1971) by Adriano Chicco and & Giorgio Porreca, Test Tube Chess
( 1972) by John Roycroft, Matematika na sakhmatnoy doske ( 1976) by Yevgeny Ya. Gik, Prontuario
de/ problemista (1977) by Gino Mentasti, S/ovar' sakhmatnoy kompozitsii (1982) by Nikolay
Zelepukin, Chess Problems: Tasks and Records (1995, 2001) by Jeremy Morse, Chess Wizardry: The
New ABC of Chess Problems ( 1996) by John Rice, and the most recent S/ovar 'terminov sakhmatnoy
kompozitsii (2004 ), edited by Mark Bassisty and written by a number of foremost Russian and Ukrai-
nian experts. It would be impossible to draw up the list of additional sources exploited, books and
magazines, paper as well electronic sources.

To include as much terms and themes as possible, we have made efforts to condense the definitions to
a few words or sentences, yet without excluding anything essential. Furthermore, since the verbal
definitions tend to be liable to ambiguity, the text is often supported with examples.

Many examples we have chosen are conspicuously old, even ancient. In selecting them, our second-
ary goal has been to illustrate the origin of certain ideas with their first occurrences, when possible to
trace down, and sensible. In this respect the work Beispiele zur Jdeengeschichte des Schachproblems
( 1982) by Josef Breuer has been of indispensable help.

Preface Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

The authors of this book are the first ones to acknowledge the shortcomings of this work. For such a
spesialized field, the realm of chess composition is surprisingly vast. Some of the available material
had to be excluded, examples as well as entries. Especially the domains of fairy chess and studies
would deserve a more thorough treatment. However, it was our conscious decision to lay emphasis on
direct mates and help- and selfmates, and to include also as much endgame study terminology as pos-
sible. Our sincere hope is that everything we have included is correct, although we are well aware of
the fact that there are differences of opinion among problemists as to what is "correct".

To some extent, we also had to give up the idea of merging some entries into one and discuss them as a
whole, thus we have arranged much of the material almost exclusively in alphabetical order. To com-
pensate for the inconvenience, there are plenty ofreferences in the text to lead readers to the desired
item. Furthermore, we hope that the General Index in the end of the book may prove very helpful.

As the works of reference imply, one of our goals was to bring together different traditions of compo-
sition, which in some degree still exist, not least on account of language barriers. The practice
adopted in FIDE Albums to give many definitions and indices in three major languages is in line with
our endeavour, although those who use Cyrillic writing may still feel excluded.

Fortunately, English is one of the lingua francas within the problemists' community. It does not
mean, however, that there is an established English expression for every problem or study term used,
for instance in German, Russian or French, just to name these three. Occasionally, this posed a genu-
ine dilemma. We made efforts to avoid coining artificial translation equivalents and, instead, to build
upon the existing English terminology.

Although on opening pages there are instructions for readers to help make full use of the book, there
is no user's guide as to how you should read the text and study the examples given. You may browse
the book for your benefit and pleasure, extend your horizons as a problemist, or just enjoy good prob-
lems and studies of various kinds.

We acknowledge our gratitude, firstly to a great number of people, some of them deceased long ago,
who have enriched our lives with their writings and compositions and who have unknowingly con-
tributed to our work. Secondly, we extend our gratitude to the people who have consciously spent
their time to help us in this effort. Since English is not the native language of either author, we were
particularly pleased that Messrs Uri Avner (Israel), Newman Guttman (USA), Hannu Harkola
(Finland) and Neal Turner (Finland) (in alphabetical order!) volunteered to proof-read the portions
of the text before the lay-out was finished. Needless to say, the authors are responsible for the flaws
you may still find.

Kari Valtonen
Milan Velimirovic

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems Introduction


The huge number of chess games played so far exhausts just a small part of all the possibilities of-
fered by the game. The factor of struggle dramatically reduces the number of positions which can ac-
tually appear on a chessboard. So a virtually infinite amount of possible positions can never be
reached in real game. It is exactly these positions that are the subject of the chess problem composers'

What Is A Chess Problem?

A chess problem is a position on the chessboard accompanied by a certain stipulation. The position
must obey certain formal criteria: legality, soundness and originality. Besides, the composer should
not neglect the important and closely related principles of economy and aesthetics.
Legality. The position must be possible (legal), which means that there must be a fictitious game that
leads to it ( a proof game). Legality is usually obvious and there is no need to prove it. There are two
types of illegality: absolutely illegal positions which could never appear on the board, and relatively
illegal positions where Black could not have played the last move (the most obvious example: with
black King in check the last move must have been made by White). An additional convention is that
the diagram should not contain more units of the same kind than is available in the initial set (e.g.,
three Knights, two Bishops on white squares). There are two other conventions concerning the way
the position has arisen. It is considered that castling is possible unless there is a proof that King and/or
Rook must have been moved previously. En passant capture on the first move is allowed only if it can
be proved that the last move was a double advance of the pawn.
Soundness. The stipulation is usually mate in a given number of moves: "mate inn moves", or "mate
inn", or symbolically "#n". This means: white moves and after each black answer can mate on the
n-th move at the latest. The fulfillment of the stipulation is called the solution. The solution must be
unique. If there is another first move that solves the problem the problem is cooked. If in some varia-
tion there is an alternative way for White the problem is dualled. A dual in a main variation is called a
serious dual, while a dual in a by-play variation is called a harmless dual. If Black can avoid the mate
in the stipulated number of moves the problem has no solution. Cooks, serious duals or no solution
make the problem unsound, while harmless duals are tolerated, although they are still a flaw.
Originality. If there exists an older problem that shows the same idea in the same manner the later
problem is anticipated, while if the position is the same (or reflected) the problem is totally antici-
pated. In both cases the later problem is disqualified from competition.
The position can be considered as a chess problem in the real sense only if it differs from natural
over-the-board game combinations. The essential characteristics of the chess problem are the content
and the form (aesthetics), from initial to the final position, not only in certain portions of the solution
but also in the composition as a whole. The content and the form interact with each other, and certain
interesting moves should be evaluated both by the harmony between them, and in respect of the
economy of material used.

Introduction Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

The content and the aesthetics are visible already in the smallest element - a single move. Generally,
everything that is not obvious is beautiful. Since, conventionally, White always fulfils the stipulation,
moves like checks to the black King, taking the black King's flights, captures or pins of black pieces,
or any material or strategic strengthening of White, can never be considered beautiful. Beautiful
moves are "quiet" or hidden: giving flights to the black King, exposing the white King to check, un-
pinning of a black piece, also sacrifice, self-pin of White or withdrawal of a white piece from the tar-
get. Of course, during the solution all white moves cannot be unexpected, and therefore the criteria
mentioned above relates chiefly to the first, key, move of the solution. The tactical motives of the
moves can be more or less hidden. Thus, exceptionally interesting are indirect effects (e.g. line open-
ings and closings), where the move of one man changes the mobility of one or more other men.

Economy has several aspects: economy of force - there should not be superfluous pieces in the posi-
tion, and the ones used should be used as much as possible; economy of time - the minimum number
of moves necessary for the realization of idea should be used; economy of variety - in principle,
by-variations should be avoided unless they improve the quality or the beauty of the composition;
economy of space - a very subjective criterion that recommends that the play should be spread over
the board as much as possible. According to the number of pieces there are the following categories:
up to 7 pieces (Miniature), up to 12 pieces (Meredith), up to 18 pieces (light positions) and more than
18 pieces (heavy positions).

The majority of other aesthetic criteria depend more or less on personal taste. However, most au-
thors consider that the position should be as natural as possible - for instance, separated white and
black pieces look much better than those grouped in "clusters" or "chains". Similarly, the general im-
pression is that positions with no pawns look more dynamic and beautiful. In addition, although com-
posers try to build analogy between the variations both in respect of content and appearance, total
symmetry of the play is usually considered to be a flaw.

A Short History

The first problems, the so-called "mansubat", are found in Arab manuscripts from period between
7th and 9th century, the oldest documents written about chess. After the game arrived in Europe, the
two oldest preserved collections of chess problems were completed in Italy; "Bonus Socius" (around
the year 1300) and "Civis Bononiae" (between 1400 and 1450). Problems of that time were con-
structed to resemble practical game positions, and had evident threats for both sides so that the solu-
tion was forced with checks, while the most appreciated elements of their content were successive
sacrifices of white pieces.

The introduction ofnew (up to date, valid) rules around the year 1500 did not essentially change the
content of the problems, since authors spent a long time on the inclusion of the new pieces - Queen
and Bishop - in the old combinations known from mansubat. That is how the "mansubat of new
chess" were created, with Phillip Stamma as the best known composer (middle of the 18th century).

The accelerated development and geographical spreading of the chess problem began around the
middle of 19th century, when the foundation of the first chess magazines enabled the international ex-
change of opinions and a critical approach to chess problem principles and aesthetic criteria. Firstly,
all superfluous black pieces, used only to resemble an over-the-board game, were removed from the
board. That enabled the use of "quiet" moves in the course of the solution instead of well known
forced mating combinations.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems Introduction

The rapid evolution of the chess problem coincides with the activity of Samuel Loyd ( 1841-1911 ),
undoubtedly the biggest and the most important name in chess composition. Already as a teenager
Loyd discovered a huge number of perfectly original combinations and possible directions for the de-
velopment. His versatile and prolific output inspired all subsequent chess composition schools.
Almost at the same time, around the 50's and 60's of the 19th century, two chess problems directions,
later known as "Bohemian" and "Old-German" school, were developed.
The essence of"Bohemian School" was form of mates. There was a pure mate where each square ad-
jacent to the black King is only once guarded by white or blocked by black. Then there was the eco-
nomical mate where all the white pieces (except King and Pawns) take part and the mirror mate
where none of the squares adjacent to the black King are occupied. Subsequently however, the canon
of the school became a model mate, with fields adjacent to the black King attacked or blocked only
once and with all white pieces ( except King and Pawns) taking part-which is in fact a pure and eco-
nomical mate. This school was exhausted in a relatively short time, but nevertheless, model mates re-
main a significant aesthetic detail up to the present day.
The "Old German School" propagated three- and more-movers with difficult solution and one main
variation which usually ends with a model mate.
Near the end of 19th century was developed the so-called "Logical" or The "New German School".
The essence of this school is the "logical combination", consisting of a "mainplan" (thematic try) and
a "foreplan", this latter providing the conditions for the realization of the former. German authors de-
veloped a detailed systematization of this area, with the stress being put on a new aspect of economy,
the principle of purity of aim, according to which a thematic try (the unprepared mainplan) is de-
feated by a unique black defence or an unique defensive motive.
Concerning two-move problems, the end of 19th and the beginning of the 20th century is character-
ized by the so-called "English school" propagating variation- and strategy-packed compositions with
pure play where even a harmless dual was considered a serious flaw. The rapid development of the
two-mover began around the year 1913 with the foundation of a society of chess composers that, in-
spired by the "Bonus Socius" collection, was called "The Good Companion Chess Problem Club".
The style recognized as "Good Companion" is in fact the continuation of the "English school". The
interest of the composers was mostly concentrated around black move strategy. Around 1930 there
appeared a group of extremely talented Soviet composers who opened up a wide area of line themes
(known as Barulin' s complex of themes) and dual avoidance ideas, as well as try-play ("white combi-
nation") problems breaking the single-phase barrier and entering into the virtual sphere. After World
War II the play was spread over two or more ( equally significant) phases (set play, thematic tries),
while recent decades are characterized by the development of hyper-modem, though rather formal
reversal and paradoxical themes. Set play consists of the mates provided for certain black moves in
the diagram position. A try is a move that almost solves the problem, but just fails because of a unique
black defence that is called the refutation.

Introductory Notes Encyclopedia of Chess Problems


Na mes. The sizes of entries in this book vary Layout. The attempt has been made to provide
from very brief definitions to, where we felt it is for every theme the following information: defi-
necessary, sometimes even short articles. Each nition, pattern table where desirable, at least one
entry has its title which again vary from a short example with the solution, reference to other ex-
and sharp name (usually with appended word ample(s) if any, historical note(s), and alias(es) if
"theme") to phrases consisting 3 to 4 words on any. Many definitions contain references to other
average. In case of phrases, sometimes it seemed themes or terms, and those which we found most
more practical to choose for the English lan- important are given in underlined italic font. The
guage slightly unnatural word order, which usu- solutions are compressed to a single line, often in
ally, but not always, begins with the most proper
a "parallel" notation format (see table 3).
noun or subject, followed by a more specific de-
termination. The idea was to provide the reader
(or better: user) with the most intuitive way of TITLE (with possible right-aligned genre
finding the subject he is looking for. Neverthe- indicator - see below)
less, many of such titles rephrased in different Definition with occasional references to re-
word order can be found in the corresponding lated entries. Definition can vary in size from a
positions in the General Index (from page 477). single sentence to almost a short article.
Pattern table(s), if any.
Alternate names. It should be stressed that there Example diagram(s) and author/source infor-
is no official general registry of themes and terms mation.
and therefore in practice many themes are associ-
ated with two or more names, or "Aliases" (or Stipulation (see below) and possible additional
information (like number of solutions, condi-
synonyms), which are indicated below the defi-
tions, twinning directive, fairy pieces legend or
nitions, and also listed in the General Index. Al-
though the language used in this book is English,
the fact is that for some themes and terms, espe- Solution with possible comments.
cially those introduced by the adherents of the ~ References to other examples, ifany.
"New German School", it is impossible to find a ! History note, if any.
suitable translation into English. Therefore, here
~ References to related themes and/or terms.
and there you will find the original German terms
in the text, and even as titles of many entries. = Alias( es) - other names for theme/term.
However, for all of these we tried to find an ap-
proximate English translation equivalent. Sometimes this order is slightly altered for typo-
graphical reasons, usually to get better column or
Theme or term? Sometimes it is not easy to tell page breaks. However, the attempt was made to
whether certain title denotes a theme or a term. keep the diagrams and solutions together on the
Therefore they have not been split into two sepa- same page, or at least on the facing pages, in or-
rate sections, but rather lined up together in a sin- der to spare, as much as possible, the reader the
gle alphabetical order. necessity to tum the leaves back and forth.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems Introductory Notes

Genres. It is not surprising that historically the Table 2: Typical twinning instructions
majority of themes originates from (or are other-
Example Meanine
wise implementable in) direct mate problems.
~dl~h5 Move the white Queen from di to h5
Yet, quite a few are confined to, or most natural
"d3 Replace the piece on d3 with the black
for, other genres. These titles are accompanied Knight
with the bracketed indication in the right margin, +"d3 Add the black Rook on d3 (plus sign can
namely: [E] for endgames, [S] for selfmates, [H] be omitted)
for helpmates, [F] for fairy chess and [R] for -E(d3 Remove the white Rook from d3
retro genre. .lle4Bic6 Swap the white Bishop on e4 and the
black Pawn on c6
al=h8 Rotate the position 180°
Examples. The examples are presented so that al=a8 Rotate the position 90° counterclockwise
the diagram comes first, and the information (ex- al=hl Rotate the position 90° clockwise
ample number, author's name and source) is al=bl Shift the position one rank to the right
given on right to it. Below the diagram are given bl=al Shift the position one rank to the left
the stipulation (see table 1) and possible addi-
tional directives like twinning instructions (see
Solutions. Written in a short algebraic notation
table 2), fairy conditions and fairy piece legends. with figurines in place of piece symbols. The
standard punctuation (see table 3) is used. The
Table 1: Most frequent stipulations variations are separated by commas, and phases
by a bullet character("•").
Stipulation Meaning
#n Direct mate: White mates in n moves Table 3: Notation punctuation
+ Endgame: White wins
Svmbol Description
= Endgame: White draws
# mate suffix
s#n Selfmate: White forces Black to mate him = stalemate suffix
(White) inn moves + check suffix
h#n Helpmate: Black helps White to mate him - any move or random move suffix
(Black) in n moves -h any move along the (e.g.) h-file
=n Stalemate: White stalemates in n moves -3 any move along the (e.g.) 3rd rank
-(el) any move along the diagonal common for a
h=n Helpstalemate: Black helps White to
departure square and el
stalemate him (Black) in n moves
H block (zugzwang)
r#n Reflexmate: White forces Black to mate X capture
him (White) inn moves; both sides must
! typically a key or refutation move suffix; in
deliver checkmate in one when possible
endgames: good move
-m&X Retractor: White (and Black) retract m ? try move suffix; in endgames: bad move
moves to reach the position where the (error)
stipulation X can be fulfilled
!! correction move suffix; in endgames: brilliant
Helpselfmate: Help-play leading to a ' move
position where a selfmate in I can be forced ?? suffix meaning: "doesn't work" or
PGn Proofgame: Construct a game leading from "impossible"
the initial game array to the diagrammed !? correction trv move suffix
position in n moves , 'parallel' variations delimiter (e.g. "l ... a,b
ser-X n Series mover: A side (White or Black, I 2.A,B" = "l ... a 2.A, l ... b 2.8")
depending on stipulation) plays a series of n I means "or": alternate moves delimiter (e.g.:
moves until the condition Xis fulfilled, or dual or two defences followed by the same
can be fulfilled by the other side in one continuation)
move • indicates set play

Introductory Notes Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

Patterns. Themes based on changed positions could be "Papack Paradox" (or "Papack Shift",
(functions) of moves in the different lines or or maybe "Papack Chain").
phases of the play are sometimes (if not always)
better illustrated with pattern tables which typi-
cally consist of a caption, heading row and one Papack Paradox
row for each thematic phase. The leftmost col- 1 - a b C
umn is allocated for the first white moves, the X A B C
next one for threats and the remaining columns y A B C D
for thematic black defences. White moves are
represented with uppercase and black with low- 0
ercase letters. Let's demonstrate it with an excel-
PAPACK, Daniel
lent recent twomover (diagram 0). It shows an Die Schwalbe 2011
original and consequently still nameless pattern,
which therefore has not been recorded as a theme
in this book. The first three columns in the pat-
tern table show actually a Dombrovskis Paradox,
but the content extends to two more variations.
Thus the definition if this theme could be:
"Mates to three (or more) defences from the first #2*
phase (preferably a set play) are in the solution 1: * I... 'i:fixe4 2. ~c6#A, 1... §xe4b 2. <t)xc3#B, 1...

changed so that the first mate becomes a threat, fxe4c 2. ~ e6#C • 1. <t)d 4! - 2. ~c6#A, 1... 'i:fixe48
the remaining mates are shifted to the preceding 2. <t)xc3#B, I... §xe4b 2. it,e6#c, 1... fxe4c 2.
variation, while the last variation is padded with .il,e6#D, (1... cxd4 2. §xd4#).
a new mate". The name for this new theme --+ See also: Dombrovskis Paradox.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems 100-SOM


100 DOLLAR THEME [HJ proof game) fifty consecutive moves have oc-
White and a black Excelsior theme with promo- curred with no capture, no Pawn move, and no
tion to Knights in a helpmate in 5. So far it has castling. See 3.
not been achieved without promoted force on the
board - there are four (note t e7 and t g7!) pro- 2
moted Bishops in 1.
ZIGMAN, Matjal
sp pr Mat 1976
Die Schwalbe 1969

#52 b) after the first move: #59!

2 : a) I. 'ltre7+! ~ b6 2. 'ltrd8+ § c7 3. § b8 ~ c6 4.
itl'dS+ ~ b6 5. 'ltrd6+ §c6 6. itrd8+ § c7 7. ~ al
h#5 ~c6 8. itl'dS+ ••• 11 . .Q.a2 ••. 15. <it1bl .•• 43. <it1g3
1: 1. gS c4 2. g4 c5 3. gxh3 c6 4. h2 cxb7 5. hl.£) ..• 47. <it1f4 <it1c6 48. itrdS+ <it1b6 49. itrd6+ § c6
bxa8.£)#. 50. 'ltrd8+ § c7 51. <it1e5! (since the first capture
cannot occur before this move, a 50-move draw
rule is not applicable here, so White does not have
2-MOVE RATIONS [F] to make a capture!) 51. .• <it1c6 52. itl'd6# • b) 1.
Fairy condition. Every chess man is allowed to 'ltrd8+! § c7 (2-45 = 3-46 in a) 46. ~f4 ~c6 47.
move only twice, after which they become mo- itl'dS+ <it1b6 48. 'ltrd6+ § c6 49. 'ltrd8+ § c7 50.
tionless units without checking power. <it1xe3! {this time a capture is possible on 50th
move so it must be made!) ... 54. <it1f4 ... 58. <it1e5
50 MOVE RULE ~c6 59. 'lt,d6#.
In chess competitions, any side is allowed to
claim a draw when the game saw fifty consecu-
tive moves (i.e. I 00 single moves) occur without
any capture or any Pawn move. That is, without
any irrevocable progress towards a conclusion.
(There are some additional conditions having to
do with the organization of chess tournaments.)
Article 17 of Codex says: "Unless expressly stip-
ulated, the 50 moves-rule does not apply to the
solution of chess compositions except for retro-
problems". However, this could be accepted only
as a recommendation. If the rule had been men- 3: It looks like Black cannot do anything against
tioned by the author of 2 the main point of the itrh6-f8 on next White's move, but the truth is that
1. ll,h2-gl gives a draw!! How come? • The last
idea would have been dispelled.
Pawn move on each side was a capture on g-file
In retro-problems, a position is a draw when- because all other Pawns that are not on their initial
ever it can be proven that necessarily (i.e. in any squares had to move earlier to let the captured

A·ABD Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

pieces (the wAcl and the *) out. Note that all below the diagram must contain the indication
Bishops and cornered Knights had to take their "RV" (or "PRA"). (A. N. Frolkin)
diagram positions before the captures took place.
Only then two black Rooks could have started their ABDURAHMANOVIC I THEME [HJ
journey toward bl and b2. This was quite a
In a helpmate twomover: One and the same black
complicated permutation of white and black
pieces which took, believe it or not, 50 white and 49 piece is unpinned on four different ways, with
black moves! The next move of Black will satisfy white and black initiative.
the 50-move rule, and it is automatically a draw! ! Fadil Abdurahmanovic (1939).


Solution is based on assumptions made about m~m~m~mr. MLADENOVIC, Miodrag
earlier play which must be justified in the course m«.:-•~ m~ r I.pl Liga problemista 1984
of the solution. Typically it is used for legaliza-
tion of the en passant key by the subsequent cas- m11~~~.m~
tling. The legalization is mandatory and it must ffl"-- ~ ; ···-.~~
~ §~ ffl
be done even if there is a possibility to fulfill the
stipulation without it. In 4 a short mate 2.d7 or
~ . .,.....~'*'
·i ~ ~
2.4:Jd7 violates the AP convention: White is
h#2 4111
obliged to make a castle at some moment before
5: I. <:l;c4 4Jc6 2. § xd3 4Jb6# • I. 4Je3 <;>b3 2. § e4
he ends the game! § d5# • I. Axb4 §e3 2. §d5 §c3# • I. 4Jf6
The Codex (Article 14.4) requires an explicit _ilg3 2. § c4 .1ld6#.
"AP" stipulation of this condition.
4 A two-move helpmate theme. In the initial posi-
tion white piece A pins black piece x. In each so-
PETROVIC, Nenad lution white piece A pins another black piece y
Problem 1967
after the black King moves thus changing the
pin-line. The unpinned black piece x plays in
next move.
#4AP Fadil
4: 1. dxc6(ep)! d3 2. 0-0-0! d2+ 3. §xd2 (4. d7/ I.pr The Problemist 1990
4Jd7#), I... b5 2. 0-0-0! _ilb6 3. 4Jd7+ <:l;a7 4.
b8~# .
= Aliases: A Posteriori Logic; AP.


One of the two approaches used in the partial &: t. <:l;d6 § di 2. Ag2 Ab4# • 1. c;irs ~as 2. 4Jg4
retroanalysis. According to the ad libitum logic, .1ld3#.
before taking a move in the position where the
White's choice depends on which of the alterna- ABDURAHMANOVIC 3 THEME [HJ
tives was possible in a retro-play, White allows In the initial position of a two-move helpmate
Black to choose his retro-variation, and then acts black piece Xis pinned by white piece A on line
depending on that choice. This kind of retro com- LI. In the mate position black piece X is pinned
position, known also as "Offner type", unlike by another white piece Bon line L2, while white
when ad libitum logic is applied, without clarify- piece A pins a different black piece Yon line L3
ing the Black's choice, does not have any solu- (LI, L2 and L3 are three different lines). The
tion. According to the Codex the annotation mate takes advantage of the new double-pin.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems ABO-AO

7 9
Fadil The Problemist 1976
feenschach 1990 I (v)

h#2 2111 #2
7: t. ~ b3 E!b7+ 2. ~b4 Afl# • t. <iftdl ~h5+ 2.
J;te2 f!gl#. ACTIVATION [E]
In initial position the mobility of certain white
ABDURAHMANOVIC 4 THEME [HJ piece or Pawn is limited, but in course of play
In a helpmate twomover black halfpin and white White clears the way for its activation.
halfbattery mask each other. * See example 687.
ABDURAHMANOVIC, In direct mates, the variations that occur after
Fadil White has made the key. In helpmates, the move
4.pr Phenix 1989 sequence of the normal solution, as opposed to
any set play.


Fairy condition. After every half-move, the board
rotates 90° clockwise. Thus, after 4 half-moves,
the initial orientation of the board is restored.


ACQUISITION OF FLIGHT One of the two approaches used in the partial
To make one or several flight squares available to retroanalysis. In retro compositions where the ad
the King. One of Black's defensive strategies that libitum logic is applied, White seemingly has two
may even constitute a large part of the problem's (or more) ways to fulfill the task, but the retro-
thematic content. Black has four ways of making analysis shows that they are mutually exclusive.
a flight available to his King: Therefore White consistently sorts out available
(1) to interpose between the enemy man and the retro-variations and in each case shows that the
square it guards; selected variation was possible in the history of
(2) to vacate a square by removal of an own man the position. This kind of composition is called
(unblock); "Keym type". According to the Codex the annota-
(3) to capture the man that guards any of the tion below the diagram must contain the indica-
flights; tion "RV" (or "PRA"). (A. N. Frolkin)
(4) to move the King on a flight possibly avail- -+ See also: A Priori logic.
able, thus creating new escape routes. 10: I. bxc6(ep)+(!) ~ xb8. If the last black move was
* Otherexamples:450,601,806,814, 1614, 1718. c7-c5 then one of the castlings is legal, according to
-+ See also: Interposition; Unblock the convention on castlings, but it is not clear
which one. White must castle to legalize the en
9: 1. ~g3! - 2. fxe5#, 1... {)xfS 2. ~g6#, 1... ~xf8 2.
exf8~/J;t#, 1... ~xc6 2. e8~/J;t#, 1... ~xc8 2. passant capture, so if the Queenside castling is
e8{)#, l... f!xa6 2. cxb8~/A#, I... c4 2. ~a3#, legal White continues 2. 0-0-0! .flxb2+ 3. ~ xb2
l... ,t)xe4 2. ~d3#, l... exf4 2. ~xf4# • Acquisition etc., and if the Kingside castling is legal then 2.
of each of the 8 flights in turn. 0-0! f! hl+ 3. <ifj)xhl etc.

ADD-ADD Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

--+ See also: Ad-Decoy; Ex-Decoy; Ex-Deploy.

= Aliases: Hinfiihrung (Ger.); Hinzug (Ger.).
In a complete block (Block. Complete) or mutate
problem: the post-key variation which didn't ex-
ist before the key.


A Mutate without changed mates, but with varia-
tions added by the key.
A forced move whose disadvantage lies in the oc-
cupation of the new square. WURZBURG, Otto
White to Play /9/3
PETROV, Aleksandr D.
lllustratsiya 1845

13: *I... bS,4)- 2. 'i1fa7,4)e6# • 1. ~bl! H, I...
§a3 2. ~xa3#, 1... § b3+ 2. ~xb3#, I... §c l 2.
#5 ~xcl#, 1... §c2+ 2. ~xc2#, 1... §xc4 2. 'i1fdl#,
11: I. 4)g5+ ~h6 2. § h8+! (ad-decoy...) Axh8 3. 1... §d3 2. 4)c2#, 1... §e3 2. fxe3#, I... §xf3 2.
~g8 4)d6 4. ~xh8 4)- 5. 4)fl# (... of black 4)gxf3# • 8 added variations.
Bishop to h8 allows W to bring about a Zugzwang). * Other examples: 724, 857.
* Other examples: 178, 335,345,446,532,631, 774, 796, ADDED SQUARES
1222. 1331, 1351, 1429, 1565. 1572, 1589.
--+ See also: Ad-Deploy: Ex-Decoy; Ex-Deploy.
Such a relationship between two or more squares
that if a Dummy is placed on any of them the same
AD-DEPLOY mate would follow. For instance, a dummy piece
A voluntary move whose advantage lies in the ond6orc5 in 14 wouldallow2.§a4#; likewise,
occupation of the new square. a Dummy on e3 or f4 would allow 2. § d2#.

TUMP, Raymond
I.pr Chess Correspondent
TT 1946

#4 #2
12: 1. 'i1fxh6+? ~xh6 2. ? • 1. § b8! (2. ~xg8#) 14: 1. ~xc6! -2. ~xd5#, 1...4)g-2. f4#, 1... 4)e3! 2.
'i1fgl+ 2. §bl 'i1fa7 3. ~xh6+ ~xb6 4. §hi# • §d2#, 1... 4)f4!! 2. f3#(§d2?), 1... §-2. ~c4#,
White ad-deployed (Hinfiirung) his Rook to b I 1... §d6! 2. §a4#, 1... §cS!! 2. 'i1fe4# (§a4?),
without having decoyed black pieces to unfavorable (I... 4)c3 2. ~ xc3#).
positions. --+ See also: Arrival Effect.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems AFT-AHU

Composed "after NN" above the diagram or in a
source indicates that the composer of the prob- AHUES, Herbert
l .hm Neue Zurcher Zeitung
lem or study acknowledges his debt to previous 1980
-+ See also: Version.

A pair of black defences with changed mates and
alternate simple and masked (Anti-Levman de- #2
~ ) line openings. 17: t. l£)e4? - 2. ~xd6#, 1... l£)f7,Ag3 2. l£)ef6,
15 l£je3#, (I ... l£jc5 2. l£)xc3#), I ... ~ h2! • 1. l£jc4!-
2. ~xd6#, I... l£)f7,.llg3 2. l£)f6,l£jce3#, (I... l£jc5
AHUES, Herbert 2. l£)b6#).
Berliner Morgenpost 1966
Multiple tries of a white piece (usually a Queen)
with the same threat that fail because of the white
self-interference on mating move. 18 combines
theme with critical tries, while 19 does it with
#2 peri-critical tries.
15: 1. l£je3? - 2. ~f5#, I... Ag4,f5 2. l£jg2,_ag5#,
I... d2! • 1. l£je7! - 2. ~f5#, I... .Q.g4,f5 2. 18
AHUES, Herbert ;
AHUES MECHANISM 2 I .pr Tidskrift for Schack
A pair of black defences with changed mates and 1949
alternation between Theme B and Anti-Levman
AHUES, Herbert #2
I.pr L 'Echiquier Beige 18: 1. AaJ? l£je5! 2. §b4? • 1. Aa7? Ag5! 2.
1979 l£lb6? • t. .Q.f2? Ats! 2. e3? • t. A fB? §g5! 2.
l£)d6? • 1. Ad4!-2. §c5#, I... l£je5 2. § b4#, I...
Ag5 2. l£lb6#, 1... .llf5 2. e3#, 1... §g5 2. l£ld6#.

#2 AHUES, Herbert
16: 1. l£)f6? - 2. l£)xg4#, I... §xg2,gxh5 2. l£jbc4, 2-3.pr=
l£)fd7#, I... Ae6! • 1. l£je3! - 2. l£)xg4#, I... Arbeitsgemeineschaft DSV
§xg2,gxh5 2. l£jec4,l£)bd7#. 1949150

A pair of black defences with changed mates and
alternation between direct mates and mates from
the indirect battery (battery. indirect). In the ini- #2
tial position both white thematic lines are open. 19: 1. ~ a8? ..Q,,g4! 2. l£jc6? • 1. ~ bl? l£)fg4! 2.
They are alternatively closed by a try or key l£)d3? • t. ~ht? l£)hg4! 2. l£)f3? • 1. ~ el! - 2.
move, which leads to reciprocal change of func- Af4#, I... .Q.g4 2. l£)c6#, I... l£)fg4 2. l£)d3#, I...
tions between white mating pieces. l£)hg4 2. l£)f3#.

AHU-ALB Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

White's tries fail due to the fact that they open
black line of defence. In general, black line-piece GOLDSCHMEDING,
does not move, but opens the line further or
De Probleemvriend 1943
makes use of the line-opening in some other way.
2 Herbert Ahues (1922) introduced and composed
many examples of this theme in 1964.

AHUES, Herbert
2.hm Die Schwalbe 1964/II
BOROS, Sandor
3.hm= MagyarSakkelet

17: 1. d4? 4:)c4! (2. 4:)c4?) • 1. f4? 4:)xd3! (4:)e4?) •
1. l3 c5? -'\,g7! (§d8?) • 1. 4:)c6! - 2. -'\,e5#, I...
4:)c4 2. 4:)xc4#, I... 4:)xd3 2. 4:)e4#, I... -'\,g7 2. #2
l3fd8#, ( 1... bxc6 2. l3xc6#).
AJEC THEME Same as Sackmann combination; the name
Half pin where there are at least three squares be- "Albain" is used in the Romanic language area.
tween the black King and black halfpinned unit, _. See also: Status Quo Theme Group.
and one of the halfpinned pieces is the black ,. AJlases: Albain-Sackrnann; Albanian; Roman Sackman.
In a problem White has four mating moves by
same Pawn (see Albino theme). They are often
battery mates, but direct mates are possible too,
especially in helpmates (such as 24) or direct
three- or moremovers. In a twomover theme can-
not be realized without a checking key, as in
probably the oldest presentation of theme 25.
#2 PAROS, Gyiirgy
21: 1. 4:)c5! (2. 4:)e6#), I... ~ e2 2. -'\,xe2#, I... l3 e3 I.pr B. T. S. 8. 1954
2. -'\,f3#, I... ~ b8+ 2. -'\,c8#, I... ~ b5+ 2. -'\,d7#,
I... ~ b6 2. -'\,e6#.


The key pins, selfpins, unpins or selfunpins at
least 3 pieces. A defence repins the unpinned
pieces and reunpins the pinned pieces. h#2 4 1ll
24: 1. <iftc4 <iftd8 2. Jld5 cxb3# • 1. Ae5 't!ic6+ 2.
22: 1. 4:)ce4! - 2. 13d3#, I... ~ xe4 2. 4:)f5#, (1...
~ xd6+ 2. 13 xd6#). <it?d4 c3# • 1. l3 ae4 't!ic7 2. -'\,d4 c4# • 1. <iTte4
't!id6 2. Af5 cxd3#.
23: 1. 4:)d5! - 2. 4:)ef6#, I... ~ xd5 2. ~ e5#, (I...
<iftxd5 2. A xb3, 1... 13 xd5 2. 4:)c5#, 1... ~ b2 2. 25: 1. 13 b5+!, I... ~ c6 2. exf3#, 1... 4:)b7 2. exd3#,
4:)d2#, I... ~ xc3+ 2. 4:)exc3# etc.). I... <iftf5 2. e4#, I... <iftd4 2. e3#.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems ALB-ALL

25 ALFIL [F]
1. In Persian (meaning "elephant") and Arab
WHITE, Alain C.
chess, a piece that in a game-array stood on the
Tour de Force sur
l'Echiquier 1906 place of today's Bishop, but moved only two
steps at a time diagonally, being allowed to jump
over other men. Around 1475, the piece got its
present mode of movement.
2. In modem fairy chess, (2,2)-leaper, a piece
that moves like the ancient Alfi!.
* See examples: 392,468, 1002, 1278, 1603.
A problem in which, at some point in the solu- Fairy piece. An Alfi! transformed to line-piece
tion, a white Pawn on its starting square makes that moves diagonally.
each of its four possible moves (forward one
square, forward two squares, capture to the left, ALICE CHESS [F]
capture to the right). In 26 the white Pawn gives Fairy condition. There are two boards but only
four battery mates. 27 is a task problem showing 32 pieces. After every move, the piece has to be
two complete sets of Albino tries, of which one moved on the corresponding empty square on the
solves the problem. other board, where the move has to be legal.
26 Piece can give check only on the square where
the King is, but King's flights are "taken" on the
L'HERMET, Rudolf other board. The mating position in Alice Chess
I.pr New York State
Journal 1894
is a fairy mate.
! Invented by V. R. Paton (no other information about
the inventor are known to us).

26: t. Jl.h6! H , 1... Jl.-,Jl.d3,Af3, ~xh6/~g5 2.
e4,ed3,ef3,e3#, ( I... 4::)-.~e3 2. Jl_xf4,Jl_xe3#).

I .pr Problemas J963

h#2 Alice Chess

28: * I... 4::)-Be4 2. ~-Be5 § -Ad6# • 1. '1l-Be5
#2 §-Af4 2. J1 -Ad5 4::)-Bc4#.
27: 1. fxg3? (2. ~c4#) Axg3+! • I. f3? (2. ~c4#)
exd5! • 1. f4? (2. ~c4#) 4::)6e5! • I. fxe3? (2. ALL-IN-CHESS [F]
~c4#) 4::)4e5! • I. dxc3? (2. ~xg4#) b3! • 1. d3?
(2. ~xg4#) §a6+! • 1. dxe3? (2. ~xg4#) 4::)4-! • A variant of chess. Both players are allowed to
1. d4! - 2. ~xg4#, 1... 4::)4- 2. ~xe3#, 1... 4::)f4/ move a man of either co]our, provided that a po-
4::)6e5 24::)(x)f4#, 1... §a6+ 2. Axa6#. sition one move earlier is not repeated. Pawns re-
* Other example 694. tain their direction of advance, and it is forbidden
--t See also: Pickaninny Theme. to capture a man of the same colour.

AU-ALL Encyclopedia of Chess Problems


The key indirectly unpins black piece which in A German term meaning "All Promotions", usu-
defence indirectly pins white threat piece, but un- ally used in its abbreviated form "AUW". A
pins another white piece which gives a mate. problem in which the solution includes Pawn
! Edgar William Allen (1884-1950), a good solver who promotions to all possible pieces (in orthodox
published with White & Marshall ''.A Sketchbook of chess to Bishop, Knight, Rook and Queen; in
Amencan Chess Problemists" (Stamford 1942), Hassberg fairy chess possibly to fairy pieces). One of the
& Allen: 'To Alain White" (Stamford 1945). most popular chess problem themes, implement-
able in virtually any genre and in various forms
29 which can generally be divided to linear and
parallel, as well as to monochrome and bicolor
GAMAGE, Frederick presentations.
l .hm American Chess
Bulletin l 945 Linear. All promotions occur in succession in a
single thematic variation. Selfmate 31 shows
four white promotions in minimal number of
Parallel. Promotions occur in different varia-
tions, ideally four, which altogether give a the-
matic quartet. In four variations of 32 the same
white Pawn promotes on the same square each
time to different piece.
Monochrome. All thematic promotions are of
the same colour. Both 31 and 32 show mono-
A retro problem where in the course of the solu- chrome (white) promotions. Four parallel black
tion all five kinds of men are being uncaptured. promotions are shown in four variations of 33.
30 Bicolor. Some promotions are black and some
white. A linear-form helpmate 34 shows three
DAWSON, Thomas R. black and one white promotion.
Fairy Chess Review 1938
The division can also be made in linear form ac-
cording to the order of promotions, and in bicolor
form by types of black and white promotions.

-2&#1 HANNEMANN, Knud
Defensive Retractor, Proca Type T,jdschrift v. d. NSB 1931
30: - 1. ~g2 ftg4x'tl1'f3 2. 'tl1'h3-f3+ & 1. 'tl1'g3# •
I... ftg4xf!f3 2. f!e3-f3+ & l. f!e4# • I...
ft g4x.llf3 2 . .lle4-f3 & 1. ,£ig6# • I... ft g4x,£if3
2. <£je5-f3 & l. ,£i5g6#.

Fairy piece. A rider that can, like a Grasshopper, 31: l. h8'tl1'+ ~g6 2. g8f!+ ~xf7 3. e8.ll+ ~e6 4.
leap over a piece, moving along a line of any con- d8,£i+ f!xd8#.
ceivable line-piece.
32: l. f7! (2. f8't\1'), I... <it1d6 2. f8't\1'+ ~c6 3. ~c5#,
! Invented in 1979 by Helmut Mertes (1936). I... exf4 2. f8!:! ~d6 3. f!f6#, I... exd4 2. f8.ll
= Alias: Allhiipfer (Ger.). ~f6 3. f!a6#, I... ~f6 2. f8,£i exd4 3. f!f7#.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems ALL-ALT

H0EG, Niels
6.hm Nordiske Schackbund

4' = Zebra(Z)
e:, = Camel (C)
~ = Nightrider (N)
~=Grasshopper (G)

#3 #2
33 35: 1. g7! (-), I... ~d8 2. cxd8=~#, I... ~a8 2.
g8=G,#, 1... ~c6 2. c8=Q#, I ... Q- 2. cxb8=1:)#.
I.pr Springaren 1952 ALPHABETIC CHESS [F]
A variant ofchess. In absence of check both sides
are obliged to move a piece which occupies the
square with the smallest coordinate in ascending
alphanumeric sequence (al, a2, ..., a8, bl, b2, ... ,
h7, h8). If two or more pieces can parry a check, the
one with the smallest square coordinate must play.
33: 1. l£)f7! (-), I... all£) 2. §xd5+ §xd5#, I... al.ll ALTERNATE ATTACK [E]
2. l£)h6 Axb2#, I... a l § 2. .Q.a3+ § xa3#, I... Endgame theme, a kind of positional draw.

al~ 2. ~a5+ ~ xa5#, (I... h6 2. .Q.al §-#). White pursues black piece that is either retreating
or forced to be defended by another piece. Then
~ ~~m 34

White transfers the attack from the first to the

-~m~ second piece. Black un-protects the first piece

DAWSON, Thomas R.
ffl ffl .~ W%I! 2.hm Essener Anzeiger and protects the attacked one, allowing White to
1930 restore the prosecution of the first piece, etc. 38
shows alternate attack to the King and the
~1m m
1 m1
r.~ r.~ r.~ r.,af'
~ ~Jffi
- ·--~·~·
- --~··· ~~
¥~-~~L. 36
h#7 TROITSKY, Alexey A.
34: 1. l£) ~b I 2. l£)g3 hxg3 3. d 1.11g44. e 1§ g5 5. Shakhmaty 1926
§e7 g6 6 . .Q.g4 g7 7. Ad7 g8~# • An early
bicolor AUW in one-liner helpmate.
* Other examples: 143,144,781.1403, 1404, 1714.
-+ See also: Babson Task.
= Alias: All Promotions.


Four (or more) promotions to different fairy 38: 1. l£)b7+ ~d7! (1... <,fj)c8 2. l£)d6+ <,fj)d7 3. l£)e4
pieces. Only promotion to fairy pieces that exist Ad8 4. l£jc5+ ~c8 5. l£je6) 2. l£)c5+ <,t>c8 3. l£je4
in the diagram are allowed. In 35 these pieces .\ld8 4. l£jd6+ <,fj)d 7 5. l£)b7 .llf6 (5 ... .Q.g5 6.
are Zebra, Camel, Nightrider and Grasshopper. l£jc5+ <,t>c8 7. l£je6) 6. l£jc5+ =.


Promotions to Queen, Rook, Bishop, Knight and The key from the white half-pin selfpins the
at least to one fairy piece. Only promotion to other piece from the same halfpin and indirectly
fairy pieces that exist in the diagram are allowed. unpins one black piece. Black unpinned piece

AMA-AME Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

moves and pins the threatening white piece, but 39

unpins the white piece which was selfpinned on
the first move. SHINKMAN, William A.
Checkmate 1903
2 Frank Altschul (1887-1981).
GAMAGE, Frederick
1.pr Chess Correspondent
1T 1946-1947
39: 1. § h2! <it;>xa4 2. .Q.c6+ ,;t>xa3 3. Ac5#, (2...
<it7a5 3. §h5#).


#2 A sub-variation of Grimshaw interference. Black
37: 1. 4:)e4! - 2. f4#, ( 1...4:)e- 2. .(lf4#), l... 4:)g2! 2. mutual interferences between one Rook and two
'l;/f6#, I... 4:)g4!! 2. 'l;/f5#, (l... 4:)e6 2. 4:)c6#).
Bishops are followed by three mates, instead of
AMAZON [FJ four.
Fairy piece. Combination of Rook, Bishop and
Knight (i.e. Queen and Knight). 40
= Aliases: Omnipotent Queen; Terror. JANET, Frank
Staten Islander 1914
The white Queen is making every move for her
LOYD, Samuel
12. Chess Monthly 1857 #2
40: I. 'l;/d5! (-), I... § b7 2. 4:)c6#, l... § b62. ~c5#,
1... 1:lb7,1:lb6 2. ~b5#, (I... Axd5,4)- 2. 4:)xd5,
-+ See also: Cross Patch Theme.

38: 1. ~f8+ g,e l 2. 'l;/d6 g,f2 3. 'l;/f4+ g,el 4. 'l;/d4
The key withdraws a guarding piece to a remote
~fl 5. ~g l #. square, so as to attack a Black man which in turn
threatens a white piece previously guarded by the
AMBIVALENCE OF MOVE piece but now open to capture by the black King.
The particularity of chess move to have an ad- If the black man captures the piece initially
vantageous and a disadvantageous effect. guarded, the key piece passes through the square
"' Alias: Duality of Move. vacated by the black man and captures a second
black man giving mate. (Sam Loyd in Alain C.
AMBUSH White's "Sam Loyd and his Chess Problems", p.
A line-moving piece is placed behind another 339.)
piece. When that second piece plays away the
41 shows the theme in orthogonal and 42 in
first one will show up its power. 39 shows a
diagonal form.
double ambush of the white Rook behind two
white Bishops. 2 Samuel Loyd (1830-1914).
* Other examples: 59.407, 699, 786, 1294, 1470, 1568. 41: 1. §a6! - 2. 'l;/fl#, I... §xf5 2. §xa4#, I...
"' Alias: Hinterstellung (Ger.). <it7xfS 2. § f6# • etc.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems AMl·ANA

41 other hand, there may be analogy between pieces

of different kind, or between orthogonal and
LOYD, Samuel diagonal lines, but not echo. Typical cases of
New York State Chess analogy are orthogonal/diagonal analogy and
Association 1892
analogy in defence.
-+ See also: Orthogonal-Diagonal Transformation.


In retrograde analysis it is necessary to deduce a
#2 retrograde structure of the position and to find
the correct retromoves. There doesn't exist a
42 fight between White and Black, but instead both
sides are allied in the fight against the higher
JANET, Frank
British Chess Magazine power - the difficulties imposed by the position
1918 I after Samuel Loyd and (usually) the lack of tempo.
"In an analytical retractor the question is not the
position on diagram as much as the position from
the past, after retraction of moves which are
absolutely determined by analytical arguments"
(Nenad Petrovic: "5ahovski problem", Zagreb
#2 1949)
42: 1. .llf8! - 2. ~al#, I... .Q.xb2 2. .Q.xh6#, I...
~xb2 2. ~a3#. 44
Fairy piece. It is immobile except when observed J.hm= The Problemist
Fairy Chess Supplement
by a friendly piece(s), in which case it adopts 1930
its(their) movement features. In 43 either white
Ami can initially move only like King does, but
in the final positions they are both observed by
the white Queen and consequently both give a
(double) check to the black King. -1 & # I
~ :·" 43 44: - 1. § h7-a7 & 1. ,t)f3# • Retro: -1. §h7-a7 f7-f6
~~ -2. ,t)f6-h5 g7-g6 - 3. ,t)e7-fS d7-d6 -4. §h5-h7

~ • • .4)~ • i ~?~~~;-:i:;ha!ss
Composition Microweb
c7-c6 -5. § b5-h5 a7-a6 -6. §b3-b5 fS-f4 - 7.
§ b4x,t)b3 ,tic l-b3+ and so on. • Retro-tries:
- 1. ,t)h6-f5? b7-b6 - 2. ,t)f7-h6 c7-c6 -3. ,t)h8-f7
maiW • ~
~• . V,f"~~~
2003-04 e7-e6 -4. h7-h8,£) g5xPf4 -5. h6-h7 h7x.Q.g6 and
-6. A f7-g8 happens one move too late to play b3
~-~~~-~~ or, in this variation, -4... g6-g5 -5. h6-h7 h7x,ilg6
-6. A f7-g6 retro-stalemate, or -6. Ae8-g6 f7-f6
~~~ ~ - 7. ,ila4-e8 f6-f5 - 8. ,ilb3-a4 retro-stalemate.
h#2 2111
43: 1. ,t)g7 AMif2 2. c:Jf7 ~e2# • 1. ,t)f6 AMlb4 2. One of the three categories the studied are di-
<3;;e7 ~ b3#. vided into. It requires and is based on thorough
analysis for its correctness. It does not necessar-
ANALOGY ily Jack pointed and beautiful play, but due to its
Similarity between moves, strategies, mate pic- difficulty it is usually less accessible to a wider
tures and the like from one phase, solution or audience. Still an artistic study, it differs from di-
variation to another. If the main characteristics of dactic end-game positions which have a practical
analogy are perfect, we talk about echo. On the purpose.

ANC-AND Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

Composer of analytical study takes usually inter- 48: The Sovyet duo spent some weeks during which
est in theoretically challenging positions and ma- they either concluded that in this position White
terial combinations, and in the last couple of wins only by playing 1. f! c3+, and that Black's
decades a special field of interest have been, of- best reply is I... c;t>b2, or that the author had to
ten computer-generated, positions with mutual content with his initial setting. • In order to do that
Zugzwang (Zugzwang. ReciprocaO. they had to analyze the following lines (only a
From the practical point of view, composers of couple of first moves are given): I. f!h2? b4 with
artistic and composers of analytical studies may the next six alternatives 2. <i!?b5,<it>d4,.Q.h6, f!h3,
sometimes start their work from the opposite 4:)f6 and .ll,g7; I. f! c I? b4 with the lines 2 . .Q.h6,
ends of the line. Artistic composer finding an in- 2. f!a l+c;t>b23 . .Q.g7+or3. f!h l; l. <it>xb5?c;t>b3
triguing position and working his way back- with lines 2. f! h2 and f! c I, and finally I. c;t>d4+?.
wards to find an interesting introduction, while Eventually, I. f! c3+ <it>b2 proved to be the best
the analyst finds a gem among the hundred of po- continuation for White and Black, and none of
sitions he has studied. Both ways of creation call White's alternatives seemed to give more than
for hard work and analysis, because the sound- draw.• Now, the author's solution begins 1. f! c3+
ness of all compositions has to be verified by the c;t>b2 and the rest as above.
composer, preferably prior to publication.
45 Fairy condition. Combination of vertical and
horizontal Cylinder board.
-? See also: Cylinder Board.
EG 1965
= Alias: Torus.


White and black pieces arrive to the same
squares in the set play, tries and the solution.

+ 47
45: I. Jlg7 <it>bl (1... c;t>a2 2. 4:)f6; now Black SUSHKOV, Yuri
threatens 2 ... b4 2. c;t>xb4 4:)d5+) 2. 4:)f6 (2. f!a3? Shakhmaty v SSSR 1977
4:)c2 and 3 ... Jlxh7; 2. <i!i>xb5? 4:)d I 3. f! a3 c3+ 4.
c;t>b4 .ll,xh7=) b4 3. <it>xb4 ';t>b2 4. .fth8!! (the
only waiting move available; 4. f!xd3? cxd3 5.
4:)g4+ <it>cl 6. 4:)xe3 [or 6 . .ll,h6] d2=) 4:)c2+ 5.
c;t>a4 c;t>xc3 6. 4:)e4#! • The composer was not
satisfied with the Rook standing initially
imprisoned on c3, but he could not find a way to #2
make the Rook move onto c3 without capture. He 47: (set play = actual play) • 1. 4:)g2?A 4:)f3!B • 1.
mentioned about the problem to Vladimir 4:)f3?B 4:)d3!C • 1. 4:)d3?C 4:)g2!A • 1. 4:)c2! - 2.
Korolkov who, with Lev Loshinsky, analyzed the
f!e l#. I... 4:)g2 2. f!3xg2#, I... 4:)f3 2. f!3g2#,
following position:
I ... 4:)d3 2. ~xd3# .
KOROLKOV, Fairy condition. On making a capture a unit (ex-
Vladimir A. ;
cept a King) changes colour (more exactly: it
ROYCROFT, John takes the colour of the opposite side; a neutral
334. Test Tube Chess 1972 piece moved by White becomes black). A "new"
white Rook appearing on al or hi, or a black
Rook on a8 or h8, can castle.
! Promoted during the ':A.11der11ach 1993" meeting of
+ fairy chess composers.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems AND-ANG

48 50
I.cm feenschach /995 7. Au/gaben for
Schachspieler /842

#2 Andemach Chess #4
48: *I... •fd48 2. 4:)d6#A, I... •xe3b(=4:)) 2. Af5#8, 50: 1. J;thS ~xh5 2. ~g7 h6 3. ~f6 <it?h4 4. ~g6#.
I... .t.xc5c(=.ll) 2. § f4#C • 1. .Q.d4! - 2. .Q.d5#,
I... .fxd48 (=4:)) 2. .Q.fS#B, I... .e3b 2. §f4/#C, ANGLO-AMERICAN SCHOOL
I... .t.xc5C(=A) 2. 4:)d6#A, (1...•f-2. §e3#, I... Style from the beginning of the 20th century, es-
•b4/.ce7 2. §e5#) • Lacny theme • Note that pecially from the foundation of the Good Com-
moves like 2... •xfS(=~) after 2. J1f5#, or 2... panion Chess Problem Club. The movement was
Bxe3(=§) after 2. §e3# are illegal because of the a synthesis of The New American and the tradi-
tional English School. Especially in two-movers,
self-check • Problem was dedicated to the
characteristic for both styles was rich variation of
participants of ''Andernach 1995" meeting of fairy
play without any duals.
chess composers.
The "Old" American School shaped back in
--. See also: Anti-Andernach Chess. the late 1850s by Samuel Loyd, later William
Shinkman, Wlliam Meredith and others. Typical
ANDERSSEN FOCAL THEME of their and many other American composers'
Two mates to be guarded against lie on the same work was a sharply expressed interesting idea,
line. A white unit moves to one of the mating introduced by a subtle key, set in a light and at-
squares to shut off the black piece from the other tractive manner. Although Loyd and Shinkman
and when the black piece captures it, it is recap- composed mostly three- and move-movers, their
tured with mate. style influenced two-mover composition too (see
Nationalist Period, The).
"The Good Companion Two-Mover" combined
ANDERSSEN, Adolf the best elements of the two traditions. Compos-
Leipziger 11/ustrierte ers began to blend the more simple strategic
Zeitung 1848 ideas into elaborate structures. Half-pin, re-in-
vented almost simultaneously by the American
Murray Marble and the British Comins
Mansfield, was one of the main re-discoveries of
this period. Some Americans, notably Charles
Promislo, devoted themselves to the traditional
English Block Problem type.
49: 1. §g6? § hi+! • l. ~ bl! J1h5 2. §g6! (3.
Prior to the Second World War, the An-
4:)f7#) J1xg6 3. 4:)xg6#.
glo-American style very much dominated the
two-move composition in Britain and the US,
whereas in the Continental Europe perhaps a
White makes the interference to avoid a stale- more varied development within the emerging
mate by allowing a flight to the black King, strategic school gained ground.
which is met by a discovered mate by the same
white piece. The examples quoted here are American compo-
sitions. English can be found under English
! Adolf Anderssen (1818-1879). School, and numerous examples of both will be
2 Alias: Anderssen Mate. found throughout this book.

ANG-ANN Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

51 54: 1. .llfS! - 2. 4:)e7+<it;>e5 3. ~b8#, I ... .§f5 2. c4+

4:)xc4 3. 4:)c3# (2... ~e6 3. 4:)xc5#), l... f5 2.
PROMISLO, Charles 4:)f6+ Axf6 3. c4#, (l... ~b4 2. 4:)xb4+) • White
2.pr Good Companion vs black half-pin.
A move of riders and leapers which is not made
along straight orthogonal or diagonal lines. The
only orthodox piece with angular moves is
Knight, in fairy chess there is a host of such
#2 pieces, for instance Nightrider, Camel (rider),
51: * I... .{,tg5 2. '(tyxg5#, I... 4:)- 2 . .§g4#, I... h2 2. Zebra etc.
4:Jg2# • t . .§e6! H, 1... .Q.g5tg5 2. ~f3#, 1... <ti-
2 . .§e4#, I... g6 2 . .§f6# • Mutate with one added ANNAN CHESS [FJ
and two changed mates. Fairy condition. Pieces move normally except
when standing in front of another friendly piece,
when they move only as that piece. The phrase
SHEPPARD, Charles W. "in front of' means immediately above for White
Good Companion 192J and immediately below for Black.
! Theme of Japanese Sake Tourney, Eretria 2005.
I.pr 6. Sake Ty Eretria
#2 2005
52: 1. f4! -2. '(tye3#, l... exf3(ep) 2. 4:)d4#, I ... exf4 2.
~ f3#, ( I... '(tyxf4 2. ~a6#) • An unusual vertical
half-pin with black Pawns as thematic men.
KISH, Alexander s#2 Annan Chess
l.hm Pawn-One-Two Ty. 55: t. .§ d2! (2. J;th3+ g6xh4#), l... 4:)xf6 2. '(tya6+
American Chess Bulletin .§xa7#, I... 4:)h6 2. 4:)c3+ 4:)xd2#, I... 4:)f8 2.
/935-6 4:)e3+ ~f3#.
- Alias: Southern Chess.

A curious form ofline clearance by capture of the
enemy piece followed by the vacation of the cap-
turing square with opening of the opponent's
Annihilation is normally a three-move affair
which starts with a sacrifice of the piece to be an-
nihilated, but the principle can be shown in two
moves as in 56 where the key 1. .§ h8 is entirely
successful, because Black's defence l..:ii,·xh8
disposes the obstacle and allows White to give
mate as desired.
There are four typical thematic forms:
Active Elson-Annihilation. The piece which
would be destroyed arrives to its square of de-
#3 struction (i.e. sacrifices itself). See 57.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems ANN -ANN

Passive Elson-Annihilation or Annihilation l... Axc5 2. e6 A- 3. ~h5# (passive), l... Axe3

Capture. The piece which is to be destroyed is 2. ~d3 A- 3. ~f3# (active).
already on its square of destruction. See 58.
Active Loyd-Annihilation. One speaks of
"Loyd" when the capturing side (party) only has LOYD, Samuel
interest on (or beyond) the square where the cap- 132. Wilke 's Spirit of the
ture takes place. See 59. Times 4.1.1868

Passive Loyd-Annihilation. The piece stands

already on the square where it will be (is) cap-
tured, and the capturing side has interest in that
square. See 60.
! Samuel Loyd (1830-1914),Jacob Elson (1839-1909).

LOYD, Samuel
Standard Union 1895
5.cm British Chess
Federation 1938-1939

* Other examples: 240, 687.
leipziger Tageblatt 1923 "' Alias: Destruction Clearance.

Informal composing tourneys are usually run-
ning on a regular basis. Their announcement
should include the sections, the address[es]
#3 where the compositions should be sent, the dura-
57: 1. ~ f4! _ilxf4 2. f8~+ _ilb8 3. ~f3#, (I ... '1]c7 2. tion of the competitions (normally 6 months - 2
f8~ + '1;;c7 3. ~f7#). years) and the judges.
As for formal tourneys, the announcement
58 should include: the organizer, the name and type
of competition Gubilee tourney, theme tourney,
4.pr Kecskemet SK 1927 match), the genre (and theme) of the composi-
tions, the participants (open, restricted), if the
number of entries per author is limited, by which
date, to what address and in how many copies the
entries should be sent, the judge(s), (the value of)
prizes, other distinctions, and possibly the publi-
cation of the award, if that can be anticipated.
#3 Formal tourney usually has a controller nomi-
58: 1. e3! (-), l... Axc3 2. ~c4 A- 3. Ac2# nated to the post, who receives the entries and is a
(passive), I... .Q.xe5 2. c6 .11- 3. ~h5# (passive), contact person between composers and judge(s).

ANT - ANT Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

ANTELOPE [FJ moved by White becomes black...) but on

Fairy piece. A (4,3)-/eaper. For instance: Ante- capturing it keeps its colour. A "new" white
lope from al can play to d5 or e4. Rook appearing on al or hi, or a black Rook on
a8 or h8, can castle.
ANTI EN-PASSANT THEME Note in 63 that after the key the promoted (now
In a three- or more-mover Black in defence black) Knight cannot play to d7 or g6 because of
moves his Pawn only one step in order to avoid Self Check.
White's en-passant capture later.
! The name was given by the authors of the example
problem. ~~ ~m-~~~ 63
~~-rt' .~ifflrt't~~
PETKOV, Petko A.
61 ~ffl%.'f:A~~~";J;,~. i
~~ i. . ~
feenschach 1996

RUDENKO, Valentin F. ;
CHEPIZHNY, Viktor I . fflfffl ~ ,. 1.:.
3766. Die Schwalbe 1982 ~ fflftffl
~~ ~~ ~~
#2 Anti-Andemach
63: (* I... •xfS 2. ~xh5#) • 1. 18.Q.(=.I.)? (-) • 1...
#3 .1.h6(=A) 2. ~xf4#, I ... .1.g7(=A) 2. ~xf6#, 1...
61: 1. ,tibS? (2. ,tid4#) ,tie6! • 1. ~ xh4? (2. §g3#) •xf5 2. ~xh5#, 1... .l.xe7! • 1. f8,ti(=•)! (-),
,tig6+! • 1. § g4! (2. f5 e5/g5 3. fxe6/fxg6(ep)#), I ... 4h7(=,ti) 2. ~xf6#, I ... 4e6(=<ti) 2. ~xf4#,
I ... g6 2. ~xh4 g5+ 3. fxg5# (2. f5? g5!), 1... e6 2. I ... •xf5 2. '{;j-xh5#.
,tib5 e5 3. fx.e5# (2. f5? e5!).


A retro genre idea. All the possible moves of a Black offers White a man for capture in order to
white Pawn to reach a square of its fourth rank. use the opened line in his defence. White rejects
the offer or accepts it in a favorable moment.
KRIKHELI, loslf 64
2.pr Schoch-Echo 1979
Die Schwalbe 1937

-I &h#l
b).l.g3~f2;c) .l.g3~b4;d).l.g3~8 #4
62: a) - 1. e3x§f4 .§g4x'{;j-f4 & 1. ~ h4 '{;j-h6# • b) 64: 1. ,tig8? -'l,f6! 2. ,tixf6 al~ 3. ,tid5 '{;j-h8+ • 1.
-1. g3x~f4 ~f3x~f4 & 1. ~ g2 ~h4# • c)-1. ,tifS! -'l,d4 2. ,tie7! c4 3. ,tid5 -/..Q.b6 4. ,tic7/
f3-f4 Jl_d6x~b4 & 1. _ilh2 ~g4# • d) -1. f2-f4
.§xb6#., 1... Jl_f6 2. ,tie3! - 3. ,tid5.
_ilc6x~e8 & 1. _ilg2 ~h5#.


Fairy condition. On moving, a unit (except a At least 3 tries made by pieces of different type
King) changes colour (more exactly, it takes the are defeated by moves of pieces of the same type
colour of the opposite side; a neutral piece as the piece which made a try move.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems ANT-ANT


•• Bft
-- • • i~
I .pr Diagrammes 2003
Black unpins a white piece that moves off the
pin-line. Black uses his chance to give check, but
by doing it he at the same time gives White op-
im - - ir,.p,
~ii~ portunity to mate with a cross-check.

"1 ~~ ~~<Ii~
LARSEN, Karl A. K.
#2 2-4,pr DSK 3. TT 1933,
Skakbladet 1933
65: 1. bxa4? H, l... !!b2 2. {)d4#, l... {)b3 2 .
.Q.xb3#, l... b3! • 1. f! d4? H, l... {)xb3 2. f!c4#,
l... 'iftb2/'iftc3 2. f!d2#, l... f! b2! • l. 'iftd4? - 2.
f!d2#, L.. {)xb3+2. f!xb3#, L.. <i!?b2! • 1. f! d6!
H, l... f!b2 2. 'iftd4#, l... {)xb3/axb3 2. 'iftd5#,
l...{)f- 2. !'!d2#.
ANTI-BATTERY [F] 68: 1. 'lil'g4! (2. 'lil'h5#), l... e5 2. {)e8! (3. 'lil'h5#) e4+
Fairy effect Arrival of the front piece to the line 3. {)d6#, l... {)d6+ 2. {)b5+ {)db7+ 3. {)d6#,
allows the hopper of the same colour to attack the (1... f!d4 2. f!xf4+ f!xf4 3. 'lil'h5#) • The first
adversary King (or the enemy unit). variation shows anti-Brede cross-check, the 2nd
the proto-form.
66 * Other example 624.
-4 See also: Brede Cross-Check.
'" BROG!, Giuseppe
.. JI Due Masse 1955
A piece moves along the line toward another
piece closing its line of action.
In other words: Holzhausen interference by a
meto-critical move.
#2 .W.-* = Grasshopper
66: l. 'iftl7! - 2. ,W.g8#, 1... ,W.h5+ 2. J1.f5#, 1... ,W.d7+ 69
2. {)fS#.
WARTON, Thomas
The two pieces exchange their front/rear role in 1919
the anti-batteries they form.

~~~ ~~-~~~ ~ 67
•• •• i~~

.~r1'LJ•••• •1
• tf!f a B
• ~

JONSSON, Christer
25.pl weer 1972-75 #2
69: * l... e5 2. ~d5/.Q..d5#, l... .Q.,g6 2. 'lil'b7# • 1.
.Q..e4! H, I... e5 2 . .Q.d5#, l....{,tg- 2. ~g8#, l...
ll,g6 2. ~xg6#, l ...,ilb- 2. !'! b7#, 1... f5 2. {)e5#
• Simplest kind of white Anti-Bristol, in which
~ ~~ 'lil''s lost control of b7 is compensated by gained
#2 .W.-* = Grasshopper control of g6.
67: 1. <it>al! H • 1... ,W.e3 2. ,W.f3#, 1... es 2. ,W.dS#, 70: l. .llxf5? hi 'lil' 2 . .lld3 'lil'el +! • 1. Jlh7! (2.
(l... ,W.f4,e6 2. !'!f3,!'!d5#). .llg8+) f!gl 2. ll,xf5 hl 'lil' 3 . .{,td3 - 4 . .Q.c4# •
-4 See also: Anti-Battery. Forced black anti-Bristol.

ANT- ANT Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

70 -+ See also: Anti-Cristojfanini Theme; Costachel Theme.


WESTRUM, Louis Ceril In defence against a Pelle move threat Black un-
Thema-Boek 1948 I pins a threat piece, which then plays off the pin
(Scheme) line and mates.
-+ See also: Anti-Costachel Theme; Cristojfanini Theme.

Anti-critical move is the reversal or un-doing of
the critical move. Its (sole) purpose is to "invali-
date" the cutting-point.
A "criticalJy" standing piece is forced or tempted
to make an anti-critical move.

73: 1. § ht! (2 . .Q..e4 .Q.xe6 3. §h4#), 1... <it'f5 2.
~h4+ <it'g4 3. .llf3# (2... <it'xe6/<it'e5 3. §el#),
#4 I... .Q.xe6 2. §h4+ <it'f5 3. Jle4#.
7 1 : 1. Jlfl! (1... -/b6 2. e3 <it'c5 3. §-xc7+) I... * Other examples: 98, 355, 481.
-+ See also: Critical Play.
~b6(!) (anti-cri tical decoy, which reverses
White's foreplan) 2. .Q.xb6 cxb6 3. e3 ~cs 4. ,. Alias: Antikritikus (Ger.).
§c7# • "This historically significant problem
is the first rendering of an Anti-Cheney-Loyd!" ANTI-DEFLECTION
(Sidler). Black can parry a two-move threat which arises
-+ See also: Cheney-Loyd Theme.
after the second white move, but this parade is in-
sufficient. Therefore Black plays so that after the
ANTI-COSTACHEL THEME second white move, if the threat persisted, he has
In defence against a Pelle move threat Black a good defence to substitute the weak one.
opens his line, but at the same time unpins a
threat piece, which then plays off the pin line and 74
mates. KOLDIJK, Albert M. ;
72 SMIT,Geert
Die Schwalbe 1939
Original example

74: 1. .Q.aS? §xh3! • 1. ~ d6! - 2. .Q.xf6 - 3.
.Q..xe5#, 2... §xe4 3. ~e6# (weak defence), I...
#2 §f4 2. Jla5 §f3 3. ~e2# • 2. Jlxf6? §xf5!
72: (*I... ~b4/~xf6 2. ~e6#) • 1. ~xd4! - 2. (good defence).
~e4#, I... ~b4 2. ~d7#, I... ~f4 2. ~e5#, ( I... -+ See also: Beugung.
~xf6,~e7,§h5 2. §xf6,fxe7;~xg4#). s Alias: Anti-Beugung (Ger.).

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems ANT-ANT


An endgame idea. Black does not possess a mate- A threat is a Gamage mate, i.e. White can di-
rial advantage sufficient to win itself, and white rectly unpin a black piece because it is interfered.
defeats his attempts to dominate the white men Black removes this interference by:
and capture (one of) them. (Definition from (a) removal of the interfering piece (Anti-
FIDE Album.) Gamage l);
(b) move of the interfered pinned piece (Anti-
Gamage 2).
RANDVIIR, Jiiri 77 shows both thematic forms.
The Problemist 1991
NANNING, Frederik W.
Die Schwalbe I 930

75: 1. 4:)hS !'!h4! (1... !'!e7 2. exd4 !!xd7+ 3. <itte8

=) 2. 4:)xg7 (2. exd4 !!xh5 3. 'ifte8 !'!g5 -+)
4:)e6+!! 3• .1lxe6! (3. 4:)xe6? !'!h8+ 4. Ae8 <ittxe6 #
5. g7 !'!g8 6. e4 <ittd6 7. e5+ <itte6 -+) !! h8+ 4.
..Q.g8! (4. 4:)e8+? 'iftxe6 5. e4 !!g8! 6. e5 !! h8 7. 77: I. a3! - 2. 'l:,a2#, I ... e3 2. 'l:,xf3# = Anti-Gamage
g7 !!g8 - +) !'!xg8 5. 4:)e8+ <itte6 6. e4 !'! h8 7. g7 +Gamage, I.....Q,,c- 2. !'!c7# = Anti-Gamage I , I...
!!g8 8. eS zz. 'iftf7 9. 'iftd7 !'! xe8 10. e6+ =. 'l:,f6 2. ~ xf6# = Anti-Gamage 2 • etc.
* Other example 306. * Other examples: 660, 832.
-. See also: Gamage Theme; Kagan Theme.
-. See also: Domination Theme.
A threat is a Goethart mate, i.e. White can indi-
Having a piece on focal position, Black is trying
rectly unpin a black piece because it is interfered.
to maintain its contact with two or three foci the
Black removes this interference by:
piece guards(= direct combination). White's aim
is to decoy black piece(s) so that the piece on fo. (a) removal of the interfering piece (Anti-
cal position is losing control of one of these Goethart 1);
points (= indirect combination). (b) move of the interfered pinned piece (Anti-
Goethart 2).
76 78 shows both thematic forms.

KUNTZE, Fritz 78
I.pr Deutscher
Schachbund I 887 MARI, Alberto
I .pr Tljdschrift v. d. KNSB

76: I. ~g3! (2. 'l:,xe5#), I... 'l:,xg3 2. 4:)ed6! (3. #
4:)c7#) .1lxd6 3. 4:)xd4#, I... hxg3 2. 4:)bd6 (3. 2
4:)c7#) Axd6 3. 4:)g7#, (I... 'iftxfS 2. !'!xf7+ 'ifte6 78: I. 4:)f6! - 2. A c3#, I... d2 2. 4:)d3# = Anti-
3. ~ b3#) • The focal points (and treff-points) d4 Goethart I , I... ~ c4 2. 4:)2e4# = Anti-Goethart 2,
and g7 are doubly guarded (they can also be called etc.
junction-points, since nei ther black piece is * Other example 1407.
decoyed on them = Massmann Treff-Point). -. See also: Goethart Theme.

ANT-ANT Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

White does not threaten to unpin black piece un-
PALATZ, Franz F.
til Black defends, and then White must choose a
non-unpinning mating move. Correspondent 1922 I (v)

SEGERS, Marcel
Escacs a Catalunya 1933


Black counters White's plan by moving his
piece, which would be interfered with, on a more
#2 favourable square. White forces Black to retract
79: t. A f7! - 2. "i't,f6#, 1... ,tids 2. ,tif6# ( ,tif8?), 1... his combination.
,tie4 2. ,tif8# (,tif6?), (1... ,tie8 2. "i't,g8#, l...
§xf7 2. ,tixf7#). 82
-+ See also: Anti-Goethart Theme. BERGES, Wilhelm
Die Schwalbe /937
Avoidance of a Grimshaw interference by an
anti-critical move.

Deutsches Wochenschach 82: I. § f2? exf2! • 1. § g6n? jlc4!,§b3! (=anti-
1919/(v) Hamburg, anti-Roman 2. § f6/7 §b5!, §c3!) • I.
§ g8! (2. §f8) Ac4 2. §d8! jlb5(a6) 3. §f8
§c4(b5) 4. jlxd3# = anti-Hamburg; l... § b3 2.
§d8! §b4 3. §f8 §c4 4. jlxd3# = anti-Roman.
-+ See also: Hamburg Theme.

80: 1. "i't,e3? (thr. 2. ,tic7+ ~d6 3. ~c5 = *.I.· Key unpins white piece and simultaneously pins
Grimshaw) jlb4! (anticritical move)• 1. a7! §a4 black piece. Black in defence unpins pinned
(critical move) 2. "i't,e3 ,ilb4 (anticritical- critical black piece and pins unpinned white pieces.
move) 3. ,tic7+ ~d6 4. jlh2#. • Critical
Grimshaw on b4. 83
* Other examples: 877, 1133. HASSBERG, Eric M.
-+ See also: Grimshaw lnte,ference. American Chess Bulletin
A voluntary combination: White plays a critical
~ . which Black exploits on his move. Then
White moves his piece, crossing a critical square
again in the opposite direction.
81: 1. jle2! (critical move) ,ilel 2. c3+ jlxc3 3.
83: 1. 0-0-0! - 2. ~e5#, I ... ,ticd5! 2. e5# • etc.
jla6! (anti-critical move) Jl.- 4. § d3#.
-+ See also: Hassberg I Theme; Status Quo Theme Group.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems ANT -ANT

ANTI-HOCHBERGER THEME 86: 1. ~ dS?? • l. Jla8! - 2. ~d5(+) -,~a4 3.

The key move selfpins one white piece which .llb7,4)b6#.
threatens mate by Pelle move (move along the
pin-line). Black in defence unpins, directly or in- ANTI-IANOVCIC THEME
directly, this pinned white piece which takes ad- White piece threatens mate along the pin-line. In
vantage of it to mate. one variation Black defends by unpin of his pin-
ning piece, and in the other he opens a line for di-
A~~~~ 84
. J\~ ~~ ~~ rect guard of a threat square.
~ ~l' J .t , ~~~~~ .,, SOMMA, Francesco
fl.'*'~4:J~ ~ II Prob/ema /932 87
m • B Bt
.ft ~~~f~ a L .
"' itf '9.< if."9-< - , .. • MIRAND, Georges ;
MICHEL, Fran~ols

~i!~.-~ ~a~
2.pr The Problemist TT

84: 1. 4)f4! - 2. ~e6#, 1... ~ c5 2. ~ xd4#, 1... ~xc7
2. ~ xb4# • etc.
-t See also: Hochberger Theme.

Avoidance of a Holzhausen interference by an -t See also: lanovcic Theme.
anti-critical move.
Black's direct defensive combination: In antici-
SACKMANN, Franz pation to White's plan to play the Indian maneu-
Deutsche Schachbliitter ver Black plays so that the Indian maneuver fails
or comes too late. White has an alternative plan,
and anti-Indian is seen in virtual play only.

PAULY, Wolfgang
#5 Deutsches Wochenschach
85: l. 4)e4! (2. 4)xg5 §cf6 3. 4)gf7+) §f8 2. 4)xg5 /905
§cf6 3. Jle6! and Black is in Zugwang. • Duals
on the 4th move.
With an anti-critical move White avoids
Holzhausen interference. The interference oc- #4
curs in the try-play only.
88: 1. § 18! ~e4 2. ~e2 g6 3. .llf7 ~f5 4. Jld5# =
86 Indian, I... g6(!) = anti-Indian 2. §fl! ~e4 3. ~f2
~f5 4. ~e3# • White defeated Black's anti-Indian
M0LLER, Jergen attempt with another Indian combination.
Deutsches Wochenschach = Alias: Anti-Loveday.
Fairy pieces. Kings are exposed to check when
they are not threatened by an enemy piece.
89: t. A d8! - 2. ~b6#, 1... §- 2. .llb6#, 1... as 2.
#3 ~b4#, I ... a6 2. ~b5#.

ANT-ANT Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

89 * Other examples: 18, 19, 1092, 1536.

"' Alias: Anti-Levman Theme.
BOYER, Jean-Pierre
A black and white piece of like motion stand dis-
tantly on the same line. The defences by black
piece along that line are answered by moves of
white piece to the adj acent square on the same
#2 Anti-Kings 92
White forces Black's anti-critical move in order l.pl Moscow
Championship 1969
to obviate Black's idea to block his piece after its
critical move with a stalemate.
Wiener Schachzeitung 1931 #3
I dedicated to 92: * I... .Q.xg6+ 2. !! bxg6 b5 3. !! c6# • I. <it1h8! - 2.
W von Holzhausen
.Q.c2/.Q.d3/.Q.e4/~.f:S, 1... .\le4 2 . .Q.fS - 3. !! b5#,
1... .Q.d3 2 . .Q.e4 - 3. !! b5#, 1... A c2 2 . .Q.d3 - 3.
f! b5#, (1... .Q.f5 2. 4:)gf6 etc.).
-+ See also: Loshinsky Theme.

90: 1. Jl_b6? .\lhl! 2 . .Q.c3 g2! 3 . .Q.e l stalemate!(= One side forces the other to retract a critical
Kling) • I. .Q.aS! - 2 . .Q.c3 - 3. 4:)f4+ <it1h4 4 . move (which may have been made before the po-
.Q.xf6# (2... g2 3 . .\lei ), I... .Q.hl 2 . .Q.el ! .Q.a8 (= sition on diagram) and instead of a useful
Anti-Kling) 3. Jl_c3 - 4. 4:)f4+ <it1h4 5 . .Q.xf6#, 3 ... line-vacation cause a harmful line-occupation.
g2 4. Ael - 5. 4Jf4#.
In short: A Holzhausen interference initiated by a
-+ See also: Kling.
meta-critical move.
ANTI-LEVMAN DEFENCE 93 shows white anti-Loyd clearance after an
Black opens the white line masked by a white anti-critical key. In 94 the black Rook has al-
piece. On mating move White unmasks it and ready moved anti-critically to hl and White
closes another white line. This is in fact a masked forces its traversal over the critical square in the
form of Theme B. opposite direction.
2 Semen S. Levman (1896-1942). Anti-Brunner-Loyd Clearance. A line voidance
for a piece of the same type.
91 2 Samuel Loyd (1830-1914).
LEVMAN, Semen S. 93
Skakbladet 1932
Eskilstuna Kuriren
2.8.1932 I (v)

91: I. !! b4! - 2. 4:)cd4#, 1... 4:)d5 2. 4:)ed4#, I... d5 2.
4:)e 7# • etc. #3

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems ANT-ANT

93: t. f! h8! H, 1... .Q.- 2. g8~ - 3. 'l:fc8#, 1... .Q.d8! 96

(= anti-Loyd's clearance: 2. g8'l:,? €)c7!) 2. f!xd8
€)c7 3. €)xc7#. BRUCH, Wieland
I.pr Schach-Aktiv 1998
WESTRUM, Louis Ceril
Thema-Boek 1948 I (v)

96: I. €)c.3?/€)g5? <it>xg3! • I. a7! - 2. f!f3+ <it>xe4
3. a8f¥#, I... €)h4 2. €)g5! (2. €)c3? €)b4!), 1...
€)de5 2. €)c3! (2. €)g5? c3!).
#4 -t See also: Mari Dual Avoidance.
94: 1. Jl.xe5? gl 'l:,! 2. Jl,c3? 'l:,el! • 1. .a_g7! - 2 .
.Q.f8+€)d6/€)e73 ..a,x€)#, I... f!fl 2. Jl,xe5gl 'l:, ANTI-META-CRITICAL MOVE
3. A c3 - 4 . .Q.b4#. Avoidance of interference by moving the block-
"' Alias: Anti-Voidance. ing piece over the future attacker's square away
from the object of attack. See the discussion un-
ANTI-MAGNET THEME der "Critical Play".
Two like-moving pieces of different colour stand "' Alias: Antimetakritikus (Ger.).
on the same line. In variations Black moves
along the line away from the opponenent's piece, ANTI-METO-CRITICAL MOVE
which in tum moves the same distance in the op- Avoidance of interference by moving the block-
posite direction. The maneuver repeats at least ing piece over the object of attack away from the
once in another variation, in which distance attacking piece. See the discussion under "Criti-
grows l + l squares. cal Play".
Compare with Loshinskv theme where one the- -t See also: Bristol Clearance.
matic piece follows the piece of opposite colour, = Alias: Antimetokritikus (Ger.).
and with Anti-Loshinskv theme where two pieces
are moving toward each other. ANTI-MONREAL THEME
The white King, which controls at least one
95 square in the black King's field, takes the key
move making it a flight square, and simulta-
BASISTY, Mark ; neously pins one white piece. Thematic defences
I.pl Ukrainian Team
are a black King flight(s) and unpin(s) of the
Championship 1984 self-pinned white piece which then mates.
Actually, this is only half-opposite to Monreal
theme: the unpin is replaced by the selfpin but the
flight square is, commendably, still given.

#3 97
95: 1. ~ fS! (2. fxe5), I... ~ d5 2. 'l:,g5! (2. 'l:,xh5?
f¥xb3!) - 3. fS#, 1... 'l:,c5 2. ~ xh5! (2. ~ g5?
2.pr Castellari 1T
f¥c2!)- 3. 'l:,h3#., (1... .Q.d7 2 . .Q.xe5). Lo Scacchista di Roma
-t See also: Magnet Theme. 1936

White closes a white line just opened by Black.
This requires at least three moves for an orthodox
realization. #2

ANT-ANT Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

97: (* 1... ,!lxd5+ 2. ~xd5#) • 1. 'iftd7! - 2. {)de3#, ject of attack. See the discussion under "Critical
1... ~xd5 2. ~g8#, 1... ~d4 2. {)fe3#, (1... Axd5 Play".
2. Ad3#). * See examples: 98, 355.
-. See also: Monreal Theme.
ANTI-MOUSETRAP THEME Avoidance of interference by moving the object
White threatens to trap a black piece. In defence, of attack over the critical square towards the at-
Black maneuvers so that White's trap fails or has tacking piece. See the discussion under "Critical
no effect. The colours can also be reversed in this Play".
combination, when trapping White's piece is 5 Alias: Antiparakritikus (Ger.).
Black's voluntary plan, and White tries to avoid
Can signify at least two maneuvers:
98 (I) White's direct Option Combination in which
he selects his kernel move(s) so as to avoid
SAVOURNIN, Jacques getting on the wrong side of a critical square,
I.pr Europe Echecs 1964
thus moving around it (see 100, 101).
(2) White's Indirect Combination coercing
Black to move peri-critically (see for instance
102) to his disadvantage; or to force him to
abandon his plan to move his piece
pericritically, or to force White to move his
#3 piece pericritically (see 116; Anti-Sackmann
98: t. f! dS! - 2. f! es - 3. -t}d4#, I ... ~c3 2. f! d4 - theme; idea in defence).
3. -t}e5#, I... ~ b2 2. d4, I... ~al 2. Ad4, (1...
~c3 2. d4,Ad4?, 1... ~ b2 2. Ad4,f!d4?, 1... 100
~al 2. f!d4,d4?).
_. See alw: Mousetrap Theme.
I 68. Chess Strategy I 865 I
Avoidance of a Nowotny interference by an
anti-critical move.

KUBBEL, Leonid I.
I .pr Svyezda Minsk 1928 100: 1. f! fl! (2. §xf3), I... ~c8 2. §bl ,!lb7 3.
§ b4! (anti-peri-critical move) ~e8 4. § f4 - 5.
§f8#, (3. §b2? 'ifte8 4. §f2 Af3!).
I .pr Svyat Sachovy 1928
99: t. Ag4! (2. Af5), I... Ab! (Anti-Nowotny) 2.
Ad2 {)c2 3. {)fd3#, 1... f!ge5 (Anti-Nowotny) 2.
{)e6+ f!xe6 3. f!d5#, 1... f!ee5 2. f!d5+ §xd5
3. {)e6#.
_. See also: Nowotny Interference.
ANTI-ORTHO-CRITICAL MOVE 101: 1. § bS? ,!lg3! 2. § b7 Ae5! • 1. § cS! (2.
Avoidance of interference by moving the attack- §c2#), I ... Ag3 2. f!c6! A-3. f!c2#, ! ... -t}g3 2.
ing piece over the critical square towards the ob- f!c l 'iftxf3 3. f! fl #, (I... ~xe3 2. f!c3+ ~f4 3.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems ANT-ANT

-'\,b8#) • White must avoid getting on b2 and, thus, 104

move around it on c5 and c2.
Alfred W.
102 Hamburgischer
Correspondent 29.11./925
I.pr Orlimont MT 1967


Often seen theme in a retro genre. In the course
102: I. ~ bS? Ag6! 2. !!bl+ ~xbl 3.? • I. ~e2! of a proof game a promoted piece is captured,
Jl.h5 2. f3! Axf3 3. ~ b5 Jl.e4 4. !! bl+ Jl_xbl 5.
and at its promotion square stands the original
~b2+ cxb2 6. Jl_xb2# • A simple useful doubling
will be transformed into a harmful doubling with piece of the same kind and colour.
the weaker piece in front.
* Other example 116. :a• ,··,!I,4, t

- ~. a a t ~
4 See also: Critical Move; Peri-Critical Move. DENKOVSKI, Ivan ;
,. Alias: Antiperikritikus (Ger.). DENKOVSKI, Gligor
cm G Donati-50 JT
StrateGems 2002-3
White threatens a Plachutta interference and
Black defends by anti-critical move of one or
both thematic pieces.
t[dr~~ ~ -jw~~ ,~~
PG 12
103 105: I. 4:)c3 d5 2. 4:)e4 dxe4 3. g4 ~d3 4. exd3 e3 5.
~f3 e2 6. gS exfl !!+ 7. c;t,e2 !'!xcl 8. g6 !! fl 9.
PALATZ, Franz F. !! xfl hxg6 10. 'it(d l !! xh2 II. ~cl !! xf2 12.
Basler Nachrichten
~ di !'! xfl.
4 See also: Ceriani-Plaksin-Frolkin Theme.

A weakness of black defence seemingly allows 4
mates but only one works, while other three are
#5 prevented by useful effect(s) of black move.
103: I. 4:}b7! (2. 4:)c7+) !!a6! (anti-Plachutta) 2. To call it a theme there should be 4 such black
Jl.xdS! (3. -'\,c6+ 4. 4:Jxd6/4:)c7+) !!c8! defences with partial quadruple avoidances of
(anti-Plachutta) 3. Jl.xf3 g4 4. Jl.xg4 - 5. AhS#. same four mates, i.e. each mate is effective only
ANTI-PLACHUTTA, WHITE After the key in 106 a removal of the black
White avoids Plachutta interference with anti- Bishop would allow 4 mates, but each possible
critical move(s) of his thematic piece(s). A real Bishop's move allows in tum only one of these.
white anti-Plachutta is seen in virtual play only.
106: I. -'\,e3! (-), I... -'\,xc3 2. ~d3# (2. ~d l/~d2/
104: I . !! O? 4:)f7! 2. !!fxf7 4:)g7 3. !! xg7 'it(f8 = -'\,d3?), I... -'\,xe3 2. ~d i# (2. ~ d3/~d2/Jl_d3?),
white Plachutta • I. !'! h7! white anti-Plachutta I ... I... -'\,xb6 2. ~d2# (2. ~d3/~dl/Jl_d3?), 1...
4:)f7 2. !!fxf7 4:)g7 3. !!hxg7!, (I... h4:)- 2. ~/ Jl_c5 2. Jl.d3# (2. ~ d3/~dl /~d2?), (I... e4 2.
!'!x4:J 4:)- 3. ft/!'!x4:J). ~ h2#).

ANT ·ANT Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

106 are arranged in pairs, each possible couple shows

the normal Anti-Reversal theme. See 109.
Cyclic Pseudo Anti-Reversal. Three (or more)
The Hindu 1955 white moves appear in three (or more) phases in
cyclic pairs, as a key and a mate, not necessarily
always after the same thematic black defence.
See 110.

CvclicAR Cvclic Pseudo AR
#2 1 a 1 a b C
-+ See also: Anti-Quintuple Theme; Fleck, Secondary; Tri- A B A B
ple Avoidance. B C B C
A weakness of black defence seemingly allows 5
mates but only one works, while other four are 108
prevented by useful effect(s) of black move.
To call it a theme there should be 5 such black 4.pr Sredba na
defences with partial quintuple avoidances of So/idarnosta 1979-81
same 5 mates, i.e. each mate is effective only
A Dummy selfblock on e4 in 107 introduces 5
new mates (2.h8~/b8~/~xa2/,t)c5/~a5)
which are, however, separated by actual #2
108: 1. .l}.dS?A (-), I... e6• 2. ~g7#, l... e5!b (2.
107 ~g7??B) • 1. "itfg7?B H, I... e5 b 2. A d5#, I...
e6!• (2. ..Q,,d5??A) • 1. 'lt1h2! (-), I... e5 2. 'lt1h3#,
LOS HINSKY, Lev I. I... e6 2. "itfxd6# • etc .
I.pr Sverdlovsk Chess
Club 1940 109
LA<'.:NY, L'udovit
Pravda 27.11./981
I. Pr. /98/-2

107: 1. 'lt1a4! - 2. Ad6#, I... ~xe4 2. h8~#, I...
f!xe4 2. b8it1#, I... .Q.xe4 2. 'lt1xal#, I... ,£ixe4 2.
,£ic6#, 1... fxe4 2. 'lt1a5#, (1... 'it?xe4 2 . .l}.c3#).
-+ See also: Anti-Quadruple Theme; Fleck, Secondary; Tri- #2
pie Avoidance.
The order of a key and a mate after the same de- POPOV, Valery
fence cannot be reversed between two phases. I .pr Sachove umenie 1989
Vladimirov theme is an example. In two tries of
108 the theme is doubled.
Cyclic Anti-Reversal (or Ceriani cycle). Three
(or more) white moves appear in three (or more)
phases in cyclic pairs, as a key and a mate always
after the same thematic black defence. If phases #2

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems ANT -ANT

109: 1. § d6?A - 2. Ad2#, I... Jld3 2. §xd3#B, I... cxd3#, I... §xe4! • 1. dJ!C - 2. ~ d2#D (2.
Jld5! • 1. § d3+?B, I... Jlxd3 2. 'i!1b6#C, I... §c3??B), I... § xd3,§xdl 2. §xd3,~xdl #.
~xd3! • 1. ~ b6!C - 2. .Q.d2#, 1... Ad3 2. 112: a) 1. ~ bS!A - 2. Axf6#B (2. Ae7?C), (I...
§d6#A. f5,fxg5 2. Jlxe7C,~xg5#) • b) 1. Jlxf6!B - 2.
110: 1. 'i!1g5?A-2. ~e3#, I... ~xd4• 2. Ab2#B, 1... Ae7#C (2. ~ h5?A) • (I... exd4,fxe5 2. ~ h5A,
c5! • 1. A b2?B - 2. l£)b5#, I ... ~xd6b 2. l£jxf5#C, ~xe5#) • c) 1. Jlxe7!C - 2. ~h5#A (2. Jlf6?B) •
1... f4! • 1. l£)xf5!C - 2. ~e4#, I... ~xf5c 2. ( I... fxe3 2. ~e5#).
~g5#A, ( I... Jlxf5 2. Ab2#B).
* Other example 1700. * Other example 1661.
= Alias: Anti-Reversal I. = Alias: Anti-Threat-Reversal.


The order of a key and a threat cannot be re- Theme B (Somov) where the defence pins the
versed between two phases. 111 shows in three threat-piece.
phases a chain of thematic mates.
Cyclic Anti-Reversal 2. Three (or more) white 113
moves appear in three (or more) phases in cyclic
pairs, as a key and a threat. If phases are arranged I.pr De Problemist 1934
in pairs, each possible couple shows the normal
"anti-Reversal 2" theme. Theme is probably un-
attainable in conventional orthodox twomover.
112 shows it with the help of twins.


- #2
113: 1. Jlb6! - 2. ~ d2#, ! ... l£jd5 2. l£jd4#, I... l£jd7
B Cl'I 2. d4#, I... l£je4 2. § e3# • etc.
C A8 -+ See also: Roels Theme.
GVOZDJAK, Peter Black's idea in defence: Black defeats the threat-
3.pr Pravda /987 ened Roman with an anti-decoy move by revers-
ing the virtual decoy. Black's anti-decoy may
force a complete change in the attack, or an op-
tion move (direct combination, see 114), or that
White prepares itself for Black's counter-play in
advance with a foreplan (indirect combination,
see Roman, White example 1355 or Anti-Ham-
#2 burg theme example 82). Succesful anti-Roman
is seen in the virtual play (as a try play) only, and
in actual play it has merely a delaying function.
RICE, John M.
Die Schwalbe 1991 114
Alfred W.
Antiform 1929

#2 b) t e7-+e5; c) t f6-+d6
111: I. c4?A - 2. §c3#B, I... § d3 2. l£jxd3#, I...
Jla4! • 1. § c3?B-2. d3#C(2. c4??A), 1... § d32. #5

ANT -ANT Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

114: 1. §f8! ~f2! 2. §xf2 (2. §b8? ~d3!) g3 3. bines ortho- and anti-form of a Seeberger
§f8! (anti-Roman; analogous 3. § b2? ~xc3 incarceration.
would have been an interference Roman) g2 4.
§b8. Anti-Seeberger- Black Combination. Black in
* Other examples: 82, 1355. defence avoids immobilization with a volun-
--+ See also: Roman Theme. tary anti-critical move.
Anti-Seeberger - White Combination. White
in attack avoids immobilization with a volun-
The key unpins white piece and pins black piece. tary anti-critical move.
Black in defence pins the unpinned white piece
and selfpins the unpinned black piece. Anti-Seeberger combination from both sides is
shown in 118.
Shakhmaty 1933 PRYTZ,Rud
Die Schwalbe 1935

115: l. e4! - 2. ~ di #, I... Jl,xe4 2. ~g2#, (I... #4
Ae2,§ bl,Acl 2. ~ xe2,~xd3,§xcl#). 117: 1. ~g2! Aa5 ! (Anti-Seeberger; l ... h4? 2. ~2f4
--+ See also: Status Quo Theme Group. /0,c7 3. h3) 2. ~xe3 (2. /0,2f4? /0,c7 3. h4 ~ b6!)
/0,b6 3. h4 ~-4. §c4#.
Black is trying to prevent White's plan or to slow 118
it down. From two or several lines at his disposal,
white piece chooses the one that decoys Black HULTBERG, Herbert
(back) to an unfavorable position and helps pr Die Schwalbe 1930
White to carry out his plan (in time).
BERGES, Wilhelm
pr. Die Schwalbe 1938
118: l.10,f3? 10,c6 2. h4 h5 and WPf2 is immobilized
• l. f4! (white anti-Seeberger) 1... c5 (black
anti-Seeberger) 2. /0,f3 ~c6 3. h4 h5 4. f5 cxd4+ 5.
'it(e210,- 6. ~fe5#.
--+ See also: Seeberger Incarceration.
116: l. § d3? §h2! 2. § d8 §h8 3. §xh8 c4 4. -
<iftc5 = Black Sackmann • 1. §e3! §h2 2. §e l!
(=anti-Sackmann) § xd2 3. §e8 § d8 4. §xd8 A defensive or attacking maneuver aimed at frus-
-,c4 5. § b8, § d5#. trating opponent's attempts to shield his vulnera-
4 See also: Sackmann Combination. ble piece from attack. The maneuvering side can,
for example, decoy the threatened piece away
ANTI-SEEBERGER THEME from the (vicinity of the) shelter, or ex-decoy the
Black or White is trying to avoid a critical move shielding piece.
and the following incarceration either by reversal * See example 1446.
or prevention of the anti-critical decoy. 117 com- = Alias: Anti-Fluchtschutz (Ger.).

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems ANT -ANT


Harmful doubling of two pieces of like-motion
after one makes a meta-critical move, so that it
Tiig /iche Rundschau 1916
will interfere with the other piece.
Three different forms are recognized:
(a) (Ordinary) Anti-Turton Doubling. Two
pieces are of different strength and the weaker
one first makes a meta-critical move (and subse-
quently the stronger one comes behind). 119 #4
shows white Anti-Turton. 121: 1. .Q.a5? §ff4! 2 . .Q.c3+ § d4 3.? • 1. .Q.e4! (2.
,t)xf7+) §xe4 2. Aa5 § ff4 3. Ac3+ §d4 4.
(b) Anti-Loyd-Turton Doubling. Two pieces
exf4#, (l... § ff4 2 . ..Q.h7 § fS 3. ,t)xf7+ ~e4 4.
are of different strength and the stronger first one ,t)g5#; I... §f5 2. .Q.a5 - 3 . .Q.c3+).
makes a meta-critical move (and subsequently 4 See also: Doubling; Doubling, Turton.
the weaker one comes behind). 120 shows Black
(c) Anti-Brunner-Turton Doubling. Two pieces Harmful doubling of two pieces of like motion
are of the same strength. 121 shows Black after one makes an ortho-critical move, so that it
Anti-Brunner-Turton. will be interfered by the other piece.
Unlike in Anti-Turton Doubling, in Anti-Zepler Three different forms are recognized:
Doubling the introduction is an ortho-critical (a) (Ordinary) Anti-Zepler Doubling. Two
move. pieces are of different strength and the stronger
one first makes a critical move (and subsequently
the weaker one comes in front). 122 shows Black
Anti-Zepler Doubling.
ZEPLER, Erich (b) Anti-Loyd-Zepler Doubling. Two pieces
Deutsches Wochenschach are of different strength and the weaker one first
15.9. 1923
makes a critical move (and subsequently the
stronger one comes in front). 123 shows Black
Anti-Loyd-Zepler Doubling.
(c) Anti-Brunner-Zepler Doubling. Two pieces
are of the same strength. 124 shows white
Anti-Brunner-Zepler Doubling (for the Queen
operating only diagonally can be considered to
have the same strength as a Bishop).
Unlike in Anti-Zepler Doubling, in Anti-Turton
Doubling the introduction is a meta-critical
120 move.
Deutsches Wochenschach 122
.., ., ZEPLER, Erich
Teplitz-Schonau 1923

120: 1. ..Q.b7! ~ c4 2. §h4 § b4 3. Ae4+ ~ xe4 4.
fxe4+ §xe4 5. g4#. #4

ANT -ANT Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

122: I. h8~! ~xh8 2. .Q.c6 ,Ag7 3. §c3+ ,Axc3 4. Partial Anticipation. Composition is partially
d3#. anticipated when its idea or scheme coincides
with an earlier published problem, but differs
123 from it in appearance or design. If it is only a
slight improvement (e.g. : better economy, elimi-
nation of formal defects like duals and similar)
Teplitz-Schonau 1922 then it should be published under the name of
original author with remark "version by (new au-
thor's name)". These problems shouldn't and
usually aren't allowed to take part in a tourney. If
it is a significant improvement of the old compo-
sition, the new author has right to publish it under
#5 his name, but with a remark "after (old author's
123: I. § b4? ~ f4! 2. c7+ .Q.xc7 3. bxc7+ ~xc7 4. name)". Such positions enjoy same right as
f)c6+? ~ xc6! • I. ,Ag3! ,Axg3 2. § b4 itrf4 3. original problems and can take part in a tourney.
c7+ ~ xc7 4. bxc7+ ]lxc7 5. f)c6#. "' Alias: Predecessor.


TRILLING, Anton An effect implemented provisionally, in anticipa-
Essener Anzeiger tion of a subsequent action or event. Virtually ev-
/9./2. /935/(v) ery element can be shown in a provisional form,
and only a few popular ones are illustrated
Anticipatory Interference. A line is closed in
advance, before it is actually created directly (by
#4 arrival of a line piece) or indirectly (by opening a
124: I. ~d4? gl ~ ! • 1. Jle5! (2. ~d4) Jlb2! 2. line). In 125 the black Queen can be decoyed
]lxb2 f2 3. ~al -4. .Q.xg7#., (1... f2 2. ~xg2 f3 from its triple focal position only after the provi-
3. ~ g5) • Anti-Brunner-Zepler. The pieces can be sional closing of three future lines.
considered like-moving, since on the pin-line they Anticipatory (Self-)Pin. The pinning piece
have same effect.
moves on the pin-line before the actual pin is ac-
-+ See also: Doubling, Zepler. tive yet. This has been deeply investigated in
helpmate genre and 126 is one of many attractive
ANTICIPATION examples composed so far.
From Codex, Article 24:
Anticipatory Half-Pin. The black King steps to
"( 1) A chess composition is anticipated ifthere is the halfpin line after one of the black pieces has
an identical composition which has an earlier pri- vacated the line. 127 nicely combines a prospec-
ority date. The anticipated chess composition is tive halfpin along e-line with anticipatory
not eligible for any award. self-pins on d4, which results in two attractive
(2) Chess compositions which are partly antici- double-pin mates.
pated are eligible for awards: their merit is a mat- Anticipatory Obstruction. Obstruction where
ter for the judge, who should take account of the the piece that is ( will be) prevented from occupy-
degree of anticipation. ing the thematic square doesn't "see" it yet. In
(3) A second version of a correct chess composi- 128 the thematic move l...~gl obstructs Eg5
tion published in an informal tournament, if pub- who does not "see" the obstruction square yet.
lished in the same tournament by the same Incidentally, there are also an anticipatory inter-
author, is not considered to be partially antici- ference on d5, and an anticipatory (distant,
pated by the original version." remote) self-block on b8!

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems ANT-ANT

125 1 2 8: 1. !!b7? (2. !!b6+ <it>a7 3. f!35#) f!g5! • I.

.,ild5? (2. .,ilc4#) exd5 2. f! b7 f! XC6! • I. Ae4?
GOLDSCHMEDING, (2. Ad3#) f!xg3 2. Ad5 !!gl+! • 1. Jlf3! (2.
Cornelis .,ile2#), l... 4:}g l 2. J:1,e4 f!xg3 3. .ll_d5 exd5 4.
2.pr Probleemblad I 963
f! b7 f!b8 5. f!a7+ <it>xa7 6. f!a5#.
* Other examples: 398, 758.
The word "antiform" and, consequently, the pre-
#3 fix "anti-" are used in two or three senses in or-
125: 1. 4:}g4! (-), l... 4:}g3 2. 4:}xe5+A ~xe5 3. thodox chess problems:
~c2#B, l... 4:}f2 2. ~c2+B ~xc2 3. f!xe3#C, I... (la) In direct-mate problems it refers to simple
e4 2. f!xe3+C ~xe3 3. 4:}e5#A, (1... ~ b4 2.
reversed effects of moves, and is often
f!Xb4, 1...4:}b- 2. f! d2+).
re-phrased accordingly with "inverted" or "re-
126 versed": if, for instance, in the proto-form of the
theme, White's key pins a black piece and unpins
KRIKHELI, losif a white piece, which black then pins, in the
Schoch-Echo 1974 anti-form of the theme the key unpins a black
piece and pins a white, which black then unpins.
In non-strategic themes "anti-" may refer only
to some inverted element. See, for instance,
Anti-Reversal, Anti-Reversal 2.
( l b) In all kinds of compositions, when the tac-
h#2 2111 tical effects are referred to, anti- can be translated
126: 1. 4:}b3 .,ile4 2. ~e3 ~c l# • 1. 4:}d7 f!e4+ 2. "opposite to": opposite to anti-critical move is
~x5 f!a5#. critical move, opposite to block is anti-block
(usu. unblock), opposite to obstruction is anti-ob-
127 struction (usu. square vacation), and so on;
VISSERMAN, Eeltje (2) In Logical Combinations anti(form) has a
2.p/ Netherlands - very specialized meaning. The antiform of any
Germany /955 chess-move consists of its retraction (un-doing
or reversal), the aim of the side "willing" the re-
traction being directly opposed to that of the side
"willing" the Move. The antiform of a fore-plan
then consists of the reversal of fore-plan to own
advantage or its complete annulment. A simple
antiform of a preparatory combination consists
127: 1. Ac3! - 2. 4:}xe7+ !! xe7 3. 4:}f6#, 1... A d4 2. of the reversal of foreplan maneuver; the
~a2+ <it>e5 3. f!c5#, l... ~d4 2. 4:}b6+ ~es 3.
antiform of an indirect foreplan is then a direct
g4# • etc.
maneuver, the antiform of a direct foreplan is an
128 indirect maneuver. See, for instance, Anti-Ham-
burg Theme, Anti-Roman Theme, Anti-Kling
MULLER, Dieter ; Theme etc.
ZIPF, Volker
3.pr Schach-Aktiv /987
Fairy condition. The main rule is that a captured
man is re-placed in the distance of(4,4) squares,
provided that the square is available (vacant).
Apart from that condition, captures are per-
#6 formed normally.

ANT-ARG Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

A German term meaning literally: "the coun-
ter-objective element". A feature (motif) which BOLTON, Horatio
Chess Player '.S' Chronicle
appears contrary to the aim of the problem and, 1850
consequently, must be removed, either in ad-
vance or aftetwards. In a direct mate problem,
White may give black King a flight square which
he has to take into his control again before (or on)
the mating move; or he may leave a line which he
has to re-occupy etc. #24
* See example 667. 130: 1. ~ f3+ <3;;a7 2. 4:;c6+ <3;;a8 3. 4:;d8+ <3;;a7 4.
cxb6+ <3;;xb6 5. ~c6+ ~a7 6. ~c5+ ~a8 8-13.
ANTWERP TEMPO ~d5-d4-e4-e3-f3-f2xg2+ ~a8 14-20. ~f2-f3-e3-
In a post-key block twomover every black man, e4-d4-d5-c5+ ~a8 21. ~xc8 f6 22. ~xa6+ .§a7
except for the King, brings about at least one 23. ~c6+ .§b7 24. ~ xb7# (22 ... Jl.a7 23. ~c6+
variation, and all mates are different. The key ~b8 24. ~c8#).
gives one added mate at the least.
2 Inventor: Russian emigrant Vladimir Borodin (Bel- ARGENTINE THE;\IE
gium) before the WW II. Black unpins two white pieces, one of which is
front and the other rear battery unit.
I.pr II Problema 1931

129: *I... fxe4 2. .§xe4# • 1. {)gS! (-), I... ~- 2. #2
~c5#, I... ~a5,~c4 2.§(x}c4#, I... ~ b4 2. 131:l. ~ d7!-2.4:;e3#, I... .§f52.4:;g5#, l... ~ f5
~xb4#, I... ~c6+ 2. dxc6#, I... ~xb6+ 2. 2. ~b4#, (1... ~f5 2. ~xh7#).
~xb6#, I... ~xd5+ 2. ~xd5#, I... ~xe2 2. * Other example 549.
{)xe2#, I... a5 2. {)xb5#, I... {)- 24:;(x)e6#, I...
g6 2. ~xf6#, 1... fxg5 2. ~e5#, 1... f4 2. .§ e4#, 1... ARGUELLES THE'.\'IE
g3 2. 4:;xf3#, 1... .§- 2. ~ f4#, 1... .§xf2 2. .Q.xf2#, One black piece makes active and passive inter-
I... .§ e3 2. fxe3#, I... .§ xc3 2. Jlxc3# • 17 mating ferences with another black piece.
moves, 7 added, 1 transferred.
2 Antonio Ferrer Arguelles (1901-2000).


Fairy piece. A Bishop which can rebound, only
once, like a billiard ball, when it reaches a square ARG0ELLES, Antonio F.
on the edge of the board. The rebound occurs in J.hm Els Escacs a
Catalunya 1929
the middle of the square. Example: ABfl-c8 with
rebound on a6 or h3.
2 Invented by George Leathern (1881 -1953) in 1932.


Zig-zag trip of the white Queen back and forth. #2
2 After problem by Horatio Bolton (1793-1873) dedi- 132: 1. ~ d7! - 2. ~xd4#, l... .lle5 2. ~c6#, I...
cated to Howard Staunton (1810-1874). Jl.c5 2. {)a5#, I... ~xdl 2. ~xf7#, (1... Jl.c3,

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems ARG-ARR

J;txb6,J;td5,~c5/'{wd5/'{we5 2. Ab3,~xb6, ~cd6, 134: 1. '{wg3? (2. '{wd3#) fxe4• 2. ~xb5#A. I...
J;te2#). El,xe4!b • 1. El, h3? (2. §.d3#) §.xe4b 2. ~xb5#A
* Other example 557. I... fxe4!• • 1. ~:d6! - 2. ~xb5#, I... §.xe4 2.
~d5#, I... fxe4 2. E!,d5#, (I ... c4/E!,xf6+ 2.
In a try-play a white piece makes active and pas-
sive interferences with another white piece. ARNSTAM THEME
133: 1. b3? (2. bxc4/dxc4#) cxd3! (2. '{wa2? - white Passive dual avoidance. Black opens line for
active interference) • 1. '{wa2? (2. ~xc4/dxc4#) white line piece which then cannot mate by play-
El,xd3! (2. '{wg2?-whitepassiveinterference) • 1. ing away from that line. In other words, Mari
Ab6? - 2. d8~#, I ... ~e5 2. ~xe7# (black theme with direct rather than indirect invalida-
passive interference), I... e5 2. ~xc3# (black tion of the opened line.
active interference), etc. • Both black and white ! Knut A.O. Arnstam (1924).

4.hm Arguelles JT 1964

135: 1. d8'{w! - 2. '{wxd6#, I... ~4b5, ~6b5 2.
'{wxb6('{wxb4?), '{wxb4('{wxb6?)# = Amstam line
ARISTOCRAT opening, I... ~4f5,~6f5 2. ~d7(~d3?),
Generally, a problem which has no Pawns in the ~d3( ~d7?)# = Mari dual avoidance.
diagram position. A more strict definition re- = Aliases: Amstam Line Opening; Mari 2 Theme.
quires presence of all black and white officers,
and absence of all black and white Pawns. ARRIVAL EFFECT
* See examples: 690. 1276, 1553. The effects induced by the arrival of a certain
piece to its destination square or line. In other
ARNHEM THEME words, all the differences between a position
White has two thematic tries. Two thematic black with this piece on the board (after the move) and
defences alternatively either defeat the try or are position without it,just before the move was fin-
met in either try with the same mate. ished (i.e. the piece was still "in the air").
Pattern: --+ See also: Removal Effect.
X? A ! The primary error in arrival to a certain square or
Y? A line is a sum of all harmful elements in position
with occupied compared to the position with va-
134 cant square or line. This set of weaknesses is
LE GRAND, Piet present in arrival of any specific piece to a square
2.pr Probleemb/ad TT or line, and the additional errors can arise only
1985 from effects contained in a departure part of that
piece's move.
--+ See also: Removal Error.


Special type of the secondary Fleck (Fleck, Sec-
#2 ondary). A number of Black men can move to a

ARR-AUG Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

single square, separating duals that would arise if 136

the piece arriving there had no for Black useful
effect, i.e. if it was a Dummy. This is in fact a syn- DE BOER, Gerke L.
onym for Stocchi Blocks. Sissa 1866 I (v W von
--+ See also: Fleck. Secondary.


Fairy piece. Like a normal Bishop, but on check-
ing it has the effect of covering two "arrowhead
squares", for instance on giving check on bl to #4
black King on g6, the Bishop guards the squares 136: • t... Jl_d5(c4),.Q.f5(g4) 2. ~ h5,~b5# • l.
f6 and g5, too, and King is not allowed to move ~di? ,ilc8! 2. ~fl .Q.a6! • I. ~fl! (-), I... ,ilc4
there. 2. ~ di .Q.e6 3. ~e2.
! Invented by Wilhelm Hagemann (1899-1973). - Alias: Asymmetric Solution.


Fairy piece. It is allowed to move and capture in Fairy piece. A Pawn can promote to an Atomic
the direction of a Pawn either one or two steps at Bomb, then leap to any desired square, where it
any time. It may be captured en passant after any destroys all material located in certain perimeter,
double step. Is not allowed to promote. including itself. Hence it can only be played
! Invented by Ragnar Persson. once. The radius of an Atomic Bomb must be
specified in the stipulation. Only those squares
ARROW ROOK [F] will be cleared, which are completely covered by
Fairy piece. In the manner of Arrow Bishop, pos- the Atomic Bomb (e.g., if radius= diagonal two
sesses on checking the effect of guarding two fields: third orthogonal array is not cleared). If it
"arrowhead squares". For instance, when check- destroys the opponent's King, the piece of next
ing on h3 to the King on e3, it covers the squares highest rank then becomes King.
f2 and f4, too, and the King is not allowed to ! Invented by Nassouh bey Taher in 1949.
move there.
ARTISTIC STUDY [E] Fairy condition. Any capture also destroys the
One of the three categories the studies are di- capturing piece and any piece, but not Pawns, in
vided into. Features usually intensive play in a one square radius. There is no chain reaction. A
terms of spectacular combinations, surprise ele- move which would destroy own King is not
ments, threats and counter-threats and a finale allowed.
that is supposed to be stamped in solver's mind.
Its solution is normally 6 to 12 moves long, even ATTACKER [F]
longer if there are repeated effects. In principle, a Fairy condition. Black must threaten the last man
good artistic study consists of three parts like any white moved. A black man that already threatens
piece of art: an appetizing introduction, an inten- something is ignored. Unless a threat is not pos-
sive main play with the climax, and a short sible, any other move can be made.
closure. = Alias: Angreifer (Ger.).
--+ See also: Analytical Study: Romantic Study.
ASYMMETRY Fairy condition. The pieces of same colour, with
The arrangement of the pieces is symmetric, yet, the exception of King, can unite and split their
and paradoxically, the play is asymmetric. force. White Rook can move to bl , where white
Sidler: "Asymmetry is in most cases based on the Bishop stands, thus they together become Queen.
uneven division of space, the (im)possibility of And the other way round: Queen can move, say
castling or an uneven mobility of Pawn(s) (diag- ~a l -h8, with the result that a Bishop is born on
onal asymmetry)." al and a Rook on h8. In 137 first the black

Encyclopedla of Chess Problems AUT -AYN

Bishop unites with the black Pawn and after posi- AUTHOR
tioning itself on d5 it splits back to a Bishop Creator (or group of creators) of a problem or
which moves to e6 and leaves a Pawn on d5. endgame study.
Meanwhile, the white Queen first finds a good
"focal" position for following split into a Rook AUTHOR'S IDEA
which moves to c7 and a Bishop which remains Idea shown in a problem or endgame study.
on cl to give an "orthodox" model mate on the
The solution of a given problem or study as for-
(A further development is so called Kombi- mulated by the author(s). Apart from the actual
Schach, in which also a King can unite forces line of play, it may involve other moves and in-
with another piece.) formation pertinent to the full appreciation of the
! Invented by Erich Bartel in 1965. solution: virtual play, refutation(s), analysis etc.
The term is often used when author's intention,
in one way or the other, proves unsound or

LOYD, Samuel
Chess Monthly I 860

h#3 Augsburg chess

137: 1. .,ilxa2(->.t) ~cl 2. BPd5 f!c7(Acl) 3.
1,le6(Pd5) .,ilf4#. h#3
139: 1. Af3 'it(c4(3) 2. c;t>e4 f!d8 3. ~ f5 f!d4# • 1.
'it(f6 f!a8 2. 'it(g7 Ab8 3. 'it(h8 1:te5# • The
author's solution was 1. llf3 etc. (also incorrect in
On the first move of a helpmate twomover a today's standards), but there is a beautiful cook (l.
black piece unpins the white piece which imme- ,;t>f6 etc.). The author abandoned his first idea,
diately plays off the pin-line. Then the same removed .l.g2 and published the problem later,
black piece discovers a check but at the same now with the cook being the author's solution.
time unpins another white piece which inter- ~ See also: Cook: Dual; Unsolvable Problem; Version.
poses the check and mates. Note that the second "' Aliases: Intended Solution; Intention.
half of the solution is identical to a two-move
Guidelli theme. AUTO-PARALYZE [FJ
An effect in paralyzing-type conditions like
! Gabriel Authie.r (1922).
Madrasi chess or Eiffel that occurs when one side
takes a move which paralyzes its own previously
138 mobile piece.
AUTHIER, Gabriel
l 'Echiquier de Paris 1954
A selfmate theme described as "the pinned piece
promenade". When the white piece moves along
the line of pin, both direct and masked batteries
are involved and are interchanged between
"A black piece or pieces arriving on a black line,
where a white piece A is pinned, create either a
direct black battery (by the capture of A) or a

AVN-AWA Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

masked black battery (by the non-capture of A). 141

By the moving ofA along the pin-line (on the key
move or during the solution) the situation arises AVNER,Uri
where the same black arrivals interchange their Problemist Ukrainy 2012
function as creators of direct or masked black
batteries. In all thematic variations the relevant
black battery fires, either as simple black battery
or as a masked black battery by means of a Den-
tist (Dentist theme) maneuver, where the un-
pinned white piece A clears itself out of the black s#3
battery line (usually by sacrificing itself with
141: I. f84:}! - 2. ~cs+ bxcS 3. f!d4+ cxd4#,
check) while simultaneously forcing its black I... .Q.xe3 2. E! f5 + .Q.xt:5 3. 4:}f4+ _ilxf4#, I...
unpinner out of the battery line as well." (Uri ,tixf3 2. ,tif4+ Jl_xf4 3. ~d4+ ,tixd4#, I... _ilxd3
Avner) 2. ~gS+ .Q.xgS 3. E! £5+ -'1,xfS# (2... ,AfS 3. E! d3+
! Uri Avner (1941). f!xd3#).
-+ See also: Dentist Family.
I.pr Problem 1956 A logical problem theme: Black's defence is
based on the attainment of opposition with a
white piece, thus white maneuvers to prevent ei-
ther from opposition occurring or to tackle with it
in some other way. The struggle may occur in a
logical combination ofchoice.

s#2 142
140: * I... 4:}f4 2. ~e6+ 4:}xe6#, I... E! f4 2. ~d4+
f!xd4#, I... 4:}xe3 2. c4+ 4:}xc4#, I... f!xe3 2. Deutsches Wochenschach
_ilf7+ E! e6# • I. ~ f4! - 2. E! fS+ ~xfS#, I... I 914 I dedicated to
4:}xf4 2. -'1,f7+ 4:}e6#, I... f!xf4 2. c4+ f!xc4#, I... 0. Dehler
,tie3 2. ~c4+ 4:}xc4#, I... f!e3 2. ~es+ f!xeS#.
-+ See also: Dentist Theme.


This is basically a three-move sel(mate theme. #4

After the key, there are 3 white pieces - A, Band 142: I. Jl_a8!, I... f!xg4 2. f!e3 f!e4 3. f! xe4, I...
C - blocking a black line targeted at the white f! hS 2. f!d4 f!dS 3. f!xdS, I... f!h6 2. f!c3 f!c6
3. f!xc6, 1... E!xh7 2. f! b3 f! b7 3. f!xb7 • White
King. This line is evacuated with mate in 3 varia-
does not move critically like in Indian, but to
tions as follows: protect his Bishop from an unpleasant collision
In variation l, A is captured by a black piece x, B (attack from) with black Rook: 1. ,Ae4? f!xg4 2.
is sacrificed to an "external" black piece and C is f!e3 f!xe4! I. ,AdS? E!hS 2. E! d3 f!xdS! etc. the
sacrificed to x. only safe square is a8.
In variation 2, B is captured by a black piece y, C = Alias: Oppositionsvenneidung (Ger.).
is sacrificed to an "external" black piece and A is
sacrificed toy. AWARD
The result of a problem or study tourney, as pro-
In variation 3, C is captured by a black piece z, A duced by a judge who is usually appointed in ad-
is sacrificed to an "external" black piece and Bis vance. The award is final after a confirmation
sacrificed to z. time, usually three months, has elapsed from its
(Definition by Uri Avner) publication.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems BAB-BAB

As a general rule the judge would award a num- 144: 1. a7! - 2. axb8~ -3. ~/§xf4#, I... axbl ~
ber of prizes, and then single out further selection 2. axb8~ -3. ~xf4+~e44. ~e3#, I... axbl <t) 2.
of entries for honourable mention and for com- axb8,£i <t)xd2 3. ~c I <t)e4 4. <t)c6#, 1... axb I E!
mendation. For a team match tourney the judge 2. axb8§ §xb2 3. §xb3 ~xc4 4. ~a4#, I...
simply places the entries in order of merit. axbl.Q. 2. axb8.Q. .Q.e4 3 . .llxf4 - 4 . .Q.e3/.Q.e5# •
According to Hermann Albrecht ( 19 15- 1982), a etc.
distinguished collector, editor and critic, and a
recognized authority on two-move problems, the BABSON TASK, SHIFTED
prize-winning problem ought to display formal Compared to normal Babson, the Allumwand-
perfection, and the criteria for granting rewards lung promotions are cyclically shifted, for in-
should be: stance '(;;/I E - §/.A.-J;J./ _.-4Yii'.
Prize: originality and convincing form; 145
Honourable Mention: originality with formal
weaknesses; HOFFMANN, Peter
sp.pr Schoch 2005
Commendation: attractivness without particular

A problem in which black promotion defences to
all possible pieces are answered by white promo-
tions to the same piece Black has promoted to. #4
An extreme form of Allumwandlung. 145: I. <t)xb6! - 2. exf8~/~xd2 etc., I... di~ 2.
! Joseph N. Babson (1852-1929). exf8.11, ~d4+ 3. exd4, I... di.Gt 2. exf8§ ~d6 3.
~d2+, I... di E! 2. exf8,£i+ ~d6 3. .lle5+, I...
dl<t) 2. exf8~ <t)xc3+ 3. 'it'xa5,etc.

At least twice, the same black move appears as
the first move in one variation, then as the second
move in another variation.

143: 1. a8.Q.! - 2. §/.llxf2 §xa6#, I... fxg l~ 2.
f8~ ~xfl 3. b5+ ~xb5#, I... fxgl<t) 2. f8,£i
<t)xh3/<t)f3 3. §xh3/~xf3 §xa6#, I... fxgl E! 2.
f8§ §xfl 3. §xfl §xa6#, I... fxg l .ll 2. f8.ll
.Q.xc5 3. .Q.xc5 §xa6#, (Note: only variations
which explain white promotions are given).

144 #3
148: 1. ~ a4! (-), I... cxbl~ 2. ~f4+ ~ xdl 3.
YAROSH, Leonid V. ~d2#, I... cxbl <t) 2. ~a l ~xdl 3. ~xb l#, I...
I.pr Shakhmaty v SSSR
cxdl ~ 2. ~a3+ ~xbl 3. ~b2#, I... cxdl<t) 2.
/ 983
§c2+ ~xbl 3. ~a2#, I... 'it'xbl 2. b4 (-), 2...
cl ~ 3. ~a2#, 2... cl<t) 3. § b2#, 2... cxdl- 3.
~xd l#, I... 'it'xdl 2. ~ e4 (-), 2 ... cl~ 3. ~e2#,
2... cl <t) 3. .Q.c2#, 2... cxbl-3. ~ xbl#, 2... ~c l 3.
* Other examples: 451, 976.
BAB-BAL Encyclopedia of Chess Problems


A problem with up to five pieces on the board. On the first move Black self-pins his own piece.
* See examples: 38,618, 1262, 1360. White then simultaneously unpins black self-
_... See also: Wenigsteiner. -pinned piece and self-pins one white piece. On
ea Alias: Malyutka (Rus.). the second move black unpinned piece unpins
white self-pinned piece which delivers mate.
The black King indirectly selfpins at least three ! J6zsef Bajtay (1902-1988). Magyar Sakkvilag TI
pieces. The mate uses all these pinnings. 147
shows Changed triple-pin mates after the same
King's move in three phases!
The name is an acronym for "BAnska BYstrica". BOGDANOV, Evgeny
Schoch-Echo /983
J-2.pr= Bans/ca Bystrica
TT 1959

h#2 2111
149: I. f! xeS+ ,tifS 2. f!e4 ,tig7# • 1. .Q.xe5+ ,tid5
2. .Q.d4 ,tif6#.
147: * 1... ~xe4 2. ~b4# • t. f! c6? (2. 'it,xe5#), I... BALBO THEME
'it1xe4 2. f! c4#, 1... .Q.e6! • l. f! b6! - 2. ~xe5#, Mate is given by a piece of the same kind as the
1... 'it1xe4 2. f! b4#, etc. one which made the defence. There should be at
least three variations with different kinds of the-
BACK THEME matic pieces.
Combination of active and passive dual avoid-
ance. 2 Gaston Balbo (1906-1985).

BALBO, Gaston
cm Union des Prob/emistes
de France 1943

#2 #2
148: 1. 'it,f2! - 2. 'it,xd4#, 1... .Q.e3 2. ,tig6# (2. 150: I. f! d3! - 2. ,tic3#, I... e5 2. dxe6 e.p.#, I...
,tif3?), I... ,tif5 2. ,£if3# (2. ,tig6?), 1... c5 2. ,ilxd5+ 2. ,ilxd5#, 1... 'it,xd2/'itfxd4 2. 'it,xf3#.
,£if7# (2. ,tic6?), 1... ,tie6 2. ,tixc6# (2. ,tif7?) •
Two pairs of passive and active dual avoidance. _... See also: Anti-Balbo Theme.


A Pawn that is behind the Pawns of the same In a logical combination White's plan is refuted
color on the adjacent files and that cannot be ad- by the fact he becomes stalemated. In a foreplan
vanced without loss of material, usually the he acquires a possibility to relieve the stalemate
backward Pawn itself. position, after which he can carry out his plan.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems BAL - BAN

151 153: 1. § a4! (2. §a6), I... g5 2. .Q.e4+ <i!?g4 3.

li)xe5#, 1... Ag5 2. ~ e4+ <i!?xf6 3. ~ xe5#, 1...
KUTZBORSKI, Dieter ; § g5 2. §e4 - 3. §xe5#.
LENTZ, Karl-Heinz 4 See also: Larsen Task.
2.pr Deutsche
Schachbliitter 1T 1983
First moves of tries become mates after the key:
the first try is a mate after the second defence and
vice versa (see pattern).
! Dmitry Banny (1932-1997).
151: 1. ~ d4? (2. ~h8#; 2. <i!?c8) ~e5+? 2. ~xe5, Pattern:
I... ~d8+! 2. ~xd8 <i!?xd8 stalemate! • 1.
~ xh5+! <i!?d8 2. ~di+ <i!te8 3. ~d4 ~d8+ 4.
~ xd8+ <i!?xd8 5. h5 <i!?e8 6. <i!?c7#.
1 - a b
A? !
-+ See also: Berlin Theme. B? !
Black plays his defences on the same square and 154
White mates on another same square. In 152 BANNY, Dmitry
three thematic direct mates by Knights are nicely I.pr Sahs 1968-1969
complemented by another Knight-promotion di-
rect mate after the Kings flight. 153 extends the
theme with an additional set of wh ite moves to
the same square: besides thematic mates on e5 all
second moves are on e4.

152 #2
1 54: 1. eJ?A - 2. ~ g2#, I... ~e6!• • 1. e4?B - 2.
MYLLYNIEMI, Matti ~ g2#, I... ~ d6!b • 1. '{;;itdl ! -2. '[;;itgl#, 1... ~e6•
The Hindu 1956 2. e4#B, I... ~ d6b 2. e3#A.
* Other example 930.
4 See also: V/adimirov Theme.


The thematic Black moves are not refutations,
#2 but in one phase they are defences which are fol-
152: 1. axb7! - 2. bxc81i)#, 1... li)cxd6 2. g81i)#, 1... lowed by White's thematic mates in another
li)bxd6 2. li)fg8#, 1... § xd6 2. li)hg8#, (1... <i!?xd6 phase.
2. bxc81i)#).
Comnlex Bannv
153 1 - a b
A? X
MARANDYUK, Mikhail B? y
Shakhmatnaya X B A
lwmposizitsiy a 1996
155: 1. § xd7?A (2. li)e6#) li)2xe4 8 2. ~ xe4#, 1...
§e8! • I. § dt? B (2. li)f3#) iti6xe4b 2. ~ xe4#,
I... §xb4! • 1. §a5? -2. § d5#, 1...
iti6xe4,li)2xe4 2. li)e6,li)f3#, I... §b5! • I.
i;;i,h4! - 2. ~ f2#, I... li)6xe4b 2. §xd7#8, 1...
#3 li)2xe4 2. § dl#A.

BAN-BAN Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

155 157: 1. .lldJ?A (2. 4)b3#8) _§ xb6! 8 • I. 4)bdJ?B (2.

.lle5#A) ,tif3!b • 1. ~ a2! (2. .§a3), I... §xb6• 2.
MOCHALKIN, Ae5+B ~c5 3. ,ticd3#A, I ... 4)f3b 2. 4)b3+A ~e4
Oleksandr V. 3. .lld3#A, I... 4)g2 2. 4)bd3B - 3 . .lle5#b, I...
4.pr Bulletin Problemistic f!d8 2 . .lld3A-3. 4)b3#•, (l... 4)f5 2. 4)b3+ ~e4
1992-3 3. .llg2#).
"" Alias: Delayed Banny.

Banny theme where thematic black moves are
met by changed mates in tries that they don't re-
Cyclic relation between tries and refutations vs. Ideal Bann
defences and mates as illustrated by a pattern
- a
Pattern: B? D !
Cvclic Bannv
- a b
B? !
C? ! CHEPIZHNY, Viktor I .
I.pr Revista Romana de
$ah 1984
Vyacheslav ;
2.hm Gazeta Czestochowa

156: I. .§ fS?A dxc3!• • 1. f! dJ?B dxc5!b • I.
~ d7?C e4!c • 1. .llg6! - 2. .lle4#, l... dxc3• 2. BANNY, INVERTED
§ d3#B, l... dxc5b 2. 'ltfd7#C, l... e4c 2. .§f5#A . Banny theme with thematic variations already set
in diagram position. Black's thematic moves re-
BANNY, DEFERRED fute White's thematic first moves, and solution is
Banny theme in a threemover, where the thematic independent. 159 shows theme in its nonnal and
moves take place on the 3rd move as mates (i.e. 160 in its cyclic fonn.
with inserted second moves of White and Black). Pattern:
Inverted Bannv C,, cllc Inverted Bannv
KELLER, Michael ;
. -
1 a b
B A .
1 - a
b C

ZIRKWITZ, Thorsten A? ! A? !
I.pr Freie Presse 1992 B? ! B? !
C? !

159: *l... exf3• 2. §e6#A, I... d2b 2. f!c3#B • I.

§e6?A (2. §xd3#) d2!b • 1. § cJ?B (2. 4)c2#)
exf3!• • 1. 4)g3! (-), l... exf3• 2. .§xd3#, l... d2b
#3 2. ,tic2#.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems BAR-BAR

159 .Q.xdl,.Q.e2 2. €)6e4#, I... ~xe l 2. €)f5#, (I...

<,fj)d4 2. {)xb3#).
AMIROV, Tallp H. ; ~ See also: Mackenzie Theme.
4238. Die Schwalbe / 983 BARNES THEME
In one try arise two threats, which are then pos-
ited individually in another try and the key. In
162 theme is presented twice.
#2 Barnes
1 -
160 X AB
y A
Oleksandr V.
Hlas /'udu 25.1.1979 162
HARING, Jacob ;
BARNES, Barry P.
2.pr Die Schwalbe 1974

160: *I ... cxb48 2. .Q.xb6#A, I ... dxe4b 2. ~d7#B, I ...
e2c 2. 'i;;'gl #c • 1. ,Axb6?A (2. _Axc5#) dxe4!b • 1.
~d7?B (2. ~ xd5#) e2!C • 1. ~gl?C (2. ~ di #) #2
cxb4!• • I. ~ h6! (-), I... cxb4• 2. ~xb6#, I... 162: I. €)xf4? - 2. 'i;;'xd3/'i;;'e4#A'B, I... .Q.f5! • 1.
dxe4b 2. ~d6#, I ... e2c 2. ~d2#. ,t)geS? - 2. 'i;;'xd3#A, I ... ,Axe2! • 1. €)e7? - 2.
~e4#B, I... §xe2! • 1€\d-? - 2. ~a7/~d7~,
BARNES FOCAL THEME I... bxc4! • 1. ,tics? - 2. ~d7#c , I... .Q.f3! • I.
Two white batteries are controlled by two black ,t)deS! -2. 'i;;'a7#D, I... bxc4 2. f!Xc4#, I... {)xh7
pieces, which are in a focal position in relation to 2. €)f3#, I .•. €)d7+ 2. '(;/xd7#, etc.
these batteries. The keys of the tries and solution
are aiming at cutting each one of black thematic BARRIER CHESS [F]
lines in tum. Fairy condition. Both players are allowed to visit
2 Barry P. Barnes (1937). a square only once.
S Invented by Wolfgang Fichtner (1948-1981).
BARNES, Barry P.
3.pr Probleemblad 1960 Inability of the piece, usually a Rook or a King,
in a retro-play to go by the Pawns' barrier be-
cause of its configuration. (A. N. Frolkin)

Black guards a white battery along two different
lines. In thematic defences these guards are alter-
#2 natively removed by black defences and by
161: t. ,tifS+? ~dS! • t. ,ti6e4+? Axd7! • t. shut-off mates from white battery. There are two
€)fl+? Axdl ! • 1. €)0+? ~xdl ! • 1. f! e6? (2. forms of Barthelemy theme:
€)6e4#) Axe6, ~ d5 2. {)fl ,€)f3#, I... .Q.xd l ! • 1. Barthelemy 1. The guarding piece is a single
f! e4? (2. €)f5#) 'i;;'xe4,,Axd7,e6 2. €)f3,€)fl#, black line-mover in a focal position. In
I... f!h6! • I. f!e2? (2. {)fl#) ~el,Axe2 2. defences it gives up one or another focal line.
€)f5,€)6e4#, I... ~xdl ! • 1. § el! -2. €)f3#, I... See 163.

BAR-BAR Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

Barthelemy 2. Thematic lines, either of one or alternatively one of these mates is changed while
two black line-movers, are invalidated by the other remains the same.
black self-interferences. See 164. ! Hrvoje Bartolovic (1932-2005).
2 Edmond Barthelemy (1909-1942).
163 Bartolovlc

-. A
a b
I 2.pl France-Espagne y C B
1936 z A D

J.hm Prlica 1955
163: *I... ~bl 2. .Q.d3# • 1. § b8! - 2. h8'ti1'#, I...
.Q.xh7 2. .Q.d3#, I ... .Q.b7 2. .Q.g2# • Barthelemy I.

Edmond 166:1. § h8? - 2. § d8#, 1...-t)f62 . .Q.e5#, l... -t)b6
Pat/936 2. .Q.c5#, I... e5! • 1. -t)eS?-2. §d7#, I... -t)f6 2.
-t)xf7#, I... -t)b6 2. jlc5#, I... §bxd4! • 1. -t)cS!
- 2. §d7#, 1... -t)f62 . .Q.e5#, 1... -t)b62. -t)xb7#.
-+ See also: Changed Play. Brabec 1ype.


164: 1. § b8! - 2. b5#, 1... §f4 2. i,td4#, 1... §d4 2. A (un)pin-motivatedDual avoidance. Two types
.Q.g5# • Barthelemy 2. can be distinguished:
Barulin I. Active dual avoidance by pin of (one
BARTHELEMY TYPE (HJ or another) white piece. 284 shows Barulin I
Helpmate with variations branching from the theme with partial dual avoidance.
second black move ( 1.1.n. l...).
Barulin 2. Passive dual avoidance where possi-
165 ble duals are prevented by unpin of black
piece(s). 168 shows Barulin 2 theme with total
BARTHELEMY, dual avoidance.
Revista Romana de $ah 167
BARULIN, Mikhail
l.hm ..64n 1930-l

"' Alias: Barthelemy.

In one phase there are two thematic mates after 167: t. 'ti1'e8! (2. 'ti1'xg8#), I... -t)ed4 2. .£tc4# (2.
two thematic black defences. In next two phases c4?), I... -t)bd4 2. c4# (2. .Q.c4?) • etc.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems BAR-BAT

168 169
Bristol Times 1930 L 'Italia Scacchistica 1925

#2 +
168: 1. .Q.aS! - 2. 4)a3#, I... d3 2. .llf3# (2 . .lle4?), 169: I. .Q.b2!, I... E!f7/E!g6 2. f! h3/f!c8+ 'it'- 3.
I... .Q.cl 2. e3# (2. e4?). f!h8#, I... f!h6 2. f!g3+ 'it'h7 3. f!g7+ 'it'h8 4.
* Other examples: 497, 778. 'it'bl ! +-, 1... E!f8 2. f!c7+ 'it'g8 3. f!g7+ 'it'h8 4.
'it'a2! +- • lf'it' makes the wrong choice, a gives
BARULIN THEME-COMPLEX a perpetual check.
Line Combination themes "A" through "E", first * Other examples: 13, 173, 451, 483, 579, 692, 722, 905,
mentioned by these names in an article written by 1154, 1234, 1448, 1541.
Mikhail Barulin and Leonid Isayev (// Problema,
June-July 1932).
An active battery opens at the enemy King or
-+ See also: line Themes; Theme A; Theme B; Theme C;
Theme D; Theme E.
(indirect) its adjacent squares in the course of so-
lution. In endgames battery often aims at adver-
sary's some important piece.
An arrangement of two pieces where one, a front
* See examples: 905,976, 1207.
piece, screens the activity of a line-mover of the BATTERY, ABANDON OF
same colour, a rear piece, aimed at certain target, In a direct-mate problem White voluntarily aban-
typically the opponent's King. Sparsely, for in- dons his battery which is, or seems to be, com-
stance in endgames, the battery can aim at some pletely functional. Normally white moves his
other enemy piece. There are three main types of rear piece off the battery-line, abandoning the
battery: battery completely, or moves another piece on
Direct Battery. The opponent's King (or other the line, thus creating a half-battery.
target) is on the battery line. When the front piece
moves the rear one gives a check. Some exam- 170
ples are: 692, 13, 483.
Indirect Battery. The battery aims toward a I.pr Sidney Morning
square in the black Kings field. Typically the bat- Herald 1898-9
tery opens with a check by front piece, while the
rear piece takes over a guard of possible JljghJ_
square. For example: 1234, 451.
Masked Battery. A piece of either colour
"masks" the battery standing on its line between #2
the opponent's King and the front piece, or be- 170: 1. .lld8! - 2. ~f4#, I... 4)xd6/~xd6+ 2.
tween the front and the rear piece. Usually it is an 'ltJxd6#, 1... 4)xe5 2 . .Q.xb6#, l... 'it'xe5 2. ~ f6#,
enemy piece. For example: 905, 1448. l... f! h4/f!f3/4)g324)(x)f3#, 1... f!e32. f!d5# •
A halfbattery can be seen as two mutually There are good chances that the battery will open
masked batteries, provided that in the course of with double-check ( 1... 4)e3 2. f! d5#), plausible
solution both are unmasked at some point. If only tries like 1. 'tfje7? (2. f!d5#) 4)xa5! That is why
one of two batteries comes into play then it is just the battery-abandoning, flight-giving and check-
a battery masked by a piece of the same colour. ·provoking key comes as a surprise.

BAT -BAT Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

* Other examples: 647, 900. 173

--+ See also: Freie Presse Theme; Kuchler Theme.
= Aliases: Abandon of Battery; Batterieverzicht (Ger.). GRIN, Alexandr P.
2.pr The Problemist /98/
In the course of play, two batteries of the same
side with similar rear piece and similar front
piece are created and opened, but they occur on
squares of opposite colour. They may be same
pieces, for instance the Queen and Rook in 171 ,
or one or both may be different. In 173 two such #
are the white King's batteries with .Q.c3 and 173: l. f3! - 2. <i!?d5+ <i!?fl 3. <i!td6#, 1... dxc6 2.
,ilb3. <i!?c4+ gJfl 3. gJb4#, 1... f4 2. <if1e4+ <if1e7 3.
gJf5#, I... § bl 2. gJe3+ <i!?e7 3. <if1d2#, I... 4:)f4 2.
~: .·,;~~ ~! ,,,~ , . 171 :::;-#~e7 3. gJxf4#, I ... .1lxf3 2. gJe3+ <if1e7 3.

~-~~., I ~:,::a~:!~:·1~4ud BATTERY, CREATION

~~~~~ In principle, a direct as well as an indirect battery
can be built in one of the following ways:

~~f "~~~
(I) by arrival of a rear piece behind another man
of the same colour;
(2) from a halfbattery by removal of one of the
h#2* front pieces off the battery line;
171: *l ... .§e3 2. <if1h6 §h3# • l. 4:)e7 ~c2 2. 4:)g8 (3) by capture of opponent's man, that stands on
the battery line, by another man than the rear
* Other examples: 173, 1152. piece;
BATTERY, CHANGED (4) by cutting (sometimes with check) a bat-
The key destroys one and creates another battery. tery-line where the opponent's King plays on
the next move.
I.pr L'ltalia Scacchistica BAIER. Roland
1950 2.pl Bayer - Switzerland

172: l. .§ xg7? - 2. § fl#, I... .§b7 2. 4:)g2#, I...
~b7 2. 4:)d5#, I ... gxf4! • l. ~ cS! - 2. ~f8#, I ... 174: l. gJc6! (2. {)xg6+ gJe6 3. 4:)xd4+), I ... .§xb3
§b7 2. 4:)f3#, I... ~ b7 2. 4:)c6#. 2. ~f4+ <if1f6 3. 'it(d5+ §b6#, I... .1lxb3 2. f4+
* Other example 1448. <if1xe4 3. <if1b6+ .1ld5#, (I ... §xf8 2 . .1lf4+ gJe6 3.
4:)xd4+) • White and Black both create 2 batteries.
BATTERY, CONSECUTIVE * Other examples: 399,869, 1008, 1234, 1321, 1405.
Two or several batteries open one after another
with possible transformation and creation of new BATTERY, DESTRUCTION
batteries in the single line of play. 173 shows 1. One side voluntarily destroys its battery by re-
consecutive white royal battery in 5 variations moval of rear piece, or by moving another piece
(though with only three different second moves). to the battery line.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems BAT-BAT

2. One of the units forming a battery is captured 177

(definition in FIDE Album). Most often imple-
mentation of this kind is in helpmates. BAKCSI, Gyorgy
I.pr FIDE Ty 1962-66
4.pr The Problemist 1991

177: 1. ~ xdS? - 2. §di#, I... <it?d3 2. ~fl#, I... <it'xd5
2. ~c3#, I ... Ad6! • 1. ~xcS! - 2. ~b4#, I ... ~cs
2. ~d3#, I... <it'c3 2. ~xd5# , I... .Q.xc5 2. ~e5#.
-+ See also: Half-Battery. White.


Consecutive Siers battery. Typically one white
piece opens the battery with check and after the
BATTERY, FRONT PIECE black King's move the other piece of the same
Piece at the head of a battery the removal of kind forces the black King back to the line ofbat-
which opens the line for the rear battery piece. tery which subsequently opens again.
Batteries are often named after the front piece: ! Avenir Popandopulo (1920-1988).
Royal battery, Pawn battery, etc.
A battery with the same front piece and rear I.pr DSV Ty 1965
piece moves from one place to another in the
course of solution.

BOLTON, Horatio
49. Lewis: Problems 1827 I #6
(v) 178: 1. A b3! (2. bxa6- 3. ~b5+ <it?e4 4. ~ac3#), I...
c5 2. ~di+ <it'e4 3. ~f2+ exf2 4. ~c3+ <iftd4 5.
~ d i+, I... §fl 2. ~ bl + ~e4 3. ~d2+ exd2 4.
~c3+ ~d4 5. ~bl+, I... §xh3 2. ~d5+ ~e4 3.
~f6+ gxf6 4. ~c3+ <it'e4 5. ~d5+, I... ~xb4 2.
~a4+ <it?e4 3. ~c5+ Axc5 4. ~c3+ <it?e4 5. ~a4+.
#8 -+ See also: Battery, Siers Type.
176: I. §c7+! ~a5 2. §xb5+ <it'xb5 3 . .Q.e2+ <it?a4 = Alias: Popandopulo Mechanism.
4. §c4+ <it?b5 5. §xcl+ <it?a4 6. §c4+ ~b5,<it?a5
7. §c3+,§c5+ ~a- 8. §a3,.Q.d l # • A stunning
battery performance from the time before the old
The line-moving piece at the tail of a battery, be-
hind the front battery piece.

BATTERY, NORWAY Two batteries are made by the same two pieces,
The piece from white halfbattery sacrifices it- which however exchange their front piece vs
self onto the square adjacent to the black King, rear piece roles. 179 shows two Indian maneu-
simultaneously giving a flight square. Allows vers with reciprocal roles of the white Rook and
mates by white battery. Bishop.

BAT-BAT Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

MUNZ, Ruppert
2.pr Schoch 200/

# 10
~ See also: Battery, Popandopulo Type.


The front piece, in moving off the battery-line,
gives a flight square and, after the enemy King
BATTERY, REFORMATION moves there, moves again, but not back to its
After a battery has fired, a second battery with starting square, to give a check or mate.
the same (front and rear) pieces is formed. (defi- The most popular thematic piece is Knight ( 182),
nition in FIDE Album). but Rook (183) or Bishop (184) can also do the
In endgame 180 the white Bishop+Rook battery job efficiently. 185 is a task-record with 8 the-
opens three times towards the black Rook. matic variations.
! Theodor Siers (1910-1991). According to Th. Siers
180 the first rendering of the theme was composed by
Adolf Anderssen in 1852.
SKRJPNIK, Anatoly ;
KOVALENKO, Vitaly 182
I.pr Shakhmatnaya
komposizitsiya 2002 SIERS, Theodor
Miinchener Schachzeitung

180: 1. !! c7 ( I. !! b 1? !! c8) 1..• !! 36 2. !! c8 <it>b7 3.
f!d8 §38 4 . .Q.c7! §36 S. §d7 <it>c8 6. f!e7 #3
f!37 7 . .,lld8! (7. l).xd6? .,llxd6 8. f!xa7 l).c5+) 182: 1. -'\.37! - 2. ~d4#, I ... .Q.e3 2. ,£ic5+ <it>xf4 3.
7... § 368. § e8<i!i>d79. !!18 § 38 IO.,Ae7! f!34 ,£ixe6#, I •.. ,£if3 2. ,£ib4+ <it>xf4 3. ,£ixd5#, 1...
ll . .Q_f6(11. §f7?<it>e812. §h7 §a7) 11... § f4 ,£ie5 2. <£lei+ <i!i>xf4 3. ,£ixe2# • etc.
12. ,£id3 § :d6 13. ,£ixeS+ <it>e7 14. § xf6 +- •
See "Troitsky's Study on Material SS vs P".
~~~i,~ 183
~ ~ ......,
1-2.pr= ShakhmatyvSSSR
Play by a battery opening twice in succession i 1940
within the same variation, giving a flight square,
the front piece moving each time to a different
square. In 181 such openings occur on White's ~
., •ft-~d
~ ~~ m1t
~ ~
4th and 6th move. ~ r~ -~~
··· · ~~~~~
S Hans Peter Rehm (1942).
181: 1. l).f3! (2. f!h3+ <it>g l 3. ,£ie4) § el 2. l).e4 (3. 183: 1. .,llf2! - 2. §g5+ <i!i>d3 3. §g3#, I... f5 2.
,£if3+ <i!i>hl 4. ,£ixel+) §di 3. ,£if3+ ~ hi 4. §xd2+ <it>e5 3. §e2#, I... ,£if5 2. §d4+ <it>e5 3.
,£ixeS+ <it>h2 S. ,£if3+ <it>h I 6. ,£igS+ <it>h2 7. ,Ag2 §e4#, I... ,Af5 2. §d6+ <it>e5 3 . .Q.g3#, I... e5 2.
<it>gl 8 . .Q.h3+ <i!i>xf2 9. ,£ie4+ <it>- 10. !! e3#. §d6+ <i!i>f5 3. §xf6#.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems BAT· BAT

3.pr Szachy 1979 I (v)

#3 s#3
184: t. ~g7! H, 1... b2 2. .ilbl+ <ittd5 3. _ila2#, 1...
a3 2. J;tc2+ ~d5 3. ,ilxb3#, 1... ,ilg8 2. Axh7+ BATTERY, TRANSFORMATION
<ittd5 3. J;txg8#, I... Af7 2. J;tg6+ <ittd5 3. J;txg6#, During the same line of solution one firing bat-
1... t2 2. J;tg2+ ~f5 3. Ah3#, 1... Ac8 2. Ab7+ tery transforms to another. There are three main
~f5 3. J;lxc8#, I ... J;ld7 2. J;tc6+ <ittf5 3. J;lxd7#, types of transformations:
(l...J;lb-7/4)- 2. J;ld3+, l... ,ild6 2. ,ilxf3+). (I) Front piece A of one battery becomes rear
piece B of another battery. In 187 the R-B
185 battery transforms first to the B-R, and then
back to R-B battery. See also Battery. Recip-
VAN DIJK, Nils G G rocal.
I.pr The Prob/emist 1965 I
(2) Front piece A of one battery becomes front
piece of another battery (see 188).
(3) Front piece A of a battery is replaced by an-
other front piece C on the same battery line.
189 is a textbook example for two transfor-
mations of the initial black battery.
#3 Other kinds of Battery can also be transformed
185: 1. J;ld2! - 2. 4)a7+ ~d4 3. 4)xb5#, l... ~b3 by changing its character between direct and in-
2. 4)a5+ ~d4 3. 4)xb3#, I .•. ~ c4 2. 4)b4+ <ittd4 direct or between direct and masked battery.
3. 4)xc2#, I... Axf5 2. 4)e7+ <ittd4 3. 4)xf5#, I... ! One of endgame themes in the lstWCCT 1972-1975.
c4/~bl 2. 4)d8+ <ittd4 3. 4)e6#, 1... Jl_xc3 2.
~e5+ <ittd4,<ittxe5 3. 4)f3,Axc3#, I ... Jl.d4 2. 187
.£jb8+ <itte5 3. ,£id7#, I... J;lxf6 2. 4)d4+ ~xd4,
~e5 3. ~xffi,,£if3# • Absolute record: 8 openings KORANYI, Attila
of 4)-battery. 1.pl weer 1972-1975

* Other examples: 345,692, 1575, 1610.

There are three masking units of the same color
between the line-piece and opponent's King. +
When all the masking units move off the line, the
King is exposed to check(mate). In three varia- 187: 1. § f3! (I. Jl.xhl? cxd3; I. §di+? ~xdl 2.
Jl_xhl ~d2 3. g4 <ittxc3 4. <ittg3 ~d3!) 1... Jl.g2
tions 186 a complete opening of the longest diag-
(1... ,ilxf3 2. Jl_xf3 <ittd2 3. g4 ~xc3 4. <ittg3) 2.
onal, initially occupied by the black King and § fl hi~ 3. .Q..xg2 ~h2 4. <ittg4 hS+ S. <ifth4 (5.
two Knights, is forced by cyclic white moves(~ ~f3? h4) S... ~bl 6. ,ile4+ ~al! 7. §g2! (7.
c/e, o(Moves). §xh2?) 7... ~ hi 8. §a2+! <ittxa2 9. Jl_xhl +-.
186: 1. a5! (-), I... ~c8 2. §xc7+A4)xc7 3. {)d6+B 188: 1. e8,il! (2. {)fe6+ <ittxd5 3. 4)c7+ <ittd4 4.
.£jxd6#, l...4)d- 2. {)d6+B 4)xd6 3. a6+C ~c8, {)ge6+ ~e4 5. ~el+ ~xel#) • I... gxfl,il 2.
~b6#, 1...{)e- 2. a6+C <ittc8 3. §xc7+A {)xc7#. §f7+ <ittxd5 3. §g7+ <ittd4 4. §c7+ §e5 5.

BAT· BAY Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

§c4+ .Q.xc4# • 1... gxfl{) 2. §e6+ ~xd5 3. BATTERY, ZABUNOV TYPE

§e5+ ~d4 4. §e2+ §e5 5. § d2+ {)xd2#. The front piece of a white battery, that opens on
White's 2nd move, becomes the rear piece ofan-
188 other (mating) battery that opens on White's 3rd
PETKOV, Petko A.
2.pr feenschach 19901 ! Vladimir N. Zabunov (1928).
dedicated to B. Ellinghoven


PETKOV, Petko A.
hm Europa-Rochade
1988-9 191: *I... §a8 2. §e2+ ~e6 3. .Q.c5#, 1... §b8 2.
§d2+ ~e6 3. {)c5# • I. d7! -2. d8~+, 1... §a8
2. § d2+ ~d6 3. {)c5#, 1... § b8 2. § e2+ ~d6 3.
,S1c5#, (I... {)f7 2. ,S1xf7+).
= Alias: Zabunov Battery.


189: 1. {)c3! - 2. §d7+ ~xe5 3. ~h8+ f6 4. ~b8+ In the key White self-pins his thematic piece. It is
§c7#, I... {)b6 2. §e8+ ~c7 3. {)b5+ ({)d5?) then directly unpinned by a black piece, which at
§xb54. §c8+4::)xc8#, I... {)d42. §e6+~c73. the same time pins itself. White thematic piece
{)d5+ ({)b5?) §xd5 4. §c6+ {)xc6# • Black then mates by switchback to its original square.
battery has three different front-pieces. Almost identical to Hassberg 2 theme, except
that the key doesn't have to unpin a black piece.
BATTERY, TWO-STAGE ! Aleksandr A. Baturin (1909-1981).
The rear piece of the battery that opens on the 192
second white move becomes the front piece of
the battery that opens on mating move. BATURIN, Alexander A.
J.hm Vechernie Izvestia
! Theme pro posed by Sergey I. Pugachev (1920-1992). 1929 I (Odessa)

192: 1. §xe4! - 2. ~a3#, 1... ~xc4 2. §e5#, (1...
{)xc4,~/Pxe4+ 2. ,S1a3,{)xe4#).
_.. See also: Hassberg 2 Theme.

190: 1. §c4! - 2. {)e2+ ~d3 3. §d4#, I... fxg4 2. In a threemover two variations end with diagonal
{)c6+ ~d3 3. §cxg4#, I... {)xb4 2. {)e6+ ~d3 mates by the white Queen where white Knights
3. §xb4#, 1... {)xb3 2. {)xb3+ ~d3 3. § f4#, (1 ... guard four squares, once with the black King on
f2 2. ~h i+), (1... ~d3 2. §c5+). white and once on black square.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems BAY-BER

2 Adolf Bayersdorfer (1842-1901). 195: I. ~a3! (2. ~xd6#), I... .Q..b6+ 2. .Q..d4#, 1...
§xa3 2 . ..Q.c3#, (l... ..Q.b4,§b4 2. .Q..c3,..Q.d4# =
193 Grimshaw), (I... ~e6,§f6 2. ~xd6,..Q.xd6#).

BEHTING, Karl 195

l.hm Miinchener Neueste
Nachrichten 1889 ALVEY, George C.
Hampshire Telegraph &
Post 25.5. 1913

193: I• .Q.e4! (I... §a7 2 . .Q.xd3 §xb7 3. {)d7#), #2
1... ~xe4 2. {)d6+ ~f4 3. ~h2# (Model
~~4::)4::)/'6'+2), I... dxe4 2. {)f3+ ~d5 3. ~g8# RERHAUSE'.'i THEME
(Model ~,£){)/.+l). White Royal battery fires six times after the rear
piece ambushes itself behind the King. This
BAYERSDORFER 2 THE'1E piece has a sole function to guard the square in
In a threemover a model mate by a white Rook the black Kings field.
and both Bishops must be repeated, but in one 2 Fritz Berhausen (1880-1955).
variation the King's Bishop and in another the
Queen's Bishop gives the mate. In both cases the 196
same Rook must be used. The black King must ZICKERMANN, Albert
not be on the edge of the board. Die Schwalbe 1932

MEYER, Heinrich F. L.
11 Bayersdo,fer 7T 1893

196: I. ..Q.g2! (-), l... ,t)g7 2. ~e2 (3. a7#), I... {)f4
2. ~xf4, 1... ,t)g3 2. ~xg3, I... {)f2 2. ~xf2, l...
,t)b2 2. ~g4, I ... ,t)e3 2. ~xe3.
194: I • ..Q.b3! (2. §d5#, 2. §f4+), I... dxc5 2. §f4+ A !.Ci fails because Black can mate. A foreplan
~e5 3. ..Q.b8#, I ... e2 2. {)e4+ ~xe4 3. .Q.c2#. transforms this mate into a simple check.
* Other example 523. 197
The white battery is initially attacked by two REHM, Hans-Peter
black line pieces. After the key at least one of I .pr Deutsche
Schachbliitter TT 1976
them is deflected so that white battery can
mate by simultaneously shutting-off both black
2 English problemist George C. Alvey (1890-1929);
Johann Berger (1845-1933). #6
* Other example 1621. 197: I. {)cS? {)f4#! • I. {)f8? {)g5#! • 1. ..Q.g4! -
"' Aliases: Berger Interference; Alvey Theme. 2. ~e8#, I... §dxg4 2. {)f8 {)g5+ 3. ~xg4

BER-BEU Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

,tie4+ 4. ,ilxg7 ,tif2+ 5. ,tixf2 etc., I ... f!gxg4 2.
<t)c5 <t)f4+ 3. <if;>xg4 <t)d3+ 4. ,ilxd4 <t)f2+ 5. An indirect combination: Against White's main
_ilxf2 etc. plan Black has two defences, a good (sufficient)
one and a bad (insufficient) one. With a foreplan
Black has one (thematic) move for which there is White forces Black to weaken his position so that
no set mate. In a try White prepares a mate A to either he is left with the bad defence only, or the
this move, but Black can play differently owing good defence becomes insufficient. Beugung
to a weakness White created at the same time into differs from other indirect combinations in that
his own position. After the key White can now there is no defence substitution, but Black has
give mate B to Black's thematic move. both defences at his disposal from the outset.
! Henry D'Oyly Bernard (1878-1964). (a) Decoy Beugung (Lenkbeugung). White de-
coys black pieces(s) so that only bad de-
198 fence(s) will remain. See 200.
(b) Self-blocking Beugung (Blockbeugung).
BERNARD, H. D'Oyly White decoys black piece(s) in order to leave
Western Morning News &
Mercury 1928 Black with the bad defence, which leads to a
self-block. See 201.
(c) Interference Beugung (Sperrbeugung).
White decoys black pieces(s) in order that
only bad defence(s) will remain. The error of
the bad defence(s) is self-interference. See
#2 202.
198: * I... t;,fl 2. ?? • 1. ,ild5? t;,fl 2. <t)ed4#, I...
t;,gl ! • 1. ,ilf4! t;,fl 2. <t)cd4#.
-+ See also: Block. BRUNNER, Erich
Friinkisches Volksblatt
Fairy piece. Pawn (invented 1926 in Berlin by
Edmund Nebennann) which travels one step di-
agonally forward (or two steps from the initial
Pawn rank, subject to en-passant capture) and
captures by one step directly forward. #3
Berolina Superpawn. Berolina Pawn for which 200: I. f!c2? (2. <t)b3#) ~b7 2. <t)xb7#, I...
walk and capture are extended respectively to all ~b8!,~b6! • 1. §g2! (2. §g5#) ~e7 2. §c2
the diagonal and to all the file. t;,b7 3. ,tixb7#, (I... <if;>d5 2. §e6+; I... ~g7 2.
Die Schwalbe 1966 BRUNNER, Erich
Correspondent 1928

#2 i = Berolina Pawn (BP)

199: I. §3a2! (2. ~ c2-a4/b3/e4/d3#), I... c3 2. #3
ic2xc3#, I... §a5 2. ~c2-a4#, I... §b5 2. 201: I. <t)f5? (2. ~d6#) <t)e4 2. f4#, I... <t)b5! • I.
i c2-b3#, I... f!e5 2. ~ c2-e4#, I... §d5 2. b5! (2. <t)ec4+) _ilxb5 2. ,tif5 <t)e4 3. f4#, (I...
i c2-d3#. <it;>d4 2. <t)ec4 <£id- 3. t;,d2#).

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems BEU-BIC

Correspondent 1928 I (v)

#3 #2
202: 1. f4? - 2. ~e5#, (I... ~ b6 2. .£)g7+ ~ d6 3.
~xb6#), l... ~c7/~d5/~xf6 2. ~ d5# = bad BICOLOR
defence(s), l... ~a5! = good defence • 1. ~ cl! (2. Term used in connection of themes or maneuvers
~ c5), l... b6 2. f4! - 3. ~e5#, 2... ~c7/~d5/ where the two pieces involved are of different
~xf6 3. ~ d5# (2... ~ a5?? - good defence is colour. If the maneuver X occurs in successive
eliminated), 2... ~ d6 3. .£)g7#, I.•. ~ a5 2. ~e8+ moves, often the order of pieces is indicated, for
~xf5 3. ~e4#. the sake of clarity, by "White-Black X ' or
* Other examples: 677, 1339, 1569, 1571. "Black-WhiteX'. Same applies to cases in which
= Aliases: Blockbeugung (Ger.); Deflection; Diffraction; White is doing something for a black piece
Lenkbeugung (Ger.); Sperrbeugung (Ger.). (White-Black), or vice versa (Black-White).


White has two plans of attack (main plans)A and
Opening the line of one and closing the line of
B. Black has against both the same two defences
another opponent's piece.
a and b. Against A the defence a is good and b is
bad, and against B vice versa. White's aim is to 205
eliminate both good defences so that A is left
with the defence b and B with the defence a. VUKCEVIC, Milan
4.pl Belgrade - Bucharest
203 / 957

I.pr= Sovyet Union 50JT

h#2 2111
205: l. .£)e4 d7 2. .£)fd6 ~g2# • l. .£)d7 e4 2. .£)e3
203: 1. E! eS? b2! (l... .Q.d5? 2. E!xf5#) • 1. .Q.eS? 206
.Q.d5! (I... b2? 2. Af6#) • t. E!e3! (2. Axf4+), l...
f!lc4 2. E!e5! A d5 3. E!xf5#, l... f3 2.11_e5! b23. Wiener Arbeiterzeitung
.Q.f6#, (l... .Q.f3,fxe3 2. .Q.xf3,f4+). 1975

A move that simultaneously opens the line of one
and closes the line of another friendly piece.
* Other examples: 167,203,205,497,544,557.
-+ See also: Mixed (Bi-) Valve; Valve. h#2 b) ft b2~a4
204: 1. .£)18! - 2. ~h7#, l... g5 2. ~xf6#, l... f5 2. 206: a) 1. E! e4 .£)e2+ 2. 'iftxc4 .£)g3# • b) 1. .Q.e4
.£)xg6#. .£)c2+ 2. ~xc4 .£)el#.

BIC· BIS Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

BICOLOR PAROS THEME Verdonk). Reflecting Men and Archbishop have

Reciprocal bicolour bi-valve theme play. developed from this variant.
Definitions from "A Guide To Fairy Chess" by
207 A. S. M. Dickins, Dover Publications, New York
1971 ):
Fadil 1. French Style. All men can rebound from the
2.pr Probleemblad /992 board edge like a ball from the billiard-table
cushion, with or without capture, and may do so
several times in succession as one move, captur-
ing up to four men in the process on the edge of
the board and fifth, after the last rebound, in the
centre. Kings rebound one square as Rook or
h#2 2111 Bishop, and Pawns capturing on the a- or h-files
207: I. 4:)dS d7+ 2. 'it'xe4 ~f4# • I. 4:)d4 exf5+ 2. rebound one square as Bishop, but do not re-
'it?xd6 § e6#. bound from a promotion move. Bishops moving
4 See also: Paras Theme. into a comer rebound back along the diagonal;
Knights do not rebound from a corner. Rebound,
RICO LORES [F] which is not compulsory, may not be perpetual,
Fairy condition. Kings are in check if they are but must come to a definite stop.
guarded by the friendly or threatened by the en- 2. Dutch Style. The corner squares represent
emy pieces. "pockets" and the board edges "side-cushions".
Bishops and Queens can, subject to interference,
rebound off the cushions ad libitum. A man
Changed mates with reciprocal change of harm- played to one of the corner squares is "potted"
ful effects of black defences: self-block in one
and "spotted" (i.e. it returns to its game array
phase vs unguard with possible exposure of
black piece to capture in another.
2 Spyros Bikos (1911- 1987). 209
~~~ 208 CHICCO, Adriano

~~[i~Pri ~
I.pr T,jdschrift 11 d. KNSB

,r .1~B~
BIKOS, Spyros 1948
~ ~ if.~ . " . Probleemblad 1948

,..1w~J -1' • ~,i

11f ~a ~"'~45·~
~~~~~~< - . #2 Billiard Chess (Dutch rules)
209: I. ,Ad7! (-), 1... 4:)c7 (opens the line e8-hS-f3
for A) 2. "tt,b4# (pins 4:)d6 because "tt,f8-h6-f4),
208: * t... Axf4 2. "tt,dS#, I... Af5 2. ~xf5# • t. I... 4:)g7 2. "tt,d4# (again pinning 4:)d6: a7-b8-f4),
.Q.eS! - 2. "tt,xh7#, I... Axf4! 2. ~xf4#, I... .Q.f5! I ... a2 (pins 4:)d6: Aa3-f8-h6-f4) 2. § f5#, 1... f5 2.
2. "tt,dS#, (I... ,A6-,,A7- 2. 4:)g5,"tt,g6#) • etc. ~ g3# (via aS-d8-h4-g3), 1... 'it?xf3 2. ~ xf2 (via
* Otherexample 1144. el-f2).


An unorthodox variety of chess wherein the One of the line-pieces which, unlike any other
King, Bishop and Queen bounce from the edges unit, never changes the colour of the squares it
of the board provided that the squares from moves along owing to its diagonal movement. In
which they bounce and lines are empty. The bit- the game-array, it stands on the left side of its
liard chess is played by the French rules (inv. J. Queen and on the right side of its King, as in the
Berthoumeau) and the Dutch rules (inv. J. B. original game of chaturanga.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems BIS-BLA

However, originally it was the elephant (Persian 211

"pil", Arab "(al-]fil") and allowed to move only
two steps at a time diagonally, hopping over KUWVKOV, Aleksandr ;
other pieces. MARANDYUK, Mikhail
3.pr Probleemblad 1989
The name and character of the piece changed in
the medieval Europe; Spanish called it "alfil",
and there the word has today no other meaning
than that of a chess piece "Bishop", for Italians it
became "alfiere" ("standard-bearer''), for French
it was "fou" ("jester"), whereas in Germanic area #3
it was usually called "Laufer" ("runner") a kind
of messenger. In England the piece became a 211: 1. ~ b8! (2. dxe7+), l... exd6 2. .Q.c6+ ~e5 3.
~xd6#, l... e6 2. J;tg2+ ~e5 3. €)xg6#, l... e5 2.
high-ranking clergyman, most likely owing to its J;tc2+ exf4 3. ..Q.c3#, I ... exf6 2. .Q.xg6 ~e5 3.
place on the right hand of the King as one of his f!e4#, (1... f!xd6 2. f!xd6+).
principal advisers. In Russian, the piece is still * Other examples: 248, 406, 1269.
called elephant ('slon'), which may reflect the -+ See also: Windmill Task.
fact that chess came to Russia very early in the
9th century through an eastern trade route (see BLACK COMBINATIONS
also Rook). Defending against the mating threat Black with
In terms of the rules of chess, the piece under- one defensive move destroys another defence.
went a radical change in the end of the 15th cen-
tury, when, at the same time as the Queen 212
transformed from one of the weakest pieces into SHAVYRIN, Valery
the strongest, in a relatively short period of time 2.pr Uralskiy problemist
it adopted its present mode of movement, giving 1999
in return only its right to leap over other men.


A notorious ending with Bishop+ Rook's Pawn,
which is draw, because Bishop cannot control the
queening square and King cannot push the de- #2
fending King further away on account ofa result- 212: *l... 'iftd6• 2. "&e5#A, l... €)e5b 2. .Q.xb4#8, l...
ing stalemate. Being such an exception, which is ~c5c 2. €)c6#C • 1. ~es+A? €)xe5 !b (2. .Q.xb4??B)
also exploited frequently in studies, it can be • I. .Q.xb4+8 ? €)c5!c (2. €)c6??C) • t. €)c6+C?
considered an endgame theme. 'iftd6!• (2. "&e5??A) • I. €)g3! -2. €)5#, I... ~d6-
2. ~e5#A (2... €)xe5?b), I... €)e5b 2. J;txb4#8 (2...
210 €)c5?C), 1... €)c5c 2. €)c6#C (2... ~d6?•).


Tractate /6/9 White loses a tempo by playing only with a
Knight reaching again the diagram position, but
now with Black to move.

210: I. f!a8+ E!f8 2. f!xf8+ ~xf8 3. J;th6! =.


Four variations (or solutions in a helpmate) with
Bishop's movement by the same length in all
four possible directions. s#4*

BLA-BLO Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

213: * I... § xg8# • t. 'Dg5! <if1g2 2. iiJt3+ <if1h3 3. BLOCK

'Dg l+ <if1h2 4. 'Dh3 §xg8#, (1... h3 2. 'Dxh3; 2... In general, a situation when the opponent's last
<if1xfl 3. iiJXh4). move didn't introduce any threat, but the side
which is to play has only harmful moves at its
BLA.THY MATRIX disposal.
The setting based on a dualistic s#342 published = Alias: Zugzwang (Ger.).
by Blathy (Deutsches Wochenschach 1922) and
used since by himself and others to create long BLOCK PROBLEM
(self)mate and stalemate problems. A position after White has played a move (a key)
that carries no threat but puts Black in zugzwang,
214 i.e. a situation in which every possible move by
CAILLAUD, Michel Black entails a weakness that enables White to
The Problemist 1987 I after force mate.
0. T Blathy and Lj. Ugren The classical English school divided blocks into
six categories:
(I) after the key of the position arises another po-
sition which solves by the retraction of the
previous position
(2) some of the variations introduce changed
214: I. c4+! <if1c l 2. ~g5+ <if1bl 3. ~xg6+ ~cl play but the number of mates in the pre-key
4.-10. ~g5-f5-f4-e4-e3-d3-d2+ <if1bl II. ~ di+ and post-key play is same (Bernard type).
..Q.cl 12. ~b3+ ..Q.b2 13. §di+ §xdl 14. ~xdl+
.\lei 15. ~b3+ .llb2 16. -22. ~d3-e3-e4-f4-f5- (3) the number of mates increase, when the vari-
g5-g6+ ~c I 23. .Q.h6+ ~xh6 24. ~xh6+ <if1b I 25. ations of the actual play increase compared to
-30. ~g6-g5-f5-f4-e4-e3+ 'ittbl 31. ~el+ .Q.cl virtual play (Harley type).
32. -37. ~ e4-e5-f5-f6-g6-g7+ <if1bl 38. ~xb7+ (4) the number of mates decreases, since the
..Q.b2 39. -46. ~ h7-h6-g6-g5-f5-f4-e4-e3+ ~bl number of variations is reduced
47. ~g l+ .Q.cl 48. c5 ~b2 49. ~d4+ ~b l 50.
~e4+ <iftb2 51. ~e5+ <iftb I 52. ~f5+ <iftb2 53. (5) the key threatens mate, because White has no
~f6+ <if1bl 54. ~g6+ <iftb2 55. ~g7+ <iftbl 56. waiting move at his disposal (block-threat).
~b7+ .Q.b2 57. ~h7+ ~cl 58. ~ h6+ ~bl 59. (6) the key checks, since White has not a waiting
~g6+ ~cl 60. ~g5+ ~ bl 61. ~ f5+ ~ cl 62. or threatening move at his disposal (Padulli
~f4+ ~bl 63. ~e4+ ~cl 64. ~e3+ 'ittbl 65. !.Y.12f).
~gl+ ..Q.cl 66. ~f8 ... 84. <if1e8 ... 102. 'ittd8 ...
120. <if1c8 ... 138. <if1b8 ... 156. 'itta7 ... 174. <if1a6 .. .
192. ~xa5 <iftb2 193. ~ d4+ <iftbl 194. ~ b4+
.Q.b2195. ~e4+~cl 196. ~e3+<iftbl 197. ~gl+ JANET, Frank
.llcl 198. ~b6 ... 204. ~xc6 ... 210. <iftd5 ... 216. Chess Amateur 1918
c6 <iftb2 217. ~d4+ <if1b I 218. ~b6+ .llb2 219.
~gl+ ,!lei 220. c7 ... 224. c8~ <iftb2 225. ~ h8+
~bl 226. -227. ~d4-d3+ ~ bl 228. ~ b6+ .Q.b2
229. ~c8gl~230. ~xgl+ .\le i 231. ~b8+ .Q.b7
232. ~e2 'ittb2 233. ~d4+ <if1bl 234. ~ b4+ ,ilb2
235. ~el+ ..Q.cl 236. <iftf2 <iftb2 237. ~ee5+ <iftbl
238. ~f5+ <iftb2 239. ~ b5+ ~c3 240. ~8e5+ #2
~d2 241. ~b4+ ~d3 242. ~e3+ .Q.xe3# • The
215: *I... 'De6 2. §d7# • 1. § e8! (-), I... 'De6 2.
longest completely dual-free selfrnate.
'ije7#, I... iiJC6 2. _ilxb3#, l...iiJb- 2§(x)a5#,
I... 'Dd4 2. §e5#, I... iiJC5 2. iiJC3# • A new
BLEND twomover after the key solves 1. § e7! etc.
A synthesis of two or more distinctive problem --+ See also: Block, Apparent; Block, Incomplete.
themes or tasks. = Aliases: Block Position; Tempo Problem.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems BLO-BOG


Ifhe could pass the move, White would reach the
aim in the stipulated number of moves, without ZEMLYANSKJY, Yuri
I.pr Leninskaya smena
change of continuation. 1964-5
* See example 224.
~ See also: Block.

In the initial position mates are set to every black
move; the key either maintains the block, threat-
ens something or changes some or all mates. 217: 1. .il,g6+ ~ h8 2. 4:)h6 (threatens perpetual
* See examples: 395, 660, 1514. check 3. 4:)f7+ ~g8 4. 4:)h6+) ~ f4 (2 ... ~d8+
~ see also: Block; Fata Morgana; Mutate. 3. ~e2) 3. 4:)ti+ ~g8 4. 4:)h6+! ~xh6 5. Acl
'l:,'h8 6 . .il,b2 ~ f8 7• .i1,a3+ ~g8 8 . .il,b2 ~ h6
BLOCK, INCOMPLETE 9. Act ~ h8 10. ,ilb2. White blockades and at-
A problem where mates are not ready for some tacks the black King and Queen, and pins the
black moves, but the key puts Black in a block Knight.
position. * Other example 1580.
* See examples: 198, 395, 657, 682, 706, 726, 848, 954, BLOCKING PIECE
A piece that closes or limits the activity of an-
~ See also: Block.
other piece.
= Aliases: Blocker; Sperrstein (Ger.).
A complete block (Block. Complete) solved by a BLOCKLENKUNG
key which introduces a threat. A combination that forces a piece to block a
square in its King's field or obstruct some other
216 piece of the same colour.
RICE, William B.
* See examples: 1346, 1349.
= Alias: Block-Decoy.
Good Companion I 9 I 5
Black makes one help-move, after which follows
an orthodox mate in the stipulated number of
2 Invented by Frederik H. von Meijenfeldt (1922-2002)
in 1967.
- Alias: Schnitzermatt (Ger.).
216: *I... g4 2. !'! f4#, 1... ,ti- 2. ,tide3#, I... e6 2.
"itfh7#, I... e5 2. ,tid6#, I... .ll- 2. ,tixe7# • 1. BOARD ROTATION METHOD
,tif4! - 2. t;,e6#, I... g4 2. t;,g6#, 1... gxf4 2. A method of twinning by rotating the board 90°,
f!xf4#, I... <i.t?g4 2. ~ h3#. 180° or 270°. Also a technical device in compos-
ing to find the favourable position, especially for
l . An endgame theme related to domination BOGDANOV THEME
theme: prevention of opponent's piece's At least two mates of set play or try play become
(pieces') access to a certain space or from acer- keys of a try (or tries) and the solution.
tain, often limited area by careful, possibly re-
! Evgeny Bogdanov (1952-2010).
peated maneuvering of own men. May occur
both in win and draw studies. 218: *I... !'!xd4 2. f!d3#, I... !'!el 2. f!e3#, I...
f!xe5 2. !'! f5#, I... !'!h4 2. !'!f4# • 1. f! d3? -2.
2. The same term is used in German to denote or- dxc5#, I... ,tib2/,tixf2 2. ,tie3#, I... ,£if4 2.
dinary Self-Block. ,tixf4#, I... .llxe5 2. dxe5#, 1... cxd4 2. !'!xd4#,

BOG-BOH Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

l... c4! • I. §e3? - 2 . .llxe4#, I... 4:)xe3 2.

4:)xe3#, l... 4:)xg3 2. 4:)f4#, I... 4:)xf2! • 1. §f4? -
2. J;lxe4#, I ... 4:)xf2 2. 4:)e3#, 1... 4:)xf4 2. 4:)xf4#,
l... 4:)xg3! • 1. § fS! - 2. 11xf6#, I... .11xe5 2.
§xe5#, l... 4:)e3 2. 4:)xe3#, l... 4:)xg3 2. 4:)f4#, 220
I... 4:)g7 2. 4:)f4#.

I.pr Lvovskaya Pravda
~~.~~- 218 1987

a a ~ "Z..l~
KJSS, Janos
I.pr Hungar. Chess. Fed.
~ ir~r.&.\N & ~
~ ~~tij'~ • .,,.,. 1T 1974
~ - -~ ~~- ~~
,. -~-
~fti~ -~~~

ED{)D f~A~

The key piece unpins white thematic piece which
threatens mate. Black re-pins it by a Pelle move,
BOGDANOV-MAKARONEZ THEME but also closes a black line allowing the white
The mates of the actual play appear as the first thematic piece to mate also by a Pelle move, i.e.
moves of the tries. by moving along the pin-line.
2 Leonid Makaronez (1948). 2 Leib Bograd (?).
219 221
Suomen Shakki 2006 I (v) WienerSchachzeitung 1937

#2 #2
219: * I... fxe4 2. 'lt1g3/'lt1g4# • 1. exf6? (2. 'lt1g3#) 221 : I. ~ b6! - 2. 'it,d4#, I... 'it,e6 2. 'lt1c6#, (1...
§g8 2. J;ld6#, I... it1g7! • I. -'1.d6? (2. 'lt1g3#) 4:)e2,4:)f5,J;ld5 2. 4:)f2,J;lf3, 'lt1f4#).
§g8,~g7 2. exf6,exf5#, I... ~d4! • I. .llcS?
§g8,'lt1g72.exf5,11xe3#, l... §d4! • l.exfS! -2. BOHEMIAN SCHOOL
'it,g4#, I... §g8 2 . .11c5#, I... "ttfg7 2. J;ld6#, (I... One of the oldest schools of composition, the be-
exd2 2 . .llxd2#). ginning of which can be dated back to the early
= Alias: Bogdanov 2. 1860s. Especially popular in Bohemia, the fore-
most advocates in the 19th century were Anton
BOGDANOV-RYCHKOV THEME Konig, Jan Dobrosky, Josef Pospi~il and Jin
A threat reduction theme with a paradox. In the Chocholous. In 1892, the latter worded the main
I st phase White threatens three mates A, B and principles of the movement:
C, and Black's move a refutes. In the 2nd phase • the problems must have variations of equal
White threatens A and B, and Blacks 's move b re- quality and grade of difficulty (beauty over dif-
futes. In the solution White threatens mate C (or ficulty), including at least three model mates;
A), and Black's moves a and b are defences, fol- • economy and maximal mobility of white force;
lowed by A and B (or Band C).
• Black King should be given flights in the
2 Vladimir Rychkov (1955-1995). course of the solution; quiet moves are fa-
220: 1. § d4? (2. 4:)h4A,4:)e7B,'itfh3#C) 1... l1xf4!• voured, as well as analogy of mates, including
• I. 'lt1f3? (2. 4:)h4A,4:)e7#B) I... §xf4!b • 1. echos and chameleon echos;

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems BON-BOT

• change of functions of white pieces in mate pic- 224

tures, in terms of covering squares and deliver-
ing mates. .,, BONUS SOCIUS,
Later, the movement has branched into different ca. 1300
directions, some of which are more oriented to-
wards the logical and strategical schools - and
geographically, too. The most favoured fields of
composition of the school are threemovers, to
some extent moremovers, too, and apart from di-
rect mates, also longer selfrnates. #5
§ ~~t 222 224: If Black is to move: I ... ~h7 2. g6+ and mate on

the next move. • 1. <it'e6! <it?h7 2. <it?f5 <it'g8 3. <it?f6
KONIG, Anton ~h7 4. g6+ ~g8 5. h7#.
t~ ~ "'· .., London Tourney l 862
-~~~[~ ~
-- ~•a
~ ~
.. J
White (indirectly) pins a black piece on the mat-
ing move.
• ft ! Sandor Boros (1907-1944).
~ ~
#5 225
222: I. 'l:,e7! (2. ~b4+ <it?d5 3. 'l:,c5+) .£jd5+ 2.
<it'a7! .£)xe7 3. § b4+ <it?d5 4. §b5+ BOROS, Sandor
<it'xc6,<it'xe4,<it'e6,<it'c4 5. §c5,§e5,.£)d8,.£)d6# l .pr Trjdschrift v. d. KNSB
• 3 model mates. 1933

4.pr Cesky spolek sachovni
225: I. .£jxe2! - 2. § e5#, I ... .Q..c5(§ e8) 2 . .£jxc3#,
I... §c5(,ild6) 2.£)(x)d6#, I... .£)f3 2. 4:)fxg3#,
I... 4:)g4 2. 4:)exg3# • (1... §xe2+ 2. 'tJl,'xe2#, etc.).

223: 1. ~ bl! (2. ~cl -3. f3#), I... c3 2. i:,hl+ ~d3 Defences by both pieces from the black half:pin,
3 . .Q..a6#, I... bxa3 2. <it'c2 - 3. i:,hl#, I... .Q..c5 2. apart the indirect selfpin of the stationary
lt,b7+ <it'f5 3. ~d7#. • The threat included, all (half-pinned) piece, make a selfblock. Both ef-
white pieces are active, and the black King is mated
on three squares. fe.cts are used in mates.
* Other examples: 73, 926. ! Antoruo Bottacchi (1900-1969).
a Alias: Bohemers (Ger.).


The earliest known (European) collection of BOITACCHI, Antonio
chess problems, written in the 13th century, com- 5.hm l'lta/ia Scacchistica
piled and edited by Nicolas de St. Nicola'i of 1918
Lombardy. Its 194 positions are, in general, more
economical than mansubat (Mansubat), and the
stipulation was usually "mat in n moves", al-
though often some additional conditions were
given. One of the first sel(mates is to be found in
Bonus Socius. #2

BOU-BRE Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

226: * I... <ifj)c5 2. ~b5# • I . 4)e6! - 2. 'lt1e4#, l... fore in each of two phases White moves the Rook
§c4 2. ~xd7#, l... §xe6 2. 'lt1b5#, I... 4)c5 2. or Bishop anticritically, enabling the Knight to
4)6c7#, I... 4)d6 2. 4)8c7#, l... ~xe6 2. 'lt1e4#. mate on critical square(s).
BOUTTIER THEME ! Term was introduced by Chris Feather (1947) in his
article in "Orbit" 6, April 2000.
The key pins two black pieces and sacrifices
white key piece, threatening a double pin mate 229
using the pins established by the key. Two black
defences alternatively unpin one or another just ABDURAHMANOVIC,
pinned black piece. A third defence with a cap- Fadil
Magyar Sakkelet 1979
ture of the sacrificed key piece is also a thematic
! Pierre Bouttier (1914).

~J'1J ~f}ri
j ~ BOUITIER. Pierre h#2 2111

~ - ~

~ i ~Am
M ~.a,~~

"- .... ,
~ Problem 1971 229: 1. Aa7 .Q.xh6 2. §d4 4)e3# • I. §di §xh6 2.
Ad4 4Jd6#.
- Alias: Brasil Motif.

~ · J.1 ~cfffi ~
. "~f --~---~
Symmetric echo model mates, sometimes pre-
ceded by a symmetric course of play, too.
227: l. §g4! - 2. 4)e6#, I... Ae4 2. 4)b3#, I... ~ ~ 1! ~ 230

Axg4 2. 4)c6#, l... 4)g7 2. e3#, l... e5 2. 'lt1c4#,
( l... c5 2. ~xc5#).
~ Mt B [~
t B •J3B ~ BRAUNE, Robert
i~ l~ M ~ Sonntagsblatt 6.2.1881
Cyclic change of defensive motifs in three or E
~ mtE ti"
, . !< ~"
more phases.
! Juraj Brabec (1938).
BRABEC, Ju raj 230: I. §f3! (2. 4)f5+), l... exf3 2. 4)c2+ <ifj)c3 3.
I.pr Slovakian Chess Fed.
Ad4#, I ... dxe2 2. 4)f5+ <ifj)e5 3. Ad4#.
-+ See also: Echo Mates, Model.

Technical method in an endgame: destruction of
opponent's defence, often associated with sacri-
fice of pieces.
228: l. d6? - 2. 4)d5#, I... § d2 2. Ag3# (guard), l... 231
Jl_d4 2. §g4# (unpin), I... c6! • l. AfS? - 2.
§xe4#, l... §d2 2. Ag3# (unpin), I... Ad4 2. HAANTOLA, Harry
§g4# (interference), I... 4)g5! • l. 4)fS! - 2. hm Tyoviien Shakki 1935
'lt1xe3#, I ... § d2 2. Jl.g3# (interference), I ... Jl.d4
2. §g4# (guard).


On the two squares where a white Knight could
check the black King, it would interfere with the
line of guard of a white Rook or Bishop. There- +

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems BRE·BRI

231: 1. e3 dxe3 2. d4! (2. <t;e2? <l;b6 3. <:;xe3 <t;c5 4. match the above definition: the white thematic
<l;d2 <l;d4 5. <t;e2 c5 6. <l;d2 stalemate) exd4 3. e5 piece is actually unpinned by white.
<l;b6 4. e6 <t;c6 5. c5! d3 6. 'it(el +- . 234: I . ,tixd4! - 2. '{;jcl+ <t)c2 3. '{;jxc2#, I...
'{;jxd4+ 2. '{;jd2 (3. '{;jd3#) '{;jg4+ 3. '{;je2#, I...
BREDE CLEARANCE i;1g4+ 2. <t)df3 (3. i;1e2,i;1c3#) '{;jd4+ 3. <t)d2#,
Square clearance (vacation) by a Queen for a ( I... i;1f5 2. ,tixf5+ <l;d5 3. 'ttfe5#).
2 Julius Brede (1800-1849).
* Other examples: 68, 308, 976.

232 Usually on the edge of the board, a cross-shaped
BREDE. Julius fonnation of pieces in a more-mover, consisting
Almanach far Freunde des of the white Queen, a pinned black unit, black
Schachspiels 1844 King and two white Knights, one on both sides of
the pinned black piece.
2 Josef Johann Breuer (1903-1981).
#2 BREUER, Josef
2.pr Die Schwalbe /955/11
232: I. i;1d6! §xd6 2. <t)f4#.
-. See also: Vacation.
aa Alias: Brede Square-Vacation.

Black gives check and White parries it by inter-
posing a piece, consequently self-pinning it.
Black unpins that piece which then gives a mate.
235: I. ,tifS+l <l;hS 2. ,tig3+ <l;h4 (2... <l;h6? 3. ,tif7+
2 Julius Brede (1800-1849). Axf7 4.,tif5+) 3. 'ttff4 (- 4. <t)3e4 dxe4 5. ,tixe4)
233 eS! 4. ,tifS+ 'it(h5 (4... gxf5? 5. <t)f3+) 5. ,tig7+
<l;h6 6. '{;jf6(- 7. ,tixf7+ -'\,xf7 8. <t)f5+, or 7. <t)f5+
BREDE. Julius <l;h5 8. <t)xf7) -'\,d7 7. <t)xf7+ <l;h7 8. <t)h5 §g8
Schachaufgaben /844 (8... gxh5 9. <t)g5+) 9. i;1g7+ §xg7 10. <t)f6#.

Technical method in an endgame, a safeguard
which enables a Pawn promotion. First shown in
a textbook by Alessandro Salvio in the 17th cen-
#4 tury.
2 Alessandro Salvio (c.1570-c.1640).
I.pr 7.TT Dansk SALVIO, Allesandro
Skakproblem Klub /935 II Puttino, altramente detto
ii Cavaliero errante 1634

233: 1. <t)e2! - 2. <t)d4/<t)c3#, I ... Affi+ 2. i;1d4 (3. +
<t)c3#) <t)-d5 3. ,tic3+ <t)xc3 4. i;1c5# • etc. • A 236: 1. § c4 §al 2. §d4+<1;e7 3. <l;c7 § cl+4. <l;b6
prototype problem which, however, doesn't quite §bl+ 5. <l;c6 §cl+ 6. <l;b5 §bl+ 7. §b4 +-.

BRI-BRI Encyclopedia of Chess Problems


A line piece moves along the line clearing it for a
like-motion piece, which follows it in the same KUBBEL, Leonid I.
direction. According to the Purity o(Aim princi- 1-2.pr; Shakhmaty 1934
ple the clearing piece should not have any influ-
ence on the subsequent play, the sole purpose of
its move should be only to clear the line for the
In other words: The avoidance of a Holzhausen
interference by an anti-meto-critical move.
According to Franz Palatz & Alfred Mongredien 239: 1. g7+ ~g8 2. .ll,d5! hi~ 3. f3 §al! 4. Ae4
(Antiform, Berlin 1929) Bristol is not a critical ~bl 5. .ll,f5! and Black is in Zugzwang, therefore
theme. For instance, in 237 the cutting point is 5... ~xf5 stalemate.
d l; it is on that square that the Rook cuts off the * Other examples: 332,492, 1546.
Queen from her square of action g l . The Rook = Alias: Bristol.
therefore vacates d l , but it does not play over d l .
There is thus no critical move! BRISTOL HESITATING
Be it critical theme or not, the Bristol remains One piece clears the line for another in two or
one of the most popular chess problem themes. In more stages. 240 combines line clearance with
237 it is executed by White, but it can equally be the annihilation. 241 is the famous "Walk like a
applied in the play of Black: in 238 the black pilgrim" problem: two steps forward, one step
Rook clears the way for the Black Queen (and back.
eventually gets incarcerated by means of
Seeberger incarceration). Theme is equally ap- 240
plicable in endgames, which is nicely demon-
strated by 239. HUFNER, Alfred
J.hm Schoch 1956
I.pr BCA Tourney. Bristol

240: I. § fe2! H, 1... Jtxg2 2. !!a2 A- 3. ~ b2#
(Hesitating Bristol), I... .ll,xe2 2. ~gh4 A- 3.
~b2# (Annihilation).
237: t. § ht ! Ae82. ~ bl (3. ~b4#) Ab5 3. ~g l#. 241

238 FABEL, Karl ;

PALATZ, Franz F.
KOCKELKORN, Carl ; Die Schwalbe 1933
KOHTZ, Johannes
Neue Berliner
Schachzeitung 1865

241: I. _abs! - 2 . .ll,e2#, I... c4 2. .{,tc6 e4 3. ll,a4 -
#4 4. ~ b5/.ll,d l#, (I... d3 2. .ll,c6 e4 3. Axe4).
238: I. d3! - 2. .ll,e4 §g8 3. ~c4#, I ... § h8 2. .ll,e4 * Other example 1047.
~g8 3. .ll,b2! H ~f7.~g7 4. ~xg4,~c4# • -+ See also: Bristol Clearance; Clearance.
Black Bristol followed by black Anti-Bristol. "' Alias: Stufenbahnung (Ger.).

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems BRl · BRO

BRISTOL, BICOLOR [HJ 244: 1. ~b7! (-), 1... d3 2. !!bl - 3. ~b2#, 1... e3
Bristol clearance between pieces of different 2. Jl.f3 - 3. ~e4#, 1... g6 2. !'! h7 - 3. ~g7#.
242 Clearance of a 2-dimensional surface. In 245
I.!:! h 7 clears not only the "d" file, but also "e",
BRUNNER. Erich "f' and "g" files.
De11tsches Wochenschach
/91/ I after£. Palkoska

242: 1. 4:)c7! - 2. !!b5+, I... !'!xb8 2. !'!b7!, 1...
!!xbl 2. !!b3! • 2x bi-colour Bristol.
* Other example 1129. #3
245: I. !'!e7? 4:)e4!/4:)h3! ... 3. §4e8?? • 1. §f7?
4:)f4!/4:;c3! ... 3. §4f8?? • 1. §g7? 4:)g4!/ 4:)d3!
Line clearance for a piece which then performs
... 3. !! 4g8?? • t. !! h7! H, 1... 4:Je4,4Jh3
line clearance for the third piece.
2§(x)e4 - 3. §e8#, I... 4:)d3,4:;g4 2§(x)g4 - 3.
!'!g8#, I... 4:)d4,4:)g3 2§(x)d4 - 3. §d8#, I...
243 4:;c3,4:)f4 2 § (x)f4 - 3. § f8#.
PURCHAS, Francis E. "' Aliases: Extended Bristol; Fliichenriiumung(Ger.); Planar
Morning Post 1918 Bristol; Two-Dimensional Voidance.

Two Bristols (Bristol clearance) with the same
two pieces which exchange their roles.

#3 246
243: 1. !! h8! - 2. !'!c8-3. 4:;d3#, I... al.Q. 2. §2h7 STOSIC, Miroslav
~xd2 3. ~h6#, (1... a14:) 2. 4:)c3 4:)xc2 3. 4:;d3#). 4.pr Shakhmaty v SSSR
= Aliases: Consecutive Bristol; Successive Bristol. 1973

Two or more variations with Bristol clearance.

244 #2
PAULY, Wolfgang 246: 1. ~ hi? (-), I... ~f5 2. "it,e4#, I... gxf4 2.
Deutsche Schachbliitter §gl# (~-!'! Bristol), I... f5 2. §xh6#, I... g4! •
1912 1. §al!(- ), 1... ~f5 2. ~ bl # (!!-"it, Bristol), I...
gxf4 2. ~g4#, I... f5 2. !!a6#.

Separation of at least four threats in cyclic pairs.
#3 2 Giuseppe Brogi (1900-1976).

BRO-BRU Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

Pattern: 249
. --,.~~~
~m ~4:J~
a b
C d
~ ... .
1~ 1
MALEIKA, Gerhard
I.pr The Problemist 199911

8 '))
~ r.&1.~m·~
247 ~ • ~~t:::,f~
BM~ .ft fflJl.~
]~~'"' '~ ~~
BROGI, Giuseppe .
II Due Mosse /962
249: I. ~e7! - 2. f!xg3#, l... ~xe3 2. f!3f4,
~xd2#AB, l... ~ce5 2. ~xd2,~c3#BC, l... ~fe5
2. ~c3, ~ d5#CD, l... ~g5 2. ~d5, f!5f4#DE,
1... ~f4 2. f! 5xf4, ~a8#EF, l ... ~xe3 2. ~a8,
247: 1. _ild7! - 2. f!e4A/f!f5 8/f!f3C/f!g4D#, l... BRUCH LINE COMBINATION
_ile2 2. A,B#, l... .(lg2 2. B,D#, l... _ild3 2. C,D#, Black defence closes white line of guard of two
l... Ah3 2. A,C#. squares in the black Kings field but opens an-
other white line which resumes the guard of one
BROGI, SECONDARY of these squares. Mate is determined by necessity
Black's random move with a thematic piece is to guard the second square.
followed by at least four mates. Black's sec- ! Wieland Bruch (1961).
ondary defences (Defence, secondary) allow the
mates in pairs in cyclic fashion. 250
AHUES, Herbert
248 Die Schwalbe 1992

2.pr Suomen Tehtiiviiniekat

250: 1. ~ c8!-2. ~b6#, 1... Jl.d5 2. ~a4#, 1... f! d5
2. ~ a6#.
,. Alias: Bruch.
248: (1. dxe6? c5!) • 1. dxc6! - 2. f!xd4#, l...Ad-2.
~d2/~e2/~d6/~xf6#A8CD, l... Jl_e5 2. ~d2/
~e2#AB, l... Ac3 2. ~e2/~d6#BC, l... Ae3 2. BRUNNER INTERFERENCE
~ d6/~xf6#CD, l... Ac5 2. ~xf6/~d2#DA, (l... Grimshaw or Nowotny interference with second-
Jl_d3,e5 2. ~d2,~xf6#). ary utilization. Reciprocal interference of two
pieces ofunlike motion which is utilized by forc-
ing the interfering piece to play. Thus, an ad-de-
BROGI-MALEIKA THEME fQl:'. followed by an ex-decoy. The interference
White threatens only one mate, and the cycle of move may be forced in two different ways, which
dualistic mates, characteristic for Brogi theme, gives two different themes:
follows when Black parries the threat. No other I. Brunner-Plachutta (or Brunner-Nowotny).
mates or combinations of mates occur on defences The interference is forced by a sacrifice on the
against the primary threat. critical square. See 251.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems BTM-BUK

2. Brunner-Wurzburg-Plachutta (or Brun- f!xa6# (2... .§xf6 3. ,ilxd3#), I... .§ad6 2. ~xd7
ner-Grimshaw; or Zipperlin theme). The inter- (3. f!b5#) .§c6 3. f!xd5# (2 ... .§xd7 3. ~ b6#),
ference is forced by some outlying threat quite ( I... d6 2. exd5, I... fxe4 2. f!xe4+).
unrelated to the critical square. See 252.
Note that Plachutta and Wurzburg-Plachutta, i.e.
interference between pieces of like motion, are HARTONG, Jan
also interferences with secondary utilization, but I.pr T,jdschrift v. d. KNSB
in terminology they are not associated with the /943
"Brunner" prefix. However, in some cases even
pieces with like motion can be regarded as pieces
which move in different directions. For instance,
after the key in 253 black Rooks are engaged
with guard of immediate mates on b6 or d3, thus #
it is clear that the E a6 cannot move off the 6th
-+ See also: Grimshaw Interference; Nowotny Interference;
rank, and the Ed5 off the d-file. With this in Plachutta interference; Wurzburg-Plachutta interference.
view it can be assumed that the E a6 moves only
"' Alias: Zipperlin Theme.
horizontally, and the Ed3 only vertically, and
therefore problem shows a pure BTM [E]
Brunner-Wurzburg- Plachutta interference. Abbreviation for "Black to move". Often used in
2 Erich Brunner (1885-1938), Otto Zipperlin (?). endgame when author cannot find a fitting start
for White.
Akademische Monatshefte
A threat indirectly pins a black piece. In one vari-
for Schoch I 912 ation Black unpins this piece in advance, in an-
other it cuts White's future line of attack, also in

#3 Ajedrez Espanol 1946
251: 1. ~d3! - 2. ~c5/~b3/~e2#, I... .§xd3 2.
~e2+ .§e3 3. ~c4#, I... ,ilxd3 2. ~b3+ ,ilc4 3.

Deutsches Wochenschach
19/6 254: 1. ,ilb6! - 2. ,ild4#, l ... ,ile6 2. ~g4#, l ... ~e5
2. ~xd5#, I ... ~ d6 2. f!h8#, (I ... <it;>e5 2. ~g4#).


In the diagram position a white man controls a
black King's flight. Black captures that man and
#3 and subsequently self-blocks the flight-square
2s2: t. ~ ct+? .§c4! • 1. ,gJB+? Ad6! • t. g6! (2. that white man controlled previously.
,ile3+), I... Af42. ~cl+ Axel 3. Af8#, I... .§f4 2 The theme was proposed by Mikola Nagnibida (1939-
2. ,ilf8+ .§xf8 3. ~ cl#. 2005).
253: I. Ad2! (2. ~xc5+ ~xc5,.§xc5 3. ~b2, 255: 1. A xc3 .§c2 2. .llg7 .§c8# • 1. ~xdS .§d2 2.
Axd3#), I... .§dd6 2. ~f6 (3. ~c3#) .§ d4 3. ~e7 .§d8#.

BUK-BUR Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

· -~~

~- -···
In a twomover Black has two or more unprovided
~ . , M'k
1 oa checks ( Check. Unprovided) at his disposal.
~ Probleemblad 1989
White could parry them with cross-checks if he
had a battery, which he has to build up in at least
one try and a solution. White's try (tries) must
not be refuted by a check.

h#2 2 111
POPOV, Georgy
BUKOVINSZKY THEME [H J I.pr Themes-64 1959
There are three mates. The first one occurs in the
full-length set play. In the solution, after the first
two halfmoves, White "threatens" another
(second) mate which Black, lacking a tempo, is
forced to prevent by capturing the active white
piece. However, this allows a completely new
(third) mate. #2
! Lajos Bukovinszky (1914-1977). 258: 1. .llg2? - 2. .§-#, L. ~ a3 + 2. .§xa3#, L.
~ d2+ 2. .§d3#, L ~f4+ 2 . .§xf4#, L. .llf8+
~4:J~ ~ 256 2 . .§ xf8#, L. .§xf2! • I. ~a8? - 24:Jc-#, L.
~ a3+ 2. 4:Jb4#, L ~d2+ 2. 4:Jcd4#, L ~f4+ 2.

~,« -·~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ BUKOVINSZKY, Lajos
?< , , •
• ~ Probleemblad 1964
4:Je5#, L. .Q.f8+ 2. 4:Je7#, L. dxe6! • I. ~ e8! -
24:Je-#, L ~ a3+ 2. 4:Jc5#, L ~ d2+ 2. 4:Jed4#,
L. ~ f4+ 2. 4:Jxf4#, L. .llf8+ 2. 4:Jxf8#, (L
dxc6,dxe6 2. ~ xc6, ~ xe6#).

Variation of Le Grand theme. In one phase White
h#2* threatens two mates and a thematic black defence
256: • L. .lle5 2. 4:Jc4 .lld4# • 1. 4:Jc4 4:Jb6 (2... is met by a third mate. In next two phases this
4:Jd7#) 2. 4:Jxd6 .Q.gl#. third mate is a threat, and Black's thematic de-
fence is once met by one and once by the other
mate, which were threats in the first phase.
A variation of Bukovinszkv theme: before each
black move White threatens an immediate mate Pattern:
which Black, lacking a tempo, is forced to pre- Bunnistrov
vent. This means that there must exist a short 1

y C A
~ ~ ~ 257 z C B

R" ffl" ffl ~ !~~~?:.~~;!;man; 259

-~ ffl ffl -~

~--· R ~----~R§ffl4:J~
~ r.a,,t e,> '
; ; ~ 'e'}.d
Schoch-Echo 1971 BURMISTROV, Sergey
I.pr Volgogradsk. Pra vda

257: • L. 4:Je3# • I. .§ xg2 4:Jd3 (2... .§el#) 2. .§gt

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems BUS-CAN

259: 1. i£)b7? - 2. §xd4#c, I... dxe5 2. tt,xfl#A, I... CAISSA THEME

e3! • l. l£)xe4? - 2. §xd4#C, I... dxe5 2. ~b7#B, Two black pieces open lines of a white piece. In
1... Ae6! • l. f6! - 2. ~xfl/~b7#Af8, I... dxe5 2. addition one of the black pieces opens a line for
§xd4#C. another black piece to counter the threat.
~ See also: Le Grand Theme.
In a study a black defence that defeats the stipula- Caissa /940
tion, rendering the study unsound. Used as a verb
'to demolish'.
~ See also: Cook.

Additional (subsidiary) variations (or by-varia-
tions) that are not part ofa problem's (main) the- #2
matic play. It is desired that the by-play arises 260: 1• .ll,f3! - 2. l£)c6#, I ... .ll- 2. l£)g6#, I... l£)5- 2.
naturally out of the main idea, without the use of .llf4#, I... i£)5d3 ! 2. ~d4#, ( I... l£)e6! 2. l£)d7#),
extra force. ( I... f4 2. § 4h5#).
= Aliases: Additional Play; By-Variations.
C+ Fairy piece. A (l,4)-/eaper. For instance: Camel
Abbreviation attached to the problem indicating from a I can play to b4 or d2.
that it has been computer-tested and correct. Ab-
breviations "C-" or "C?" are used to indicate the CAMOUFLAGE
opposite. Hiding the basic idea in problem or endgame.
In the old days composers sometimes added un-
necessary pieces to lead solvers astray, but nowa-
An unorthodox Pawn which has historical im-
days that is rejected as a violation against the
portance. According to old rules of chess the principle of economy of force.
Pawn was allowed to promote only to a piece that
had already been captured. Cadet, however,
stands on the promotion line as long as a piece of
1. In a modem and positive sense a major or mi-
its colour is captured, and then promotes to that
piece, if possible. nor piece that in the solution has a role of a Pawn
(e.g. guards a black King·s flight), but is themati-
! Invented by Peter Pratt in 1825. cally necessary either in the set or in virtual play
or in both.
2. Camouflage units (even Pawns), which are
Caissa is the "Patron Goddess" ofchess players.
used only to mislead the solver and to make prob-
She was created in a poem called Cai'ssa writ- lem more difficult, are nowadays banned.
ten in 1763 by English poet and philologist Sir
William Jones (1746-1794). Peter Pratt included CANNIBAL CHESS
Jones' poem in his ''Studies in Chess" (London
1803), and George Walker ( "Chess and Chess A form of fairy chess in which only capturing of
Players", London 1850) finally attributed Caissa the men of own colour is allowed. Apart from
the title of "patron goddess of chess players". that condition, check and mate are orthodox.
Jones' work was inspired by the poem Scacchia S The earliest known cannibal problems are from the
end of 1920s.
ludus ("The game of Chess"), written by Italian
poet Marco Girolamo Vida around 15 l 0, pub~ 261: l. fxe8l£)! (-), 1...4Jd- 2. 4Jd6#, I...4Jf- 2.
lished in Latin in 1527, and later translated into l£)f6#, I... c4 2. l£)c5#, I... di~ 2. 4Jd2#, I... A-
several languages. 2. Af3#, t... fl ~ 2. 4Jf2#, t... g2 2. 4Jg3#.

CAN-CAP Encyclopedia of Chess Problems


This term is used ambiguously. It can mean:
Chess Amateur 1928 I. Mutual capture of two enemy pieces, which
exchange their active (capturing) and passive
(captured) role between variations or phases.
See 263.
2. In two variations or phases the same two pieces
of the same colour alternatively capture one or an-
other (but both time the same) enemy piece.
3. The order ofcaptures of two pieces of the same
CANON colour is reversed in two variations or phases.
Canon can be interpreted as an established prin-
ciple, a basis for judgment, a standard or crite- 263
rion. GARAI, Toma
In chess composition it can be explained as a col- 2.pr idee &form 1989
lection of artistic and formal requirements the
chess problem or endgame should satisfy.
A try is refuted by a defence that causes a certain
effect. The key creates the same effect with a
new threat. A threat from the try reappears in a h#2 2111
variation. 263: l. f!xe4 _axc4+ 2. <it'e3 ~h6# • I. Jl_xbS
f! xe3+ 2. <it'c4 § c8# • ~ pins and mates, § e8
262 mates and pins.
I.pr Shakhmaty v SSSR Theme from endgames and moremovers. In the
/983 course of solution arises the position where one
side can capture the adversary's piece, but the
right option in the given position is another
#2 264
262: l ~ d-? e6! • I. ~ c6? - 2. ~fxe7#, I... e6 2.
f!d4#, I ... ~ce6! • I. ~f3!?-2. ~xe7#, I ... e6 2. GURGENIDZE, David
f!d4#, I... <it'e6 2. ~xe3#, I... ~ce6 2. 'l:,a8#, I... I.pl WCCT /998-2000
~ge6! • l . ~e6! - 2. ~f4/~xc7#, I ... ~gxe6 2.
Jlf3#, I... ~cxe6 2. 'l:,a8#, I... 'l:,xe6 2. ~xe7#,
I... dxe6 2. ~ d8#, I... <it'xe6 2. ~xe3# • etc.

Elimination of opponent's Pawn or officer by
moving own piece to the square occupied by the +
opponent's piece. 264: l. d7 f! cl+ 2. <it?d2 (2. <it'xcl?) 2 ..• § di+ 3.
Exceptions: <it'e3 (3. <it'xdl?) 3... § xd3+ 4. <it'xfl §f3+ (4...
(I) Pawn capture only by diagonal movement Jl.c6 5. ~g6+ <it'g5 6. ~e5+ <it?f6 7. ~xd3) S.
forward. <it'gl! (5. <it'xg2? §xf8) S•.• § fl+ 6. <it'h2! (6.
(2) For en passant capture the destination square <it'xg2?) 6... § xf8 7. <it'xg2! <it'hS 8. <it'g3 <it'h6 9.
is not occupied. § e7 § d8 10. <it1f4 +-.
* See example 687. * Other example 1518.
Encyclopedia of Chess Problems CAP-CAR

CAPTURE-INDIAN THEME ! Invented by William A. Shinkman in the 1870s, term

An Indian theme where White's move upon the coined by Tolosa y Carreras in ca 1890.
critical square is a capture of a piece that is trying "' Alias: Schlag-Zick.zag (Ger.).
to sacrifice itself for some reason, usually a stale-
A three-phase pattern of defences and mates as
265 shown in the tables below. The mechanism usu-
ally involves neutralization of three reasons why
thematic mates don't work. These are most often
I .pr Deutsche
Schachbliitter 1950 lines of guard and possible (or prospective)
flights. One reason is removed by the first white
move, one by black defence and the third one is
handled on mating move. In prototype problem
266 all three reasons are black lines of guard. For
several decades, this has been one of the most
#4 useful and consequently most often used two-
265: 1. .Q_a7! (-), 1... f!xh3,f!h4,!!h5,!!h6 2. f!e8, move mechanisms, and it can easily be upgraded
f!d8,f!C8,f!b8 (3. f!- I#) f!e3,!!d4,f!C5, f!b6 to a 3x3 Zagoruiko theme, as shown in 267
3. f!Xf! ~gl 4. f!-1#, (I... f!Xg7,f!h8 2. ~d5+ where, by the way, all three possible weaknesses
~ 2 3. §xg7,gxh8,ti/.Q.). are possible flights on d-file. Note that this very
* Other example 1450. mechanism was a basis for Lacny. complete ren-
dering in a threemover 903.
Fairy condition which forbids captures. All other Counter-Carousel. This is certainly much better
rules are orthodox. term than often used but terribly wrong phrase
"Pseudo Carousel", since there is just a small
CAPTURING PIECES [F] deviation which exchanges the order of black
Fairy pieces which move only to capture: mates. In 268 one thematic mate incidentally
Atlantosaurus: capturing King. takes place on intersection of two thematic black
lines and therefore it occurs in "wrong" phases.
Dinosaurus: capturing Queen.
Polyp: capturing Queen, on the move may de-
Carousel Counter Carousel
stroy every enemy man that could capture it,
but does not move and has no power to check.
-. a
C 1
- a b

y C A y C B
Mammoth: capturing Rook.
z B C z C A
Brontosaurus: capturing Bishop.
Hippopotamus (Nilpferd): capturing Knight.
2 Invented by Jozsef Almay (1901-?).
"' Aliases: Capturing Man; Schlagender Stein (Ger.). EKSTROM, Sven ;
CAPTURING ZIG-ZAG [F] I .pr ndskrift for Schack
Fairy condition. Black must capture if he can, 1947
and ifhe has an option, he is allowed to choose.
White may neither give check nor capture. There
are two variants:
(1) Blackcap-Zig-Zag, when Black on the move
is allowed to make only one capture, and
268: I . .Q_e5?-2. d6#, 1... ,tif68 2. 'li1f4#A, 1... <t}e3b
(2) Madcap Zig-Zag, when Black on the move 2. ,tixg3#B, I... <t}xe5! • l. .Q_f6? - 2. d6/~f5#,
has to make as many captures as he can, un- I... <t}e3b 2. 'li1f3#C, 1... ,tiesc 2. ~ f4#A, I...
less he cannot capture anything with the piece ,tixf6! • (I. .Q.e3? - 2. d6#, I... ,tixe3!) • I.
he moved. ll,c3! - 2. d6#, I... <t}f6 8 2. ~f3#C, 1... <t}e5c 2.

CAR·CAS Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

269: l. ~dS • l... c8~ 2. ~e4 ~c5 3. ~d3 ~d4# •

l ... c8§ 2.~e4 §c4+3.~d3 §d4#• l ... c8.Q.2.
~c4 ~xe2 3 . .Q.b5 .Q.e6# • 1... c84::) 2. ~4
~xe2 3. 4::)b3 4::)b6#.
-+ See also: Onitiu Type.


A winning or drawing maneuver in an endgame
study: continuous series of checks given by two
Knights on an enemy King, all pieces moving on
#2 a circular route.
267: * J.. . .Q.d3• 2. ~h!#A, I... ~d5b 2. ~e2#C,
2 The combination is known from a 9th century
I ... § d4c 2. ~xd4#(D) • 1. 4::)xe7? (2. 4::)xd6#), 36-move long Arabian mansuba nicknamed "Wa-
I ... .Q.d3• 2. ~xg4#B, I ... ~d5b 2. ~xd5#(E), ter-Wheel".
I... §d4c 2. ~e2#C, I... .Q.xcl ! • l. 4::)cxeS! -2.
4::)c4#, I... .Q.d3• 2. ~xd3#(F), I... ~d5b 2.
~xg4#B, I... §d4c 2. ~hl#A, etc.

4.hm Probleemblad 1973

270: 1. 4::)d3+ ~5 2. 4::)e3+ ~e6 3. 4::)f4+ ~d6 4.

#2 4::)f5+ ~c5 5. 4::)e6+ ~c4 6. 4::)d6+ ~d3 7. 4::)c5+
268: *I ... § e4• 2. ~d3#A, I ... .Q.e4b 2. 4::)e3#B • l. ~e3 8. 4::)c4+ ~f4 9. 4::)d3+ ~5 I 0. 4::)e3+ etc. =.
§ eS? - 2. ~d5#, I ... .Q.e4b 2. ~xe4#C, I ... dxc6c • The King escapes the pair of horses along the
2. 4::)e3#B, I... §d6! • l. §fS! - 2. ~d5#, I... circus ring, while the clowns (white Bishops) are
§e4• 2. ~xe4#C, I... dxc6c 2. ~d3#A, (I... §d6 watching the show.
2. 4::)e5#). -+ See also: Merry-Go-Round Theme.
,. Alias: Carica di cavalleria (It.).
In a helpmate of Onitiu tvoe (1.4.l.l.) CASTELLARI THEME
Allumwandlung with single Pawn in White's The key indirectly selfpins one and indirectly un-
variations. pins another white piece. Black in defence di-
2 Arturo Carra (1882-1978). rectly re-pins the unpinned and directly unpins
the selfpinned piece.
Difference from Castellari-Mari theme and
CARRA, Arturo Castellari-Schor theme is in the method (direct
L 'Italia Scacchistica 1952 or indirect) of (un)pinning by White and Black.
2 Umberto Castellari (1912-1976).
-+ See also: Status Quo Theme Group.
"' Aliases: Castellari I Theme; Castellari-Chicco.

271: l • .Q.cS! - 2. ~a3#, I... ~c4 2. §a2#, (I...

h#3 1411... ~b4,.Q.b3,.Q.xc5 2. ~xb4,~a5,4::)xc5#).

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems CAS-CAS

271 273: 1. ~ b7! - 2. 4:)e8#, l... d5 2. .§e6#, (l... d6,

~g8, ~d5+, ll,xe4+ 2. ~xe7, _ilxc3, 4:)xd5,
CASTELLARI, Umberto 4:)xe4#).
La Settimana Enigmistica
/933 "' Alias: Castellari I, Mari Type.

The key directly selfpins one and directly unpins
another white piece. Black in defence directly
re-pins the unpinned and directly unpins the
#2 selfpinned piece.
Difference from Castellari theme and
CASTELLARI 2 THEME Castellari-Mari theme is the method (direct or
Same as progressive separation, but Black's the- indirect) of (un)pinning by White and Black.
matic defences, although they have something in
common, are made with different units.
SCHOR, Laszlo
272 I .pr Magyar Sakkelet 1928

To Mat 1953

272: 1. ~ xd6! - 2. ~xd4#, I... .§xe3 2 . .Q.d5A/ -+ See also: Status Quo Theme Group.
.Q.g6B/~d5C/<t)g51>#, l... dxe3 2. B/C/0#, I... = Alias: Castellari I, Schor Type.
fxe3 2. CID#, I... {)dxe3 2. D#, I... 4:)gxe3 2.
~e7#, I... ~xe3 2. ~xf4#. Simultaneous move of King and Rook, both of
which had to be stationary on their home squares
CASTELLARI-MARI THEME up to that point in the game. The King is moved
The key directly selfpins one and directly unpins two squares left or right toward the (Queen's or
another white piece. Black in defence indirectly King's) Rook, which is then placed on the square
re-pins the unpinned and indirectly unpins the the King passed over.
selfpinned piece. In addition to promotion and capture, one of the
Difference from Castellari theme and Castellari- moves in which it is allowed to move two pieces
Schor theme is the method (direct or indirect) of on same move.
(un)pinning by White and Black. Castling is a move of the King and Rook, reck-
oned as a single move of the King. The King is
273 transferred from its original square to either one
of the nearest square of the same colour in the
MARI, Alberto
I .pr Magyar Sakkvilag
same rank; then that Rook towards which the
/929 King has moved is transferred over the King to
the square which the King has just crossed. If the
King or Rook has already been moved, castling
is permanently impossible. It is temporarily im-
possible, if there is a piece of either colour be-
tween the King and Rook, or the square on or
#2 over which the King is to move is attacked by en-

CAS-CAS Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

emy. The King is not allowed to parry a check by See also problems 278 ( Castles. Mutually Exc/u-
castling. (Laws ofChess, Article 6). ~ and 574 (Than theme).
Castling developed in Europe in the 16th century.
The much improved mobility of Queen and
Bishop exposed King to attack much earlier than BARNES, Barry P.
before, increasing the need to find a safe place 2.pr Problem IT 1964
for it, especially in the beginning of a game. A
castling took King from its vulnerable mid-posi-
tion and moved it behind the protective shield of
own infantry. By the start of the 17th century the
rules about castling were fairly consistent, al-
though in Southern Europe were still found
traces of the so-called "free castling". Spain and #2 b) +tg7
Portugal were last to abandon it in 1750. 276: a) 1. ~e2? ~xg2! (2. .t)e2??) • 1. .Q.a3! (2.
~e2#), 1... f! b4 2. 0-0-0#!, 1... f! xd2 2. ~xd2# •
Convention: In chess problems it is assumed b) 1. .Q.a3? f!b4! (2. 0-0-0??) • 1. ~e2! (2. .Q.-#),
that castling is possible unless it can be proved I... f!b4 2. .Q.b2#, I... f!xd2+ 2. .Q.xd2#, 1... ~a8
that either King or respective Rook must have 2. .Q.a3#. • Can i\> and ahl have reached their
moved in the earlier stage of the game. problem-array positions without going via fl, thus
making white castling illegal? In (a) Bhl is a
275 promoted Pawn, and bK has come via h2, therefore
castling is legal; in (b) Khl is an original game-
KLING, Jacob (Joseph) -array Rook, which has come through fl, thus
Kling: Chess Euclid 1849 White's castling is not permitted.

~ ~


TidskriftforSchack 1939

275: 1. 0-0! h5 2. ~h2 h4 3. .Q.g l h3 4. f!t2 ~d4 5.
f!d4#. • Old (Indian) and new (first castling
problem). The key is, again, poor. ~ ~ ::: ~
* Other example 883. h#3*
-. See also: Castling, Prevention of
277: *t... 0-0-0 2. .t)d4 f!e l 3. ~b4 f!e3# • 1. f! cS
~d l 2. ~c4 ~c2 3. ~d5 f!a4# • In the actual
play white castling is illegal, because on his previous
In orthodox chess composition a castling of move White has moved either King or Rook.
either side is allowed unless it can be proved that
either the Rook in question or the King has CASTLE, IMPOSSIBILITY OF [RI
moved in the hypothetical game leading to the Retro-analytical proof that a castle is not possible
initial position of composition. (Codex, Article because either King or Rook had to move in pre-
16. l). ceding play.
Problems in which the legality or illegality of ea Alias: Illegal Castle.
castling is the main focus belong to the field of
retrograde analysis. See: A Posteriori Conven- CASTLES, MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE [RI
tion, Partial Retroanalysis, Petrovic Theme and A retro-analytical proof that if one castle is legal
Proo(Game. the other is not or vice versa. The castles in ques-
Sometimes the solution of an otherwise ordinary tion may be either ofsame or ofopposite colours.
problem may also involve such analysis (e.g. 276 In 278 either White or Black castling is possible
and 277). if the opponent has just made a capture with

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems CAS·CEA

King or Rook. However, it is impossible to know 280: I. ~ dS! (2. ~ xf7+,~ xd7+), I... 0-0-0 2. 0-0-0
which side did it, so: - 3. ,ilxd7 § xd7 4. ~ xd7# 2... bxa6 3. ,ile5 - 4.
- if it was White, then: l.0-0 a4 2.~h8 §a3 ~ a8#, I... 0-0 2. 0-0 - 3. gxf7+ § xf7,<it'h7 4.
~xf7,~ h5#.
3.§g8 § h3#
- if it was Black, then: l.§xh2 0-0-0 2.§xe2 CASTLING, CONVENTION
§hi 3.§e7 §h8#. Castle is permitted unless it can be proved that it
is not permissible. (Codex)
~~mnff.-s 278
m m mm~ ~~::•p;~~!~istFairy
Chess Supplement 1931
A logical combination: White's immediate attack
is refuted by Black's castling. In his foreplan
m~ White forces either King or Rook to move.
PAULY, Wolfgang
h#3 Deutsches Wochenschach
I 9 IO I dedicated to
278: see text. A. C. White

A sequence of moves which brings the King and
Rook from their initial position to the squares
which they would occupy after a natural castling. #4

281: t. ~ es? 0-0! • t. ~ bS+! <it>f8 2. ~ f5+ <it>e8 3.

~ e5 <it>d8/ .ll_g3 4. ~ b8/~xh8#.
* Other examples: 884, 1447.
Double advance of a white Pawn as the threat,
and different defensive motives by Black.
In Ceara 1, the motives are: pin, capture, ob-
structions, direct guard (of the mating square),
h#3 rear-guard and enabling of en passant capture
279: *I... <it>f2 2. el f! f! fl 3. § e5 ~gl# • I. (but not a check!).
exd! Jl <£)e4 2 . ..llg4 <£)g3 3. <it>f3 0-0#. Ceara 2: Black parries the threat indirectly, too.
CASTLING, CONSECUTIVE Reduced Ceara: defensive motives are capture,
In the same problem both sides castle in succes- obstructions and direct guard.
sive moves and parallel variations on the King's 2 Proposed by Emanuel Costa, who lived in Ceara, a
side and on the Queen's side. province in north-eastern Brazil.

280 282
HANNEMANN, Knud .,," KISS, Janos
Skakbladet 1921 I.pr DCE-2 Ty / 985


CED-CER Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

282: 1. fxe4! - 2. d4#, I... exd2 2. -'td4#, I... c5 2. CEDER SELF-BLOCK

axb8~/A#, I... {)c6 2. ~xe6#, I... E!xe4 2. Total dual avoidance: in defence, Black captures
{)f3#, I... Axa7 2. ~xc7#, I... {)f5 2. E! lxf5#, a white man on his Kings field. On his mating
I ... -'td3 2. {)xd3#, I ... d4 2. ~c5#, I ... dxe4 move White has to guard the black King's..flighJ_
2. ~c5#, I ... E! xh2 2. .ll,.xh2# • 5 direct guars,
2 obstructions, I en passant, I pin, I capture; 9 square. He has two ways to do it, but one of these
distinct mates. is to capture on the square which Black has just
blocked. Therefore White has to choose another
In two variations Black closes lines of two differ- 285
ent black pieces allowing different mates. In a
third variation Black closes both lines, but pre- CEDER,Sven
vents both mates from previous variations and al- 1558. Vcirt Hem 1939
lows a new mate which exploits at least one of
the closures. In 283 Ceder interference is com-
bined with Pickabish theme.
According to some sources it is required that all
three defences are made by one and the same
black piece. #2
Ceder Interference 2 . Ceder Interference where 285: 1. E!a4! - 2. E!xd4#, I... E!xe5 2. {)h2#
({)xe5?), I... fxe5 2. {)f2# ({)xe5?), (1... c5,
last thematic interference (of both pieces) is
E!b4(d5) 2. Jl,b7,-'td3#).
black arrival correction (Correction. Black, Ar-
rivaO. See 284. CERIANI THEME [SJ
! Sven Ceder (1904-1989). (I) In a selfmate sacrifices of the white Queen
(the more the better!) force mates by the
283 black Queen.
(2) Capture of promoted piece in any kind of
FOSCHINI, Ettore chess problem. In retro genre known as
I .pr Magyar Sakkviltig
Ceriani-Plaksin-Frolkin theme.
L 'Italia Scacchistica 1928

283: 1. <if;>d2! - 2. 'i1fxd7#, I ... d6 2. 'i1fe4#, I ... -'td6
2. ~c4#, 1... ~d6 2. Ab3#, (!... d5 2. f!f6#, 1...
{)e7 2. {)g7#, I... Axf4+ 2. {)xf4#).

284 s#2
286: 1. {)g4! - 2. 't{fc6+/'t{fd5+ 't{fxc6/~xd5#, I...
CEDER,Sven ~bl/~d l 2. ~xd3+ ffxd3#, I... 't{fcl/~xh2 2.
hm Viirt Hem 1939 ~f4+ ~xf4#, I ... ~e I 2. ~e6+ 't{fxe6#, I ... ~gl
2. 'i1f d4+ 'i1fxd4#.
-+ See also: Onitiu Theme.
= Alias: Ceriani I.

#2 Capture of a promoted piece. Retro revival of a
284: 1. 'i1fh4! - 2. ~c4#, I ... {)b2 2. {)f6#, I ... {)f4 captured piece that was promoted in a retro play.
2. ffd8#, I... {)e5 2. {)6c7# • etc. In a narrow interpretation also known as the

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems CHA-CHA

"Frolkin theme", which requires at least three 288: l. ,tic3! -2. ~d5#, I... e6 2. ,tib6#, I... §d6 2.
specific retro revivals; in a more broad interpre- ,tie5#, l... Af4 2 . .Q,fl#, I... §f5 2. f!xe4#.
tation a single revival is sufficient. This has been
the most popular retro theme for a few decades. CHAMELEON [Fl
! Luigi Ceriani (1894-1969), Nikita Plaksin (1931), A fairy piece that changes its mode of movement
Andriy Frolkin (1957). after every move in the order S-+B-+R-+Q-+S
! Invented by William E. Lester (1893-1940) in 1925.
I.pr Problem 1952 I CHAMELEON CHESS [F]
dedicated to T. R. Dawson Fairy condition. Officers change after their
move, they become another officer, according to
The first and the last the cycle: Q-+S-+B-+R-+Q
move of a light-squared
white~? CHANGE
This term has a broad meaning (and use) in chess
287: Retro: -1... <t)g5x.Q.h7+ -2. .Q,g8-h7 ... • The composition, but generally it indicates expansion
only possible last move of White was g6x§f7. It of the contents to two or more thematically
was preceded by g7-g3xh2 (with the white Pawn
related phases or variations of play, where, in ad-
still on g2) and the arrival of b.llgl and b§hl.
However, in the preceding play thew.Q.fl had to be dition to a desirable harmony, particularly signif-
captured at his home square by the b § h I. The icant are the differences between the elements
captured Bishop on h7 was born by promotion of that make each individual play. These differences
the white a-Pawn at a8. As bPc6 came from b7, the can be recognized in:
first move of light-squared white Bishop was • changed defences, mates or both;
.Q.a8-b7 and the last one was ..Q.g8-h7.
• changed theme;
-+ See also: Prentos Theme.
,. Alias: Ceriani-Frolkin. • changed plan of play;
• changed defensive or advantageous motifs or
CHAIN effects of thematic moves;
1. A string of pieces each guarding its successor. • change of thematic squares (e.g. King's cross
Pawn chains often occur in play. theme vs King 's star theme);
2. Grouping the elements, effects, moves etc. into • changed functions of moves in different phases
two or more variations and/or phases in such a (e.g. the same physical move can be once a
way that they form a non-closed cycle. For in- key, once a threat and once a mate or continua-
stance, a 3x2 chain can be represented as tion);
AB-BC-CD, while element A in place of D would • changed function (and sometimes fate) of
form a 3x2 cycle. Virtually any cyclic theme can pieces;
have its open-chain counterpart. 288 shows a • changed order of moves (e.g. two moves can
4x2 chain of interferences: i e7 cuts E h6, E h6 exchange their order between phases);
cuts .A_b8, .A_b8 cuts Ef7 and Ef7 cuts .A.h7. etc.
~ ~ 288 The basic form of changes concerning two-
movers were formulated by Alberto Mari in
MALEIKA, Gerhard 1928. He divided them into four categories:
4.hm Siichsische Zeitung
2008 ( l) simple change of mate;
(2) Mate transference (changed defences);
(3) reciprocal change (Change, ReciprocaD;
(4) free change of White's and Black's moves
(later termed radical change - see Change,
#2 RadicaD.

CHA-CHA Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

The principles of changed play became popular CHANGE, OF DEFENSIVE MOTIFS

in the middle of the 20th century and spread little Change of theme (or tactical effects) in two or
by little to other genres, too. In the 1960s, the more phases where the defensive motifs of the-
themes with changed functions of moves began matic black moves are different in each phase of
to gain ground. the play. Preferably the problem should be enno-
--+ See also: Multi-Phase Changed Play. bled with changed mates. 291 shows cyclic shift
"' Alias: Simple Change. of defensive motifs against the same threat in
three variations with three changed mates be-
CHANGE,FREE tween try and actual play.
A concept ofThe English School: also the moves
of an incomplete block (Block. Incomplete) could 291
participate in the changed play pattern. Possibly STOJNIC, Mihailo
the earliest transferred mate (Mate Transference) 3.pr Pat a Mat 2001
example 289 in a non-block form breaks the
rules of the English tradition: the set moves
l....il,e4/.il,g4 are a part of the changed-play
mechanism, although there are a Jot of free black
moves, notably a strong threat l ... ,tixb3.

289 #2
291: 1. ~ hS? - 2. 4:)g2#, 1... g4• 2. ~ f5#, 1... 4:)g6b
2. 4:)g6#, J... §xdJC 2. ~g4#, J... 4:)g4! • 1. .ll,g6!
- 2. 4:)g2#, I ... g4b 2. ~ h6#, l ... 4:)xg6c 2. 4:)d3#,
I... § d3 8 2. ~xe5# • a= closing of white line, b =
unblock, c = capture of a guarding piece.
* Other examples: 228, 1634, 1636.
"' Alias: Motivwechsel (Ger.).


Change of theme (or tactical effects) in two or
289: *I... ltg4 2. 4:)d3#, I... .ll,e4 2. 4:)xe6# • 1.
more phases where the weakening motifs of the-
~gS! - 2. ~xe7#, I ... 4:)c4 2. 4:)d3#, I ... 4:)e4 2.
matic black moves are different in each phase of
4:)xe6#, (1... 4:)xb3(7) 2. §c2#.
the play. Preferably the problem should be enno-
bled with changed mates. 292 shows cyclic shift
of weakening motifs in three variations with
Replacement of set check(s) by a different one(s)
three changed mates between set and actual play.
after the key.
cm De Waarheid 1981

292: *l...4:)g-& 2. ,Sle3#, l... § xf5b 2. ~ xd6#, I...
290: * 1... e4+ 2. ltd4#, I... § f3+ 2. lte3# • 1. <it'b4! ,Slxc6c 2. 4:)xc6# • 1. 4:)g4! - 2. § d5#, 1...4:)g-b
- 2. 4:)c3#, I... d5+ 2 . .ll,c5#, I... § b7+ 2 . .llb6#, 2. ~xe4#, l... §xf5c 2. 4:)xf5#, I... .ll,xc68 2.
(I ... 4:)f3,4:)g2 2. ~f2•.llh2#). ~a7#, ( I... 4:)e6 2. ~xd6#) • a = opening of white
= Alias: Checking Change. line, b = unguard, c = exposure to capture.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems CHA-CHA

CHANGE, RADICAL 294: 1... Af6• 2. ,£}xe7#A, 1... Af4b 2. ,£}fxe3#B • I.

The strategy, defences and mates are all changed ,t}eS! - 2. ~e4#, I... Af6• 2. ,£}xe3#B, l... -'l,f4b
between two phases. Thus, a total change with 2. ,£}xe7#A.
changed strategy. 295
293 GOCKEL, Hubert
l.hm Schach-Akliv /998
SCHOR. Laszlo
Grantham Journal /933

#2 295: I. -'l,xti! - 2. ~xe4+ fxe4,,£}xe4 3 . .§ g5,,£}f3#,
I... .§xd2 2. -'l,b3 - 3 . .§e7#, 2 ... ,£}d5• 3.
293: * l... exd5+ 2. ,£}e6#, I... e5+ 2. ,£}d6#, I... ~xd6#A,2 ... ,£}g8b3 . .§e6#B, I... .§xe32.-'l,g8-
-'l,xe3 2. ~xe3# • I. ~xe6! - 2. ,£}b5#, 1... Ac6 2. 3 . .§e7#, 2 ... ,£}d5• 3 . .§e6#B, 2 ... ,£}xg8b 3.
~xe4#, I... ,£}d6 2. ~e5#, I... -'l,xe3 2. ,£}e5# • ~xd6#A, (1... ,£}xd2 2. ~b2+).
Self-blocking checks turned into unpins. Possibly a
pioneer example. 296
* Other example 1618. REHM, Hans-Peter
2.hm Neue Zurcher Zeitung
In two phases mates (or continuations) after the
same two black defences are exchanged. 294 is
one of the earliest two-move presentations.
In a threemover (or moremover) mates can be ex-
changed between two variations (i.e. two varia- #
tions can be taken as two phases of play) after the
296: I. ~ f8! (2. ~ xg7+ <iftd6 3 . ..Q.b4#), I... .§xe4•
same pair of black second moves (see 295).
2. ,£}f3+A ,£}xf3 3. ~ xg7#, I ... fxe4b 2. ,£}xc4+B
There is yet another form in which the thematic -'l,xe4 3. ~f4#, I... <iftd4 2. A b4 .§xe4• 3.
moves are transferred from I st and 2nd moves to ,£}xc4#B, 2 ... fxe4b 3. ,£}f3#A.
2nd and 3rd moves (see 296). * Other examples: 462,688,930, 1686, 1697.
~ See also: Tura Theme.
= Aliases: Exchanged Mates; Reciprocal Mates; Reflex

Changed mates (Mate, Changed) after a random
294 move and corrective moves of one piece in two
phases. The alias "Tagil Theme" is due to the
MARJ, Alberto work of composers from Nizhniy Tagil
L'tchiquier 1928 (Sverdlovsk region, Russia) and a theme tourney
of the magazine "Na Smenu!" from 1962.
297: I. ~g4? - 2. ~e6#, l...,t}d- 2. ~xe2#, I...
,£}c3 2. ~d4#, I... ,£}e3 2. ~e4#, I... ,£}f4 2.
~f5#, I... f5! • 1. ~ ti! - 2. ~e6#, 1...<t}d- 2 .
.§xe2#, 1... ,£}c3 2. -'l,d4#, I... ,£}e3 2 . .§e4#, I...
#2 ,£}f4 2. ~xf6#.

CHA-CHA Encyclopedia of Chess Problems


Changed play in a multi-phase problem is per-
BEREZHNOI, Yuri ; formed by spreading (distribution) a two-phase
I.pr 1T Na Smenu! 1962 mechanism of change to three or more phases.
According to Bassisty (Slovar terminov shakh-
matnoi komposiciyi, 2004) the following are four
typical methods of distribution (see also the pat-
tern tables below):
(I) simple change of mates (298),
(2) transferred mates (299),
,. Alias: Tagil Theme.
(3) reciprocal change (300),
CHANGED FUNCTIONS OF MOVES (4) complete form of Rukhlis theme (301).
In modem problems, especially in two-movers, The theme can also be shown in less formal pat-
one of the most frequent ways of organizing the terns, which have the common characteristic of
thematic content of the problem. As for White, Black's changed defensive errors.
there can be, for instance, change of functions
between the keys of the try play and mates in
variations, the keys and threats may become Brabec (11 Brabec (21
mates in variations, or threats can become mates
in variations. As for Black, the choice is more
a b
A B .-1
a b C d
limited, but there are many themes where refuta- C A
tions reappear as defences in actual play z D z B
(Dombrovskis theme, Hanne/ius theme, Banny
theme and Vladimirov theme). The possibilities !-- -
Brabec 131 Brabec 141
are further enhanced in three- and more-mover
a b
a b C d
* See examples: 218,219,220,475,508, 1036, 1597. y A y C A
-+ See also: le Grand, Pseudo; Reversal I; Reversal, z B z D B
Threat; Urania Theme.

This term has sense only if it refers to reciprocal MAKARONETS, Leonid
or cyclic change of function of thematic black I.pr Makeyevskiy rabochiy
and/or white pieces. 1976

* See examples: 179,664.

The same black moves are in different phases
met with different mates.
* See examples: 246, 579, 706, I075, 1092, 1175. #2
298: *I ... Ae4 2. Ad4#, I ... §xd6 2. ~d4# • 1.
CHANGED PLAY fld4? - 2. flf3#, 1... Ae4 2. flfl#, (!... ~e4 2.
Variations that are altered in some way from one ~el#), I... f5! • 1. 4:)cS! - 2. fld7#, I... §xd6 2.
phase to another, e.g. a mating move that occurs ~c3#, (1... ~xd6 2. Ab8#).
in the set play is replaced by another mate in the 299: *I... §c5 2. fld2#, I... §d4 2. 4:)a5# • 1.
actual play, against the same defence. § d6? - 2. Axd5#, I... ~c5 2. fld2#, ( I... ~d4 2.
* See example 1372. 4:)a5#), I... §g5! • I. §eS!-2. Axd5#, I... ~d4
-+ See also: Multi-Phase Changed Play. 2. 4:)a.5#, ( 1... ~cs 2. ~xfl#).

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems CHA-CHA

299 type of changes, which has transferred and

changed mates in at least three phases.
hm Castellari JT /963 CHANGED PLAY, CYCLIC
Three kinds of cyclic changes of play can be dis-
(a) Horizontal Type (Lacny theme, Dombro-
Lacny theme, Kiss theme and E>urasevic
(b) Vertical Type (Rice cycle (Zagoruiko. Cy-
clic), Ukrainian theme (Le Grand. Cyclic),
300 Ceriani theme and Reeves cycle);
BRABEC, Ju raj (c) Complete Type (the number of thematic
Die Schwalbe /962 white moves equals to number of changes;
full forms of Lacny, Shedey, Ourasevic and
Kiss. Cycles of this type have not been com-
posed without sometimes very heavy twins or
other concessions.

The strategy changes between two phases, but
300: * I... § dxd6 2. <t)d3#, I... § fxd6 2. <t)g6# • 1.
both defences and mates remain unchanged. In
~ c3? -2. ~xd4#, I... §xd62. <t)d3#,(l... §xf4
302 there are four variations with changed strat-
2. .Q.xf4#), I ... hxg4! • 1. ~g7! - 2. ~xf6#, I ...
egy. In the set play the black Knights interfere
§dxd6 2. <t)g6#, I... § dxf4 2 . .Q.xf4#, I... <iftxd6
with the black Queen at d5, whereas Black's
2. ~c7#.
Bishop or Rook self-block the square. After
the key the moves of the Rook and Bishop to
301 c3 constitute Grimshaw interferences, without
RUDENKO, Valentin F. ; self-block; and the Knights' moves to d5 are
SHEDEY, Sergey self-blocks, not interferences.
I.pr Shakhmaty 1975
l:: The pioneer problem showing changed strategy was
composed in 1942 by Gustav Jonsson, the highly orig-
inal Swede.

301: *I... §g5 2 . .Q.d6#, I... .Q.xh2 2. §d4# • 1. I.pl Denmark - Norway
<t)xd6?- 2. 't[ff5#, I... §g5 2. <t)df5#, I ... §xd6+
2. Jlxd6#, (1... .Q.e6 2. <t)f7#), I... .Q.xh2! • 1.
<t)xd4! - 2. tf1f5#, l... .Q.xh2 2. <t)df5#, l...
.Q.xd4+ 2. §xd4#, (l... <t)e3 2. <t)e6#).


Occurs in multi-phase problems which have dis- 302: *I... <t)bd5 2. §c6#, I... <t)cd5 2. Jtxa6#
tinct change mechanisms for each phase. This (§c6?), I... §xc3 2. ~e4# (~e2?), I... Jtxc3 2.
kind of mechanism is, for instance, Changed play ~e2# (~e4?) • I. <t)d5! - 2. ~b4#, I... <t)bxd5 2.
in Stocchi form, where there is reciprocal change §c6#, I... <t)cxd5 2. Jtxa6# (§c6?), 1... §c3 2.
between two phases and, additionally, mate ~e4#, 1... .llc3 2. ~e2#.
transference between two phases; or Chepizny ""7 See also: Change. Radical: Changed Play.

CHA-CHA Encyclopedia of Chess Problems


The famous story by Samuel Loyd and probably
the best problem tale ever written is the sketch LOYD, Samuel
Chess Monthly 1859
Charles XII at Bender. The story introduces an
imaginary incident during the siege of Charles
the Twelfth of Sweden by the Turks at Bender in
"Charles beguiled this period by means ofdrills
and chess, and used frequently to play with his
minister; Christian Albert Grothusen, some ofthe #3
contests being mentioned by Voltaire. One day 303: a) 1. f! xg3! - 2. f! h3+ .llh4 3. g4#, 1... Axg3 2.
while so engaged, the game had advanced to this ,t)f3.Q.-3.g4# • b)without ,t)el,Mate in4:
stage (see diagram), and Charles (White) had 1. hxg3! Ae l 2. §g4 .llxg3 3. §xg3 -4. f!h3#,
just announced mate in three. t ... Ac5 2. §g4 Ae7 3. f!h4+ Axh4 4. g4# •
Scarcely had he uttered the words, when a Turk- c) second position without ft h2, Mate in 5: I.
ish bullet, shattering the window, dashed the E! b7! .Q.g I 2. E! b I A h2 3. E! e I <ifth4 4. <iftg6- 5.
white Knight off the board in f ragments. §e4#, 3... .Ilg! 4. §xgl - 5. § hi #, I... Ad4
Grothusen startled violently, but Charles, with (.llc5,Ae3) 2. § bl .Q.f6 3. §h i+ .Q.h4 4. §h2
utmost coolness, begged him to put back the gxh2 5. g4# • d) first position without f!g7,
Mate in 6: 1. <t)f3 ! .Ile I 2. <t)xe I <ifth4 3. h3 ~h5
other Knight and work out the mate, observing
4. ~f6 <ifth4 5. <iftg6 h5 6. <t)f3# (but also 4. <t)d3
that it was pretty enough. But another glance at '1th4 5. <t)f4 h5 6. <t)g6#.
the board made Charles smile: 'We do not need
the Knight. I can give it to you and still mate in CHASE THEME
four!' A variation of Grab theme where black piece
Who would believe it, he had scarcely spoken moves at least twice before it is captured.
when another bullet flew across the room, and
the Pawn at h2 shared the fate of the Knight. 304
Grothusen turned pale. 'You have our good
f riends the Turks with you, 'said the King uncon- PRZEPIORKA, David
J.hm 7idskriftforSchack
cerned, 'it can scarcely be expected that I should /922
contend against such odds; but let me see if! can
dispense with that unlucky Pawn. I have it! ' he
shouted, with a tremendous laugh, 'I have great
pleasure in informing you that there is undoubt-
edly a mate in jive. '
Nor would Charles permit Grothusen to leave till #4
he had solved the problem. It is perhaps not very 304: I. ~ d6! (2. <ifte3 A- 3. ~xd3), 1... .llh5 2. ~f4
remarkable that the minister; fearful of a repeti- .lle2 3. ~f5 .llf3/.llg4/.llh5 4. ~xlt# (2.....'1te2
tion of such chess battles, left the encampment 3. ~e5+ '1td I 4. ~xh5#), I... .Q.g4 2. ~d5 .Q.e2 3.
the next day and joined those Swedes who took ~f5 Af31Ag4/.llh5 4. ~x.ll# (2... <ifte2 3. ~e4+
sides with the enemy. " <iftdl 4. ~xg4#}, 1... AD 2. ~g6 Jte2 3. ~f5
(Taken from Alain C. White's "Sam Loyd and .llf3/.llg4/.llh5 4. ~xA# (2... <ifte2 3. ~xd3+
His Chess Problems", 19 13) <iftdl 4. ~xf3#.
~ See also: Grab Theme.
In the original three-mover, F. Amelung has
"' Alias: Abfangidee (Ger.).
pointed out, in the "Baltische Schachbliitter",
1900, that if the first bullet had destroyed the CHATRANG
Rook instead of the Knight, Charles would have The name which Persians gave to chess when it
had an equal opportunity of showing his analyti- spread to Persia in the early 7th century. The
cal powers by announcing a mate in six! game, like its name, was obviously derived from
:Is Samuel Loyd (1830-1914). chaturanga, as the rules and the nature of the

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems CHA-CHE

pieces remained the same. The term "checkmate" (2) Royal Battery Check (white King gives a dis-
is derived from the Persian "shah-mat" - "King covered check)
is helpless (or defeated)". (3) Cross-Check (a white man plays on the check
CHATURANGA In cases (l) and (3) White's counter-check can be
Chaturanga (Sanskrit for "four-membered" or direct (by the man who moves) or indirect (the
"four elements") is an ancient Indian game, de- check-parrying unit does not give check), whereas
veloped around 550 in Punjab, and is presumed in case (2) White's check is always indirect.
to be the common ancestor of the games ofchess,
shogi, and makruk, and related to xiangqi and CHECK, DIRECT
janggi. A movement of King, Rook, Knight and Direct attack to the opponent's King.
Pawn in modem chess move is the same as in the * See examples: 309, 1542.
Chaturanga, except castling and Pawn's double
step. The traces of other Chaturanga pieces can CHECK, DISCOVERED
be found nowadays in fairy chess composition in Check given by the rear-piece of a battery after
view of fairy pieces Fers, Alfi! and Elephant. The the front-piece has left the battery-line.
major change in the rules compared with the * See example.s: 305,401, 841, 1072.
game's Indian ancestor was the obligation to
parry a threat to the King. CHECK,DOUBLE
Simultaneous attack to the opponent's King by
CHECK, CAPTURE two pieces. In orthodox chess it means that the
A direct check is met by a capture of the checking battery is opened with check by both (rear and
piece. front) pieces. In fairy chess there are numerous
* See example 1277. ways to attack simultaneously the enemy King
by two or even more pieces.
One side (Black or White) gives 2 or more con- * See examples: 310, I008.
secutive checks. 305. CHECK, INTERMEDIATE [E]
In a retro play a series (2 or more) of consecutive Endgame idea: White's unexcpected checking
checks are retracted. move, necessary for win or draw, and its prepara-
tion and motivation form the leading motive of a
305 study.
DAWSON, Thomas R. 306
Chess Amateur 1922
2-3.pr= Shakhmaty v SSSR

305: 1. ~d6+ ~f4 2. ~c6+ ~f3 3. ~b5+ ~e2 4.
* Other examples: 1479, 1648. 306: 1. §g3+ ~e4! 2. §g4+ ~f3 (2... ~f5 3. §c4
§di+ 4. Ad2! §xd2+ 5. ~c7 ~5 6. ~c6 §f2 7.
CHECK, COUNTER- ~c5 §f88. ~b5(6)=)3. §g3+(3. §c4? §d1+4.
Check is answered by a check to the opponent's Ad2 § xd2+ 5. ~e7 ~e3-+) ~f4 4. §c3! § di+
King. 5. ~c8! cl~ 6. Ag3+! ~g4 7. §xcl § xcl+ 8.
Alain C. White divides White's Counter-Checks Ac7 = • White's 3. §g3+ and 5. ~c8! make
into three types: sense only in the light of the possibility 6 . .llg3+
( 1) Direct Return Capture Check (checking piece before the capture of the promoted Queen.
is captured with a simultaneous check) ,. Alias: In-Between Check.

CHE-CHE Encyclopedia of Chess Problems


l. Endgame drawing theme: One side continu-
ally attacks (checks) the opponent's King which 2.pr 1idskrift for Schack
the other side cannot avoid. 1960
2. A problem theme: A solution or a variation
consists of checks of both sides.

AnatoliyG; 309: 1. <iTtxe6! - 2 . ~e5#, I... ~ h3+ 2. ,£)xh3#, I...
J.hm All-Russian KFS 1} '{;je2+ 2. <£)xe2#, I... § e3+ 2. ~xe3#, I... Ag4+
1957 2. §xg4#, I... ,£)f8+ 2. ~xf8#, I... <£)g5+ 2.
~xg5#, I... ,£)c7+ 2. ~xc7#, I... ,£)d4+ 2. ~xd4#
• From Ochecks to 8!.
* Other examples: 290, 663.
= Alias: Exposure To Check.
307: 1. a8,£)+! (I. a8~? ~b4+ 2. <iTt- .llxh2-+)
~ xa8 2. ~ fl+ <it'a6 3. ~ f6+ and now: a) 3 ... .llb6 CHECK,TEMPO
4. ~ fl+ <3;;a7 (4... b5??) 5. ~ al+ <3;;b8 6. ~ h8+ A checking tempo move by White or Black.
<iTta7 7. ~ al+ =; b) 3.•• b6 4. ~ al+ <it'b7 (4...
_a.as+??) 5. ~ ht+ <iTtb8 6. ~ h8+ <it'a7 7. ~ al+= 310
• .ll/P Grimshaw on b6.
2.hm Probleemblad 1991

h#2 b) •e2
310: a) 1. -'\.bl+ § d3 (<£)c4?) 2. §c2 § d5# • b) 1.
§ a4+ <£)c4 (§d3?) 2. ,£)d4 <£)a3#.
= Alias: Tempo Check.
308: 1. .Q.d6! (2. ,£)b8#), I ... <£)c5+ 2. <iTtf5+ <£)e4+ 3 .
.Q.e5#, I... <£)g5+ 2. <3}e3+ <£)e4(xf3)+ 3 . .llf4#, CHECK, UNPROVI))EI>
( I... <it'xd6 2. ,£)e5+, I... b5 2. <it'e5+ ,£)xf3+ 3. In the initial position, a check for which White
has no reply in the number of moves indicated in
* Other example 1507. the stipulation. It is a constructional flaw, usually
~ See also: Perpetual Attack the more serious the shorter the problem is. It
does not necessarily mar the problem, if the key,
CHECK, PROTECTION for instance, has some compensatory element, or
A piece plays to a certain square in order to shield the composer aims at some task achievement.
a King from a check. In the retro play this is also * See examples: 258,399, 1037, 1268, 1623.
known as Retroshielding.
CHECK, PROVOCATION A logical idea: White's main plan is not effective
A move allows check by the opposite side (which until his kernel move is a check, when Black has
was not possible before that move). to parry it.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems CHE-CHE

311 313: I. 'it>a6+? 'it>e6! (2. §e7?) • t. 'it>a4+? 'it>e4! (2.

'{;jc2?) • 1. 'it>c6+? 'it>g6! (2. .£ih4?} • 1. 'it>c4+?
JOHANDL, Alois 'it>g4! (2. .£ih6?) • 1. 'it>b4+!, I... 'it>e6 2. §e7#,
cm Suomen Shakki 1990-1 I... 'it>e4 2. ~c2#, I... 'it>g6 2. ,£ih4#, I... 'it(g4 2 .
--+ See also: Key. Checking.


Fairy condition. Black must always give check
#5 when it can. When having options, it may choose
311: I. .£ig3? ,£ie2! 2. Axe2/§xe2 '{;jxg3/§xg3! • which one to take.
1. ,£ie8! 'it>f5 2 . .£ig3+! ~xg3/§xg3 3 . .£id6+ ! Inventors: see Capturing zig-zag. Chicco & Porreca
'it>e6 4. §xe3+/Axg4+ '{;jxe3/§xg4 5. J;txg4/ assume that the condition may have an old origin and
§xe3#. refer to a problem nr. 206 in Civis Bononiae with a
stipulation "Mate with Alfino in 12 moves; White must
CHECKERS THEME [E] check on every move". ["Dizionario Enridopedi&o degli
Endgame theme: in the course of solution arises Scacchi". U. Mursia & C.: Milano 1971].
such an arrangement of black pieces that White "' Alias: Schach-Zickzack (Ger.).
can eliminate them one by one using the fork.
Fairy condition. Neither side is allowed to check
KUBBEL, Leonid I. until on the mating move.
Listok Shakhmatnogo
! Invented in German-speaking part of Europe before
Kruzhka Petrogubkommuni
.. Alias: Prohibition Chess.

Fairy condition. Special case of checkmate in
+ which the player to move has physically no
312: 1. ~e4+ 'it>b8 2. §b6+ J;txb6 (2... 'it>c8 3. move.
~b7+ 'it>d7 4. ,£ie5+ 'it>e7 5. ~ xc7+ 'it>e8 6. 314
~c6+) 3. 'it>a6 §d7 4. ~a8+ 'it>xa8 5. ,£ixb6+
'it>b8 6 . .£ixd7+ +-. HEIDENFELD, Wolfgang
British Chess Magazine
"' Aliases: Draughts Theme; Shashechnaya tema (Rus.).
White has at least three tries and a key that are all
checks. The ensuing play or the keys of each Simplest checklock
phase are thematically related to one another. position

ZARUR. Almiro This term refers to either of two "nameless"
I.pr British Chess themes:
Federation 1962
1. Non-checking variations from one phase
are checking in another, and vice versa, with
changed mates (Mate. Changed). See 316.
2. All thematic variations should be with checks
in one and without checks in another phase. See
#2 315.

CHE-CHE Encyclopedia of Chess Problems


A line-moving piece makes a critical move over
MANSFIELD, Comins the square where another piece of the same col-
2.pr La Settimana
Enigmistica 1935
our intercepts it. The active power of intercepted
piece is suppressed permanently, opposed to the
temporary suppression in Indian theme.
As a direct voluntary combination, in orthodox
problems it makes sense only when executed by
White, in order to avoid the Black's stalemate. In
#2 other genres, especially in helpmates, theme can
315: * I... ,t)c7+ 2. fyxc7#, I... !!xe4+ 2. Jl.xe4# • 1. be convincingly implemented with black pieces,
~ rs! - 2. Jl_xc5#, l... Jl_d4+ 2. Jl_e5#, I... Jl_e3+ or even as in a bicolor form (i.e. with interference
2. ,t)c5#, l... J1,xd6+ 2. ,t)b5#, I... !'! fl+ 2. ,t)f2#, by the piece of opposite colour).
(I... ,t)c7 2. fyxc7#, I... ,t)d7 2. fyd5#, l... !'!xe4 ! George N. Cheney (1837-1861).
2. Jl_xe4#).
CHENEY, George N.
PUGACHEV, Sergey T. Brooklyn Standard 1860
2.pr Latvian Ty 1950

#2 318: t. A a8! fxg4 2. ~b7 ~ d5 3. !!d3#, (t... f4 2.
316: 1. !'!di? - 2. fyc I#, I... 'ilt'a5 2. ,t)d6#, I... 'ilt'c5 Jl_e4 - 3. !'! d3#).
2. fyxc5#, I... fye5 2. ,t)b6#, l... fyc6! • 1. fyg4!
- 2. fye2#, I... fya5+ 2. d5#, I... fyc5+ 2. dxc5#,
* Other example 238.
I... 'ilt'e5+ 2. dxe5#, ( I... 'ilt'g3(h2) 2. ,t)b6#). CHEPIZHNY MECHANISM
A three-phase mechanism involving complete
CHENEY THEME Sushkov (Sushkov, Complete) and a mate after
In defence of a threemover Black pins white Black has blocked the new flight that White has
piece. White unpins pinned white piece on his granted it in each phase.
second move. 2 Viktor I. Chepizhny (1934).
2 Richard E. Cheney (1908-1967).
CHENEY, Richard E. 1-2.pr~ Shakhmaty /981
Cincinnati Enquirer 1936

#3 319: • t... !'! xc4 2. ,t)b3#, I... ,Axc4 2. ,t)c2# • 1.
317: 1. ,t)axcS! - 2. ,t)b3/,t)b7#, l... Axf2 2. 'ilt'd4- ,t)d2? - 2. ,t)c2#, I ... ,t)e3 2. ,t)ab3#, I ... !'!xc4 2.
3. ,t)b3/,t)b7#, 2... Jl_xd4,!'!xc5,,t)xc5 3. !!a2, ,t)db3#, I... b3! • 1. ,t)d6! - 2. ,t)b3#, I... ,t)c5 2.
'ilt'a l,'ilt'd8#. ,t)c2#, I... _ilxb3 2. ,t)xf5#, (I... <,t>c5 2. 'ilt'a7#).

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems CHE-CHE


One changed and one transferred mate across
three or more phases. CHERNOUS, Vladimir ;
Pattern: 5.hm harmonie /998
-. a b C

y B D
z C D
h#3 211...
322: I. §eg6 4::)d2 2. ~ di+ 4::)b3 3. ~g4 4::)d4# • 1.
CHEPIZHNY, Viktor I. !! gg6 4::)de5 2. ~d4+ 4::)c4 3. ~ f6 4::)e3#.
1-2.pr Shakhmaty v SSSR
Simplified method of calculation in a Pawn end-
A French analyst A. Cheron deduced that, in
order to determine whether two isolated white
#2 Pawns without the aid of their King can promote,
320: I... ~xe5+ 2. !! f6#, I... 4::)f5 2. 4::)xg6# • I. it is necessary to add the number of the rank the
f! C6? - 2. f!C4#, I... ~e4+ 2. !! f6#, I... 4::)f5 2. Pawns are on to the number which denotes a
f!g4#, I... .Q.e3! • I. f! b6l - 2. !!b4#, I... ~e3+ distance between them. If the sum is equal to or
2. !!f6#, I... 4::)f5 2. 4::)g2#, (1... .Q.e3 2. e6#). greater than seven, one of the Pawns can
If the calculation is made for Black then rank 8
A try and the key are made by the same piece
should be taken as 1, rank 7 as 2, etc.
which sacrifices itself on two different squares.
The try is not refuted by the capture of the sacri- 2 Andre Cheron (1895-1980).
ficed piece. ,. Alias: Rule Seven.

321 323
L 'Echiquier Fran~ais /957 Lehr-und Handbuch der
Endspiele/11 2nd ed. S.
Berlin-Frohnau 1964

321: I. 'lii"c4! (2. 'lii"/.Q.xg4#) §xc4 2. 4::)gl#, I... fS!
• 1. ~ d7! - 2. ~Xg4#, J... f!Xd7 2. 4::)g l #, J... fS 324
2. §h7#.
Lehr-und Handbuch der
Endspie/e//1 2nd ed. S.
A black thematic line-piece B gives a check Engelhardt:
which is interposed by white thematic piece W Berlin-Frohnau 1964
with its self-pin. Wis then directly unpinned by
move of B, which eventually makes a self-block.
Wgives a mate.
! Vladimir Chernous (1933). + BTM

CHE-CHI Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

323: Keeping on these squares, King can hold draw: if 326: 1. €)d7? (2. €)b6#) .Q.xa5! • 1. €)g6? (2.
I ... d5 then 2. <if1e5 h5 3. <if1xd5 h4 4 . <if1e4 and King €)xe7#) .Q.g5! • 1. 4:)xe6? (2. €)c7#} .Q.h3! •
is inside the quadrant. But not I <if1e(g)6? h[d)S ! 2. 1. !!c6! (2. ~c4+), I... ~xd4 2. €)d7 .Q.xa5 3.
<if1f5 d[h)h5! and Pawns have advanced too far. 3rd €)e3#, I... !'!axd4 2. €)g6 .{,tg5 3. €)b4#, I...
rank + 3 files between the pawns = 6. 4th rank + 3 !! hxd4 2. €)xe6 .{,th3 3. ~e4# • Thematic
files= 7. squares: e3,b4 and e4.

324: 6th rank + I file = 7. If the black King has to

move, Black loses: l...~a(c)7 2 . c(a}7 etc.
White threatens with a double-check mate. Black
325 simultaneously defends against the attack of both
pieces. Such a defence is possible only by clos-
KLING, Jacob (Joseph) ing of one white line and opening of one black
HORWITZ, Bernhard line.
Chess Studies 1851
GULYAYEV, Aleksandr P.
I .pr Svesoyuzny tourney
USSR 1931
325: 1. ~ f4 ~ b6 2. ~f5 ~c7 3 . ~f6 ~ b6 4.
'ifte6! 'iftc7 5. 'iftd5 h5 6. b6+ 'iftxb6 7. 'it?xd6 +-.
Exception to the rule. White can even win, because
King can leave f-file owing to a threat.


Fairy condition. In a series-mover (Series Play}
problem the legality of the position is determined
after every move.
* Other example 645.
2 Invented by Michel Caillaud (1957) in 1979. -+ See also: Ekstrom Theme.
"' Alias: Chicco Defence.
Logical idea in at least two variations: in the ini-
tial position, Black guards thematic squares with

two pieces. White's attempts are refuted by A popular group of fairy pieces adopted from (or
one Black's thematic piece. After the key, Black inspired by) Chinese chess Xiangqi:
self-pins the other thematic piece, and White can Pao (or Cannon): Moves like Rook but captures
carry out his main plan, since the Black piece's an enemy unit by hopping along the Rook-
original refutation is followed by a mate that lines over another unit ofeither colour. Check
takes advantage of the self-pin. is given over another unit.
2 Adriano Chicco (1907-1990). Vao: Moves like Bishop but captures an enemy
unit by hopping along the Bishop-lines over
326 another unit of either colour. Check is given
over another unit.
YakovG; Leo: Combines the powers of Pao and Vao.
KOPAYEV, Vyacheslav
I.pl WCCT 1981-3
Mao (or Horse): Moves and captures like Knight,
but its move consists of one orthogonal and
one diagonal step. The first (i.e. orthogonal)
square must be vacant.
Moa: Moves and captures like Knight, but its
#3 move consists of one diagonal and one or-

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems CHU-CIR

thogonal step. The first (i.e. diagonal) square Contra-Circe: The rebirth square is of the oppo-
must be vacant. site colour to the colour of the square where the
Nao: Moves like a Nightrider but captures an en- capture took place.
emy unit by hopping along Nightrider-lines Equipollents-Circe: When a capture is made,
over another unit of either colour. Check is the captured unit (except a King) is immediately
therefore given over another unit. reborn equipollent (same distance, same direc-
! Introduced to a wider European publicity by P. tion) to the capturing move. Example: if
Seyfert-Bitterfeld in the February 1936 issue of Di, § hlx.h3, then the • is reborn on h5 (same
Sch111albe. distance h3-h5 as hl-h3). If the equipollent
square is not empty, the captured unit vanishes.
CHUMAKOV THEME [HJ Kamikaze Circe: A capturing unit disappears,
the captured unit is reborn according to Circe
In a helpmate problem two pieces captured in rules.
one phase self-block in another phase.
1:: Gennadi Chumakov (1942). Mars-Circe: A piece can capture only such
pieces as it could capture if it was standing on its
328 nonnal Circe rebirth square, and it may capture
any such piece regardless of where it is in fact
CHUMAKOV, Gennady standing, provided that the rebirth square is not
Ideal Mate Review /990 occupied by any other piece.
Mirror-Circe: Captures are as in Circe, but the
captured unit is reborn on the rebirth square of its
counterpart of the opposite colour (for instance,
'it! is reborn on d8, ,ti on white square is reborn
on g8, etc.)
h#3* Parrain-Circe: A piece captured on square X
328: *I ... 4)d4 2. 4:)c2 A bS 3. 4)b4 4)e2# • 1. ..ll,e6 will be reborn on a square Y such that the geo-
4)xa3 2. 'iftb3 4)c2 3. 'ifta2 Axe6#. metric relation between X and Y is the same as
that between the starting and finishing squares of
CIRCE [F] the next move after the capture. IfY is occupied,
or would be outside the board, the captured piece
Fairy condition. When a capture is made, the
captured unit (except a King) is replaced on its
rebirth square if it is empty; otherwise, the cap- Platzwechsel-Circe (PWC) or Interchange
tured unit vanishes. 329 Circe: When a capture is made, the captured unit
(except a King) is replaced on the square the cap-
There are numerous variations of Circe genre, turing unit just leaves. A Pawn is immovable on
some of the most popular being: its I st rank.
Anti-Circe: When a capture is made, the captur- Super-Circe: When a capture is made, the cap-
ing unit (including King) must come back to its tured unit (except a King) can be replaced on any
rebirth square: if this square is occupied, the cap- empty square. A wP reborn on the 1st rank, or a
ture is forbidden. A Pawn capturing on its pro- bP on the 8th, cannot be moved.
motion rank promotes before it is reborn. Unless
Anti-Super-Circe: When a capture is made, the
otherwise stated, captures on the rebirth square capturing unit is replaced on any empty square. A
are forbidden. 330
ft reborn on the I st rank, or a 1 on the 8th, can-
Chameleon-Circe: When a capture is made, the not be moved. Unless otherwise stated, captures
captured unit (Queen, Rook, Bishop or Knight) is on the rebirth square are forbidden.
transfonned ( <ti~A, A~§, §~'it!, 'it!~<ti) ! The rules of circe chess were first detailed by Pierre
and is then replaced on its rebirth square if it is Monreal (1916-2002) and Jean-Pierre Boyer (1935-
empty; otherwise, the captured unit vanishes. 1986) in an article in Prob/eme, 1968.

CIV -CLE Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

In general, the movement of one piece so that an-
BOYER. Jean-Pierre ;
other can move to a particular square. In square
Probleme 1968 I (v) vacation the first piece moves so that the second
can occupy the square on which it stood; in line
vacation the first piece moves so that the second
can pass over the square on which it stood on the
way to its destination; line clearance, also
known as the Bristol clearance, is a particular
#2 Circe type of line vacation in which a piece moves
329: 1. 4::)b8 - 2. fyxc l #, L. § xe4(§hl} 2. fyd2#, along a line so that another piece can move be-
l... fye3 2. 4::)xe3(fyd8)#, l... fyc3 2. 4::)xf2(f7}#, hind it along the same line in the same direction;
1... fyd2 2. fyxd2(fyd8)#, 1... d2 2. fyc2#, I ... line voidance is defined as a clearance in oppo-
4::)b3/4::)a2 2. §xel(fyd8)#, l... 4::)e2 2. 4::)e3#. site direction, also known as voidance or Loyd s
Another type of clearance is the Annihilation
RITTIRSCH, Manfred shaped line opening.
5.pr diagrammes II. 1T
1993 * See examples: 487, 1294.
Two ( or more) pieces clear a way for other piece
along two or more lines.


330: 1. 4::)fS fyxb3(fydl) 2. § b8 fyd4# • 1. Jl_g8
SHINKMAN, William A.
fyxbl(fydl) 2. 4::)eS fyf3#. Mirror ofAmerican Sports
* Other example 834. 1885

Civis Bononiae (the citizen of Bologna) is the
pseudonym of the compiler of a large collection ,gJ ~ ~ ~
of chess problems from the middle of 15th cen- #4
tury. It contains 288 positions, of which, com-
332: 1. § h7! d2 2. §a8 d3 3. ~a7 §-4. ~ g7#.
pared to Bonus Socius, 94 were new.
"" Aliases: Bended Clearance; Knickbahnung (Ger.).

A piece moves along a line so that a piece of the
other colour can move along the same line. The
clearance may be a voluntary or involuntary one,
and a Black-White or White-Black clearance, de-
pending on the stipulation of the problem.

333: l § a- 7? §a7! • 1. § h7! (-), l... §a4,§a5,

+ § a6,§a7 2. §c2+ § d4,§e5,§f6,§g7 3.4::)xd3
331: 1. § hS! §xhS 2. §a6+ <it'c5(d5,e5) 3. §aS+ (1 ... §a8 2. fyxa8+ <it'xb2 3. §c7) • White-Black
and 4. §xhS. (anticipatory) clearance on 7th rank.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems CLE-COD

335: I. .Q.a7? g5! 2 . .Q.b8 ~g6 3 . .Q.d6 e4/g4! • t.

A d6! ~g6 2. ,!lb8 e4 3. Aa7 f!xc l 4. '{;yb6# •
R0BESAMEN, Hermann Complete rendering: the white Bishop starts from
Siiddeutsche Schachbliitter the thematic line.
/908 -. See also: Bristol Clearance; Her/in.
= Aliases: Peri-Bristol; Peri-Clearence.

The front piece of the two doubled line-pieces
moves along the line to sacrifice itself, thus mak-
s#3 ing the sacrifice square or the square beyond it
available for the rear piece.
A maneuver which Black can perform as a defen- 336
sive combination in direct mate problems and
studies, or as co-operative maneuver in a help- M0LLER, Jergen
Nationaltidende 15.12.1918

2.hm Revista de !jah 1973

* Other example 240.

= Alias: Opferbahnung (Ger.).
334: I. A f4 f!h8 2 . .Q.e5 Axhl 3. Axh8 Jta8! 4.
.Q.al ! hl tt, 5. h8~ 't!Yb7[g2] 6. ~b2+ =. CLEARANCE, VACATION
* Other example 238. A move of a unit along or off the line to enable
-. See also: Bristol Clearance. another unit, usually of same colour, to exploit it.
-. See also: Bristol Clearance: Doubling, Turton.
Two line-pieces stand on same line. The front CO-AUTHOR
piece, instead of moving directly to its destina- A person who has given essential contribution to
tion, clears the line for the rear piece by stepping the creation of a composition, but is not the origi-
aside on a parallel line, moves along it and finally nator of its idea and basic matrix.
on the original line to its destination. In a normal -. See also: Joint Composition.
clearance, the maneuver takes only one move, in
the peri-clearance three moves. CODEX
First drawn up in Piran in 1958 by The Perma-
335 nent Commission of the FIDE for Chess Compo-
sitions (The PCCC), the document discusses the
MONGREDIEN, general principles of composition, solving and
Alfred W. publishing of chess compositions. It is intended
Deutsche Schachzeitung
1934 to be descriptive rather than restricting, and to of-
fer guidelines in the areas where there has not
previously been central guidance.
The first part of The Codex defines chess
composition in four chapters entitled: I - Gen-
#4 eral Principles, II - Types of Chess Composi-

COH-COM Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

tion, III - Soundness, and IV - Miscellaneous 338

The second part entitled "The Chess Composi- Aseveli I 94 3
tion and the Public" is divided into three chap-
ters: V - Publication, VI - Priority, and VII -
Finally there are annexes, the first one discussing
Public Lectures and Solving Tournaments, and
the second one offering Guidelines for the Orga-
nization of Tournaments. White moves, after that h#l
Colouring Problem
Each part is accompanied by extensive footnotes,
which can be found in the end of the document.
The Codex has been revised and amended a few A sequence of moves with two or more pieces of
times after its first release. the same colour to fulfill certain plan. Sidler de-
fines it as "Coordination ofthe effects ofat least
COHERENT SYNTHESIS [E] two moves ofone side".
Implementation of two ideas in an endgame. Almost every solution of a chess problem or
During the first combination (idea) White pre- study can be regarded as constituting a combi-
pares the ground for the next one. There should nation or rather series of combinations. The
be established an organic link between two com- concept has a specific meaning in logical prob-
binations (ideas). lems which are discussed under Logical combi-
337 nation.


2.hm Kubbe/ MT. Three (or more) threats come after black
Shakhmaty v SSSR I 946 defences in all possible combinations of triple
(quadruple), dual and unique mates. Optionally
(and preferably) in addition to these there should
be at least one black defence which prevents all
threats and introduces a new mate.
+ Pattern:
337: 1. c4! Jlxc4 2. d7 (2. Jld5? Jlxd5 3. d7 .§g2+ 4.
<i.tth3 .§g3+) 2 ... .§ d3 3. Jlf3+!* (3. Jld5? .§d2+!
4. <it?gl .§ xd5! 5. g8~ .§di+)* 3... <it'h6 4. Jld5!
.§d2+ (4... .§xd5? 5. g8~ .§d2+ 6. ~ g2!) 5.
<it'gl! (5. ~h3? Jlxd5! 6. d8~ Jle6+) 5 ... .§xd5 339
6. g84:)+! <it'g5 7. Jlcl+ <it?f5! 8. 4:)e7+ <itte6 9. DAWSON, Thomas R.
4:)xd5 <it'xd7 IO. 4:)xb6+ <it'c6 II. 4:)xc4 +-. British Chess Magazine
Fairy condition. In the initial position or after the
key each white piece (the King excluded), in
tum, is changed to black with an unchanged stip-
! Invented by Olavi Riihimaa (1920-1987). 339: 1. 4:)f5! - 2. 4:)g3A,4:)d68,~ d4C#, I... gl?:) 2.
338: 1. .§e8! • b.l.d5: 1. ,ilg8 .§a8#; b,ilc5: 1. .llf8 A/8/C#, 1... gi ll 2. A/8#, I... gl.§ 2. B/C#, I...
.§a8#; b.§e8: 1. .§e4 Axb7# • 1. .§f8?b,ilc5!, 1. 4:)c8 2. A/C#, I... 4:)b5 2. A#, I... gl ~ 2. 8#, I...
.§d8? b.§d8!. ,ilxc7 2. C#.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems COM-COM

340 Strong King: King + Knight.

Princess: Bishop + Knight.
MALEIKA, Gerhard Fort: Rook+ Pawn.
3.hm Deutsche
Schachzeitung 1982 Dragon: Knight+ Pawn, no promotion right; on
I st and 8th rank Knight; inv. T.R. Dawson.
Pawn-Knight: with promotion right (invented
by ElofWikstrom).
Griffin: Bishop + Pawn; no promotion right; on
1st and 8th rank Bishop.
Two orthodox pieces with split motion vs cap-
340: I. ~g4! (2. it;tc8A/~d7B/it;fxg8C#), I... to 2. ture powers:
ABC#, I... c£)h6 2. AB#, I... .Q.xb7 2. BC#, I...
Queen-Rook: moves like Queen, captures like
~e8 2. CA#, I ... c£)fo 2. A#, I ... c£je7 2. 8#, I ... fS
2. C#. Rook.
* Other example 969. Rook-Queen: moves like Rook, captures like
--+ See also: Maleika Blend; Progressive Separation. Queen.
Queen-Bishop: moves like Queen, captures like
SECONDARY Bishop-Queen: moves like Bishop, captures like
Three (or more) threats after a random removal Queen.
of black piece come after correction moves by Rook-Bishop: moves like Rook, captures like
that piece in all possible combinations of triple Bishop.
(quadruple), dual and unique mates. Optionally Bishop-Rook: moves like Bishop, captures like
(and preferably) in addition to these there should Rook.
be at least one correction which prevents all sec- Queen-Knight: moves like Queen, captures like
ondary threats and introduces a new mate. Knight.
341 Knight-Queen: moves like Knight, captures like
MACLEOD, Norman A. Rook-Knight: moves like Rook, captures like
hm American Chess Knight.
Bulletin 1954 Knight-Rook: moves like Knight, captures like
Bishop-Knight: moves like Bishop, captures
like Knight.
Knight-Bishop: moves like Knight, captures
#2 like Bishop.
341: I. .llgl!-2. ~xd4#, I... c£)b5 2. c£)b4A, c£)f4B, Rook/Bishop-Hunter/Falcon: forward Rook,
~g2C#, l... c£lf3 2. A,8#, I... c£jc6 2. B,C#, I... backwards Bishop.
c£)e6 2. A,C#, I ... c£)e2 2. A#, I ... c£)c2 2. 8#, I ... Bishop/Rook-Hunter/Falcon : forward Bishop,
c£)fS 2. C#, I... c£)xb3 2. it;txb3#D. backwards Rook.
--+ See also: Combinative Separation: Progressive Separa- Demiqueen : Rook+ Demibishop.
tion, Secondary. Demibishop: half of the Bishop.
COMBINED PIECES (Fl An orthodox and a fairy piece:
Fairy pieces which are combinations of ( 1) two Grazer-Bauer: Berolina-Pawn + Pawn.
orthodox pieces, (2) an orthodox and a fairy Ark: Rook + Alfil.
piece or of (3) two fairy pieces and third any. Lama: Camel + Pawn; no right to promote.
Two orthodox pieces: Gnu: Camel + Knight.
Amazon or Terror: Queen + Knight. Aurochs: Knight + Giraffe.
Empress: Rook + Knight (proposed by Carrera Okapi: Knight+ Zebra.
in 1617 for his I Ox8 board). Monitor or Hippogriff: Knight + Grasshopper.

COM-COM Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

Elephant: Queen+ Nightrider. the will of the moving side" (Palatz, Deutsche
Crowned pieces (Pieces combined with King): Schachzeitung 1927). For example, a simple
Crowned Bishop: K+B = W+B (occurs as pro-
antiform of a preparatory combination consists
moted Bishop in Shogi). of the reversal of the foreplan; the antiform ofan
indirect foreplan results in a direct maneuver, the
Crowned Rook: K+R = F+R (was a piece in the
anti form of a direct foreplan results in an indirect
Duke of Rutland's Game, also promoted
maneuver. The (infrequent) complete antiform of
Rook Ferfil (I, I) + (2,2) Leaper in Shogi).
an intersection combination will be found when
Centaur: King+ Nightrider.
an anti-interference move (of a piece leaving the
Scorpion: King + Grasshopper.
intersection point) precedes a simple antiform.
Two fairy pieces: (Sidler: Problemschach. Alphabetisch geordnete
Alibaba: Alfil + Dabbaba. Begriffsiibersicht, Luzern 1968)
Squirrel: Alfil + Dabbaba + Knight. The antiform ofa foreplan then consists of the re-
Bison: Camel + Zebra. versal of foreplan to own advantage or its com-
Dolphin: Grasshopper+ Kangaroo. plete annulment.
Zebu: Camel + Giraffe.
The realization of an antiform requires reversal
Pegasus: Grasshopper + Nightrider. of only one foreplan, the simplest one being a
Marine Pieces: critical move. A complete anti form, however, re-
Poseidon: moves without capturing like a King quires reversal of all foreplans. For instance, in
and captures adjacent pieces like a Locust interference combinations two kinds of elements
Siren: moves like a Queen and captures like a are possible: a critical move, and an interference
Locust move. Combination of antiforms of both ele-
Triton: moves like a Rook and captures like a ments, i.e. an anti-critical move and an anti-inter-
Rook-Locust ference move gives a complete anti form. 342 is a
Nereid: moves like a Bishop and captures like a complete anti-Turton doubling. Black has dou-
Bishop-Locust bled his Queen and Bishop prior to the key - an
Squid: moves like a Knight and captures like a ordinary Turton doubling in defence. White pro-
Knight-Locust ceeds to force the reversal of the entire theme, i.e.
Prawn: moves like a Pawn and captures diago- first an anti-Doubling (l..:~xa4) and then an
nally like a Pawn-Locust. anti-critical move (2 ...•Q.f5).
Many other combinations have been invented,
the list could go on literally forever...

In a classified award, the category that follows
the prizes and honourable mentions, and is often
grouped together without ranking.
In endgame: getting certain benefits in return for
material or positional concessions. #5
342: 1. ~ b8! (2. ~d3/~f2), l... ~xa4 2. ~d3 ,ilf5
3. ~d4 ..Q.e6 4. ~xg7 - 5. ~f8#, (3 ... bxa3 4.
Logical Combination can appear in different
~ xa4+ .Q.d7 5. ~ xd7#).
forms: a) Proto form (Orthoform, Grund form); b)
Antiform (Gegenform); c) Metaform; d)
Periform; e) Paraform; f) Hold-Form, and g) COMPLEX
Complete Antiform. A sum of:
"The Antiform ofa move consists ofits reversal 1. all tactical elements in a variation;
or nullification, where the direction ofthe will of 2. two or more mechanisms combined together
the reversing side is opposed to the direction of as a whole.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems COM-COM

COMPLIANCE, SQUARES OF (EJ position is the result ofan individual creative act
Such squares on the board, maneuvering on ofone or more authors [3}.
which has importance in the fight for the key [I] In some cases, it may not be necessary to give a po-
squares. sition, for example in case of certain mathematical
chess compositions or of reconstructional prob-
343 lems.
FARGETTE, Fransois
(2) In some cases, a chess composition may have more
I.pr Themes-64 /965 than one position or stipulation (twins).
(3) The use of a computer does not result in an author-
ship of the computer. Nor does the compilation or
publication of a computer generated database con-
stitute the publication of one or more chess com-
(Extract from Codex)
Chess Compositions can be grouped in various
343: 1. ,t)eJ? .Q.f3! 1. ,t)b6? .Q.c6! • 1. ,t)d6! .Q.c6 2.
<it1e6! .Q.d7+ 3. <it1f6 .Q.fS 4. {)c4 .Q.c8... h3 5. ,t)e3 ways. A possible grouping:
(6. ,t)d5(f5)) .Q.e6 6. <it1e7! A- 7. ,t)d5 or ,t)fS. • ( l) puzzles, including chess mathematical prob-
Bishop has to retain the focal position in relation to lems;
two shifting squares, but White has a tempo losing (2) didactic positions;
maneuver (triangulation) at his disposal.
(3) endgame studies;
344 (4) problems:
LOCOCK, Charles D.
(a) direct problems;
Thousand EG /9/0 (b) self- and reflexmateproblems;
(c) help(stale]mate problems;
(d) fairy chess problems;
(5) construction tasks;
(6) retroanalytical problems.
+ Still, the compositions may be divided into cate-
344: 1. <it1bl <it1h8 2. <it1b2 <it1g8 3. <it1b3 (distant gories which partly overlap one another. They
opposition) <it1f7 4. <it1c4 <it1g6 (4... <it1g7 5. <it1c3 may be of particular help in classifying non-or-
<it1f7 6. ~d2 <it1f6 7. ~e2 <it1g6 8. ~d3 etc.) 5. thodox compositions. These are based on:
~d3 ~f6 6. ~d4 ~g6 (6... ~g5 7. ~e3 and then (I) Aim (mate, win, helpstalemate etc.);
~f4) 7. e5 +-, I... <it1g7 2. ~cl <it1g6 3. ~ di <it1g5
4. <it1c2 <it1h6 5. ~d2 <it1h5 6. ~c3 <it1g5 7. <it1c4
(2) Time (direct play, seriesmover, retractor);
<it1g6 8. <it1d3 +- • White is aiming at the square (3) Space (boards of different size and shape);
d4 with black K on f6 and on the move. In this (4) Condition (maximummer, checkless chess
position, the squares of compliance are: d I(3)-g6, etc.).
el(3)-g5, c2-h7, cl(3)-g7, d2-h6, e2-h5, c4-f7,
d4-f6 (Chicco & Porreca).
-+ See also: Opposition.
"' Aliases: Corresponding Squares; Squares of Compliance.
An alteration of the position in one tum of play
that affects more than one piece. The compound
COMPOSER moves in orthodox chess are castling, capture
The person who creates chess compositions. and promotion.

A chess composition consists usually of a posi- The development of problem-solving programs
tion on the chess board [ 1], a stipulation in the started in the 1960s and 1970s, at the time when
form ofwords [2], and the solution. A chess com- both programs and microcomputers were

CON-CON Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

scarcely available. Situation improved steadily in CONSECUTIVE FOREPLANS

the 1980s, and nowadays there are very special- There are two or more successive foreplans coor-
ized programs, both in commercial and free dis- dinated to remove one obstacle at a time. Usually
tribution, which are remarkably fast owing to the if any one of the foreplans were left out, the main
overall development of computers. plan would be stranded by one remaining obsta-
cle (see 345). New German theorists call this
Longer problems and studies may still remain foreplan type I (Vorplan Typ I). 348 is there to
partially untested, studies despite the fact that illustrate the straightforwardness of this foreplan
there are also very strong chess-playing pro- type, as well as to give an illustration of a task
grams that help analyzing positions. achievement.
The programs facilitate composers' work signifi- This type can occur as a combination of choice,
cantly by giving a guarantee of the formal sound- when the right choice of the kernel move re-
ness of their compositions, but the evaluation of moves all (both) obstacles, while wrong choices
the thematic and artistic merits is still left to the leave one or several of them effective (see 347).
composers, as before.
One model mate is said to be concurrent with an- English Chess Problems
other, when the mating force is similarly dis-
posed, except that a white unit, which controls
exactly the same squares in the black Kings field,
performs that operation from different squares;
or again: in mate by discovered check, when the
rear unit is on the same square, and the moving #4
unit arrives to different squares, without effect on 345: 1. 4:)cl+? ~xf4 2. 4:)e2+ c;t>g5,4:)xe2! = two
the black King's field. obstacles: flight g5 and the black Knight • 1. .,llgS!
(2. 4:)-#) Axg5 ( I st obstacle removed) 2. § fl
CONFIGURATION 4:)xfl (2nd obstacle removed) 3. 4:)cl+ c;t>f4 4.
The arrangement of the officers and Pawns in the 4:)e2#, (I... 'it>fS 2. §a5+ Ae5 3. §xe5+ 'it>g6 4.
4:)f4#; 2... c;t>e6 3. §e5+ .Q.xe5 4. 4:)c5#).
The period, usually three months, after publica- 4.pr Osterreichische
tion of the provisional award until it is con- Schachbund /953
firmed. Within that time all information about
possible anticipations and flaws should be sub-
mitted to the judge or tourney director.
-+ See also: Award.

CONNECTED PAWNS [E) 348: 1. c3+? 'it>xd3 2. AxfS+ ~xf5,§6xf5, §3xf5,
"Two or more Pawns of the same color on adja- 4:)exf5,Axf5 ! - 5 obstacles and as many refutations!
cent files, as distinct from isolated Pawns. These • 1. _Ah4! (2. Axf6#) ~xg7 2. .,llg3 (3. Ae5#)
Pawns are instrumental in creating Pawn struc- §xg3 3. bxa6 (4. 4:)b5#) Axa6 4. 4:)c6+ 4:)xc6 5.
ture because, when diagonally adjacent, they §xd6+ §xd6 6. c3+ c;t>xd3 7. AxfS#.
form a Pawn chain, a chain where the one behind 347: The basic plan: 1. ~-? - 2. Af4 is refuted by
protects the one in front. When attacking these two moves: I... b4!,'it>b8! • 1. ~di? c;t>b8 2 . .Q.f4+
chains, the weak spot is the backmost Pawn, be- 'it>c8! and 1. ~e2? b4 2. Af4 b3! fail. • 1. ~el!
cause it is not protected" (Seirawan). b4/c;t>b8 2. Af4(+) b3/'it>c8 3. ~al/~e8#.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems CON-CON

347 348: The number of moves available to white Pawns is

5. • 1. !'!f6! -2. ifle4#, I...,tid- 2. ,tig3#, 1... ,tics
VON HOLZHAUSEN, 2. fyxfS#, I... ,tif2 2. fye5#, I ... Axd4+ 2. ~xd4#.
Walter Frh.
Deutsches Wochenschach CONSTRUCTION
Consists of the set-up of chessmen on the board
as a static element, and the solution with a possi-
ble virtual play as a dynamic one.
A central constructional element is the principle
#3 of economy which has a number of aspects:
* Other examples: 532, 770, 884, 1304. economy of force, space, (stale)mating positions,
= Aliases: Forcplanes, Consecutive; Koordinierter Vorplan
time, tactical means, play and motivation of
(Ger.). moves, not necessarily in this particular order.
Within these elements and alongside with them
CONSEQUENT HELPMATE [Fl comes most importantly the thematic unity and,
Fairy condition. This is a usual helpmate with the somewhat paradoxically, variety. Some would
only distinction that all intermediary positions like to add to the list the difficulty of solution.
are evaluated independently of the earlier Different schools of composition and individuals
moves (similarly to consequent series-helpmate stress certain aspects of economy and content
(ser-hc# or she#), where the legality of the posi- more than others, but to all of them apply the uni-
tion is reconsidered after each move). In other versal principle of getting the most thematic con-
words, helpmate in "memory-less (score-sheet- tent out of the least of means in terms of
less)" chess. This feature influences the legality economy.
of the post-key solutions with respect to castlings It is difficult to discuss the above-mentioned
and e.p. captures. he-problems can contain no principles without a great number of concrete ex-
retro-elements, in which case they form a kind of amples or reference to what does not represent
fairy helpmate, where even if a Rook or a King good construction. The characteristics ofgood as
moved during the solution, they can castle. well as bad construction is discussed under vari-
(Valery Liskovets, StrateGems 50, 2010) ous titles, such as By-Play, Defensive Motif,
-. See also: Chess. Consistent. Economy, Economy of Aim, Disqualification,
= Alias: Consistent Helpmate. Dual, Force, Superfluous, Formal Criteria,
Fringe Variation, Heavy, Ideal Form, Idle Piece,
CONSTANT CHESS [Fl Light, Main Variation, Motif, Night Watchman,
A fairy condition according to which a mate is le- Obscurity of Aim, Piece, Technical, Pin, Artifi-
gal only if the number of moves available to the cial, Pin, Technical, Play, Quiet, Prolonged Play,
pieces or a given group of pieces is same as in the Promoted Force, Purity of Aim, Repetition,
initial problem position. Apart from that condi- Method of, Setting, Task Problem, Theme vs Idea
tion, the mates are orthodox. and Unity of Variations.
2 Invented by Tapani Tikkanen (1935-1985). CONSTRUCTION TASK [Fl
A form of non-orthodox problem in which the
348 composer aims to achieve a setting showing the
maximum possible moves of a single type, such
Helsingin Sanomat 1974 as checks, mates, stalemates, stalemate releases
etc. The record is published not as a problem to
be solved but as a challenge to other composers
to improve on it. If two composers achieve the
same maximum record, the more economical set-
ting is deemed to hold that record. The first con-
struction task dates from 1848 (see 349) with the
stipulation: "Maximum moves for eight white

CON-CON Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

pieces only; black King on board, not in check". CONTINUOUS PROBLEM

( "The Encyclopedia of Chess", ed. Harry A peculiar kind of twinning: a key move leads to
Golombek, Batsford, London 1977.) a new position with the same stipulation but dif-
Interestingly, in 350, which is solved by all 11 7 ferent solution. A twinning can be
possible white moves, the wPg7 is superfluous: ( 1) irreversible, when it is not possible to solve
without it the white Rook and Bishop gain four by retracting the key;
additional moves to substitute four Pawn (2) reversible, when the new position is solved
promotions. by a retraction of the key and restoration of
the diagram position (Perpetuum Mobile!)
349 Three particular forms have been defined as
Deutsche Schachzeitung (a) Pauly Theme. In a tempo-threemover after a
1848 key move arises another threemover the set
play of which is equal to the solution of the
first position and vice versa (see 351).
(b) Pittler Theme. A pseudo block threemover
with a two-move set play. In the solution, af-
ter black defence, arises the position of a
Maximum moves for eight white pieces only,
complete block twomover (see 352).
Black King on board, not in check
(c) Kraemer T heme. A complete block problem
349: 100 moves. Has been shown to be the maximum where after the key arises another complete
possible on normal board.
block problem which cannot be solved by re-
traction of the key move. Instead there is an-
350 other key (see 353).
LUUKKONEN, Emil 2 Wolfgang Pauly (1876-1934); Wolfgang von Pittler
Uusi Suomi 1936 (1900-1934); Adolf (Ado) Kraemer (1898-1972).

PAULY, Wolfgang
Chemnitzer Tageblatt 1927

#2 How many solutions?
350: All White's 117 moves. • Compare Bezzel's
problem for similarities!
-+ See also: Domination Problem; Independence Problems.

~m~ ~~,~,~ci;
~ ~1 m~
b) after the key
351 : a)* I... e2 2. 4:)e4 exdl ~ 3. 4:)g3# • 1. !;!al ! e2
In three- and more-movers and in selfmates a se- 2. 4:)bl 4:)- 3. 4:)d2# • b) 1. !;! di! etc.
quence of moves leading to a (self-) mate in the 352
stipulated number of moves. Often synonymous
to "variation". VON PI1TLER,
L 'Alfiere di Re 1924
A sequence of moves in a problem or study in
which White neither captures nor checks. Quiet
continuations are usually considered valuable
owing to their non-aggressive nature and
difficulty. #3 b) after the key: #2

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems CON·COR

352: * I... E!-,4:)6-,4:) 7-,.Q.g7 2. 4:)xd4;~g4;~,g5, 2 Heinrich Cordes (1852-1917).

4:)xg7# • 1. hS! - 2. ~g6#, 1... 4:)g5 2. 'iftd7! E! b3
3. 4:)xd4#, 2... E!- 3. 4:)xd4#, 2 ... 4:)g- 3. ~g6#, 354
2 ... 4:)h- 3. ~g4#, 2... f)..g7 3. 4:)xg7# • (Alas,
cooked by I. 4:)g7+! f)..xg7 2. ~xg7 etc.). CORDES, Heinrich
Rigaer Tageblatt 1895
I.pr Essener Anzeiger

354: 1. .ll,c7! ~el+ 2. ~h2 ~xf2 3. f)..d6!, (3. .ll,e5?
g4!) ~f4+ 4. g3+ ~xg3+ 5. ,Axg3#.

#2 b) after the key CORNER TO CORNER THEME

1. The longest horizontal, vertical, or diagonal
353: a) * I... d2,4:)g2 2. f!xd2,4:)xf3# • 1. f!2xf3!
(-), I... d2,4:)g2,4:)xf3 2. 4:)e2,f!xd3,4:)xf3# etc. •
move of a line-piece from one comer of the board
b) 1. 4:)e3! (-), I... d2,4:)h- 2. 4:)c2,4:)xf5# etc.
to another. The key in 355 is the longest possible
* Other examples: 215,516, 1599, 1691. anticritical move. In 358 the white Queen makes
three successive comer-to-comer moves: a verti-
CONTROLLER cal, horizontal and diagonal respectively.
In formal tourneys a neutral person who receives 2. The march of a piece, White or Black, from
the compositions and forwards them to the judge. one comer of the board to another. In 357 the
Usually he also contributes to the publication of white King travels along the longest diagonal
the award and receives the claims made against it. from h I all the way up to a8.
= Aliases: Director; Tourney Director.
A second key move, unintended by the com- NORLIN, Adolf
poser. A cook is a serious flaw, and invalidates a Nordisk Skaktidende 1879 I
problem. The publication of cooked problems
was once common, but in the modern era
computers can be used to check for cooks, and
cooked problems are rarely published. (defini-
tion from FIDE Album).
* See example 139.
A term coined by Brian Harley to refer to keys
that, at a quick look, are tempting moves (checks,
captures of conspicuous units etc.) but have so
little artistic value that if they solved the problem 356
they were certainly cooks.
BARBE, Albert
2 Brian Harley (1883-1 955). Leipziger Jllustrierte
Familien-Joumal 1861
Bishop, assisted by King and two Pawns, takes a
focal position and forces black Queen and King
to submit under a mating threat. After Cordes,
the theme has been applied by Kaminer, Rinck,
Troitzky and Cortlever.

COR-COR Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

356: l. ~ hi ~al 2. <it7b7 ~xh l+ 3. <it7a6 ~a8# • Pre-Correction: The weakening is an arrival,
Three successive comer-to-comer moves of ~- the strengthening a removal. In 359: l ... 4)de3
The first vertical, the 2nd horizontal, and the 3rd 2.~e5# (the weakening is an interference, thus
diagonal. arrival) but not 2. f! f6?? (strenghtening is an
indirecte pinning, thus removal).
Neutralization: The weakening is a removal, the
RUBENS, Nathan strengthening also, or: weakening and strength-
I.pr Chess Review 1933 ening are both arrivals. For instance, in 360:
l ... 4)c- 2.4)f4# (weakening is the opened line
a4-d7, so removal) but not 2.~d5? (strengthen-
ing is the opened line a8-d5, also removal).

#10 DRESE, Gerardus H.
357: 1. ~g2! h3+ 2. ~f3 g4+ 3. ~e4 ,Af5+ 4. ~d5 Tzjdschrift v. d. NSB 1929
.Q.e6+ 5. ~c6 .Q.d7+ 6. ~ b7 .Q.c8+ 7. ~a8 ,Ab7+
8. §xb7 .Q.xg3 9. § hi+ .Q.e l 10. §xel#.
* Other examples: 759,863, 1104, 1357, 1430.
Any move which carries an erroneous effect but #2
also an advantageous effect which prevents the 358: l. ,Ah8! - 2. ~ f8#, 1... § e- 2. 4:)h4#, 1... § e2
utilization of that error can be called "a correc- 2. ltxg4#, (1... ~xd6,~ d8 2. 4:)xd6,~xe5#).
tion" or "corrective move". This concept is the
basis of many groups of chess problem themes. 359
For instance, in a total dual avoidance such
FERREAU, Wilhelm
move corrects itself (whereas the utilization of Dortmunder
the error may never happen). In a pair of partial General-Anzeiger 1932
dual avoidance two black defences alternatively
correct each other. In black correction (Correc-
tion. Black) a corrective move compensates the
removal error of thematic piece. Opposite, in ar-
rival correction ( Correction. Black. ArrivaD a
move of specific piece to thematic square or line #2
corrects arrival of another, usually impersonal 359: l. 4:)h6! - 2. 4:)f5#, I... 4:)ge3 2. § f6#, I...
(or dummy) piece. 4:)de3 2. Ae5#, etc.
The correction may show itself in Black defen-
sive as well as in White attacking strategy.
* See example 1524. BANYAl, Jozsef
hm Magyar Sakkvilag TT
In their Thema-Boek (Eindhoven 1948) F. W.
Nanning and A. M. Koldijk recognized the fol-
lowing forms of correction play:
Ordinary Correction: The weakening is a re-
moval, the strengthening an arrival. In 358: #2
I... f! e- 2.4)h4# (removal) is corrected by 360: l. _ilxe4! - 2. i,lJS#, 1...4:)c-,4:)cxe5 2.
l... f! e2! (arrival). 4:)hf4,4:)df4#, 1...4:)f- ,4:)fxe5 2. ,Ad5,4:)c5#.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems COR • COR

CORRECTION, BLACK 364 the black Bishop gradually deprives the

A random move of black piece, a primary de- black Rook of access to b6, then d6 and finally
fence, carries a harmful effect, called primary e6.
error (or general error) which White can utilize
(to mate) with the secondary threat (or a con- 361
tingent threat). However, the same black piece
can play so to compensate the primary error and LOYD, Samuel
prevent the secondary threat, but this corrective Musical World 1859
move (or simply correction) has a new disad-
vantageous effect, a secondary error which
White can utilize.
In 361 a general error of the black Bishop's ran-
dom move is opened e 1-g I line. A correction
l...,ilg2! still opens the same line, but closes the #2
line for the white Queen thus preventing the sec- 361: t. E!et! H, t... A- 2. '({rgt#, t... .Q.g2 2.
ondary threat 2:~gl. However, there is a sec- '({rh4#, I... ~xel 2. '({rd2#.
ondary error, a selfblock on g2, which allows
Queen to mate from h4. Miniature 362 is one of
the first examples with two corrections of the 362
black Knight. ASPA, Rosario
Tertiary Black Correction. As all possible J/lustrated London News
moves of one piece carry the same removal effect
as its random move, raising the play to higher de-
grees is possible only by gradual accumulation of
(line-)arrival weaknesses in its corrective moves.
The only one arrival weakness can be repeated
by the same piece in two parallel variations, and #2
that is the interference on the same line. In a clas-
sic 363 the secondary error - unpin of the white 362: 1. .flg6! (-), I... 4:)- 2. e3#, I... 4:)e3 2. 'lt,f6#,
I... 4:)e5! 2. '({rb6#.
Bishop - is materialized after the secondary cor-
rection 1...<t)d3!. The next correction 1...<t)d7!!
repeats the same error but prevents its utilization. 363
However, it carries a third error, a selfblock on
d7, which allows new mate. MANSFIELD, Comins
I.pr Australian Meredith
If taken out of context and observed without the Ty /928
primary defense landings of the Knight to d-line
form the arrival correction ( Correction. Black.
ArrivaO. It can be concluded that a black correc-
tion of higher degree consists of the random
move and the one degree lower arrival #
Quaternary Black Correction. The chess ge- 363: 1. 'lt,e2! - 2. ~ xe7#, I ... 4:)- 2. 'lt,b5#, I ... 4:)d3
2 . .Q.c6#, I... 4:)d7 2. Afl#, (1... e- 2. f!xd8#).
ometry does not allow one piece to close the line
of another in a narrow space of a twomover. 364: 1. E! aS! - 2. E! xa4+ 4:)b4 3. E! xb4#, 1... A- 2.
However, in one move longer problems it is pos- 'lt,c2+ <i!?b4/<i!i>xd4 3. f!xa4/4:)f5#, I... .flc6! 2.
sible to extend the action of a line-piece along the 4:)c8 ('lt,c2+?) f! bl 3. Ae2#, I... .Q.e6!! 2. 4:)xe8
bent line, thus providing more spots for arrival of 4:)c5 3. f!xc5#, I... .Q.e4!!! 2 . .Q.e6+ ('lt,c2+?/
another piece to it. In a surprisingly economical 4:)c8?/4:)xe8?) .Q.d5 3 . .Q.xd5#.

COR-COR Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

364 tween 368 where "something" on d5 would give

two mates (~c8 and .§xc4) and the ugly keyed
MLADENOVIC, Miodrag but thematically unambiguous 369 with clear
3.hm Olympic Tourney gradual weakening on the black Kings field.

The Problemist 1930

* Other examples: 26,29, 69,208, 215,355,385,401,437,
449,460,614,704,754,816,898,954, 1045, 1100, 1109,
1148, 1175, 1288, 1422, 1587, 1646.
= Aliases: Fortgesetzte Verteidigung (Ger.); fV (Ger.).
To defeat the threat Black must play one of his 365: 1. ~ f2! (2. ~xa7#), I... ll,d4 2. -l&xe2#, I...
4:)ed4 2. -l&a2#, I... 4:)fd4 2. §a3#, I... §hd4 2.
pieces to thematic square (or line). A primary
§h6#, I... d4 2. -'\,c4#.
defence is a dummy arrival on this square. It
makes a primary error which allows White to
realize the secondary threat (Threat. Secondary). 366
The arrival of another black piece to thematic PAPE, Edouard
square (or line) makes the same primary error, Good Companion 1919
but corrects it by some provision against the sec-
ondary threat. However, this move carries a sec-
ondary error which allows White another mate
(or continuation). After the key in 365 the black
Bishop's move to d4 is a pure dummy arrival,
while moves by each of other four black pieces
prevent the secondary threat but introduce addi- #2
tional errors which are utilized by White. Thus, 366: 1. 4:)e2! - 2. ~d4#, I... ll,d5 2. ~f4#, I...
here we see four arrival corrections on d4. 4:)bd5! 2. ~e6# (2. -l&f4?), l... 4:)fd5!! 2. -l&e5# (2.
Tertiary Arrival Correction. As the dummy ar- -l&f4?,-l&e6?), (1 ... ~e3 2. -1&xd3#).
rival contains all possible arrival errors, raising
the play to higher degrees is possible only by 367
gradual accumulation of removal errors of cor-
MARI, Alberto
rective moves. In that respect 366 is not a pure l'Alfiere di Re 1922
arrival correction since a dummy piece on d5
would allow two mates (~f4 and 'i;1e6). On the
other hand, in 367 the primary defence 1... .§ c5
has exactly the same effect as if a powerless
black stone was there; the secondary defence
l...~dc5! prevents 2. 'i;1h7 but unguards g5; the
tertiary defence 1... ~ec5 !! avoids both errors by #2
giving a potential flight on e6, but carries the 367: 1. § bS! - 2. 4:)e3#, l... §cc5 2. ~h7#, I...
third weakness by opening e-file. There is only a 4:)dc5! 2. -l&g5# (~h7?), I... 4:)ec5!! 2. -l&xe5#
handful existing problems showing a clear (-l&h7?/~g5?).
tertiary arrival correction.
368: 1. ~ f8! - 2. 4:)e7#, 1... Jld5 2. -l&c8#, 1... 4:)cd5
Quaternary Arrival Correction. This involves 2. §xc4# (~c8?), l... 4:)bd5 2. 4:)b8# (~c8?/
one more defence and accumulation of another §xc4?}, I... d5 2. -l&c5# (-l&c8?/§xc4?/ 4:)b8?),
error. The same parallel as above can be made be- ( I... <i:Tid5 2. 4:)e7#).

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems COR-COR

368 370
Cornelis Cornelis
l .hm Probleemblad 1943 I.pr NBvP 59. TT 1945

#2 #2

The Problemist 1976
I.pr Mat Plus 1994

369: 1. f8~ ! - 2. ~ d6#, I... cxd5 2. ~xg7#, I...
.Q.xd5 2. ~xc3# (~xg7?), I ... 4:)fxd5 2 . .Q.d6# 371: (* I... exfS/ .1lxf5 2. ~ d6#) • 1. 4:)c3? .Q.xf5,
(~xg7?/~xc3?), I... 4:)bxd5 2. 4:)xc6# (~xg7?/ exf5!?,4:)xf5! 2. ~c7,~d5,? # • 1. 4:)xcS? exf5,
~xc3?/.1ld6?), I... ~xd5 2. ~d6#. 4:)xf5!?,Jl_xf5! 2. d4,~xe6,? # • 1. 4:)f2? 4:)xf5,
,. Alias: Arrival Correction.
.Q.xf5 !?,exf5! 2. 4:)xg4,g4,? # • 1. 4:)gS!-/~xf5 2.
~e4#, I... .1lxf5 2. 4:)xf3#, I... exfS 2. 4:)f7#, I...
CORRECTION, BLACK, ARRIVAL, 4:)xf5 2. ~xe6#.
1. In regard of changed mates. Three (or more) CORRECTION, CONSECUTIVE
arrival correction (Correction, Black, ArrivaD The same black piece carries out corrections in
pairs on three different squares cyclically met by successive moves.
as many thematic mates so that each mate is once
a contingent threat (Threat, Secondary), i.e.
meets a dummy arrival, and once is answer to the
corrective move. 370 is a single phase presenta- SAMMELIUS, Carel J. R.
tion of theme, while editors don't have the I.pr Nanning MT 1959
knowledge of any multiphase example.
2. In regard of changed nature. Three tries fea-
turing three black defences on the same square so
that each of them is once a primary defence (i.e.
is equal to a dummy arrival), once a correction,
and once a refutation. In 371 mates are changed # 3
in all thematic variations, which with all three
defences (involving two additional changes) in 372: t. 4:)g2! - 2. 4:)xc6+ <ifte4 3 . .§ xd4#, I... .Ilg I 2.
actual play make the Cyclic Refutations theme .Q.xc3+ <it>e4,.Q.d4 3. ~ bl ,f!el#, I... .ftb6! 2.
(though one mate short of a perfect set of 9). .Q.f3 (3. 4:)xc6#), 2 ... .§-,.§c5! 3 . .Q.xd6,.ftxc3#,
I... f!- 2. §e l+ .Q.e3 3 . .ftxc3#, I... .§xc4! 2.
370: 1. e4! - 2. 4:)f3#, I... fxe4 2. 4:)f5#A, I... .1lxe4! ~f3 (3. ~xf4#), 2 ... A-,.Q,,c5! 3 . .Q.xd6,4:)c6#,
2. ~b6#8, I... fxe5 2. ~b6#B, I... 4:)xe5! 2. (I... ~e4 2 . .Q,,xd6- 3. ~ xc6#).
.llb6#C, I... Jl.xc3 2 . .Q.b61fC, I... f!xc3 ! 2.
4:)xfS#A. ,. Alias: Correction, Successive.

COR-COR Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

CORRECTION, NORMAL ~xa6#, I... ~xc4! • I. ~xd4! - 2. ~xb3#, I...

A piece's random move is refuted by opponent, .1lxd4 2. t;,aS# (the initial threat recurs!), ( I...
owing to a general error. The piece corrects the ~xc4 2. E! xc6#).
general error by playing to a particular square. 374
According to Nanning and Koldijk ( "Thema-
Boek ", 1948) one of three types of Correction RICE, John M.
Play. l.hm Phenix 2004

-. See also: Correctio11, Black: Correction, White.

A random removal of white thematic piece intro-
duces the initial threat, but also introduces a gen-
eral error which Black can use to defeat. No other #2
move by white thematic piece can prevent that 374: l ~ d-? - 2. f! d7#, I... ,Af8! • I. ~xe5!? - 2.
defence by providing a mate in reply to it. So in- t;,d3# (E! d7?), 1... fxe5 2. E! d7#, ( I... E! c3 2.
stead of correcting the general error it corrects .1lxc3#), I... f! dl ! • I. ~xcS! l -2. ~b3# (E!d7?,
the actual threat. For the sake of completeness, it,d3?), I... bxc5 2. f!d7#, I... f!xc5 2. ~d3#,(1...
the initial threat should recur after some other de- ~xc5 2. .1lxb6#, I... f!bl 2. it,xf2#, I... f! b4 2.
fence. 373 is an early example with four threat it,c3#).
corrections and reccurence of the initial threat
after the key. * Other examples: 1019, 1548.
Tertiary Threat Correction. A white piece in- CORRECTION, TOTAL
troduces a threat by its random move, which is A black correction where the secondary threat
defeated by a black defence. Correction move by exists, but there's not physical move by the the-
this same white piece prevents the initial threat matic black piece after which White can play it.
and substitutes it with a new threat, which is de- 375 is a peculiar problem showing 9 different
feated by another black defence. There is a de- mates after the moves by a single Knight. How
fence that permits initial threat. The key by this come? Of course, the ninth mate is the one that
same white piece prevents both, initial and could meet the "Knight in the air" move if there
secondary threats and substitutes them with a was any.
new threat. Both, initial and secondary, threat is
brought in by mate transference after an adequate 375
defence. 374 is one of rare thematically complete RICE, John M.
examples that correctly accumulates harmful and 2.pr Stella Polaris 1968
advantageous effects in primary, secondary and
tertiary attack of the white Knight, though with
the absence of a primary white error.

I.pr Suomen Shakki 1950
375: 1. it,el! - 2. it,xe5#, I... ~- 2. ~xh4# (but
there's no Knight move which would allow this
mate!), I... ~xc4 2. ~b3#, I... ~d3 2. c3#, I...
~xf3 2. ~xf3#, I... ~g4 2. it,e4#, I... ~c6+ 2.
dxc6#, I... ~xd7 2. f!xd7#, I... ~f7+ 2. f!gxf7#,
I... ~xg6 2. f!xg6#.
373: (*I ... _Ae t 2. t;,xd4#) • 1. ~a3? - 2. t;,a5#, 1... CORRECTION, WHITE
.Q.el! (2. itfxd4?) • I. ~ bc3? - 2. ~a4#, I... ~c7! A random move, a primary try (or primary at-
• I. ~xd6? - 2. ~ b7#, 1... d3 ! • l. ~ c7? - 2. tack), by white thematic piece is refuted by black

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems COR-COR

thematic defence. However, white piece can play Quaternary White Correction. Unlike Black,
so that it prevents that defence or provides with a in a twomover White has two moves at his dis-
mate for it. There should be at least two or more posal and it gives enough time for a white piece
options for such secondary attacks, each of to close the bent line of another white piece more
which carrying the secondary error used by than twice. Following the same logic as for a ter-
Black to defend himself, so only one move solves tiary correction, White's attacks in 378 gradually
the problem. shorten the white Queen's bent line g4-d2 by
Knight moves to c3, d4 and f4.
A prototype problem 376 shows theme in a
more complete form, known as Pedersen
Theme, which requires that the primary try car- 376
ries the error, a primary weakness, usually the
abandonment of the mate set for Black's thematic PEDERSEN, Eigil
Skakbladet 1947
The original definition by the inventor Eigil
Pedersen was: "White correction: In the initial
position White has set mate to Blacks s thematic
move. White abandons it with the random move
of his thematic piece and Black takes advantage
of it in his primary defence. White has at least #2
two correction moves, after which Black would 376: * 1... 4:)f3 2. hxg4# • 1. 4::)-? 4::)f3! • 1. 4::)d7?
cut his own lines harmfully with his primary de- 4:)f3? 2. Jle4#, 1... e5! • 1. 4:)d5? 4:)f3 2. 'li'Jf4#,
fence, but he refutes White secondary attacks. Fi- 1... Jle2! • I. 4:)e4? 4:)f3? 2. 4:)g3#, 1... <;t>e5! • 1.
nally. Black has to interfere with his line piece. 4:)xg4! - 2. '{f/g5#, 1... 4:)f3 2. Jle4#, (1... e5 2.
There are at least two changed mates after Jld7#).
Blacks primary defence. "
Tertiary White Correction. Raising the White ~~ ,,,~~~, 377
correction to higher degrees consists of gradual
introduction of provisions for previous errors
~ ~t m
m m mt
f~ t
.ft ~ KOVACEVIC, Marjan
and accumulation of new errors. As in the black ~ ~r.--,.~ A~~ I.pr M Stosi<: MT 1995-96
correction (Correction, Black) while the primary ~
weakness, if any, lies in a removal effect of the
move by thematic white piece, all subsequent er-
m.ft m m ~

~~- m • .ft
rors are introduced by arrival effect. The only ef- lifl .ft ~g lifl ~
feet that can be repeated is the closure of white ~- ~~' '~ ~~"'
line. Thus a tertiary attack consists in repeating #2
the secondary error and providing the means to
cope with it. The complete chain of corrections in 377: * 1... 4:)f6 2. '{f/xf6#, 1... gxf5 2. 'li'fe3#, 1...
377 starts with a random removal of 4:)d5 with Jlxc4 2. §e3# • 1. 4::)d-? 4:)f6! • I. 4::)c3!? 4:)f6
unguard of f6 as a primary error and the mate 2. Jlg4#, I... Jlxc4! (2, § e3?) • 1. 4:)f4!? 4:)f6 2.
set for l...4:)f6! is not possible any more. The Jlxg6#, 1... gxf5! (2. '{f/e3?) • 1. 4:)e3!! - 2.
correction 1. 4:) c3 !? provides new response §d5#, I... 4:)f6 2. '{f/xg3#, 1... Jlxc4 2. 4:)xc4# (2.
§e3?), 1... gxf5 2. '{f/xf5# (2. '{f/e3?), (1... 4:)f4 2.
(2.~g4#) but closes the line a3-e3 which Black '{f/[6#, I... fxe6 2. Jlxg6#, I... dxe6 2. §a5#).
utilizes with l.. ..Q.xc4!. White continues with
1.4:)e3 !! which, besides another provision for 378: *1... Jlb5 2. '{f/xb4#, 1... §e8 2. '{f/d4# • 1.
thematic black move (2.'/{¥xg3#) again closes the ,£)cl? 4:)f3 ! • 1. 4:)c3!? 4:)f3 2. 4:)3e4#, 1... Jlb5!
same line a3-e3, but also provides response for (2. '{f/xb4?) • 1. 4:)d4!!? - 2. 'li'fe2#, I... 4:)f3 2.
l....Q.xc4 2.4:)xc4#. A similar relation to the key 4:)xf3#, 1... Jlb5 2. 4::)dxb3#, 1... § e8! (2. '{f/xb4?,
move has another secondary correction 1.4:)f4!? '{f/d4?) • 1. 4:)f4!!! - 2. '{f/e2#, 1... 4:)f3 2. 4::)e4#,
with g5-e3 as thematic line. Thus, the key is 1... Jlb5 2. 4:)xb3# (2. '{f/xb4?), 1... § e8 2. '{ffd7#
(2. '{f/xb4?, '{ffd4 ?).
effectively a double tertiary correction!

COR-COU Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

~S fS ~ 378 379: *I ... ~ b8 2. .Q.d4#, I ... ~xc2 2. ltf4# • I.

~d~.-[f ::~?t~:g~~~t
~ d4? ~b8! • I. d4? ~ b8 2. ~c3#, I... ~xc2! •
I. 4:)d4! - 2. .Q.f4#, I ... ~ b8 2. vt,xe2#, I ... vt,xc2
2. 4:)xc2#, (I... .Q.xd5 2. 4:)xf5#, I... vt,xd4 2.
l.fft·g ~-~~

~'f B~-~~
~<W'' ~ ,, ) ~ , ., ,

~ ~ // ' W

..~ ~ 4J~ "'i f This term is sometimes used to designate a line

tflj~ ~~i~ t~~ between the pinned and the pinning piece, some-
times for a line between the pinned piece and the
piece it hides, and sometimes for both.
* Other examples: 426,427,669,936, 1080, 1082, 1175,
1279, 1306, 1411 , 1495, 1533, 1536, 1537.
s Aliases: fA (Ger.); Fortgesetzte Angriff (Ger.); White COSTACHEL THEME
Correction. Black pins a white piece and closes a black line.
The pinned white piece mates by moving along
CORRECTION, WHITE, ARRIVAL the pin-line (Pelle move).
Here, opposed to "normal" White correction Note: This is actually a Cristo(fanini Theme
(Correction. White), instead of a single white where the closing of a black line is mandatory.
piece creating a general error and then correcting 2 Octav Costachel (1911-1987).
it in subsequent variations, different pieces arriv-
ing at the same square create a comparable effect 380
of general error and correction. In 379 a dummy
arrival to d4 creates a primary error in view of COSTACHEL, Octav
the white self-obstruction. Corrections with the Revista Romona de $ah
Pawn and the Knight repeat exactly the same er-
ror, but compensate with provision of new mates
for thematic black defence I ... 'lWb8. Note that the
Rook's move to d4 is not a pure dummy arrival
since it preserves the guard of d3.
Tertiary White Arrival Correction. Arrival of #2
a dummy white piece creates a primary error 380: I. 4:)b4! - 2. ~ xd3#, I... .Q.d4 2. ~d5#, I...
which is corrected by arrival of another piece. .Q.f6 2. ~xfS# • etc.
However this adds a secondary error which is -+ See also: Cristoffanini Theme.
further corrected by arrival of a third piece. As-
suming that the primary error in 379 is only an COUNTER EXCHANGE
obstruction, then l .d4!? repeats the same error pro- An English equivalent to German's "Kontra-
viding a new mate to compensate, but also adds a wechsel", which is one form of Option combina-
secondary error by means of self-interference. tion, one of the basic forms being: I .A? a!
Finally, l.,£)d4!! repeats these two errors but (l...b? 2.8), l.B? b! (l...a? 2.A); I.X! alb
compensates both by provision of new mates. 2.8/A . This is in fact a little extended form of
what in two- movers is known as Banny Theme,
379 but logical renderings like 381 tend to be three-
GOLDSCHMEDING, or more-movers. In 382 the pattern is different
Cornelis l.X? b! (1...a 2.A), l.Y? a! (I...b 2.8), l.Z! b/a
4.hm Stella Polaris /973 2.8/A#, because White's 1st and 2nd moves are
made by different pieces. ombination can also
find a cyclic rendering, for instance: l .X? a! l .Y?
b! l.Z? c! l.W! a/b/c 2.Y/Z/X.
It should be noted that the combination cannot al-
#2 ways be easily translated into the patterns above,

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems COU - CRI

because in essence the letters signify plans, not 383: 1. .Q.d7? Ae8! 2. §f6 .Q.f7! 3. §xf3 Axd5+ •
just particular moves. 1. Ae6? Af7! 2. §f6 Ae8! 3. §xf3 A b5+ • t.
Counter Exchange With A Changed Key § f6! .Q.e8 2. Ae6 A f7 3. §xf3 - 4. §g3# I...
Piece. Like a "Counter exchange", but White Af7 2. Ad7 Ae8 3. § xf3 - 4. §g3#., (2... Ah5 3.
makes his key with another piece, because the §f4 A- 4. §g4#; 1... Ag4 2. §f7,8 A- 3.
key piece{s) of the try-play must not compromise §g7,8+).
itself/themselves too early. The try-play is built * Other examples: 528, 1409, 1466.
on the false order of selection of these two
This is very imperfect two-move equivalent of
381 the so-called Turton theme of longer problems.
Only the Pawn can show such a key in a
ORLIMONT, P. A. twomover, and the line influenced must be a mat-
Wiener Schachzeitung 1931
ing line, down which is to travel the influence of
the mating piece. The variation in 384 l ... ~b3
2. ~xb3, shows the purpose and method of this
idea (Alain C. White).

GALITSKY, Aleksandr V.
Semija 1894

Fairy condition. A black man, when attacked by a
#3 white one, must move to attack that white man.
382: 1. ~c7? 4:}c2!b 2. ~ d2+ 4:}b4 3. ?, 1... 4:}b3?•
2. ~a3A 4:}- 3. ~c3# • 1. <;t>b7? 4:}b3 !• 2. ~a3+ COURIER CHESS [F]
4:}c5+!, I... 4:}c2b 2. ~d2+B 4:}b4 3. ~c7# • t.
One of the European versions of chess, known
~ a7! (-), I... 4:}c2b 2. ~ d2+B 4:}b4 3. ~c7#, I... since 1200. There were pieces like courier (=the
4:}b3• 2. ~a3A 4:}- 3. ~c3#, ( 1... A- 2. ~a3+). modern Bishop), man (moved like King), snake,
alfil and fers, among others. Furthermore, the
383 board might have been larger than normally, for
SPECKMANN, Werner instance l 2x8 squares.
Deutsche Schachzeitung "' Alias: Kurierschach (Ger.).
Black pins indirectly a threatening white piece
that mates by moving along the pin-line (Pelle
#4 ~ Guido Cristoffanini (1908-1980).
CRI-CRI Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

385 interference affair we will denote with letters a,

b and o, f4 = a, b4 = band a4 = o. These three
CRISTOFFANINI, Guido fields are called the critical squares.
Ttjdschrift v. d. KNSB /927
It is possible to define different kinds of interfer-
ences. For instance, in Holzhausen interference
the Attacker and Blocker are like-motion pieces.
The definition of a critical move reads: Prepara-
tion for an interference which can be done in one
#2 of the following ways:
385: 1. ,tic7! - 2. '{f/c5#, I ... .Q.c6 2. ~e5#, I ... .Q.g6
2. ~e6#, (I ... .Q.- 2. ,tie8#). (a) Ortho-Critical Move (or shorter "Critical
"'"7 See also: Costache/ Theme move"): the Attacker crosses b. In 386 there
are two objects, square d8 and the white King
CRITICAL MOVE (by means of the pinned Pawn) and Black
A critical move occurs when a piece traverses line-movers exchange their attacking and
the cutting-point with the object of bringing the blocking roles depending on which object is
latter into right relationship with the squares of concerned.
occupation and action.
(b) Meta-Critical Move: the Blocker crosses a
The piece executing the critical move is the criti- (387).
cal piece; and after execution of critical move,
the cutting-point becomes ipso facto the critical (c) Meto-Critical Move: the Blocker crosses o
square. The piece that plays to the critical square (388) - actually an Anti-Bristol.
shutting off the critical piece from its square of
(d) Para-Critical Move: the Object crosses b
action is the interference-piece.
Johannes Kohtz added that the sole purpose of a
critical move must be the validation (or "making Each of the moves mentioned above has a
utilizable") of the cutting-point. Periform move which is made along the line par-
See more under Critical Play. allel to the thematic line.
* See examples: 49, 98,179,372,481,513,514, 772,877, The Anti-Critical move is avoidance or elimina-
878, 1049, 1138, 1214, 1685. tion of interference by crossing the critical
= Alias: Kritikus (Ger.). square. Correspondingly, there are four ways to
do it:
(e) Anti-Ortho-Critical Move (or shorter
A piece which makes Critical Move.
"Anti-Critical move"): the Attacker crosses b.
CRITICAL PLAY (f) Anti-Meta-Critical Move: the Blocker
The play involving any form of critical move(s). crosses a (390).
A closer look at the concept of interference can (g) Anti-Meto-Critical Move: the Blocker
help us in explaining the nature of this move. A crosses o (which is nothing but a Bristol
piece which we' ll call a "Blocker" (B) closes the clearance!).
line of another piece, an "Attacker" (A), toward
certain square or a piece - an "Object" (0). (h) Anti-Para-Critical Move: the Object
crosses b (391).
For instance in 1033 in variation l ...b4 2 ..Q.a4#
the Pawn cuts the Rook from the square a4. The Again, each of these has its Periform. For in-
Pawn is the "Blocker" the Rook "Attacker" and stance, Her/in is a Peri-Ortho-Critical move and
the square a4 is the "Object". The squares where pericritical clearance is an Anti-Peri-Meto-Criti-
the Attacker, Blocker and Object are during the cal move.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems CRI-CRI

The eight forms (a-h) given above are perhaps 387

better explained by the following illustration:
Die Schwalbe 1938
(a) Ortho-Critical:
a b 0

(b) Meta-Critical:
a b 0

B----- #4
(c) Meto-Critical: 388
a b 0
------B HANNEMANN, Knud
I.pr Skakhladet 1919-20
(d) Para-Critical:
a b 0
(e) Anti-Ortho-Critical:
a b 0
(f) Anti-Meta-Critical: 388: 1. E(h5! (2. J,tc5#), I... J,td5 2. 4:)c6+ J,txc6 3.
a b 0
J,tc5#, I... El d3 2. 4:)b3+ E(xb3 3. J,tc5#, I...
-----B E(f5 2. '{tfg7+ E(f6 3. J,tc5#, I... '{tjd5+ 2. E(e4+
'{tjxe4 3. J,tc5#, I... '{tjd3 2. '{tje3+ '{tjxe3 3.
(g) Anti-Meto-Critical: Jtc5#, 1... '{tjf5 2. '{tff4+ '{tjxf4 3. J,tc5#, (I...
a b 0
J,txd2 2. '{tjxd2+, I... g(xh)5 2. '{tjd6+).

(h) Anti-Para-Critical:
a b 0
+------ 0 Alfred W.
Chess Amateur 1924

389: 1. J,tf8! e4 2. El e7 JJ..xe7 3. ,itxe7 e3 4. 4:)c3#,
2... J,t-/e3 3. E(xe4+/E(e4, (I... ,itel 2. E(c7 etc.).

386: 1. E( d7! J,tg5 ( ortho-critical move) 2. b5 El h6
(also ortho-critical move) 3. f6 and now if 3. E(xf6
4. El d8# the Rook is a Blocker and the Bishop an
Attacker, while after 3 ••• J,txf6 4. b7# it's the other
way round.
387: 1. '{tjxc6? J,th6+! 2. '{tjxh6 stalemate • 1. '{tje6!
h5 2. '{tjxc6 ,ith6+ 3. '{tfxh6 hxg3 4. '{tjxh5#. • #4
Involuntary meta-critical move I... h5. 390: 1. 'it'h2! h3 2. 'it'hl h2 3. J,tf7 'it'xh7 4. '{tjxh2#.

CRl·CRO Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

391 Critical square in 393 is g6, which Black first

crosses for his benefit (anti-critical move
EISERT, Stephan ; l ...,ilh7, stopping 3. '{{¥f5#), then crosses (critical
REHM, Hans-Peter
Die Schwalbe /994 move 2 ... ~b l) or interferes (2 ...~g6) for his
disadvantage, allowing 4. '{{¥f5# again.

Journal de Geneve 1933
391: 1. ,ilxgS? (2. ,ilxcl) 1... e3! 2. ,ilxe3 ,ilg6! • 1.
,tic8! (2. ,tib6#) ( l... c;t,xd5 2. § b5+ ~e6 3.
§e5+ c;t,f6 4. ,ilg7+), l... .lla3+ 2. d6 (= anti-
paracritical maneuver) ,ilxd6+ (2... c;t,d5 3. ,tie3+
~-6 4. d5+) 3. ,tie7! (4. ,tie3#) ,ilf4 4. .Q.xg5
-,ltxg5 5. Axf4,hxg5, (3 ... ,ilxe7+ 4. ~xe7 #4
~ xd5 5. § b5+). 393: 1. c;t,f6! (2. e3+ ~e4 3. 'lt,f5#), 1... lth7 2.
* Other examples: 741, 1140, 1142, 1160, 1371. c;t,g5! (-) .Q.bl(c2) 3. e3+ c;t,e4 4. 'lt,f5# (2 ... ,tif7+
3. ~f4), 2... ,tig6 3. e3+ c;t,e4 4. 'lt,f5#, 1... .llg6 2.
CRITICAL SHUT-OFF ~e6 .Q.f7+ 3. c;t,d6.
Closing the line of the enemy piece after its Criti-
cal Move. Most often combined with the battery
play, but very handy device in other scenarios -
such as the incarceration in the ancient endgame Black gains advantage of White's crossing of the
study 392. critical square(s).

~ ....,,~
.§ ~~ ~~ ~,~ ;"- 392

ffl • •
ca. 840

~ ~
~ = Fers

392: 1. § xf8 c;t,xf8 2. ~ f6 (3. g7#) § fl+ 3. (d5

394: 1. § a4? §g7! 2. ,tic4? • 1. § h4? ~g7! 2.
.Q.f4? • 1. § xd6? e5! 2. ,tid5? • 1. § di! - 2.
§gl 4. g7+! § xg7 5. ~ g6 winning. Bg7 is 'lt,d4#, I... §g7 2. ,tic4#, I... ~g7 2. .llf4#, l... e5
incarcerated, and White wins by "bare King"-rule 2. ,tid5#, etc.
(after 5... §g8 6. fxg8~ ~xg8), or for instance
after 5... §xf7+ 6. ~xf7 with a stalemate, also * Other example 15.
considered win. The first critical sacrifice, the
critical square being g6. CROSS PATCH THEME
* Other examples: 659, 1448. A sub-variation of Grimshaw interference. Black
-+ See also: Shut-Off interferences between two Rooks and one
CRITICAL SQUARE Bishop are followed by three mates, instead of
The key concept in a number of line combina- four.
tions: a cutting point or an intersection square 395: 1. c;t,f6! (-), l... .Q.b3 2. ,tic3#, l... Jl_c4 2.
that a critical piece traverses to avoid or allow §d4#, l... § b3/§c4 2. d6#, (I... .llxd5,.(lbl,
subsequent closure of its line. §xd3,,ti- 2. ,.Gtxd5,d6,cxd3, ,ti(x)f2#).

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems CRO-CRO

395 397: 1. f7! (2. fxe8~/§#), 1...§c- 2. 4::)g6#, I...

§c5! 2. d4#, I... §c4! 2. 4::)d3#, (I... §e7,§e6,
MORTENSEN, Jan 4::)xd5 2. ~xe7,§xe6,§e4#).
Stella Polaris 1970 -. See also: Correction, Black.
"' Alias: Krydsvalve (Dan.).

1. Movement of the Rook on the four equivalent
opposite squares, lateral from initial position.
#2 Each branch may be one, two, or three moves
-. See also: Amen Corner Theme. long, as long as they are ofequal length. See 398.
2. A task rendering, signifying Rook's movement
CROSS THEME to all available 14 squares. See 399.
A piece moves on its 4 orthogonal adjacent 3. In endgame: Domination where the subject is a
squares. Extended crosses (2 or 3 squares) are Rook which has all 14 accessible squares. See
possible, too. 400.
-. S ee also: Cross. Rook; Kings Cross Theme.
Black opens the line for both Black and White, so NANNING, Frederik W.
that White on mating move can close another Tijdschrift v. d. KNSB /936
white line (theme B). Correction by the same
black piece closes one white and one black line.
Also known as Larsen-theme, but there is also
another Larsen theme ...
2 K.A.K. Larsen dissussed the theme in "Skakbladet" in
1937. #3
398: 1. § a6! (2. §a l #), I... §g4+ 2. ~d7, I...
396 §f3+ 2. ~c6, I... §e4+ 2. ~b7, I... § f5+ 2.
EKSTROM, Sven ~ c8.
Tidskr/ftfor Schack /942

396: 1. e3! - 2. 'ti)/d4#, I... ,ti- 2. 4::)£2#, I... ,tifo! 2.
!J.g6#, I ... 4::)f4! 2. ~e5#.
399: 1. §e3! - 2§ d-#, 1...4::)h- 2. § h4#, I... ~g l/
LARSEN, Karl A. K. ~g2/4::)g42. §g4#, I... ~ fl +/~f3+ 2. §f4#, I...
I.pr Skakhladet 1937 'ti)/e4 2. § dxe4#, I... 4::)c4 2. §xc4#, I... b4 2.
§ xb4#, I... 4::)a4 2. §xa4#, I... 4::)dl 2. §xdl#,
I... ~xel 2. §d2#, I... 4::)d3 2. §dxd3#, I... ~d5
2. § xd5#, I... ~c6 2. §d6#, I... ~b7 2. §d7#,
I ... ~a8+ 2. § d8# • Economy record.
400: 1. 4::)d3+ ~ d4 (I... ~d6 2. 4::)f5+ ~c6 3.
4::)b4+; 2... ~d5 3. 4::)b4+; 2... ~d7 3. 4::)c5+; 2...
#2 ~e6 3. 4::)c5+) 2. 4::)b4 §e6 (2... § d6 3. ,tif5+) 3.

CRO-CUM Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

'it'f7! (Rook is trapped!) 3 •.• 'it?eS 4. 4:)d3+ <i!?d6 5. CROSSING THE DANUBE
4:)f5+ <i!?dS (5 ... <i!?d7 6. 4:)c5+) 6. 4:)f4+ +-. A permutation puzzle by Samuel Loyd. Four
black and three white Knights are placed on the
400 fifth rank. It is required to change the Knights
TROITSKY, Alexey A. from the King's to the Queen's side of the board,
Deutsche Schachzeitung without moving backwards or ever getting two
/913 Knights on the same file.
2 Samuel Loyd (1830-1914).

+ "Crossing the Danube"
* Other examples: 5, 13. Cleveland Voice 1877

Check is parried by interpos1t1on (placing a
piece) on the check line with simultaneous direct
or indirect (battery, discovered) check to the op-
ponent's King. See text
403: Irrespective of the colour, play to the vacant file:
401 f, d, c, e, g, h, f, d, b, a, c, e, g, f, d, b, c, e, d.
I.pr Arbejdermagasinet
/935 I after G Guidelli The mating side makes all his moves by a single

Pittsburgh Gazette Times
#2 /9/2
401: 1. 4:)d6! - 2. 4:)f7#, I... 4:)-+ 2. 4:)ce4#, I...
4:)xd6+ 2. 4:)d3#, I ... exd6+ 2. 4:)d7#, I ... exf6+ 2.
4:)cb7#, (1... <i!?xd6 2. ~f4#).
* Other examples: 258, 315, 436, 663, 670, 672, 693,767,
910,960, 1167, 1543, 1633.


White responses with battery (check)mates to 404: 1. 4:)cl! 2-10. 4:)e2-gl-h3-f2-dl-b2-xa4-b2-dl-
B1ack's royal battery checks. f2-h3-gl-e2 15. 4:)cl a4 16. 4:)e2-gl-h3-f2-d l-
b2-xa4-b2-dl-f2- h3-gl-e2-cl A- 30. 4:)cb3#.
WATNEY, Charles G.
The most sparkling or attractive move in a
I.pr Bromley Congress
1920 moremover or endgame.
= Aliases: Climax; Finesse; Peak.

One of the means to achieve a greater expressive-
ness: the main idea of the problem is repeated
#2 two or more times in a single variation.
402: 1• .§ d3! - 2 . .§ e7#, I ... <i!te6+ 2 . .§ 7d5#, I... _. See also: Repetition, Method of
<i!?e4+ 2 . .§3d5#, (1... 4:)f4 2 . .§e3#). = Aliases: MethodofCumulation; PrincipleofCumulation.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems CUT -CYC


Cvclic Double Threats C cllc Multi le Threats
Interception on the way of the black King to the
comer square where he can find a refuge.
1 - 1
405 ... ...
z NA z NAB
DURAS, Oldfich
sp.pr Deutsche
Schachzeitung /908
I.pr Probleemblad /993

405: 1. Jl.b4! ~f7 2. a4 <ifj>e8 3. a5 ~d8 4. -'l,d6 <ifj>c8
5. a6 +- • or 2 ... <it,?e6 3. a5 ~d5 4. a6 <ifj>c6 5.
Jl_a5! +-. #2
406: 1. Jl_ xe3? (2. 4:}c5A/4:}xg5 B/~ f3#C) g4!d •
CUTTING-POINT 1. Jl_xeS? (2. 4:}xg5B/~f3C/~g4# D) ~f6!• •
I. .1lxg5? (2. ~f3C/~g4D/ 4:}c5#A) § f7 !b •
The square where the two lines of action meet. In
1. AgJ? (2. ~g4D/4:}c5A/4:}xg5#B) 4:}xe6!C •
critical play it is also called a critical square.
l. Jl.h2! (2. A,B,C,D#), I... ~f6• 2. 4:}c5#A, 1...
= Alias: Intersection. § f7b 2. 4:}xg5#B, 1... 4:}xe6c 2. ~D#C, 1... g4d 2.
Three or more effects or elements which repeat in CYCLE, OF MATES
cyclic fashion over multiple solutions, lines of Three or more mates appear in cyclic pairs (trip-
play or variations. lets,...) within a single phase (e.g. Feldmann J.
Cyclic), or are changed in two or more phases
Elements may be moves, pieces, squares, func- (e.g. Lacny Theme, Zagoruiko, Cyclic).
tions of pieces, tactical devices, errors and mo-
tives of moves etc. Cycles may be open* (AB- The attribute "cycle" is wrongly associated with
some patterns of mates which are in fact not real
BC-CD-DE; ABC-BCD-CDE) or closed (ABC-
cycles but rather combinations of thematic
BCD-CDA; AB-BC-CA), complete (ABC-BCA-
mates. For instance there is no reason why
CA B) or incomplete (ABC-BCA). Cycles of var- (parenthesized) threats in 406 or avoided duals
ious elements have been a source of inspiration in 407 must appear in that order. On the other
for composers after the WW II, and reciprocal hand, black defensive motifs in 500 clearly de-
(AB-BA) and cyclic elements have very much fine the position of avoided duals in column
characterized modem composing in all genres "pin" or "guard", thus defining an explicit cycle.
and schools.
• An open cycle is also called a Chain. 407
STOCCHI, Ottavio
CYCLE, OF DOUBLE/MULTIPLE I.pr Ajedrez Espanol 1952
Actually a combination of a subset (i.e. 2 out of
3, or 3 out of 4) of thematic threats. Wrongly
termed "cycle" since the order of threatened
mates is almost inevitably ambiguous and exists
only if conveniently written in the solution.

CYC-CYC Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

407: *I... <t}d5 2. ~ b2# (~b4?, ~xd6?), I... ,tia4 2. 408

~xd6# (~b2?, ~ b4?), I... <t}c4 2. ~ b4#
(~xd6?, ~ b2?) • 1. ~ a7! - 2. ~a5#, I... <t}d5 2. MARIN, Valentin
§xa2#(.Q.c3?, ~e3?), I... <t}a42. ~e3#(E!xa2?, 4.pr Good Companion
.,ilc3?), I... <t}c4 2. .Q.c3# (~e3?, §xa2?). 1924
* Other example 1693.
Moves of one side appear in cyclic order, either
being of the incomplete AB-BC-CA or complete
ABC-CAB-BCA type, in both cases closed cy-
cles (the first and the last member of the chain are
same). The moves may be in equal functions
(mates against changing black defences, moves
in a helpmate, order of moves in different varia-
tions), or in distinct functions (keys, threats,
mates) etc.
Cycle of White Moves. Three (or more) physi-
cally the same white moves appear in cyclically
ordered pairs in two successive moves.
For instance, in a threemover it is a cycle of 2nd h#2 3111
and 3rd white moves in three variations. 408 is 409: 1. ~ es <t}f6+A 2. c;t>f5 Ag4#B • t. <it1e5 .Q.g4B
perhaps the earliest cycle of White's 2nd and 3rd 2. § e4 f! c5#C • 1. ~ d4 § c5C 2. ~ d3 ,tif6#A •
moves. Changing functions of white pieces: a) active
guard, b) passive guard, c) mate • Knight: a-b-c;
In a helpmate twomover it is a cycle of l st and Rook: b-c-a; Bishop: c-a-b.
2nd white moves in three phases. In addition to
cyclic white moves 409 shows cyclically ~~~ ~ 410
changed functions of white piece. ~ • ·, MI.NTZ, Jakov
Complete Cycle of White Moves. Three physi- • 3.pr Probleemb/ad 1984
cally same white moves appear in cyclic order in
three successive moves.
For instance, in a fourmover it is a cycle of 2nd,
3rd and 4th white moves in three variations. See
the outstanding third-pin example 1544.
In a helpmate threemover it is a cycle of 1st, 2nd
and 3rd white moves in three phases. In simple
and economical 410 all three solution end with
model mates.
Cycle of Black Moves. Analogous to the "Cycle
of White Moves", except that thematic moves
occur in a play of Black. 411 is again an econom- GRIN, Alexandr P. ;
ical helpmate with model mates. SOSEDKIN, Mikhail
Complete Cycle of Black Moves. Analogous to I.pr Fritz-Pachman MT
the "Complete Cycle of White Moves", except
that thematic moves occur in a play of Black. In
selfmate 412 White forces cyclic opening of the
black third-battery.
408: 1. ~ di! - 2. Ab4+ axb4 3. ~a l #, I... c4 2. h#2 3111
~a4+A bxa4 3. ,tixc4#8 , I... b4 2. <t}c4+8 dxc4 3. 411: 1. Ae4A .,ila4 2. ~c6B .Q.b3# • 1. ~ c6B ,tig3 2.
.Q.xb4#C, I... d4 2. .Q.b4+C cxb4 3. ~a4#A. f!d4C ll_f7# • 1. §d4C Ab5 2. Ae4A <t}f4#.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems CYC·CYC

412 piece-cycle: ABC-CAB-BCA • 4th WCCT theme:

mates on same square.
2.pr Deutsche CYCLE, OF Pl ~S
Schachbliitter 1993
There are at least three thematic pieces A, B and
C, which are, two in tum, essentially pinned in
three phases on mating positions (and possibly
being actively pinned in the course of solution).
The pinned pieces appear in cycles AB-BC-CA.

~ ~§~ 415

412: 1• .§ f2! - 2. <£jxe4+ dxe4A 3. -'1,f4+ exf4B 4.
~g4+ fxg4#C, I ... ~d6 2. .llf4+ exf4B 3. ~g4+ JANEVSKI, Zivko
fxg4C 4. <£jxe4+ dxe4#A, I ... .§g7 2. ~g4+ fxg4C ~ ~

~1& ,. . • • . I.pr feenschach 1988

* Other examples: 109, 125, 186,846, 1190, 1492, 1544, ~~ftf~A))~fl

3. <£jxe4+ dxe4A 4.•Q.f4+ exf4#B.

~~M,~~~ ft~
1629, 1684.


a~~K . ,~~~
Usually refers to different functions of pieces of
one side in different phases of play, the functions h#2 3111
appearing in cyclic fashion AB-BC-CA or 415: 1. <£if2 .Q..xd4+ 2. .Q..e5 ~xf2# • 1. <£jc3 dxe6 2.
ABC-CAB-BCA. <£jxe6 .Q.xc3# • 1. <£jd6 ~xf4+ 2. .llf5 .§ xd6# •
Two of the black pieces (.i..i. 4) are pinned in turn
413 on two pin-lines, while one of them is captured on
the mating move.
PETKOV, Petko A.
Shakhmatna mis/ /990
Cyclic shift of promotions to at least three differ-
ent pieces of one side or both sides combined in
one or several phases, for instance AB-BC-CA,

413: a) 1. <£jxb5 .§d3 2. ~xd3 <£jf2# • b) 1. .§ bxb3

.§ d4+ 2. ~xd4 .§ c4# • c) 1. .Q..xcS .§ d5 2. ~xd5
<t)f6# • Cycle of pieces involved on the 1st move:
4x.Q.-.i.x.§- B x<£j.
- ~~~~
•• ~
4.hm Israel Ring Tourney

£F'a'•" wfr~
'I]f lft;tBftm'f~
TRIBOWSKI, Marcel ···~~~~~
I .pr harmonie 1992
h#2 b) ~e3-+d3;c)<£jd4-+c5
416: a) 1. edl .§ .§f2 2. c l<tJ <£jc2# • b) 1. ed1<£j
.§f2 2. c l.Q.. <£jc2# • c) 1. edl.Q.. f!f2 2. el f!
<£jd3# • Cyclic promotions of two black Pawns.
= Alias: Promotions, Cyclic.

h#3 311... CYCLE, OF SQUARES

414: t. <£jd3 .§g3 2. <£je5 .lld3+ 3. ~f4 <£je2# • The key squares of a play in different variations,
1. ~ f4 <£if5 2. ~f3 f!h2 3 . .Q.e4 .Q..e2# • 1. phases or (in helpmates) solutions appear in cy-
~ e3 .Q.xe4 2. f! fl <£je6 3. .§ f3 .§ e2# • White clic fashion.

CYC-CYC Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

~ " 417 §f4 2. §e8#B, (1... {)xd4 2. Jl.c7#, I... {)d5 2.

§xd5#) • Cyclic functions of white pieces: A=
• .ft f~•~~-~-· ·'~ii
:.i • -~-_j_
....., ~ ......
5.hm Olympic Tourney
key, mate, threat; B = threat, key, mate; C = mate,
threat, key.

- ~J~ ~~
· ···ir... 419
~ ~ :tR i~:t
~w ··~~
l.hm GoumondyJT 1986

h#2 411 1
417: 1. Jl.f7 ~di 2. ~g6A ~g4#B • 1. 0 Jl.d2 2.
~g4B ~xe4#C • t. ~ O ~a2 3. ~e4C ~e6#D •
1. ~ dS ~xh5 2. ~e6D ~g6#A • Cycle of King's
flights and Queen's mating squares.
At least three pieces of one side are cyclically
unpinned by the other or same side in pairs in PAROS, Gyiirgy
different phases or variations of a problem: 4.pr BTSB 1954

PAROS, Gyiirgy
I .pr BTSB 1962
h#2 3111
420: t. {)bS axb5 2. Jl,c7 c6# • 1. Jl,eS fxe5 2. Jl,c6
e6# • I. Jl,f7 gxf7 2. {)c6 f8{)#.
* Other examples: 409, 1608.
418: 1. ~ d4 {)f2 2. {)gf6 e3# • 1. {)f2 e3 2. Jl.f3 Three or more pieces interfere with each other on
§e5# • t. {)f4 §d5 2. bxc5 {)xc5# • Cyclic the same square. In case of three pieces A , B and
unpins of white§,{) and ft e2 on first and second C: A interferes with B, B interferes with C and C
halfmove. interferes with A .


At least three pieces of the same side change
functions in a cyclic manner, either, for instance, ~~ ~ .
·· ~ ~ ·
~ ~. ... ~. ~irl '
HICKS, Geoffrey

J.hm The Problemist 1986
ABC-BCA-CAB, or AB-BC-CA . Functions may
be tactical ones or related to functions of moves ,.,.-~~
etc. In three phases of 419 two white Rooks and .ft
Sg I have cyclic roles as a key piece, in a threat or ~ • ~~~
in a post-key variation. A third-pin in 420 is . . ~.~~~~~·~~
demounted so that each piece is in tum once sac- ,, ~ ~ ~
rificed, once used for a selfblock, and once left #2
pinned in a mate. 421: I. §xe6? - 2. ~e3#, I... §d4 2. ~f8#, I...
419:1. ,t)el?A - 2. §e8#8, 1...{)d62. §e7#C, I... Jl.d4 2. §e4#, I... ~ d4 2. {)xd3#, I... Jl,e5! • I.
§h8! • 1. § f6?B - 2.§e7#C, I... §xe4 2. ~ xd3! -2. ~/Jl,e3#, I... § d4 2. §f8#, I... Jl.d4
{)f3#A, I... Jl,xb6! • 1. § d4!C - 2. {)f3#A, I... 2. ~e4#, I ... ~ d4 2. ~d2#.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems eve.eve
422: 1. 4)d5 4)d7+ 2. ~b6 .lla4# • 1. 4)b5 4)c4+ 2. points unguarded, after which a White man moves
b6 4)a5# • 1. §c8 4)xc8+ 2. ll,b6 4)xa7#. to the square that is doubly guarded. See 424.
2. One black man is overloaded by guard of three
422 possible mating moves. In three variations these
BAKCSI, Gyorgy moves occur in cyclic order on second move
3.pr Magyar Sakkszovetseg which decoys the black defender, and as a mate.
1967 In 425 this scenario is skillfully doubled.
2 Walter J. Jacobs (1914-1982).
I.pr British CPS 1962


There are at least three thematic pieces A, Band
C. When A moves to the thematic square, it inter-
feres with B and C, which would have had the
positive effect that A does not have. Similarly, B #3
interferes with C and A, and C interferes with A 424: 1. .l}.h7! (2. .l}.xd6+ ~xf6 3. §xh6#), I... g4 2.
andB. 4)d3+A exd3,4)xd3 3. f4B,4)xg4C#, I... 4)g4 2.
423 f4+B gxf4,.llxf4 3. 4)xg4C,4)d3A#, I ... ,Axc5 2.
4)g4+C 4)xg4,fxg4 3. 4)d3A,f4B# • 2nd and 3rd
BOGDANOV, Evgeny moves: ABC-BCA-CAB, full and complete cycle.
I.pl Ukrainian Team
Championship 1986

423: 1. d6! - 2. §g3+ (2. §d5? c5/.f1.a4!; 2. §c5?
Aa4/§xd6!; 2. §b5? §xd6/c5!), 1... §c6 2.
§d5 cxb3 3. §d3#, I... c6 2. §c5 cxb3 3. § c3#,
I... Ac6 2. §b5 cxb3 3. §xb3#, (I... 4)d5 2.
§xd5, 1... ~e3 2. §g3+). 425: 1. ~ e2! (2 . .l}.g3 - 3. Ael#), I... ~xa6 2.
_ile5+A d4 3. 4)xe4#B, 1... 4)e6 2. 4)xe4+B dxe4
CYCLIC MAN [F] 3. ~ c4#C, I... §xf6 2. ~c4+C dxc4 3. ,Ae5#A,
I... .llh7 2. Ae5+A d4 3. ~c4#C , I... §xa6 2.
Fairy piece. A piece standing on a normal board
is allowed to move as if it were on a vertical cyl- 4)xe4+B dxe4 3. .lle5#A, I ... 4)c6 2. ~ c4+C dxc4
inder board. It is not, however, allowed to make a 3. 4)xe4#B, (1... d4/§e6 2. ~xa3+).
full circle, i.e. return on its removal square on the *Other example 846.
same move. -+ See also: Keller Paradox.
"' Alias: Jacobs Theme.
2 Invented by E. W. Bennett.
• AUas: Zyklischer Stein (Ger.). CYCLIC PLAY
In many variations and phases, or even in one
CYCLIC OVERLOAD THEME phase, of a problem a number ofelements can oc-
1. Each of several (at least 3) Black men guard cur in cyclic fashion: (mating) moves, order of
two junction points. Each junction point is con- moves, functions of pieces, errors and motives of
trolled by a different pair of men. In defence, moves etc. Common to these elements is that
each Black man in tum leaves one of the junction they can be paraphrased with help of patterns like

CYC · CYC Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

AB-BC-CA, ABC-BCA(-CAB). Various Recip- .ftc5 2. ~ b l,,tixc5#, l... ~f8! • I. ~e6! - 2.

rocal (AB-BA) and cyclic elements have very ,tid6#, I... .Q.c5 2. 'itfxd5#, I... ,tic4 2 . .§xd4#, I...
much characterized modern composing in all ~f8 2. ~xg4# • All possible 9 mates are different.
genres and schools, especially since 1940s. Ex- 427
amples of cyclic play can be found under titles
starting with Cycle and Cyclic. Furthermore, BARNES, Barry P.
there is a great number of themes which involve I.pr Problemnoter 1961
cyclic play.
Permutation among three black moves: each
takes part in all thematic tries, in one as a refuta-
tion and in others as a defence, preferably always
met by different mate. All three moves are also #2
defences in the actual play, again preferably with .--.,,,,,,,..~ .,,,,,,,.--,,.,,,,,...-
completely new set of mates, which would make
the ideal form with 9 different mates. 426 is an SELB, Hans
early example short of the full set of 9 mates 2-3.pr= Die Schwalbe
(2.,t)d6 and 2. ~g8 are repeated). 427 is proba- 1950/11
bly the oldest complete example with 9 different
thematic mates.
T he incomplete for m: three thematic defences
appear in tries in pairs, i.e. each defence does not
participate in one phase. See 428.
4 28: I. ,tig6? - 2. ,tige7#, I... 'itfc5 2. -'l,g2#, I...
Cyclic Refutations • Cyclic Refutations • 'itfxg5! ('itfd4??) • I. ~ d 7? - 2. ~f6#, I...
Complete Incomplete
1 - a b C 1 - a b C ~xg5 2. ,tixb6#, 1... ~d4! (~c5??) • I. ,tif3?-
2. c4#, 1... ~d4 2 . .§xd4#, I... ~c5! (~xg5??)
X A B ! X A !
y C ! D y ! B • I . ,titi! -2. ,tie7#, l... ~c5 2. itg2#, I... 'itfxg5
z ! E F z ! C 2. ,tixb6#.
* Other examples: 371, 423.
= Allas: Vutuelles Paradenzyklus (Ger.).


Sacrifice of three (or more) white pieces in at least
I .pl Baden - Berlin 1953
two variations or phases follow in cyclic order.
I.pl Russian
Championship 1977

426: l ,tie--? Jld6!/Jl,xd4!/,tid6! • I. ,tif3!? Jlxd4,
,tid6 2 . .§xd4,,tic3#, I.. . ..Q.d6! • I. ,tig4!? Jld6,
,tid6 2. ~g8,,tif6#, l... Axd4! • I. ,tig6!? ..Q.xd4, #4
.lld6 2. ,tie7;{:;fg8#, l... ,tid6! • I. ,tid3! - 2.
'itfe5#, l... Ad6 2. ~ b3#, l... .Q.xd4 2. ,tib4#, l... 429: 1. e3! - 2. ~e5+A ,tixe5 3 . .§d6+B ,tixd6 4.
,tid6 2. ,tic3#. Jle6#C, I... ,ticd4 2 . .§d6+B ,tixd6 3. -'l,e6+C
427: I . ~-? A c5!/,tic4!/~f8! • I. ~a3!? ~f8, ,tixe6 4. ~e5#A, 1... ,tifd4 2. -'l,e6+C ,tixe6 3.
~c4 2 . .§xg4,~d3#, I... -'l,c5! • I. 'itfxf6!? .Q.c5, ~e5+A ,tixe5 4 . .§d6#B.
~f8 2. ,tic3,~xg6#, l... ,tic4! • I. ~xb6!? ~c4, * Other example 1566.
Encyclopedia of Chess Problems CYC-CYL


A cyclic shift of three or more self-blocks.
Self-blocks may be executed by different (at least BREHMER, Siegfried
Essener Nationalzeitung
three) pieces on different squares, when one of /937
the self-blocks may be a passive one (see 430),
or by same [at least two] pieces on at least three
squares, when both pieces must block actively
(see 431).
430 #3
STO~IC, Miroslav
In a more-mover, White has potentially three dis-
tinct mates at his disposal, but in trying to realize
one of them he must give up one of these mates in
turn in cyclic manner, so that Black can all the
time prevent the remaining two.
h#2 3lll
430: 1. ~ f6 f!g l 2. 4:)fS Jle5# • 1. ~gs f!h4 2. 433
f!f5 4:)e4# • 1. ~g4 .[)e4 2. ,a.rs §h4#.
REHM, Hans-Peter
431 Deutsche Schachbliitter
4.hm Israel Ring Tourney

433: I. Ac6?A f!xc6! • l. Jl,c4?B §xc4! • I. §c6!
(2. 4:)c7#C} f!h7 2. §c4 (3. Jl,c6#A) §g6 3. §c8
h#2 b) §d2~a5; c) Jl.d5~h5; d) =c+ §d2~b5
(4 . .Q.c4#B) §h4 4. g4! § hxg4 5. §c4 (6. 4:)c7#C}
431: a) 1. 4:)g4A § h2 2. 4:)g6B §h5# • b) 1. 4:)g6B §g7 6. .Q.c6#A.
Ag2 2. 4:)e4C Ah3# • c) 1. 4:)e4C e6 2. .[)xe6D
§d5# • d) 1. 4:)e6D jle2 2. 4:)g4A .Q.d3#.
* Other example 411. Fairy condition, a "rolled up" chessboard:
CYCLIC SELF-OBSTRUCTIONS Vertical Cylinder: Joined a- and h-file.
In one variation the piece A occupies a square de- Horizontal Cylinder: Joined I st and 8th rank.
nying access from piece B of its own colour; in
the other variation, B denies access from C, and Anchor Ring or Torus: Combination of vertical
in the third variation C denies access from A . The and horizontal cylinders, i.e. both I st and 8th
minimum number of pieces and variations is rank and a- and h-files are joined.
three. Vertical Mobius Board: It has a shape of a verti-
432: 1. § xe6? .Q.xg3 ! (Jl.xe6?) • I. A xe6? 4:)xg3 ! cal cylinder, but twisted 180° so that a8 is con-
(4:)xe6?) • I. 4:)xe6? §xg3! (§xe6?) • 1. f! d8! nected to hi, a7 to h2 etc. In other words, a
- 2. Ae8, I ... .Q.xg3 2. Jl_xe6 - 3. jlf5# (2.. . chessboard looks like a Mobius Strip. (Invented
4:)g3?}, 1... 4:)xg3 2. 4:)xe6 - 3. 4:)xg5# (2.. . by Wilfried Pflughaupt in 1953.)
§g3?}, 1... f!xg3 2. f!xe6 - 3. §xe5# (2.. . Horizontal Mobius Board: Like Vertical
Ag3?) • Both White and Black cycle of Obstruc- Mobius Board, only al is connected to h8, bl to
tions (Blockpunkt). g8 etc.

CYW-DAB Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

Mobius Cylinder: Double cylinder, changed by 434

twisting so that squares a 1-d I are connected to
squares e8-h8 and squares e 1-h I to a8-d8. (In- MILLMAN, Stephen L. ;
VOLET, Thomas
vented by B. R. Mason in 1966.)
The Problemist 1980
Other cylindrical boards:
Oblique Cylinder is imagined to be wrapped
obliquely round a cylinder so that two diagonals
adjoin, instead of two ranks or files.
Spherical Board is imagined to be wrapped #I a) Orthodox; b) Vertical cylinder;
round a sphere, like a "globe" of the world, with c) Horizontal cylinder; d) Torus;
"squares" formed between lines of latitude and e) Vertical Mobius; f) Horizontal Mobius
longitude. Files a-d form the western hemi-
434: a) t. ~ g7# • b) t. ~ a7# • c) t. ~ h7# •
sphere, files e-h the eastern; ranks I to 4 lead
d) t. tt,a8# • e) t. ~ a2# • f) 1. 'l[fg8#.
from the South Pole to the equator, and 5 to 8
from the equator to the North Pole.
Conventions regarding Cylinders Two or more successive black self-obstructions
(I) Every move must be a finite one, with a defi- of the same black piece for its complete block-
nite stop; the endless circulation of the cylin- ade.
der is not legal (as stated in the original
! August von Cywinski de Puchala (1829-1905).
version of Codex). The composer can, how-
ever, legalize the endless circulation by putt-
ing it into the stipulation.
(2) A pinned piece may "temporarily" unpin it- VON CYWINSKI DE
self and return at the end of its move to the PUCHALA, August
same (or different) pinned positions. 1955. Deutsche
Schachzeitung 1865
(3) When a long-range piece has two open routes
to the same square, these are two separate
moves, and should be counted separately in a
construction task on a cylinder, but they are
not regarded as a "dual". #5
(4) On the Horizontal Cylinder or Anchor Ring 435: 1. § h8? -'l,e4! 2. § c8+ <ittc5 3. § c5+ <ittd4 4.?
the Pawns' promoting rank should be stated,
-1st obstacle• I. ~ d4? §xd4 2. §h8 .QJ3(g2)-
unless it is irrelevant to the problem, or obvi-
2nd, new obstacle • 1. ~e4! (1st fore-plan; thr. 2.
ous from the setting (Piran Codex). Accord-
~bl) ~f3 2. ~d4 (2nd fore-plan) §xd4 3. §h8
ing to Nanning and Koldijk (Thema-Boek,
Ae4 4. §c8+ 'iftd5 5. §c5#.
page 140) a Pawn promotion on such board is
not allowed. On the other hand, Ebert, Gruber
and Kuhlman assert that Pawn promotions, DABBABA [F]
Pawn's double-step and Castling remain un- Fairy piece. A (0,2)-/eaper which moves or-
affected ("1000 Viiter. .. !", page 274). thogonally two steps, being allowed to leap over
The initial array on Vertical cylinder is precisely another piece.
the same as on the orthodox 8x8 board, and a This piece deserves to be discussed briefly, since
game may be played from there using vertical it has its origin in medieval chess. In 1140, when
cylinder moves throughout. But on a Horizontal chess had arrived in Europe, Ferz, the predeces-
Cylinder and Anchor-Ring the chessmen cannot sor of the modem Queen, who normally moved
legally stand in the orthodox initial array. only one step diagonally, was given right to leap
S First time cylinder boards were mentioned in literature like dabbaba, i.e. two squares orthogonally. That
was by Teodoro Ciccolini in 1836. It is presumed that right had also a promoted Ferz, but it could use
cylinder chess was known in Arabic chess. its freedom only once in the course of the game.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems DAD·DAL

m~ :,,,,.
9'"ir ,~~m~ .~ 436 438
i. .

~~ · ~ l4J.;., .,. ~f.t.. CIVIS BONONIAE, ABDURAHMANOVIC,

• • oi f§ Estenze, Cod. 3 .. a. R. 9. Fadil
1454 sp.pr Club de
Guanabara-20 JT

Mate in precisely 3 moves

• = Fers = Alias: Mayflower.
436: I. § xd8+ €)g8+ 2. hxg8~+ §xh6+ 3. ~g6#.
• The newly-born Fers was allowed to leap once DALTON THEME
like the modem Dabbaba. Note that in the final The unpinned black piece proceeds to defend by
position the Fers is guarding h7. The composer has pinning (directly) its unpinner (see 439).
added the condition "precisely", thus avoiding an Dalton 2: The unpinned black piece pins its
easy mate in two. unpinner indirectly (see 440).
2 William R. Dalton (1841 -1 931); George Plant
DAD THEME (1881 -?).
In a direct twomover there are at least three tries
by one white piece with distinct threats. In the SO· 439
lutioo, these threats become mates after defences
of one and same black piece. I.pr Dalton Theme
437 American Chess Bulletin
Constantin ;
BOYER, Jean-Pierre
I.pr Bulletin Problemistic
/972 #2
439: I. €)cd 3! (-), I... 't11e2 2. 't11h3#, ( I... ~g3,
't11-, 't11Xf2,'t11C5+, 't11Xd3+,'t11Xe5+ 2. 't11h3,€)e I ,
€)xf2, €)xc5, § xd3,€)xe5#).
437: I. §lgS? (2.1:t.g2#) 1... 4:)b4! • 1. §g3? (2. 440
€)f2#) I... €)b4! • I. § fl? (2. §e5#) I... €) b4! PLANT, George
• I. ~ d7! - 2. ~xd5#, I... d,t)- 2. 1:t.g2#, I... Birmingham Daily Post
€)e3 2. €)f2#, I... €)xf4 2. § e 5#, ( I... ~xd4 2. /920


Queen, black or white, moves on all eight adja-
cent squares. #2
438: I. ~ d5 1:t.xg5 2. <ifj>e4 't11xd5 # • I . <ifj>g2 't11b8 2. 440: I. ~g3! - 2. ~d3#, I... § e4 2. 4:)c2#, 1... § e3
~ f3 ~h2# • I. <ifj>e2 1:t.xg5 2. ~ d3 ~g2# • I . 2. fxe3#, I... §d5 2. €)c6#, 1... §c5 2. 1:t.c3# •
~g4 1:t.xg5 2. ~rs ~g2# • I. <ifj>e3 § fl 2. ~ d4 etc.
~f3# • 1. <ifj>g3 § h2 2. ~f4 ~g2# • I . <ifj>f2 § g I * Other example 969.
2. ~e3 ~g2# • I. ~f4 §h3 2. ~es ~f3#. = Alias: Plant Theme.

DAN-DAW Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

DANAAN'S GIFf [EJ ,tif4+ ~cs 8. c;t>e4 (9. ,tie6,,tixd3#) d5+ 9. c;t>e5
A quiet sacrifice in problem or endgame the ac- Af6+ 10. ~e6 (11. ,tixd3#) ,tid8+ 11. c;t>d7 - 12.
ceptance of which is very unpleasant. ,tixd3#.

= Alias: Trojan Horse.

* Other example 1324.
., Alias: Dunkle Taten (Ger.).
The indirect defence of the black move that de- DAVAINE THEME [FJ
feats the try is in the solution replaced by a direct Theme in "Rebirth" conditions, such as the circe
defence of the same black move. family. Selfblock by a piece captured on the mat-
ing move.
2.pr Thema Danicum LINDGREN, Bo
/990-1 pr Probleemblad 1979

441: 1. Ab6? (2. Axes - 3. ~ b4#), I ... d4! 2. Axes h#3 Circe 311 ...
A b3! • 1. Axd7! (2. t:,a2#), 1... Axd7 2. Ab6 443: 1. A d6 ~c8 2. ~e8 ,tib7 3. § e7 ,tixd6(Af8)#
Axb5 3. ~a2+ c;t>b4 4. Aa5#, I... d4 2. Ab4 cxb4 • 1. ~f8+ ~c8 2. § f7 ~d8 3. ,tie6+ ,tixe6
3. t:,al + c;t>b3/ Aa2 4. !J..xe6/t:,xa2#. ( ,tig8)# • 1. ~ g8+ ~e8 2. § f2 ,tid7 3. § to
= Alias: Datskaya Terna (Rus.).
!! Alias: Davaine.


l. Problems in which White has besides the King DAWSON THEME
only a Pawn or Knight against Black's over- Double Grimshaw interference between either
whelming force, which White, however, wins. two Bishops and a Rook, or two Rooks and a
2. The essay by Dr. Otto Titus Blathy published Bishop.
in 1922 in the British magazine "The Chess Am- 2 Thomas R. Dawson (1889-1951).
ateur" that contained many direct and selfmate
manymovers featuring the white King accompa- 444
nied by only one second white piece against the DAWSON, Thomas R.
complete (or almost complete) black force. Western Daily Mercury
2 The earliest known problem of this sort dates back to /921

BL.ATHY, Otto T.
Chess Amateur /922 #2
444: l. Ag6! - 2. t:,xd3#, I... § dS 2. t:,h3#, I...
!J..d5 2. ,tif5#, I... §e4 2. §h3#, I... !J..e4 2.
,tig4# • etc.
--. See also: Grimshaw Interference.


442: I. ,tif4+! ~c5 2. ,tie6+ ~d5 3. ,tixc7+ c;t>c5 4. Helpmate with variations branching on two first
,tixa6+ ~d5 5. ,tic7+ c;t>cS 6. ,tie6+ c;t>d5 7. halfmoves (m.n. l. l... ).

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems DEA-OED

445 .§h8#; ex-decoy of the ii' to leave e7 unguarded)

~xg6 3. /0,xe7# (1... ~xe7 2. /0,xg6 etc.).
3.pr Israel Ring Tourney
* Other example 1449.
Black's defensive combination, in which he ma-
nipulates White's pieces to unfavourable posi-
tions in order to parry or prolong White's mating
combination. Examples are found under many
h#2 2211 headings with the prefix "anti-".
445: 1. <it1hl h4 2. gl .§ ~h3#, I... llf4 2. g ill ~ f3#
• t. <it1fl f4 2. gl .§ ~f3#, 1... ll,e3 2. gl A ~ h3#.
DEADLOCK [F] An indirect combination, the purpose of which is
Special case of stalemate in which all moves are to make the opponent (Black) waste time which
physically blocked. White needs to carry out his plan. The combina-
~ See also: Checklock. tion or maneuver does not involve any other im-
provement of one's own (White's) or
DECOY deterioration of the opponent's position.
An English equivalent to German's "Lenkung ":
White's maneuver to either drive black unit away 447
from guarding a line or square, or lure it to a WLLI, Giambattista
square where it is captured or causes an obstruc- Osservazioni, Bologna
tion. It can also be Black's defensive maneuver 1763
on a White piece to distract its attention from
White's plan of attack. Decoys can be divided -
according to their purpose to ad-decoys
(Hinlenkung) and ex-decoys (Weglenkung). Of-
ten used by the adherents of the logical (New
German) school, the terms have essentially same #7
meaning outside that context too. 447: White is a move away from canying out his
Decoys are forced moves disadvantageous to main plan, but he has not got it. Therefore a maneu-
the side that executes them. The disadvantage ver, which helps him gain that move: 1. ~ e7+!
may result either from the vacation of the initial <it1h6! (1... <it1g8 2. ~e6+ <it1h8 3. ~e5+ <it1g8 4.
square (the square of departure), or from the oc- ~xb8+) 2. ~ h4+ <;t>g7 3. ~ d4+ <;t>h6! 4. ~ f4+
cupation of the new square (the square of ar- <it1g7 (now White has gained the move, whereas
rival). The former are termed Ex-Decoy and the Black's position has remained the same) 5. ~ es+
latter Ad-Decoy. <it1h6 6. .§ hS+! gxhS 7. ~ f6# (5... <it1g8 6.
446 * Other examples: 627, 655, 677, 892.
SPENS, Walter C.
= Alias: Beschaftigungslenkung (Ger.).
English Chess Problems
Composition that is dedicated to someone, often
on the occasion of birthday, some other signifi-
cant event, to cherish the memory of a deceased
composer, or as a token of gratitude or friend-
ship. Dedication is normally indicated above the
#3 diagram, for instance "dedicated to NN". Some
446: 1. ~ e7! (- 2. ~xf8+; ad-decoy of • to the square dedication problems tend to be symbolic in some
where it will be captured later) .§xe7 2.10,xg6! (- 3. way.

DED-DEf Encyclopedia of Chess Problems


A black Pawn is a Knight's distance from a white
Pawn that is standing on the 2nd rank. Instead of GRZANKOWSKI,
attacking the enemy Pawn directly, the white
I.pr Szachy 1947
King retreats to his I st file, preventing black
Pawn from advancing and, consequently, black
King reaching the opposition.
S Frantisek Dedrle (1878-1957).
DEDRLE, Franti§ek
Deutsches Wochenschach

MARANDYUK, Mikhail ;
Themes 1986
448: 1. ~ bl!! {I. ~3? a3! 2. b4 ~es 3. ~ b3 ~d-4.
~a3 ~ 5. ~a4 ~b6 =) a3 (1... ~ 2. ~a2 ~d5
3. <i!ra3 <it'c5 4. ~xa4 <it'b6 5. ~ b4! +-) 2. b3! <it'e5 3.
<it'a2 <it'd5 4. <iftxa3 'it)c5 5. <it'a4 <it'b6 6. <it'b4! +-.
In direct mate problems, a black move that par- 451: 1. l3e8! -2 . .llf6 Jlc7 3. 4:)d3+ l3d3/4:)xd3 4.
ries White's threat. For the sake of consistency ~e4/~e3#, I... !! d3 2. ~e4+ 'iftxe4 3. .lld6+
this term denotes also black moves in a block 'iftd4 4. !!g4#, l ... .lld3 2. ~e3+ <it'xe3 3. Jlxc5+
problem, although there is no threat to be de- <iftf4 4. J:1e3#.
fended from. --+ See also: Umnov 2 Theme.
"' Alias: Umnov Defence.
Black defeats the threat by playing to the threat DEFENCE SUBSTITUTION
square. In a twomover a threat is naturally mate Group of ideas in a logical combination where a
(449). In longer problems thematic white move good defence of one piece is prevented and re-
to a threat square doesn't necessarily need to placed by a bad defence of either this or another
happen on the second move, but the black de- piece.
fence does! In 450 it is a second white move,
By paying attention only to the black pieces
while in 319 it occurs later. A Pawn move is not
which play in the try play, the Foreplan and the
counted as thematic threat.
Main plan several typical themes can be recog-
449 nized. They involve play of one, two or three
black pieces which are in the following table
I.pr Shakhmatnaya
identified by letters A, B and C.
Moskva 1971 Theme Try Fore- Main
plav p_lan _p_lan
Roman theme A A A
Hamburg theme A B A
Palitzsch-Dresden (Dresden idea) A A B
Brunner-Dresden A B B
#2 Chan2ed-Forrn-Dresden A B C
449: (1...4:)f- 2. ~ d6#) • 1. ~ a2! - 2. 4:)dS#, I...
4:)fd5! 2. f,c4#, I... 4:)edS! 2. Jlb5#, (l...4:)f-, Closely related are: Swiss theme, Munich theme,
4:)e- 2. ~e6,!!c7#) • etc. Wiener theme and London theme.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems DEF-DEF

DEFENCE, INDIRECT lowed by different White moves, are played on

A defence that guards threatened squares or lines the same square. There are a number of themes
with concealed ways and motives, not obvious in with this feature.
the position.
* See example 1358. 453


3.pr British Chess
A random move of the defending unit, which it Federation 1958
makes either to parry White's primary threat
(Threat, Primary), carried by the key, or in a
zugzwang position. If the key made by White is
the solution, the random move (primary de-
fence) of Black piece fails due to general error it
commits. Black may try to correct the error by #3
playing his piece onto a particular square, thus 453: 1. 4:)h6! (2. 4:)e6+), 1... § fe3 2 . .{,tg4 - 3.
making the secondary defence. 4:)h3#, 1... § ee3 2 . .{,tf5 - 3. 4:)h3#, l ... 4:)ge3 2.
~ See also: Correction, Black. Axd7 - 3. 4:)e6#, 1... 4:)ce3 2. .{,te6- 3. 4:)h3# •
If a dummy played on e3,all White's 2nd moves
Black piece's correction move which is aimed at * Other examples: 152, 272,368,503,684, 731, 755, 1100,
parrying White's secondary threat (Threat, Sec- 1612.
ondary), caused by defender's random move and
the general error it committed. Correction may DEFENSIVE MOTIF
fail due to a secondary error (Correction, Black), A reason why a defence parries a threat. The
or it may also be a refutation. main tactical motives are: guarding a square or a
line, closing of an opponent's line and opening a
452 line for an own unit, obstruction of an enemy
man or vacation of a square for an own piece; un-
I.pr BABY Ty 1960 pin of an own unit or pinning of opponent's, giv-
ing check or parrying one.
* See example 282.
Black has a good and weak defence for White's
threat. In the foreplan the good defence is elimi-
#2 nated and only the weak one remains.
452: 1. ~ f8! (-), 1...4:)c- 2. §xe5#, I... 4:)xe4 2.
4:)c7#, 1... §- 2. itfd6#, 1... § xe6 2. ~c5#,
In the "pure" deflection, Black plays both
1...4:)e- 2. itfa8#, 1... 4:)c6 2. 4:)xc3#, (1... defences with same piece, whereas in "split"
~c6,~xe6,~xe4 2. itfd6;~f7,4:)xc3#). (getrennt) deflection the defences are performed
~ See also: Correction, Black. by different pieces.

In Fleck-type problems (Fleck theme) (and other
direct problems with separation-based themes)
any single defence that parries all possible
threats and is followed by a new mate.
~ See also: Fleck-Karlstrom Theme.


In the solution of a direct problem with a threat, a
kind of task where at least 3 black defences, fol- #5

DEF -DEG Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

454: 1. ~b4! (2. §g6+) .Q.f6(!) 2. ~b5+? <:;a7 3. DEFLECTION, WHITE

.Q.c6 §b8 4. ~a5#, but 3 ... §h7!, therefore 2. White has a good attack and an inferior attack.
§g7! .ll,xg7 3. ~b5+ <:;a7 4 . .ll,c6 §b8 5. ~a5# Black tries to eliminate the good attack so that
• Interference deflection, may be first intentional White is left with the inferior one.
of its kind. The key is terrible.
KOHNLEIN, Friedrich Die Schwalbe 1938
Miinchener Neueste
Nachrichten 1909 I (v)

#8 457: 1. .ll,c4? (2. .ll,xa6) e3 - 2 . .Q.xa6 .l}.xe6 3.? • 1.
455: 1. § d7! .Q.g6 2. §d6 .Q.f5! (2... .Q.h7? 3 . .Q.g6! _ile3! ,ilh l 2 . .l}.xe6 (2. .Q.c4? g2 3. ..Q.xa6 stale-
.Q.xg6 4. §xg6 ~bl 5. §c6) 3. §d5 ,ile4 (3 ... mate)-3 . .Q.c8-4. .ll,b7# • Because White had to
.l}.g6 4 . .Q.fS! etc.) 4. §d4 .Q.f5 (4... .Q.xd3 5. resort to the inferior attack instead of the better one,
§xd3 ~bl 6. §c3) 5 . .ll,e4! Axe4 6. §xe4 <:;bl the solution prolonged to 4 moves.
"' Alias: Beugung, Weisse (Ger.).
7. §c4. • Deflections follow one after another, but
logically different from the problem by Breuer (see DEGENER LINE COMBINATION
458). In defence, Black cuts the line of a white piece
* Other examples: 61, 677, I 03 1. toward the black King's flight square and simul-
"' Alias: Beugung (Ger.). taneously blocks another flight, guarded by the
same white piece on the same line. In his mating
move, White exploits the block by cutting the
White's main plan is refuted by Black's (good) line of the piece who guarded the flight that
defence. When White tries to shut it out, there Black blocked, simultaneously opening a white
emerges new choice, when Black (again) takes line to the other flight.
refuge of his good defence. Finally, the correct
key leaves Black with only O{le defence, and with 2 Udo Degener (1959).
help of that White can force Black to run out of
his good defences one by one until White's main ~~J'{j~~~f/;. 458
plan can be executed. ~~~~B~B~ DEGENER, Udo
gm •m-~":!~ 4.pr Die Schwalbe 1984
B~m ~~ t f~ li
t ffi ~·~ ~~
.~~ ~"S'~.,._.~

u ~--~
458: 1. §di? (2 . .£id6#) .£ie3! • 1. ~ b6? (2. .£id2#)
,ild5! • t. ~a6! - 2. ~ xa8#, I... .£ie3 2 . .£id2#,
I... .Q.d5 2 . .£id6#, (I... ..Q.b7(c6),§h6(7),.£if6,f4
#6 2. ~x.ll,.£ixg5, § e2, ~g6#).
458: Main plan: 1. .ll,c3? (2. §xb3#) §h3! • Tries:
1. .Q.d4? .£if3? 2 . .Q.c3!, I... f3!; 1. ,ilf6? .£ig4? 2. DEGENERACY
.Q.d4!, I... §h6!; 1. .Q.eS? .£ig4,.£if3 2 . .Q.d4!, The endgame situation when the Kings are ac-
.ll,c3! I... d6! • 1. .Q.g7! §h7 2 . .Q.e5 d6 3 . .Q.f6 companied by remnants of their forces insuffi-
§h6 4 . .ll,d4 .£if3 5 . .Q.c3 - 6. §xb3#. cient for checkmate to be possible. No move by
= Alias: Konsekutiv-Beugung (Ger.). either player can win or lose.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems DEG-OEN

In orthodox chess the degenarate cases are: <;ti vs DENTIST FAMILY [SJ
e ;~+~vs e;~+Avs e; ~+Avs e +.t. The "Dentist Family" belongs to the Selfmate
(in latter a single Bishop may be replaced by any realm.
number of Bishops on the squares of same col-
I. The True Dentist (or simply "Dentist") is a
process by which a white !li!1. arrangement (with
DEGRADATION [FJ A as the pinned white piece) turns into a masked
black battery following the invasion of an exter-
Fairy condition. Any piece with the exception of
King, degrades to a Pawn when moving on the nal black piece B into the pin-line. The masked
2nd (white) or 7th (black) rank. Neutral pieces battery is then activated by the unpinned A, aban-
doning the battery-line and extracting B out as
degrade to neutral Pawns.
well, usually by means of a check to the black
459 King. See 463.
The other members of the Dentist Family all
I.pr Thema Danicum 1976
reach the same end result, i.e. the point where a
masked black battery is created etc., but differ on
the way things happen prior to that point.
2. The Capture-Dentist starts with a white
halfpin arrangement where the capture of one of
the half-pinned pieces leads to a masked battery
which is activated as in a true Dentist. See 481 .
ser-h#l 7
Degradation 3. The Departure-Dentist starts with:
459: I. e2 2. el f! 3. f!xe4 4. f!a4 5. e4 6. e3 7. e2 8. (a) masked black halfbattery arrangement,
elf! 9. § hi 10. f!h7~.ft ll.h512.h413.h314. where the departure of one of its black pieces
h2 15. hI A 16. A d5 17. .1la2 <£ib2~.ft#. leads to a masked battery. See 482.
(b) a masked white half-pin arrangement, where
DEMOLITION the departure of one of its white pieces leads
See cook and bust. to a masked battery. See 141.

Black's halfpinned pieces move off the pin-line
interfering with their own units. In mating White
takes advantage of both the pins and interfer-
! Darso J. Densmore (1867-1917).


4.pr MagyarSakkelet /982

460: t. .Q.d7! - 2. itfxg5#, 1... Af4 2. §g4#, 1...
A h6 2. itfh5#, !...<£if- 2. itfxg5#, 1... <£ih7 2.
§ h6#, I... <£je4 2. tt,f4#, (I... §g4,§ h5 2. hxg4,

DEN·DEP Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

461: 1. ~e5! - 2. ~d4+ Axd4#, l... J;txe5 2. .£id6+ result either from the vacation of the initial
Axd6#, I ... J;txe4 2. ~ xd5+ Axd5#, I ... f6 2. square (the square of departure), or from the oc-
~ xc3+ ~ xc3#, I... b2 2. .£id2+ cxd2#, I... § xe5 cupation of the new square (the square of ar-
2. §xc5+ ~xc5#. rival). The former are termed Ex-Deploy and the
462: 1. .£ig7? (- ), l ... ,£ie-8 2. i1i'b2+A ~a5 3. ~ b5+
,£ixb5#, l ... ,£ic-b 2. i1i'a4+B 'iftc3 3. i1i'c4+ ,£ixc4#, latter Ad-Deploy.
I... ,£ixd3! • 1. .£id6! (- ), 1...,£ie-• 2. ~a4+B
'iftc3 3. .£ib5+ ,£ixb5#, l ... ,£ic-b 2. i1i'b2+A~a5 3. 464
.£ic4+ ,£ixc4#. KIESERITZKI, Lionel
* Other example 140. Le Palamede 1842
-+ See also: Avner Mechanism.


A pinned white piece x is unpinned when a black
piece y plays on to the pin-line. Piece x leaves the
line and forces piece y (usually by means of a
check) to leave the line as well, thus giving check #4
or mate to the white King. (Definition from FIDE
Album.) 464: 1. § xb6? (2. § c6) d3! 2. § h6? gxh6! l. § a7?
(2. § c7) d3! 2. § h7?? • 1. § a8! (2. §c8) d3 2.
463 § h8 g5 3. §hi g4 4. 'ifth2#.


Chemnitzer Tageb/att 1925 The English equivalent to German's "Hin-
fahrung ". See Deploy.
* See example 464.
A logical combination: White's main plan is hin-
s#2 dered by an unfavourable location of his own
463: l. -'td2! - 2. ~g2+ Axg2#, I... § b7 2. i1i'bl +
King. As a foreplan White deploys his King to a
§xbl#, I... §c6 2. i1i'c4+ §xc4#, I... § d5 2. harmless square, after which his main plan is
i1i'd3+ §xd3#, I... ,£id5 2. i1i'xf4+ ,£ixf4#, I... f3 effective.
2. ~e2+ fxe2# • The most economical setting of
a 5-fold rendering, repeated by other composers DEPRIVATION OF SPACE
five(!) times after Prytz. A logical combination: try/tries is/are refuted by
-+ See also: Dentist Fami/y. Black's having enough space for a waiting move.
With his foreplan White decoys black piece to a
DEPLOY square where it can still defend in an analogous
The English for German's "Fiihrung '', which way, but is running out of space and conse-
can also be paraphrased as "maneuver by a white quently of good waiting moves.
unit". In a logical problem, a direct combination
in which White or Black combines with own men 465
to improve his own position. It does not involve
any other deterioration of opponent's position BRUNNER. Erich
than possibly loss of time. According to their Correspondent 27.8.1933
purpose, the deploys are divided into ad-deploy
(Hinfahrung), deployment to a (better) square,
and ex-deploy (Wegfiihrung), deployment away
from a disadvantageous square. In the latter case,
a white unit may block a line or square for his
own man etc. #5
Deploys are voluntary moves advantageous to 465: 1. § f7? (2. -'tf3 §xf3 3. §xf3) §f5(4)! (I...
the side that executes them. The advantage may §f6? 2. § xf6) • l. § e2? §e l 2. §e7 (3. Ae2)

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems DES-OIL

§e5(4,3)! • I. §h2! §hi 2. § h7 (3 . .{,th5) §h- DIAGRAM (POSITION)

3. .{,th5 §xh5 4. §xh5; 2... §h6 3. §xh6 gxh6 4. A vast majority of compositions are published on
g7 • This is not Roman, because White ex-decoys,
a diagram. A diagram with pieces (=position) is
not ad-decoys (Brunner, Palatz).
not complete without the name of the composer,
-+ See also: Win OfSpace.
the source of original publication, possible dis-
tinction in a tourney, the stipulation(=, #2, h=3,
DESPERADO [E] etc), piece count, possible twins and number of
In a study, a piece of either color that tries to sac- solutions (if it deviates from the usual one); also
rifice itself at any cost, usually to attain a stale- possible fairy pieces, types, conditions etc. be-
mate. Problemists may call that kind of play low the diagram. Some mathematical and con-
"Siegfried strategy" (Siegfried theme). structional problems are published in writing, but
apart from that, publication in notation should be
466 avoided.
BROWN, Reginald A.
Illustrated London News DIFFICULTY OF SOLUTION
21. /1./846
A chess composition is a problem to solve, a task.
Therefore, it should issue solver an intellectual
challenge. Composition is also a work of art that
should be accessible after reasonable efforts. It is
no wonder, then, that composers and different
schools of composition emphasize the value of
466: I. ~ d3+ <i!1g2 2. ~g3+ (2~h(f)3+? gxh(f)3!-+)
difficulty in various ways.
<iTlfl 3. ~g t+ (3. ~g2+? §xg2!) <i!1e2 4. ~d i+ Difficulty is always subordinate to economy,
~e3 5. ~d3+ <i!1xd3 6. gxh8 f! ! - 7. stalemate. therefore composer should not add force or pro-
long the solution if there is no other reason for
DIACONESCU THEME that than adding difficulty. In a multi-phase prob-
Black closes one white and one black line; White lem composer may have some choice in case he
utilizes it by a mate from the indirect battery, can decide what phase will show actual play.
opening the guard toward one square in the black A good chess composition provides a solver with
Kings field. intellectual challenge and beauty to enjoy. Both
! Paul Diaconescu (1929-1997). things are, to some extent, very subjective things
to evaluate.
467 * See example 1470.
hm Sah 1949 DILARAM'S MATE
Dilaram's mate is found in a chess book from
1503 by a Turkish poet Firdewsi at-Tahihal who
used in a story a famous l 0th Century Mansuba
attributed to As-Suli. The story tells about a
prince who had wagered and lost his fortune to
#2 another prince during an intense chess session
and in desperation offered as stake his favourite
467: I. l£)xe2! - 2. §di#, 1... ~f5 2. l£)f4# • etc.
wife, Dilaram (meaning " heart's ease"). When
he seemed lost she called out "O Shah, sacrifice
both Rooks and save Dilaram; advance your fl/
and Pawn and checkmate with your horse. "
The same idea is shown in both diagonal and or-
thogonal form in one problem. (Definition from 468: 1. § h8+! ~xh8 2.1'5'f5+ § h2 3. §xh2+ <it'g8
FIDE Album.) 4. § h8+ <i!1xh8 5. g7+ ~g8 6. l£)h6#.

DIM-DIR Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

468 Direct combination initiated by Black is called

"Idea in defence with black pieces". Kling com-
AS-SULI, Abu Bakr bination is an example (see 471 ). In defence,
10th Century Black maneuvers with the effects of his own
moves in order to prevent White from executing
his plan, or to defer its execution.

NANNING, Frederik W.
Handelsblad /9/8

A logical theme: In defeats of two or more tries
Black uses different pieces to pin the threatening
white piece. In the solution these black pieces
selfpin themselves and White can realize his try
moves. #2
2 Nikolai Dimitrov (1929). 470: (* I... d4 2. "tt,xe4#) • 1. .ila6! H, I... d4 2.
"tt,b5# • etc.
Shakhmatna mis/ 1966 MONGR£D1EN,
Alfred w.
L 'Eclaireur du Soir /924

469: 1. "tt,xa7? §a3!, I. "tt,xb7? fe46! 2• I • .llbh5!((2. 471 : I. -'\.h3! - 2 . .Q.f8+ .Q.e7(X!e7) 3 . .Q.xe6 - 4.
g7+), I... §xg6 2. "tt,xa7, I... ..1-1.xg . "tt,x 7, 1... a2 f8 d , ,...,
4:;xg6 2. ,tic4). €l #, I... Ad8 2 . .Q. + §e7 3. 4. wc44. §a4#
• etc.
-+ See also: Indirect Combination; Logical Combination.
.. Alias: Direct Maneuver.
A fairy piece that has no capability of moving or
capturing, and it cannot be captured, but it saves DIRECT MATE
from capturing all pieces that stand on its adja- A type of problem where White, moving first, is
cent squares. required to checkmate Black in a specified num-
ber of moves against any defence. Such a prob-
DIRECT COMBINATION lem is usually indicated by the stipulation "mate
Occurs in a logical problem. A maneuver (com- in two" (or however many moves is necessary) or
bination, play) where the initiating side con- "checkmate in two". The term "direct mate" is
ceives "willed" useful movements of its own useful to distinguish these kind of problems from
pieces. helpmates, sel(mates, reflexmates and others.
Direct combination initiated by White is called (Definition from FIDE Album.)
"Idea in attack with white pieces". Bristol clear- = Alias: Directmate.
ance is an example (see 470). White maneuvers
with the effects of his own moves. The aim of the DIRECT PLAY
combination is not to weaken Blacks's position, Refers to a normal adversarial play found in
but to improve White's own, in order to enable games like chess, in which the course of solution
White to carry out his main plan. corresponds to the logic of the game, i.e. White

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems DIR-DOL

aims at giving mate on a black King, and Black guised King". At the start, the whereabouts of the
aims at preventing it, as contrasted with e.g. help Disquised Kings is not known.
RJgy_ and sel(mate or series play. The term is Other rules to note are:
applied to stalemate stipulation, too. In
retroanalytical play direct play refers to the logi- ( 1) The King can be captured if it is not the Dis-
cal retro-play from critical positions or game-ar- guised King.
ray position to the diagram position. (2) Pawns cannot promote to King
(3) A Pawn, when it is the Disguised King, can-
DIRECT PROBLEM not double-step when it is attacked and can be
Any problem with Direct play, i.e. in orthodox captured en passant.
and fairy chess a problem that follows the logic
of the game: White aims at mating black King, (4) Castling is not allowed when either King or
and Black tries to prevent it. Also compositions Rook is Disguised King and the Disguised
with stalemate stipulation are considered direct King is attacked or its path is observed by op-
problems ponent's pieces.
When this condition is applied to White as well,
DIRECT-REFLEXMATE [F] it is indicated by stipulation "Disguised Kings".
Fairy condition. White's aim is to mate Black.
After first pair of moves, both players must allow DISQ!JALIFICATION
to be help-mated in one move, if it is possible. The rejection of a problem or a, study due to
2 Invented by Jean Zeller (1909-2002) in 1978. unsoundness or anticipation, usually during the
confirmation time of an award, or earlier if such
DISCOVERED ATTACK [E] defects are found.
Endgame theme based on a double attack from
the battery: a check from the front piece and at- DOBBS THEME
tack to the opponent's piece from the rear piece, Black unpins two white pieces in one pair and
or vice versa: check from the rear piece and at- captures these pieces in another pair of varia-
tack to another enemy piece from the front piece. tions. The captures are met by battery mates.
Bassisty gives the following definition: "A tac- ! Gilbert S. Dobbs (1867-1941).
tical idea: winning a piece with help of opening
of a battery" ( "Slovar terminov shakhmatnoi 473
kompoziciyi ", Kiev, 2004).
472 I.pr El Ajedrez Americano
Shakhmaty vSSSR 1938

473: I. 'it1b6! H, 1....§b- 2. ,ticS#, I... .§xb3+ 2.
AbS#, l...f!h- 2. ~e8#, I... .§xg6+ 2. Ae6#.
472=1. -'l,b4! ~ xb4 (1... gl~ 2· -'1,cS-J . .Q.bS#) 2· DOLGINOVICH THEME (HJ
,tid2 gt~ 3. ,tibl! (thr. 4. a3+ 'it1a4 5. .,llbS#)
~ xbl 4. c3+ ~ xc3 5. .,llxbl +-. A helpmate theme. Reversed or half a move
shifted kinds of pieces that play (aBcD-dCbA or
* Other example 483. aBcD-bCdA, lowercase letters stand for black,
DISGUISED KING(S) [Fl uppercase for white pieces). In 474 the order is
Fairy condition. One of Black 's pieces (King in- reversed.
cluded) is a royal piece, which is called "Dis- ! Nikolay Dolginovich (1928-1997).

DOM-DOM Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

474 B~~~~
i •
~ 476

DOLGINOVICH, Nikolay LA<'.:NY, L'udovlt
I .pr Ryazanskiy
komsomolets 1980-1 ,~~sB!~~~ .
4.pr Pravda 1T 1969

'-'~-~d~~.... 'm..~ WA~-*f''4

... ,~~~-- -~
#2 b)')b5, tb3..+d3
c) ')b5, t b7..+b6
476: a) 1. f4! - 2. !£)e5#A, I... 'it'c4• 2. ~e4#B,
I... <it1xc6b 2. ~xe6#C • b) l. f3! - 2. ~e4#B,
DOMBRO-LA<".:NY I ... 'it'c4• 2. ~xe6#C, I ... 'it'xc6b 2. !£)e5#A • c)
A two-phase cyclic shift of threat and two or
1. <it1f7! - 2. ~xe6#C, I... 'it'c4• 2. !£)e5#A, I...
more variations. A paradoxical form of Lacny 'it'xc6b 2. ~e4#B.
theme. = Aliases: Complete Threat La~ny; ~ny-Dombrovskis,
Pattern: Complete; Shedey Paradox, Complete.
Dombro-la~n ·
X A B C Zagoruiko theme including at least one
Y B C A Dombrovskis paradox.
475 477
SHEDEY, Sergey SHEDEY, Sergey ;
I .pr Problem 1964-6 RUDENKO, Valentin F.
2.pr Sachove umenie 1981

#2 #2
475: I. hxg7? - 2 . .llf6#A, I ... <it1c5 8 2. J,txe3#B, I ... 477: * I... J,lxd4a 2. !£)d5#A, I... axb4b 2. !£)b5#B • l.
<it1e5b 2. ~xc3#C, I... d5! • I. !£)dS! - 2. J,txe3#B, ~ e7? -2. !£)b5#8, I ... _ilxd4 2. ~xe l#, I ... axb4b
I... 'it'c5 8 2. ~xc3#C, I... 'it'e5b 2. J,tf6#A, (1... 2. ~xb4#, I... J,ld6! • l. ~a7! - 2. !£)d5#A, I...
.llxd5 2. ~xd5#). J,lxd48 2. ~xd4#, I... axb4 2. ~al#.
* Other example 1534.
= Aliases: Lafny-Dombrovskis; Shedey Paradox; Shedey- DOMBROVSKIS THE,JE
Paradoxical idea of changed functions of moves
DOMBRO-LA<".:NY, COMPLETE in no less than two variations. A mate threatened
A three-phase cyclic shift of threat and two or in a try appears in another phase, usually the so-
more variations. A paradoxical form of Lacny. lution, after the same black move that defeated
Complete. the try.
Pattern: Pattern:
Complete Dombrovskls
Dombro-La~nv 1 a b -
1 - a b X? A !
z .
z C A B ! Alfreds Dombrovskis (1923-2000).

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems DOM-DOM

478 Pattern:
DOMBROVSKIS, Alfreds Dombrovskis
I.pr Probleemblad /958 1 - a b
y B D
z A B

478: 1. -'\.cl? - 2. 4:)f4#A, 1... .Q.d2!• • 1. 4:)g3? - 2.
f!d4#B, I... ~ e2!b • t. 4:)e3! - 2. ~c2#, I...
.Q,d2• 2. 4:)f4#A, I... ~e2b 2. f! d4#B, (I... 'it(e2 2.
~ dl #).
* Other examples: 930, 1144, 1549, 1657.
A two-variation rendering of Dombrovskis theme
480: t.c3? -2 . .Q..d4#A, I... .Q.xc5• 2 . .§ d5#, I... f4
in two phases mutually connected by Reversal 1
2. '{li'h5#, I... bxc5! • l. '{Jyc6? - 2. 4:)d7#B, I...
and Reversal 2 pattern.
4:)xc5 b 2 . '{li'xd6#, I... f4 2. ~ e4#, I... .§xh7! •
Patterns: l. '{li'bS? - 2. '{Jye2#, I... Axc5• 2. Ad4#A, I...
Cross-Closed Cross-Closed 4:)xc5b 2. 4:)d7#B, 1... f4! • t. '{li'hS! - 2. '{Jye2#,
Oombrovskis 1 Dombrovskis 2 I ... .Q.xc5 2 . .Q..h2#, I ... 4:)xc5 2 . 4:)g4#.
1 a b 1 a b
X A B X A C B * Other example 1687.
y B A y B A D s Alias: Dombrovskis, Complicated.


D ombrovskis theme where in thematic tries,
SLESARENKO, the thematic black move, which does not de-
Anatoly; feat a try, is a defence met by a changed mate
I.cm Odessa-88 JT /988 (Mate. Change{i).
Ideal Dombrovskis
1 - a b
X? A ! C
479: t. .Q,c8? - 2. f!g5#A, I... A xe5 2. 4:)d4#B, I...
z .
Y? B D !

f! xe6 2. Axe6#, I... f!d7! • 1. f4? - 2. 4:)d4#B, 481

I... .Q.xe5 2. '{Jyxe5#, I... f!xe6 2. f!g5#A, I...
.§d6! • 1. ~ b3!-2. f!g5#A, I... .Q.xe5 2. '{Jyxb l #, KOPNIN, Alexey G
I... .§ xe6 2. '{Jyxe6#. 6.pr Shakhmaty 1975

Dombrovskis theme where, instead of being refu-
tations, Black's thematic moves are defences in
respective tries followed by changed mates com-
pared to those in unifying phase, which is usually #2
the solution, but may also be another try (as in 481 : t. f! d4? (4:)d7#A) 4:)f6b2. 4:)f3#B, I... Ad5! . .
480), or even a set play. 1. '{li'f8? (2. 4:)f3#B) .Q.d5• 2. 4:)d7#A, 1... 4:)f6!b •

DOM-DOM Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

l. g,bs!-2 . .§e4#, I... Ad5• 2. 4:)d7#A, I... 4:)f6b 12, Queens-5, Rooks-8, Bishops- 10, Knights
2. 4:)f3#B, (I... .11.bl(c4),bxc6+ 24:)(x)c4,4:)xc6#). - 14).
-+ See also: Dombrovskis Theme.
'" Alias: Complete Dombrovskis.
Example positions:
Kings: a2 a3 a6 a7 d2 d3 d6 d7 g2 g3 g6 g7;
DOMBROVSKIS PARADOX Queens: a2 c4 d5 e6 g8;
Thematic black defence, which was met by a the-
Rooks: fill one of the files or ranks with Rooks;
matic mate in one phase, is a defence against the
same mate as a threat in another phase. 482 is an Bishops: b3 b6 d3 d4 d5 d6 f2 f4 f5 f7;
early illustration, probably unconscious but nev- Knights: b3 c3 c4 c5 c6 c7 e3 e4 e6 e7 f3 f7 g3 g5.
ertheless good example. -+ See also: Independence Problems.
Pattern: .. Alias: Covering Problems.
1 a An endgame theme. A control over a significant
X A Bl! space of the chessboard the result of which is that
•y A
certain squares are inaccessible or fatal for oppo-
nent's piece(s).

A ~ r.~~1!11~~ In "win" studies a situation where a (strong)
~J~~~~~~ WEENINK, Henri G. M. black piece has relatively wide freedom of move-

I.pr Bristol Times and ment, but which nevertheless is trapped and
Mirror 1931 captured.
In "draw" studies White, though materially infe-
~R§• Bll.~
rior but with his pieces in ideal positions, domi-
nates Black and prevents it from using its
.J ~~~ 4)~ superior force. See also Positional Draw and
#2 Domination, Passive, and particularly example
482: * I... .§ d4• 2 . .§ c3#A • 1• .Q.eS! - 2. .§ c3#A, I... 1238.
.§d4• 2. ~ h3#B, (I... Ad4 2. ~ a6#, I... d4 2.
~c4#, I... .§c4 2. .§d2#, I... .§xg2 2. ~f5#).
* Otherexamples:711, 1661.
In this type of problems it is required to find a
minimum number of pieces of the given kind and
place them on a chess board in such a way that:
1. All free squares of the board are attacked by at
least one piece (the minimum number of domi- +
nating Kings is 9, Queens - 5, Rooks - 8, Bish-
483: l. es+ g,r, 2. e6+ ,!lxe6 3. dxe6+ 'iftf6 (3...
ops - 8, Knights - 12);
g,e8 4. f6 exf6 5. 4:)f5 +- ) 4. 4:)e5! ~b8+ 5. ~h7
Example positions: ~ xe5 6. A al ! ~- 7. 4:)e2,f3,b5,c6,c2,b3+; 6...
Kings: bl b4 b7 el e4 e7 hi h4 h7; ~ d5 7. 4:)c2+ g,xf5 8. 4:)e3+; 6 ... ~e4 7. 4:)e2+
Queens: b3 c6 d4 e2 f5; <iftxf5 8. 4:)g3+.
Rooks: place them on one of the main diagonals; .. Alias: Trapping.
Bishops: fill the d-file (ore-file) with Bishops;
Knights: b2 b3 b6 c3 c5 c6 e6 f3 f4 f6 f7 g3.
In an endgame a weaker side limits the mobility
2. All the squares of the board, including the oc- of the opponent's pieces in the certain part of the
cupied ones, are attacked by at least one piece board without attacking them, which results in a
(the minimum number of dominating Kings is drawn position.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems DON - DOU

move must always be away from the departure

square, but the double-Knight is not allowed to
end up in a square where a Nightrider could
move, if it had same departure square.
2 Invented by Karl Kaiser (1867-1934).
= Alias: Doppelspringer (Ger.).


Endgame theme: A weaker side in order to pro-
tect itself stalemates itself twice.
484: 1. ~ gs ~f7 2. ~h6 ~g8 3. c6! § c8 4• .ll,b6!
(4. g5? §c7!) 4... §xc6 5. gS! §c8 6. .,ilc7! §a8 DOUBLE STRIKE (EJ
(6... §e8 7. .,ild8) 7. .,ilb8! §a6 8. .,ila7! §c6 9. In endgames: Universal method of struggle like:
,Ab6! § c8 10. ,Ac7 =. double attack; combined attack and threat; com-
bined two threats in different order; etc.
DONKEYBLOCK THEME In problems: Dual.
Four selfblocks by two Bishops in the same
phase of a problem, usually in a two-mover. DOUBLE WEAKENING THEME
A three-move theme: In defence Black induces
485 two weaknesses which are utilized by White in
DAWSON, Thomas R.
succession: one on the second and another on the
British Chess Magazine mating move. In two thematic variations of 486
1948 White first utilizes the interference and then
selfpin (from a halfpin).
#2 Shakhmaty v SSSR 1964
485: * 1... .,ilg6 2. .,ilxg6# • I. 4:}g6! (-), 1... .,ilxg6 2.
.,ilxe6#, 1... .,ilxg4 2. ~ e5#, 1... .Q.g5 2. ~ xe6#,
I ... .Q.f6 2. 4:}h6#. • (I ... 4:}-2. ~f4#, I ... ~xg4 2.
-+ See also: Horseblock; Horseblock Theme; Mule;
Muleblock Theme. #3
486: 1. ~ hS! - 2. ~ hi+ §e4,.,ile4 3. ~ c2,~ e3#,
DOUBLE ATTACK [E] 1... §e4 2. ~c2+ § d4+ 3. e4#, 1... .Q.e4 2. ~ e3+
Tactical instrument in endgame like: ,Ad3+ 3. .Q.e4#, (1... ~ e4 2. ~ xg4+, I... -'\,cl+/
,Ac5 2. ~(x)cl+, I... g3 2. ~ f3+, 1... § xe2+ 2.
• simultaneous attack of two opponent's pieces ~xe2+, 1... .Q.bl/.Q.d3 2. e4+).
(like fork),
• simultaneous attack of opponent's piece by DOUBLED PAWNS (EJ
two pieces (like double check), An endgame motif. Two Pawns of the same color
• simultaneous attack from two pieces on two residing on the same file. Pawns can become
opponent's pieces, doubled only when one Pawn captures onto a file
etc. on which another friendly Pawn resides.


A fairy piece, which on every move makes two The play of two friendly pieces of like motion
Knight's steps in succession, but it may move along a line so that the rear-piece supports the
only one step, too. The direction of the other front-piece. Doubling is often preceded by a pre-

DOU-DOU Encyclopedia of Chess Problems


c~ Anti-Turton

• 8R
l.§a3 2.\';l'a2 3.\';l'a4??

l.\';l'a3 2.§a2 3.\';l'a4!

~ 8
l.\';l'al 2.§a2 3.\';l'a4??

~ ~-.

~. ~-
8 8

l.\';l'al 2.§a2 3.§a4!


• 8
l.\';l'a3 2.§a2 3.§a4??

• 8
l.§a3 2.\';l'a2 3.§a4!

~- ~8
1.§al 2.\';l'a2 3.§a4??

~. c·~-~

!.§al 2.§ca2 3.§(2)a4!

• 8
1.§a3 2.§ca2 3.§(2)a4??

1.§a3 2.§ca2 3.§(3)a4!

1.§al 2.§ca2 3.§(l)a4??

Doubling Types line-clearances such as Loyd's clearance and

---- --- .
I Bristol clearance, in which the front piece is not
Direct Combination
supported by the rear one.
I Orthoform Movement backward
There are two forms of doubling depending on
Turton weaker piece
the type of critical move:
Loyd-Turton stronger piece
Brunner-Turton equal oiece (1) Turton Doubling is the ortho-form, since it
Metaform Movement forward was preceded by an anti-meta-critical move;
Zepler stronger piece (2) Zepler Doubling is the meta-form, since it
I' Loyd-Zepler weaker piece was preceded by an anti-ortho-critical move.
ti Brunner-ZeJJler equal piece Both have three sub-forms based on the type (or
strength) of thematic pieces, and each of them
Indirect Combination (Antiform) has its antiform. These are clearly illustrated in
Orthoform Deflection forward the "Doubling Types" tables.
Anti-Turton weaker piece See also the comparative overview at the top of
Anti-Loyd-Turton stronger piece this page.
equal piece
Deflection backward
* See examples: 86,121,765,875, 1049, 1354, 1592, 1593,
1594, 1595, 1709, 1710, 1711.
Anti-Zepler stronger piece ~ See also: Turton Doubling.
Anti-Loyd-Zepler weaker piece
Anti-Brunner-Zepler equal piece DOUBLING, SIMPLE
One of the doubling pieces is on the line and the
paratory critical move or peri-critical move, front or the rear piece moves to the same line to
since the order of the pieces is crucial. Doubling support or be supported by the other piece with-
maneuvers should be distinguished from out any critical play, i.e. the doubling can also be

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems ORA-DRE

used in a two-mover. If the doubled pieces are al- a player on the move can claim/require draw. In
ready on the line in the initial position, see Bristol endgame studies the rule means that if Black or
clearance. White cannot avoid the repetition of moves with-
out getting into a theoretically lost game, the po-
487 sition is automatically drawn, and the solution or
VUK<'.:EVIC, Milan
analysis must not be written further.
I.pr Mat Plus 1996 Codex: A position is considered as a draw if it
can be proved that an identical position has oc-
curred three times in the proof game combined
with the solution. (Identical position means the
same kinds ofpieces on the same squares with
the same move rights.)
#4 488
487: 1. ~ cl! - 2. Af4+ <i?]xf6 3. Ae5+, I ... <i?]xf6 2.
.ll_g5+ ~g7 3. Af6+, I... <i?]xd6 2 . .§c6+ ~d7 3. TROITSKY, Alexey A.
Shakhmatniy zhurna/ I 898
.§d6+ • (2 ... ~e5 3. ~c5+).
* Other example 1155.
" Alias: Simple Doubling.

Stipulation of an endgame study: White is to
reach a drawn position against Black's best play.
Some typical draws are: 488: t. <i?]et! ( I. ~e2? ~h5+ 2. <i?]el ~e8+) ~ a7 2•
• reduction of the material to a theoretical draw; .(lb6+ ~xb6 3. ,t)xb6 f4 4. ,t)dS f3 S. ,t)f4! f2+ 6.
• stalemate; ~d2 <i?)fl (6... fl{)+? 7. <i?]el; 6 ... fl~?? {)h3#)
7. {)dS! <i?)gl (8... gl ~?? 9. {)e3#) 8. {)f4 ~ fl 9.
• perpetual check;
{)dS draw by repetition.
• perpetual pursuit;
aa Alias: Repetition of Position.
• repetition of position for some other reason;
• when 50-move draw rule can be applied; DRESDEN IDEA
etc. A defence substitution idea in logical combina-
tion. A good defence of one piece is prevented
DRAW OR WIN, THEORETICAL [El and replaced by a bad defence of another piece.
Covers positions and material combinations of Depending on the way in which the "good" de-
which endgame theory or databases give a reli- fence is disabled, there are the following three
able evidence that they are draw or win. In the main types of Dresden theme:
last couple ofdecades a lot of new information of (a) Palitzsch-Dresden. The decoy of a black
endings with 6 and 7 pieces has emerged. In the piece that refutes the main plan, activates an-
coming decades some of the theory has to be other piece the defence of which is, however,
re-written. The start of this development was not successful. See 489.
triggered in the 1980s by computer-generated
(b) Brunner-Dresden. A black piece which par-
analysis which proved that the ending BB vs S in
ries the main plan is obstructed or interfered
neutral positions was a certain win for Bishops in with by another black piece, the defence of
less than 50 moves. which is, however, not successful. See 490.
* See examples: 565, 1273, 1274, 1275, 1578, 1580, 158 1.
(c) Changed-Form-Dresden. (Wechselform-
DRAW, BY REPETITION OF POSITION Dresdner, also Hilfstein-Dresdner). A "good"
According to the laws of chess, if a position is re- piece is disabled and a "bad" piece activated
peated three times with the same side being on by move of third black piece. See 491 .
the move and having same moves at his disposal, ! Fried.rich Palitzsch (1889-1932).

DRE-DRE Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

Deutsches Wochenschach
1911 I dedicated to G Ernst

#3 #3
489: t. t'l f5? ~b4! • t. 'li1b2! (2. 'li1b8+/'li1xh2+) 493
i;txb2 2. t'l f5 t'l f3 3. t'l h5#.
PALITZSCH, Friedrich
Deutsches Wochenschach
28.4.1918 I dedicated to
H. Ranneforth

* Other examples: 988, 1311, 1571, 1589.
= Alias: Dresdner (Ger.).
490: t. .ftg7? .ft c3 ! • t. 'li1e7? t'( c3 ! • t. ~g4! - 2. DRESDEN, CONSECUTIVE
'li1g5+ ~c4/~d4 3. 'li1c5#), I ... t'l c3 2. ~g7 t'l c4 After the first foreplan, which shuts off the piece
3. 'li1e5#, I ... .ftc3 2. 'li1e7 l;td4 3. 'li1e6#, (I ... ~c4 A, White is still unable to execute his main plan,
2. 'li1e7). because Black has a sufficient defence with
his piece B. Therefore White needs yet another
foreplan to decoy piece C to shut off the piece B.
-~~~ 491
m· 1~ ffl
·i©f 0
The piece C may still have a sufficient defence to
White's main plan, in which case still another
~'m'iftt 'm ffY

~!~~~!d!;;c;nzeiger foreplan is needed to shut off the piece D.

~~r·-:i 'r; ~""
~ ~~ KUTZBORSKI, Dieter

.1 ~ ~ ~
~ 2.pr Die Schwalbe 1982

491: t. 'li1a2? t'(a4! • t. 'li1g2? t'(g4! • 1. 'li1f2! - 2.
'li1gl t'(g4 3. 'li1xa7#, I... f4 2. 'li1g2 t'(g5 3.
'li1xc6#, I... b4 2. 'li1a2 t'l a5 3. 'li1g8#, ( I... t'l c5 2.
'li1a2, I... c5 2. 'li1g2/'li1a2). #7
492: t. 'li1cl? t'l bf3! • 1. t'l a5! (2. c84:)) t'l gc3 2. 494: 1. l;th3? (2. 4:)f3+) c5!; 1. ~f8? 4:)b7! (2 . .fth3
'li1cl 'li1d3+ 3. cxd3#, (I ... fl 'li12. 'li1xc5+ ~xc5 3. 'li1a7!; 2..ftc5+ 4:)xc5 3 ..fth3 4:)e4 4.4:)f3+ ~hi 5.
c8'li1,t'(#; I... t'(b2 2. c84:) b3 3. t'(a4#) • l!g3 4:)e3 4:)g5+!; l.~h6! g5 2.,ftf8 4:)b7 3.l;tc5+ 4:)xc5
(=B) shuts l!b3 (=A) off and allows irh3 (=C) to 4. ~h3 4:)e4 5. 4:)f3+ ~hi 6. 4:)e3 - 7. ~g2#.
come in; Wechselform-Dresdner; idea in Defence:
black clearance. DRESDEN, WHITE
493: 1. t'(g3? l;td4! • 1. 'li1a5! (2. 'li1a8#), I... .ftxa5 Black decoys a "good" white attacker after
2. t'l g3 t'l xg3 3. hxg3#. which, however, another white attacker is able to

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems DRE-DUA

come into play and complete the attack. As a de- DUAL

fensive maneuver, the Dresden combination can In a direct problem dual occurs when in the
only defer White's attack. course of solution White can choose a different
continuation than the intended one. Dual in main
495 variation is considered a major dual (or serious
dual) and completely demolishes the problem.
Schackviirlden /943 Dual in a by-variation is minor dual (or harm-
less dual) and although it can be and usually is
tolerated, it is still undesirable. In a helpmate ev-
ery dual, either in play of White or Black, is a de-
fect equally serious as a cook.
Many themes are based on avoidance of duals.
However, there are also some dual-based themes
#4 in which is this otherwise a defect turned into a
4 95: 1. ,tixe3! (2. <t}c4#) .§h4 2. <t}g4 .§xg4 3. virtue. While in the case of unintended dual it
Ab6+ ~a6 4. <£lc5#. doesn't matter whether there is one or more
unwanted continuations, in dual-avoidance or
DRESE THEME "dual-allowance" themes it is relevant, so a spe-
Black self-pins his piece in anticipation that cial terminology is developed for this purpose,
White unpins it. White does that, but in another thus dual is a choice between two, triple be-
way than Black was prepared for. tween three, quadruple between four mates and
S Gerardus H. Drese (1902-1980). so on.

* See example 1555.
DRESE, Gerardus H.
Jaarboek 1935 A rarely used term for a group of themes based on
the existence of duals.

After Black in defence committed a certain error
White apparently has two mates or continua-
tions. However, only one mate works, the other
#3 fails. In other words, dual is avoided. To make a
496: 1. AfS! - 2. .Q.c8 - 3. Aa6#;, I ... ,ti2xe4 2. theme of it, dual avoidance should occur in at
.Q.h3! (2. .Q.c8? ,tixc5!) - 3. .Q.fl#, 2... least two variations.
,tixc3(,£ig3) 3. .§e3#, 2 ... <t}xd2 3. ,tic!#;, I... The types of dual avoidance are distinguished ei-
<t}6xe4 2. .Q.d7! (2 . .Q..c8? <t}xc5!) - 3. .Q.b5#, 2... ther according to the thematically relevant move
,tixc3/<t}d6 3. .§e3#, 2 ... ,tixd2 3. ,tic!#;, (I...
,ti6g4/<t}2g4/etc. 2. exd5+ .t}e4 3. Axe4#).
(defence or mate), or according to the utilization
~ See also: Schiffmann I Defence.
of mates (differentiation or exclusion).
The classification of Dual Avoidance can be
DRESSING THE BOARD done by two criteria, each of which yields two
Adding pieces to the position solely to increase distinctive types.
the difficulty of the problem (see Camouflage One criteria is based on disposition of mates in
Piece). related variations, i.e. whether the duals are dif-
ferentiated or completely excluded:
DROHZWANG-SCHACH [Fl Partial Dual Avoidance. Generally speaking,
Fairy condition. Both sides must check whenever partially avoided dual is a mate which is pre-
they can. The side on check must parry it, in other vented in one and realized in another variation.
case it is "threat-selfmate". Usually an apparent pair of mates is present in
S Invented by Hans Kluver (1901-1989). two variations. The mate effective in one varia-

DUA·DUA Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

tion is prevented in another and vice versa. This * Other examples: 95,148,167,168,183,189,285,310,453,
type can with good reason also be termed "Re- 619, 650, 749, 820, 824, 896, 897, 961, 973, 1001, 1207,
1360, 1375, 1408, 1460, 1529, 1530, 1557, 1585, 1618.
ciprocal Dual Avoidance". However, other sce- = Alias: Combination in Tries.
narios are possible, such as for instance cyclic
dual avoidance. DUAL AVOIDANCE, CYCLIC
Total Dual Avoidance. The prevented mate ap· Three or more mates occur in as many variations
pears as a possibility only once and doesn't be- in cyclic pairs, so that the mate avoided in one is
come effective in any other variation. effective in the next variation, while the mate
avoided in the last variation closes the cycle by
Another criteria is the location of thematically
being effective in the first variation.There are
relevant effects, i.e. whether they are contained
four thematic mates in 499.
in a defence or in a mate:
If three or more defences occur in variations as
Active Dual Avoidance. Black defence carries a triplets ( consisting of one effe.c tive and two
positive effect which prevents a dual mate. 497 avoided mates), then the cyclic order of avoided
is an example of active and partial dual mates is not inherent. See the remark under "£v:
avoidance. cle. ofMates". In 500 the order of avoided mates
Passive Dual Avoidance. White second move (parenthesized in the solution) is unambiguously
carries a harmful effect which eliminates it as a defined by black defensive motifs they are pre-
mate. 498 is an example of passive and total vented by in respective variations.
dual avoidance.
497 LATZEL, Gerhard
I .pr Chess 1948
Good Companion 1917

#2 499: 1. A c6! - 2. 4Jf3#, 1... § d5 2. <£lb3#A
(!!c4?B), I... ,t)d5 2. §c4#B (,t)xf5?C), I... .lld5
497: (* I... ~e6 2. ~ xe6#} • 1. § e6! (2. ~d7#), 2. ,£\xfS#C (~g7?D), J... d5 2. 'i{Jg7#D (4Jb3?A),
I... ,t)hf5 2. ,t)dxf4# (2. ,t)hxf4?), l... ,t)gfS 2.
(I... exd2 2. ~f2#).
,t)hxf4# (2. ,t)dxf4?}, (1... ~xe6,Ab4,cxd3,.llc6
2. ~c5,,t)xb4,c4,~xc6#) • Active partial dual 500
STOCCHI, Ottavio
l.hm L'tchiquier /936

500: 1. 4Jxe6! - 2. exf4#, I... §xe6 2. §c5#A
(!!xfSB,Axd6?C), I... ,t)xe6 2. §xf5#8 (.Q..xd6C,
#2 §c5?A), I... dxe6 2. Axd6#C (§c5A,§xfS?B),
498: 1. ,t)g3! (2. ,t)h5#), 1... ,t)xf6 2. ,t)f7# ( ,t)e4?), ( I... ~xe6,fxe3 2. exf4, ~xe3#) • First mates in
I... ~xel 2. ,t)dfS# (,t)c4?), (1... ,t)/~xd6 2. the parenthesis are avoided by indirect pins, second
~xd6#, l... ,t)xg3 2. ~cl #, I... ~xg3 2. ,t)xe4#) ones by direct guards.
• Passive total dual avoidance. * Other example 98.
Encyclopedia of Chess Problems DUA-OUM

DUAL,BLACK not considered serious duals, if the possibility

In orthodox compositions duals are White's presents itself in a mating move, and it is some-
alternative mates or continuations to Black's times tolerated even in helpmate problems. Ear-
moves. The term can be used to signify black lier in the solution it may be regarded as serious,
moves followed by same white moves, for in- especially in a thematic variation.
stance in different phases, without there being a
genuine changed play (see mate transference, DUAL, VANISHING
pseudo), or in one phase, too. Some experts hold
the opinion that white continuations that follow Dual(s) found in the set play disappear in the ac-
both thematic and non-thematic black play are tual play.
comparable with duals. In self- and reflex-mates, * See examples: 69,613.
in which the mating side is Black, technically
there can be duals, but with regard to self-mates DUD THEME
opinions differ whether they are, in general, A white piece that is very useful in set or try play
considered serious or not. becomes idle after the key. The famous 502 has
DUAL, LOSS OF TIME [El been celebrated despite (or perhaps because) a
In a win study a kind of dual in the position in "dud" on hi is nothing less than - the Queen!
which White can, in fact, play a weaker move,
but because Black cannot improve his position, 502
White can return to the main line, when the posi-
tion is repeated. Some experts do not consider Chess Amateur 1917
such duals serious.
Bulletin de la Federation
Fran<;aise des Echecs
1930/(v) #2
502: * l ... <t)h- 2~(x)f4#, l ... <t)d- 2~(x)e3#, I ... c4
2. f!a5#, 1... d-2. 'ifte2# • 1. f! e4! (-), 1...<t)h-2.
€)xf6#, l...<t)d- 2€)(x)e3#, 1... c4 2. E! d4#, I... d-
+ 2. ll,c4#.
501: I. ll,b6 €)b4 (1... €)b8 2. ll,c7 €)- 3. ll,h2 -4.
€)f2#; I ... €)c5 2. €)f2+ 'iftgl 3. Axc5) 2. €)f2+ DUEL THEME
~gt 3. €)e4+ (not 3. €)d3+? ~ hi 4. €)xb4 stale- At least 3 different moves of one and the same
mate, although White can retract his mistake by piece are followed by different moves of one and
playing 4. €)f2+ - "loss of time" dual) 'iftel 4.
€)g3+ ~el 5. A a5 +-.
the same enemy piece.
Not to be confused with Tempo Duel!
When a piece is on a focal position or controls * See examples: 116,304,401,437,455, 1109, 1447, 1677.
two or more squares on the same line, a move
from the focal point or from the line may as a DUMMY
consequence give the opponent two or several An imaginary piece of either side that does not
mates or continuations. That kind ofunavoidable possess any power apart from blocking up a
duals, which are usually separated by other square. A random unit.
moves of the piece, are not considered harmful.
503: 1. €)e4! - 2. f!b8#, 1... axb4 2. f!c5#, 1...
DUAL, PROMOTION f!xb4 2. €)c3#, 1... Axb4 2. ll,c4#, I... €)xb4 2.
In direct mate problems and studies White's al- €)d6#, ( 1... ~xb4 2. E! b8#) • A dummy arrival on
ternative promotion to Q/R or Q/B are usually b4 would allow all four mates.

DUP·DUR Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

503 505
I.pr Sjakk-Nytt /947 Mat 1988

#2 #3
-+ See alw: Random Piece.
Problems where the same stipulation applies to 4.pr The Problemist 2003
both sides. Most often combined with a helpmate

m ~ ~ 504

Die Schwalbe 1965

508: I. f4?A - 2. §h3B <£)e3 3. §xe3#, I... e3 8 2.
" ···' ~
axb5C 4:)xb2 3. 'gxe3#, (1... exf3 e.p. 2. §bxf3
etc.), I... <£)c3! • I. 'g hJ!B-2. axb5C-3. <£)c3#,
I... e3• 2. f4A <£)xb2 3. §xe3#.
§~ ~ ~
= Alias: Djurasevic.
h#2 duplex
504: A) 1. <£)d3 '1]c7 2. '1]a7 §a l # • B) 1. '1;;a8 DURASEVIC, COMPLETE
<£)d5 2. §b8 <£)c7#. A complete three-phase (or in longer problem
three-variation) cyclic Durasevic theme. This ex-
DURASEVIC THEME tremely difficult scenario is unattainable in a
Cyclically shifted functions of three white moves conventional orthodox problem. A 'disparately
in two phases as key, threat and mate/continua- twinned' 507 is quoted here only for illustrative
tion to the same defence, or in two parallel varia- reasons.
tions, the second move standing for a key, while Pattern:
thematic threat and mate occur the third move. Comolete Ourasevic
This difficult theme cannot be conceived in an
orthodox twomover, and even in a threemover it A
- a
needs a help of an "odd" move like castling 505 B C A
or en passant 508. C A B
! Branislav Durasevic (1957). 507
1 a

505: 1. .1lxe6?A - 2. <£)d7+B <£)xd7 3. iwd5#, 1...

<£)bc4• 2. 0-0B - 3. 'gf5#, (1... <£)xc2+ 2. iwxc2
etc.), 1... <£)ac4! • I. 0-0!C - 2. .1lxe6A- 3. § f5#,
1... <£)bxc4 8 2. <£)d7+B '1;;d5 3. §di#, (1... <£)axc4 #2 b) • g5~b4. §h l~a8;
2. 'gxb5 etc., 1... <£)d5 2. Axb5 etc.). c) • g5~c7, §h l~h8

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems DUR-ECH

507: a) 1. .,ilxd6!A-2. ~cl#B, l... cxd48 2. §xb5#C DURBAR THEME

• b) t. ~ cl !B - 2. § xb5#C, l... cxd48 2. .,ilxd6#A All the moves of the mating side are made by the
• c) 1. §xbS!C-2. .Q.xd6#A, l...cxd4•2. ~c J#B. King, except possibly the mating move.


Like Durasevic theme, only black thematic KIESERITZKI, Lionel
moves are different. Jllustrated London News

508 #4

MALEIKA, Gerhard 510: 1. ~xc5+! ~xe5 2. ~xb6+ ~d4 3. ~xc6+

Main-Post 1971 ~c3 4. ~xd7#.


A fairy chess variant. The chessmen have "mag-
netic" powers of attraction and repulsion operat-
ing along their normal lines of movement.
The game is played with a normal set of pieces,
#2 from the normal starting setup.
508: 1. ~ fl?A - 2. {)e4#B, l... .Q.g6+a 2. fxg6#C,
Pieces have the same movement as in orthodox
I... d5! • 1. fxg6(ep)!C - 2. ~fl#A, I... e4b 2.
chess, except that they cannot take other pieces in
{)xe4#B, (I... Jlxg6+ 2. ~xg6#).
the way of orthodox chess. Additionally, pieces
= Aliases: Pseudo Djurasevic; Pseudo E>ur~evic. can pull or push other pieces. Taking is done by
pulling or pushing other pieces off the board.
Each turn, a player has the following options.
Like Durasevic. complete, only black thematic
moves are different. (1) He may move one of his pieces.
Pattern: (2) He may move one of his pieces, and pull or
-B a
b push another piece with that piece.
(3) He may pull or push a piece with one of his
B C A pieces.
The rules are too extensive for this type of publi-
509 cation, but those who are interested can easily
found them on Internet.
ASCHWANDEN, Reto ! Invented by Hans I<Jiiver and Peter Kahl in 1966.
I.pr Pat a Mat 2001

Fairy piece. A Grasshopper which pivots 90° (to
either side) at the hurdle.
Bishop-Eagle and Rook-Eagle move on Bishop
and Rook lines respectively and deflect 90° either
way on passing over the hurdle.

A geometrical repetition of one and the same
idea, combination, maneuver or final configura-

ECH·ECH Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

tion (e.g. mate, stalemate etc.) by means of trans-

lation, rotation or reflection on the chessboard.
The number of chess ideas, effects or positions
that can be echoed is virtually unlimited and
the quoted diagrams are just a few drops in the
In 512 mating positions in first two variations are
reflected around the diagonal bl-h7.
A single-phase helpmate 513 shows echo play of
Black and White in first two moves.
The echo between variations in 514 is obvious
despite one starts with anti-critical move 1...
f! a6, and the other with peri-critical move #
514: 1. §el!-2. ~e2-3. §di#, I... §a6 2. l£jc6+
f!/~xc6 3. dxc6#, I ... ~g8 2. l£je6+ f!/~xe6 3.
511 dxe6#.
WILLMERS, Rudolf * Other example 1678.
Deutsche Schachzeitung
Echo mates arise when mating force which ends
a main variation is regrouped, wholly or in part,
in another main variation, so that the final pic-
tures exactly or very closely resemble each other
in general symmetry.
#4 Echo mating pictures can be translated and/or ro-
511: 1. l£jh5! (2. ltd6+ ~d- 3. l£)xf4(+)), I... l£jxh5 tated and/or mirrored.
2. ~c3 ~xd5 3. ~c4+ ~xe5 4. ~d4#, I .•. ~xd5 Translation (m,n). Echo mates or stalemates in
2. l£jxf4+ <iftxe5 3. "ii¥xe6+ ~xf4 4. "ii¥e3#.
echo where the difference between the positions
of the King is (m,n). In 517 a typical QBB mate
repeats translated 4 times.
MORAVEC, Josef Rotation. Positions of mate or stalemate identi-
6.hm Casopis ceskych cal except for a 90° (515) or 180° (518) rotation.
sachistu 1916
Mirror. Positions of mate or stalemate identical
but mirrored diagonally (518), vertically (519)
or horizontally (520).
Two types of echo can be distinguished regard-
ing the colour of the final black King's square:
#3 (I) Monochrome Echo. The (mated) King in
both echo positions stands on squares of the
513 same colour. See 527 or 522.
(2) Chameleon Echo. The (mated) King stands
KLUXEN, Wilhelm on squares of different colours, as in 521 .
I.pr Die Schwalbe 1951
51 7 shows two pairs of chameleon echo
Exact Echo. A pair of mates in which the pieces
involved are located on same places in relation to
each other, except for the possible rotation and
shift of position. Again, it can be either mono-
h#3 chrome (see 522) or chameleon (see 523}.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems ECH-ECH

515 517: I. la,gl! - 2. 'i;!te3+ 'it'dS 3. 'i;!te6#, I... 'it'e5 2.

'i;!te7+ 'it'dS 3. 'i;!te6#, 2 ... 'it'f4 3. 'i;!te3#, 1... 'it'd5
ONITIU, Valerian 2. 'i;!td3+ 'it'c6 3. 'i;!td7#, 2 ... 'it'e5 3. 'i;!td4#.
Eskilstuna Kuriren 1930 518: l.1":(h6! (-), 1... 'it'e4 2. 'it'g6 'it'f4 3. 1":(h4#, I...

'it'xf5 2. 'ii!fe I 'it'f4 3. 1":( f6#.

ill ill ill

~ • ~ "' ' HAVEL, Miroslav
H B ~-~ill
l.pr Ttdsknifitfo'r Schack
h#2* ill ifM
M 1917

515: I... 4J f6 2. 'it'f4 vtff2# • I. 'it'e6 4:)g7+ 2. 'it'd7 BAB BJlill

vtfb7# • A 90° echo. ill BB Mt

~ BtB ill
~ ill ill 516 , "m~~lill


LINDNER, Laszlo #3
• • • ill l .pr Magyar Sakkvilag 519: I. 'i;!tf6! (2. 'i;!tc3+ 'it'xfi/'it'dl 3. la,xh3/ 'i;!tcl,

~•""r~ 1944 'i;!td2,4:)e3#), I... la,d5 2. 'ii!fa6 (3. 'i;!tal,'i;!txe2#)
.i.. ~
-~~~'~lf!: ill exfl 'ii¥ 3. 'i;!ta5#, 1... 'it'xfl 2. 'i;!th4 (3. _ilxh3/
'i;!tf2#) e I 'ii!f /'it'g2 3. 'i;!txh3#, ( 1... fxg4 2. _ilb4+
• • • ill 'it'd! 3. 4:)e3#).

ill ill ill

h#2 b) vtfel, +c) {)a3, +d) vtfe8,
+e) {)b4, +f) 'ii!fh3
516: a) I. la,d3 'i;!tg5+ 2. 'it'd3 {)d2# • b) I. .\ld5
v!Jg3+ 2. 'it'e4 {)d6# • c) I. 'it'O 'i;!tfl + 2. 'it'e3
'i)c4# • d) I. 'it'f5 'i;!tf7+ 2. 'it'e5 {)c4# • e) I.
iid5 vtf g6 2. 'it'e5 {)d3# • f) I. .il d3 'i;!tg2 2. 'it'e3
'i)dS# • Three pairs of 180° echoes.

ill ill ill

-~- ill

~ BOTTACCHI, An!o~io
~ Realismo e Romant1c1smo
nell 'arte problemistica di
520: I. {)h6! - 2. {)f7 etc., I... 1":( xd5 2. 1":( c7+ 'it'd6
3. {)f7#, 1... _ilxd7 2. 1":( c5+ 'it'd6 3. {)fS#.

ill ill ill 521

~ Antonio Bottacchi 2005 ~ ~ . ~i
g g g
ill m mJi - ~ - ~ ~f" PAULY, Wolfgang
1f1l: g
,,, g g B B B fj Deutsche Schachzeitung
ffl ~ i~~-
R ~.ih- 1907
~ . ill ill
[~l",'~T-'.- M
f.il,% offl'-Llffl
m mam ill
~ ill m ill
521: I. )":(cl! H, 1... 'it'd4 2. {)c3 'it'c4 3. 1":(e4#, 1...
'it'dS 2. {)e6 'it'e5 3. 1":(c5#, (l...'it'xf5 2.{)d6+).
522: I. 1":( f7! (2. _ilf3 -/ _ild4 3. vtfe4+/'ii!fd5+),
I ... 'it'd6 2. vtfdS+ {)xd5 3. {)c4+ 'it'c6 4. la,a4#,
I... la,d4 2. vtfdS+ {)xd5 3. {)c4+ 'it'e4 4 . .\lc2#,
(I... {)d4 2. {)d7+ 'it'e4/'it'd6 3. Jlc2+/'i;!txc5+) •
#3 Exact echo.

ECH -ECH Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

522 or in part, in another main variation, so that the

final pictures exactly or very closely resemble
BERGER, Johann each other in general symmetry: each white unit
Neue Berliner
(or its equivalent substitute) bearing upon the
Schachzeitung 1866-7
black King, or its field, with a like effect, and
controlling the same number of squares.
* See examples: 193,194,527,528, 1647.
523 A geometrically symmetrical sequence of moves
is repeated either several times in the same line of
SHINKMAN, William A. play (as .Q.f6-.§g7 and then .i1,g6-.§h7 in 525},
Hartford Times ca. I 876
or in two (or more) variations (as .ll,e4-~g6-
~f3 vs Ae6-~g4-A f7 in 526).

BROWN, Reginald A.
#3 Chess Players Chronicle
1841 I (v. J. Breuer)
523: 1• .Q.f3+! , I... 'iftxe6 2. §e7+ 'iftxd6 3 . .,llb4#,
I... ~xd6 2. §d7+ <it>xe6 3. -'\,g4#., (I... 'iftc5 2.
§ b6! -/<it>xb6 3. §c6/Ad4#) • Exact chameleon
* Other examples: 193, 194,524,527, 702, 1103, 1262.
Two identical mating positions, either chameleon 525: 1. A f6! h6 2. §xg7 §c8 3 . .,llg6 - 4. §h7+
or monochrome, where each black flight is either (<it>g8 5. § h8#).
guarded once or blocked, and every man on the
board is taking part in them. 526
I.pr Miroslav Bi/y JT /995

h#4 3 11... 526: 1. 4:)c4! - 2. 4:)xe5 etc., I... § cxc4 2. Jle4- 3.
524: 1. 4:)hS 4:)e2 2. ~g3+ <it>fS 3. ~h2 <it>g5 4. 4:)g3 'ilt'g6+ 4:)xg6 4. Af3#, I... §axc4 2. A xe6 - 3.
4:)f4# • 1. <it>g4 <it>e6 2. ~h3 <it>f7 3. <it>h4 <it>g6 4. 'ilt'g4+ 4:)xg4 4. Jlf7#, etc.
4:)g4 4:)f5# • 1. 4:)h7 4:)e4 2. 4:)g5 <it>f6 3. <it>g4
<it>g7 4. <it>h5 4:)f6#.
* Other example 528.
"' Alias: Ideal Echo Mates.
ECHO MATES, MODEL Same (white) strategy or mating positions and
Echo models arise when model-mating force course of play repeats itself in two or more varia·
which ends a main variation is regrouped, wholly tions.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems ECH-ECO

Echoing non-model mates are also regarded as a
WURZBURG, Otto theme coming within the Bohemian canon, if the
I.pr Our Folder 192/
mates are sufficiently noteworthy.
-+ See also: Echo Mates. Model.


The relative position of each active piece of the
stalemating side is the same in each mate (stale-
#3 mate). Echo is chameleon if the squares, where
527: 1. ~ e8! (2. ~e5+ 'it>c- 3. '{f/c7#), 1... § h5 2. the stalemated side's King is, are of different
Ae7+ 'it>e5 3. Ac5#, 1... §c8 2. AeS+ 'it>c5 3. colours.
~xc8#, I ... §c6 2 . .11,d4 (3. e5#) § c8 3. ~g6#,
( I... 'it>c- 2. ~ b8). 530
LOIS, Jorge J.
3.cm feenschach /974

530: t. bS 'it>bl 2. 'it>b3 §d4 3. d5 ,Ab4= • t. ,Abs
#4 .Q.c5 2. ,Aa6 ,Ab6 3. 'it>b5 'it>b3=.
528: 1. .Q.a8? (2. ~e4+ 'it>cS 3. ~e3+ 'it>b4 4.
~b6#) 'it>c5! 2. ~e7+ 'it>b6 3. ~ d6+ 'it>a7 4. ECLIPSE THEME
4)b5+ 'it>xa8! • 1. A hl? 'it>e3! 2. ~e4+ 'it>f2 3. Black line piece arrives behind a friendly piece
'il}'f4+ 'it>gl 4. 4)e2+ 'it>xhl ! • 1. ,AdS! (2. ~e4+ which consequently cuts its line of activity.
'it>c5 3. ~e3+ ), I... 'it>cS 2. ~e7+ 'it>b6 3. ~d6+
'it>a7 4. 4)b5#, I ... 'it>e3 2. ~e4+ 'it>f2 3. ~ f4+ 531
'it>gl 4. 4)e2#, (1... .Q.f2 2. b4 §el 3. 4)b5+ 'it>e3
4. ~e4#). ISAYEV, Leonid A.
* Other example 522. Tijdschrifl v. d. KNSB 1927


Correspondence (strategic or fonnal) between
the white and black play.

529 #2
531: I. 'it>e6! - 2. 4:)c6#, 1... ~f3 2. ~ d3#, I... ~e2
KOVACS, Norbert 2. ~e4# • etc.
Fairy Chess Review /939

Mate is economical, if all pieces of the mating
side take part in it, i.e. guard at least one flight
square, with the allowable exception of King and
h#3 Complete Economical Mate. An economical
529: I. Aa7 Aal 2. §b6 § b2 3. 'it>h8 §g2#. mate in which the white King and all white

ECO-EFF Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

Pawns take part. In 532 the square b3 is guarded 533

twice, but every white man is needed in the final
position. GRASEMANN, Herbert
Schoch-Express /948

532: I. l£)d6+? l£)xd6! and Pb4 is the otherobstacle • ~ See al.so: Purity ofAim.
1. f!gS+! l£)xg5 2. c4+ bxc3(ep) 3. l£)d6+ ~a5 4. = Alias: Zweckokonomie (Ger.).
b4+! ~xb4 5. l£)c6#.
* Other example 853. ECSC
~ See also: Mate, Pure. Economical. Solving competition both for teams and individ-
uals has been organized annually since 2005 by
ECONOMY permission of PCCC (WFCC). It follows the for-
Economy is generally regarded as a good thing in mat and rules of World Championships (WCSQ,
chess problem composition, though exactly what the sole major exception being that each partici-
is meant by it, and exactly what is most important pating team may have four members, and the re-
to be economical with, is open to debate. Econ- sults of three best solvers in each round will be
omy of material or force (not using more pieces included in the total score of the team.
than necessary), economy of space (using the !! Alias: European Championships for Solving Chess Prob-
chessboard to its fullest, not cramming all the lems.
pieces into one comer) and economy of motiva-
tion (keeping all lines in the solution relevant to EDGE CHESS [Fl
the theme) are all regarded as important. (Defini-
Fairy condition. Only moves played on or from
tion from FIDE Album.) the edge of the board are allowed.
There is also economy of time (no prolonging of
! Invented by George P. Jellis (1940) in 1979.
the play in the end or, in studies, in introduction),
economy of tactical means (as much quiet or
otherwise non-aggressive play as possible), etc. EDGEHOG [Fl
A fairy piece that captures, checks and moves on
ECONOMY OF AIM or (starting) from the edge of the board.
Parallel to the purity of aim, another important
! Invented by John E. Driver (1928-1979) in 1966.
concept of the logical (New German) school, in
German "Zweckokonomie ". The term is used, = Alias: Randschwein (Ger.).
for instance, when White's (oreplan simulta-
neously removes two or more obstacles that pre- EFFECTIVE SQUARES, RULE OF [El
vent him from executing his main plan. The The squares that a King with a single Pawn vs
foreplan may, however, be in itselfa combination King must occupy in view of being able to se-
of choice, and the false choices are refuted, be- cure Pawn's promotion and win. The rule com-
cause each of them removes only one of the ob- plements the rule of quadrant square, since it is
stacles. In these cases, the foreplan retains the provided that the Pawn will now be supported by
economy of aim even if it, on surface, is two- or the King. The rule does not apply to Rook's
multi-purposed. Pawn.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems EIF·EIG

534 539
CHERON, Andre KOK, Theodorus. C. L.
Lehr- und Handbuch der Endspiele Ill, 2nd ed. Deventer Dagblad 1936
Berlin 1964

White wins without exception

CHERON, Andre 540
Lehr- und Handbuch der
Endspiele Ill, 2nd ed. CHERON, Andre
Berlin 1964 Lehr- und Handbuch der Endspiele Ill, 2nd ed.
Berlin 1964

In each of the three positions: White wins without exception

White on the move, draw;
Black on the move, White wins. 534: For instance, the position w~a8, Pb2 - b~c7:
1. ~a7 ~c6 2. ~ a6 ~c5 3. ~a5 ~c4 4. ~a4
536 ~c5 5. b3 ~ b6 6. ~b4 ~a6 7. ~ c5 ~ b7 8. ~ b5
~a7 9. ~c6 ~a6 JO. b4 ~a7 11. b5 ~a8 12. ~ b6
CHERON, Andre ~b8 13. ~a6 ~a8 14. b6 ~ b8 15. b7 +- .
Lehr- und Handbuch der Endspiele Ill, 2nd ed. 535: For instance, the position on the left: t. ~b3
Berlin /964 ~b5 2. ~c3 ~c5 3. b3 ~b5 4. b4 ~b6... and
white King cannot reach any of the effective
squares without Black being able to reach an oppo-
sition. • There are no effective squares behind or
White wins without exception
beside the Pawn until on the 6th rank, when the op-
position is decisive.
537 539: I. § d8! §xh3+ 2. § d3! §xd3+ (2 ... §h8 3.
§c3) 3. ~c2 (3. ~c4? § di) §d6 (3 ... §d5 4.
CHERON, Andre c8~ §c5+ 5. ~xc5+ ~xc5 6. ~c3! ~b5 7. ~b3
Lehr- und Handbuch der ~a(c)5 8~c(a)5!) 4. c84)+!! (4. c8~? §c6+ 5.
Endspiele Ill, 2nd ed. Berlin ~xc6+ ~xc6 6. ~c3/~b3 ~c5/~b5!) ~c5 5.
1964 4)xd6 ~xd6 6. ~ b3! (6. ~ c3? ~ c5) ~c5 7. ~a4
-+See also: Compliance, Squares of; Opposition.
"' Alias: Regel Der Wirksamen Felder (Ger.).
Black on the move, White wins;
White on the move, draw. EIFFEL [F]
A variation on Madrasi chess condition: Pawn
538 paralyses Knight, Knight paralyses Bishop,
Bishop paralyses Rook, Rook paralyses Queen
Lehr- und Handbuch der Endspiele Ill. 2nd ed. and Queen paralyses Pawn.
Berlin 1964
Four Grimshaws (Grimshaw interference) be-
tween the same two pieces. Possible only with
usage of fairy units.

EIG- EKS Encyclopedia of Chess Problems


Placing eight chess Queens on an 8x8 chessboard One side builds a stalemate position for itself, but
so that no two Queens attack each other. if opponent tries to prevent it he will eventually
There are 12 distinct arrangements, 11 of which be in a stalemate.
having 8 different mirrored/rotated positions
and one giving 4 different positions. The solu- 541
tion below shows occupied ranks on files "a" CHtRON, Andre
through "h": Journal de Geneve /952
24683175 X 8
17468253 X 8
17582463 X 8
41582736 X 8
51842736 X 8
31758246 X 8
51468273 X 8
71386425 X 8 541: t. ~g6! a3 2. h6 a2 3. h7 al itf 4. h8itf+! ~ xh8
5 1863724 X 8 5. f6 h3 6. e5 ~h4 = (White is stalemated), 5... e5
57142863 X 8 6. h3 ~xf6+ 7. ~xf6 = (Black is stalemated).
63184275 X 8
Each defence to the threat simultaneously closes
! The puzzle was originally proposed in 1848 by the
chess player Max Bezzel, and over the years, many two white lines of guard and opens one line of
mathematicians, including Gauss, have worked on this guard. The correct choice of mate is determined
puzzle and its generalized n-queens problem. The first by an additional white guard.
solutions were provided by Franz Nauck in 1850.
Nauck also extended the puzzle to n-queens problem 542
(on an nxn board-a chessboard of arbitrary size). In
1874, S. Gunther proposed a method of finding solu- BRUCH, Wieland
I.pr Israel Ring Tourney
tions by using determinants, and J. \VI. L. Glaisher re-
fined this approach.
Edsger Dijkstra used this problem in 1972 to illustrate
the power of what he called structured programming.
He published a highly detailed description of the de-
velopment of a depth-first backtracking algorithm.
"' Alias: Eight Queens Problem.
EINSTEIN CHESS [F] 542: I. .£)e8? - 2. f!e5/.£)d6#, I... f!be2? 2 . .£)d6#,
Fairy condition. A unit that moves without I... f!ge2! • 1. .£)ce6? - 2. f!e5/.£)d4#, I...
capturing changes according to the following f!ge2? 2. .£)d4#, I... .§be2! • 1. .£)xb5! - 2.
f!e5#, I... .§ge2 2. .£)d4# (.£)d6?), I... f!be2 2.
scheme: '{tf-+ f!-+ 1l-+.£i-+ ft. If there are
.£)d6# (.£)d4?), (I... ~e2,~f4,~xel 2f!(x)f4#,
fairy pieces, a Pawn which moves without cap-
I... it1xb5+ 2. f!xb5#).
turing becomes one of these fairy pieces,
otherwise it remains a Pawn. A unit that captures
changes according to the following scheme:
Black stops the double-check threat by simulta-
ft -+.£i-+ 1l-+ f! -+'{tf. Ifthere are fairy pieces, neously closing a white line and unpinning a
a Queen which captures becomes one of these
black piece.
fairy pieces, otherwise it remains a Queen. Ex-
ceptions to the default rules: ! Sven Ekstrom (1907-1978).
• A Pawn on its 1st rank can move 1, 2 or 3 steps 543: I. .Q.h3! - 2 . .§c4#, I ... ,ilc62. it1c7#, I ... .il,c5
forward. 2. itfc7#, (I... f!c6 2. .§g3#, I... .§c5 2. .£)d6#,
• No promotions (unless otherwise stated). I... ,ild7 2. it1a8#).

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems ELS-ELL

543 545
II Problema /932 le Palamede 1842

#2 #4
-+ See a/SQ: Chicco-Moscow Theme. * Other example 1365.
., Aliases: Ekstrom; Mikulcak. .. Alias: Eliminate Obstructive Force.


A combination of Dresden idea and Hamburg Same strategy by Black and White in the key, the
theme. defences, the mates and optionally the threat. In
546 all the relevant white and black moves are
closings of black lines.
This theme carries also the name "Uniform strat-
! Arnoldo Ellerman (1893-1969).

I.pr Ellerman JT /943
544: 1. it,e5? (2. it,f4#) Ac7! • 1. ~ d4? (2. it,e3#)
Ab6,~a7! • 1. ~ xc4? (2. ~e2#) ~a6! • 1. Jl_cl !
-2. e5+ ..Q.e4 3. it,dl#, I... .§c7 2. ~e5 ~xe4 3.
~g3# (=Dresden) , I... .§ b6 2. ~d4 ~xe4 3.
~f2# (=Dresden + Hamburg) , I... .§ b5 2. ~xc4
it,xe4 3. ~fl# (=Hamburg). #2
-+See also: Dresden Idea; Hamburg Theme.
546: 1. .§cd7! - 2. {)d8#, I... .ll,b8 2. {)a5#, I...
{)b4 2. {)e5#, I... {)e7 2. {)d4#.
ELEPHANT ( F) -+ See also: Uniform Theme.
Fairy piece with combined power of Queen and
Nightrider. ELLERMAN 2 THEME
In defence, Black unpins white piece directly
-+ See also: Combined Pieces.
with different defensive motives and errors:
ELIMINATION OF OBSTRUCTIVE (I) unpin with self-blocks;
FORCE (2) unpin with interferences;
Removal of a unit of either colour that cuts a line (3) unpin with self-pin;
or occupies a square that White would need to
carry out his plan. In terms of logical school, the (4) unpin of white and black unit;
removal combination may be direct or indirect, (5) unpin with Goethart interference.
but the term can be used apart from logical 547: 1• .§d8? ~ f2! • 1. .§d7!-2. ~f4#, l... ~d42.
context, too. {)d6#, I... ~e5 2. {)c5#, I... ~h8+ 2. {)d8#, I...
545: 1. .§ b4+ 'it(a5 2. .§ a4+! 'it(xa4 3. {)c5+ ~a5 4. it,f2 2. {)d8#, (I... At2,Af3,~xb7+ 2. ~xh l,
b4#. • w.§b3 was the obstructive mass. ~d3,.Q.xb7#).

ELL - ELM Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

I.pr Guide/Ji MT 1925 Die Schwalbe 1932

#2 #2
"' Alias: Ellerman Unpin. 550: 1. §a4! - 2. {)bd5#, I... ".tfg7 2. tt,f4#, I...
§g7 2. {)f5# • (I... §xe3+ 2. {)d3#, I...
ELLERMAN BLEND THEME ".tfxf7+/<3:;xe3 2. {)bd5#).
After the key, the half-pinning white piece is "' Aliases: Weenink; Weenink Memorial.
pinned. The half-pinned black pieces pin them-
selves in tum and they both also unpin the pinned
white piece. ELl\lGREN 1 TIIE.\,IE
There are three black pieces which can move.
548 White has three tries, each of which is defeated
by different black piece. The possible defences
ELLERMAN, Arnoldo by other black pieces are met by other mates. If
2.pr= GQQd Companion
1922 there are more than three thematic black pieces,
then there must be as many tries.
2 Bertil Elmgren (1912-?).
#2 ELMGREN, Bertil
548: 1. .Q.a7! - 2. b8{)#, I... §b3 2. ,S;id7#, I... ArbejderSkak /946
{)xa6 2. ,S;ixg2#, I... §d3 2. ffxc5#, l... {)d3 2.

A pair of variations combining the Theme A with
direct unpin of white pieces. #2
S Henri Weenink (1892-1931). 551: 1. ffd5? - 2. ffg8#, I... .Q.c7,§f4,§g6 2.
b7,".tfxc6,tt,b7#, I... §g4! • 1. tt,f3? - 2. tt,f8#,
I... .Q.c7,§f4,§f6 2. b7,tt,xc6,tt,b7#, l... .Q.f4! •
1. {)f6? - 2. ".tfd8/".tfd7#, I... .Q.d6,§d4,§c7 2.
tt,f5,tt,a6,tt,d8#, I... §d6! • 1. {)cS! - 2. ~d8/
tt,d7#, I... .Q.d6,§d4,§c7,§d6 2. tt,f5,~a6,
tt,d8. § c7#.
"' Alias: Elmgren Theme.

#2 In tries White always threatens the same mate.
549: 1. {)a4! - 2. {)b6#, I ... tt,d3 2. tt,e6#, I ... .Q.d2 One of these tries is defeated by several black
2. {)f7#, (I... tt,xd7+ 2. cxd7#, l... .Q.xd6+ 2. moves, while each of the remaining tries is de-
§xd6#, l... {)d2 2. {)c3#). feated by only one of these black moves.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems EN-ENP

554: I. d3? f2! 2. ~d2 cxd3! • 1. d4! (-), I... f2,cxd3

ep. 2. ~d2 - 3. ~d I# • (about the source: this is a
Finnish magazine which ceased in early 1891. The
Swedish Tidskrift for Schack did not start until
* Other examples: 532, 848, 1137, 1151, 1560.
Two or more (successive) en-passant captures in
#2 the same line of play. 555 and 556 are record
552: l~d-? - 2. '{;/e8#, 1... jld8!/jle7+!/ ~f6!/ achievements, former with 7 white and latter
.fth5! • 1. ~ dfS? .ftd8! • 1. ~df7? jle7+! • 1. with 6 black en passant captures.
c5? ~f6! • 1. ~ hfS? jlh5! • 1. ~ hf7! - 2. '{;/e8#,
(I... jle7,~f6 2. '{;/f5,§d8#). 555
THEME I.pr Novi Temi 1978-9
In a set play or in a try White mates by capturing
black Pawn en passant. In the solution against the
same defence White does not capture en passant
but advances directly forwards with his Pawn.

SONNENFELD, Felix A. 555: 1. § a4! a5 2. bxa6 ep b5 3. cxb6 ep c5 4. dxc6 ep
2.pr O Foot-Bal/ 1935
d5 5. exd6 ep e5 6. fxe6 ep f5 7. gxf6 ep g5 8. hxg6
ep ~d-3/~d-4 9. §xa4(+) ~-4/- 10. f!x~# •
7 ep captures by White.

JONSSON, Christer
#2 2.pr Summer Tourney
553: *I... e5 2. fxe6# (f6?) • 1. ~e2! - 2. ~c3#, I... Springaren 1987
e5 2. f6# (fxe6(ep)?), (I... f!b3,.ftb2,Ad2, ~d5,
dxc2 2. '{;/c4,~g5,cxd3,'{;/e6,f3#).

When a Pawn makes a double step from its initial
square it can be captured by the opponent's #8
square on the adjacent file next to it. The right to 556: 1. a4! bxa3(ep) 2. b4 cxb3(ep) 3. c4 dxc3(ep) 4.
capture expires if not used immediately. d4 exd3(ep) 5. e4 fxe3(ep) 6. f4 gxf3(ep) 7. ~xf3-
8. jle5# • 6 ep captures by Black.
GALITSKY, Aleksandr V.
Codex: An en-passant capture on the first move
1idskriftfor Schack 1891
is permitted only if it can be proved that the last
move was the double step of the Pawn which is to
be captured.

Black Pawn generates two similar kinds of
#3 defences, one by capturing en passant, the other

END-ENG Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

by moving straight ahead. Both defences open or Typical were also record achievements of themes
cut either white or black piece's line(s). and strategic elements. Later a particular atten-
tion was paid to Black's defensive strategies,
557 especially interferences, and cross-checks was
one of the favourite themes. In three- and
UMNOV, Evgeny I . moremovers emphasis was on quiet moves, pro-
I.pr Shakhmaty 1929/11
fusion of variations and model mates. The cre-
ators and foremost composers of the school were
Benjamin Laws, Charles Planck (writer of an im-
portant essay with 80 pages in the work "Chess
Problems. A Guide with Illustrations" in 1887,
the book edited in collaboration with Andrews,
#2 Frankenstein and Laws), Godfrey Heathcote, A.
F. MacKenzie and Percy F. Blake.
557: 1. d4! - 2. ,t)d5#, 1... exd3(ep) 2 . .llc4#, I... e3
2 . .Q.c2#, 1... ~ f5 2 . .Q.d5#, I... ,t)e3 2 . .Q.dl#, 1... The school flourished between 1880 and ca.
~xb3+ 2. ~xb3#, 1... {jc7 2. f! b8#. 1910, but it has had a strong impact on two-move
composition in the Anglo-American world long
ENDGAME time ever since, even until our days. It has given
1. Often synonymous to "ending", in practical us terms like (incomplete) block, block-threat,
chess the phase which follows the middle-game, white-to-play, waiter, mutate etc.
having strategic characteristics of its own. Some
experts define endgame as consisting of posi-
tions in which the players have not more than two
pieces each besides the Kings and Pawns. The KIDSON, Henry E.
theory of endings has been systematically London News 25.9.1880
studied since the mid-18th century by Philidor,
Ponziani and del Rio, in the latter half of the 19th
century by Kling, Horwitz, Guretzky-Cornitz,
Centurini, Durand, Amelung, Salvioli and
Johann Berger with his important work "Theorie
und Praxis der Enspiele '' (Leipzig 1890).
2. Endgame study, as distinct from a position
taken from a game or a didactic position, is a 558: • 1... <i!i>d6 2. ,tie4# • t. E! e3! H, 1... ,tid- 2.
composed chess position carrying a stipulation ,t)d3#, I... ,t)b4 2. ,t)e4#, 1... ,tic- 2. ,t)e4#, I...
"White (sometimes Black) to play and (White) to ,t)d6 2. ,t)d3#, 1... ~d6 2. ~f8#, 1... f!-/d6/fxe3
win/draw". It should have exceptional content, 2. ,t)d3#, I ... <i!?b4/ .Q.- 2. ,t)d3# • An early inter-
its position must be legal, and it must have a pretation of Feldmann I.
unique solution against Black's best defence.
Lack ofuniqueness in terms of particular kind of 559
duals does not necessarily disqualfy a study but
reduces its worth. LAWS, Benjamin G
hm Jamaica Family
Journal 1881
Formed in the last quarter of the 19th century.
Principles: zugzwang problems with difficult
key and good variety with total absence of duals.
Economy of force was emphasized, e.g. it was
considered desirable that every piece in the solu- #
tion not only guarded black King's flights but 559: 1. ,t)b3! (-), I... <it>xb3 2 . .lld5#, 1... ~c4 2.
also gave mate. ,tid6#, 1... ~a4 2. ,t)bc5#, 1... <i!?b5 2 . .Q.d3#.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems ENT -EQU

560 562: l . .t)hS! h6 2. .t)e7 ~ h7 3. .t)g6! ~xg6 4. .llg8

c;t>xh5 5. Af7#. • 2 active sacrifices, one of them

LAWS, Benjamin G anticipatory.
I.pr Bradford Observer
1890 @~~- 563
. ·i ~~ ~~'" :~
i m a ad!tJ..
1-2.pr "64" /999

560: 1. Ag3? ~e4! • I. .Q.h2! (2 . .t)c7+), 1... ~e4 2.
.t)xc3+ ~f5,.t)/.Q.xc3 3. ~c8, ~d3#, 1... c;t>c4 2.
~-- •J~~
·1 ~ ~
~xa4+ ~d5 3. .t)c7#, I... c4 2. ~b7+ c;t>c5,c;t>e6 #3
3. Ad6,,t)d4# • 5 model mates.
563: 1. J;thS! (2. .t)f3+), 1... Aa4(b3) 2. ~f4+ c;t>xf4
3. .t)e6# (2 ... <ifj)d3 3. J;txe2), 1... ~d3 2. ~d2+
561 <i!rxd2 3. .t)f3# (2... ~xc4,~e4 3. §c5,J;tf3#),
HEATHCOTE, 1....t)g(e)6 2. ~e3+ ~xe3 3. .t)c2# (2... ~xd5 3.
Godfrey F. ~e6#), I... ~xd5 2. ~c6+.
I.pr Falkirk Herald /908-9 * Other example 1365.
= Alias: Vovlechenie (Rus.).


Two-way interference on lines of a single piece,
#4 along a rank, file or diagonal.
561: I. ~at! (- 2. ~xd4+; 2. §d3), I... gl~ 2. 564
~xd4+ c;t>xd4 3. §d3+ ~e4 4. f3#, I... §g3 2.
f3+ §xf3 3. §e3+ §xe3,~xe3 4. ~a8,~el#, ABDURAHMANOVIC,
I... f4 2. ~el+ ~d5 3. ~e5+ c;t>c6 4. ~e4#, I... Fadil;
.t)f4 2. §e3+ dxe3 3. ~e5+ • 3 models, one pure STOSIC, Miroslav ;
* Other example 1369. Slobodan;
HERNITZ, Zvonimir ;
SALETIC, Slobodan
ENTRAITMENT 3.pr Sredba na
The sacrifice of white piece forces the black Solidarnosta 1972
King into the mating net. h#2 2111
564: 1. §13+ c;t>g2 2. §d5 .t)c6# • 1. .t)e3+ ~e2 2.
"Hineinziehungsopfer: With one or several .t)e5 e7#.
sarifices is the opponent :S King forced to move
on (drawn to) the mating square" (Sidler). EQUIGRASSHOPPER (FJ
Fairy piece. An Equihopper which moves only
along files, ranks and diagonals.
2 The term was coined by John E. H. Creed (1904-
= Alias: Gleichgrashiipfer.

Fairy piece that hops in any direction over one
piece that bisects its move. Moves along any line
over another unit of either colour to a square situ-
#5 ated such that the hurdle stands at the mid-point

EQU-ERO Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

between the Equihopper's departure and arrival crosses the lines of friendly line-movers who
squares. The English Equihopper cannot pass guard mating squares. White cuts the lines of the
over an obstruction other than the hurdle when black Queen, creating a double threat, and when
playing along Queen-lines. The non-stop/ the Queen captures the cutting white piece,
French Equihopper does not have this restric- White decoys her away and carries out his origi-
tion. Unless otherwise stated, the non-stop nal threat.
Equihopper is meant.
2 Invented by George Leathern (1881 -1 953).
EQUILEAPER [F ] Chemnitzer Tageblatt 1927
Fairy piece. Equihopper that cannot be blocked.

Fairy piece. (m,n)-Equilocuhopper is a piece
moving like a (m,n)-leaper until it reaches a
square occupied by a unit which can be captured: #4
the hurdle. Then, from the hurdle, without
566: I. <t)e7! (2. <t)xd5#), I... ~a5 2. b5 ~xb5 3.
changing direction, it makes a (m,n)-Leaper leap
§fl+, I... ~d2 2. <t)d3+ ~xd3 3. § fl +, I... ~a2
on a square which must be unoccupied. The unit
2. c4 ~xc4 3. §fl+, I... ~b3 2. <t)c4 ~xc4 3.
on the hurdle is captured.
§fl+, I... ~d72. §d6 ~xd6/~xe7 3. A h6+, I...
~g8(f7) 2. .§e6 ~xe6 3. Ah6+, I... ~a8(b7) 2.
.§c6 ~xc6 3. Ah6+.
Fairy condition. Black's move has to be as long
as White's preceding one was.
"' Alias: Gleichlangziiger.
Black causes himself the same kind of weaken-
ing twice in succession.
A two Knights vs Queen draw position where, 567
for instance, two white Knights isolate the black
King, and the black Queen (in most cases) cannot ERNST, Georg
stalemate the white King to make one of the Miinch. Augsb. Abendztg
Knights move.
2 Ercole del Rio (1718-1802).

DEL RIO, Ercole
Sopra ii Giuoco degli #4
Scacchi 1750 567: I. ~ d3+ 'i!t-+! • I. 'i!tc4! (2. ~ d3+) axb5+ 2.
'i!tc3 (2. 'i!td3? <t)b4+) b4+ (2... <t)b5??) 3. 'i!,d3
-,<tic- (3... <t)b4??) 4. ~e4;{f/e5# (I... <t)a5+ 2.
'i!td3 <t)c4 3. bxc4-,Ae4+ 4. ~e5,~xe4#) • Two
successive obstructions.

565: I. <t)e7! d5 2. <t)ec6 dxc4 3. <it'c3 ~f7 4. g6
A paradoxical white-move reversal sequence as
~xg6 5. <it'xc4 =.
shown by a pattern.
ERNST 1 THEME Double Erokhin. Doubling of the Erokhin re-
Because of an immediate threat the black Queen versa! sequence (see pattern).
has to leave her post. By doing it, she critically 2 Vladimir Erokhin (1937-2000).

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems ERR·ERR

Patterns: (d) self-pin;

Erokhin Double Erokhin (e) unpin ofan enemy unit;
1 I - a 1 - I a I b
A l B A B I C I D (f) unguard of a square or line;
•x I B A C D I B I A
(g) moving critically;
(h) exposing King to check.
There are many sub-variations of these errors,
and some would join some of the listed ones to-
gether. See: Ambivalence o(Move.
= Alias: Weakening.

A tactical harmful effect a Black's move has on
his position. Often the errors that Black has com-
#2 mitted help classify problems. The most typical
568: 1. ~ h8? - 2. § e8#A, l... 4:}xe3 8 2. 4:}h5#B, black errors are unguard of a square, self-block-
I... fxg4! • I. 4:}bS!B - 2. § xf5#, l... 4:}xe3• 2. ing of own King's flight square, obstruction of
§ e8#A, (1... fxg4 2. ~xe4# • (1. ii'.l'h6? - 2. another black man's (not King's) access to a
§ e8#, 1... fxg4 ~g5#, I... 4:}xe3!). square, self-interference, which is a special case
of obstruction, self-pin, opening of an enemy line
569 and unpin of an enemy unit. Furthennore, there
are a number of combinations of errors.
I.pr Pravda /989
In the perfect fonn of the theme neither defences
nor mates change from one phase to another, but
the defensive errors change. In an imperfect fonn
some of the mates may change, too.

#2 570
569: 1. 4:}bS?A - 2. § xb6#B, l... ii'.Yd3 8 2. 4:}xd3#C,
I... ~ xb5b 2. ii'.l'xf5#D, l... ~ e4! • I. 4:}d3!C - 2. hm Springaren /954
~xf5#D, 1... ii'.l'xd3• 2. § xb6#B, l... ~ b5b 2.
4:}xb5#A, (I... §g5,4:}f7,ii'.l'fl 2. ii'.Yd6,§xf7,
§ xb6#).

A joint tenn for the hannful effects a move has on
the position of the side who played it. They can #2
be divided into categories according to the tacti- 570: *I ... 4:}de4 2. exf6#, 1... 4:}fe4 2. exd6# • 1.
cal elements involved, but in tenns of logic the 4:}e2? - 2. 4:}g3#, I ... 4:}de4 2. exf6#, I ... 4:}fe4 2.
most appropriate way is, firstly, to divide them exf6#, 1... 4:}h5! • I. ii'.l'e3! - 2. ii'.l'xg5#, 1... 4:}de4
into white errors and black errors. 2. exf6#, 1... 4:}fe4 2. exd6# • Set: unpins; Try:
self-blocks; Solution: interferences.
The most frequent errors are:
~ See also: Theme, Change of
(a) blocking (interfering with) an own line-piece;
(b) blocking (obstruction) a square from own ERROR, CYCLIC SHIFT OF
piece, including block of a flight square In one phase Black's defensive errors appear re-
(self-block); ciprocally or cyclically from one move to an-
(c) opening an enemy line; other.

ERR-EXC Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

571 572: I. §f6! - 2. ~xe5#, I... ~e4 2. §xf4#, (l...

.£)xc7 2. c3#, I... .Q.xf6 2. ~c5#, I... ~xe8 2.
MYLLYNIEMI, Matti '{;,c4#, 1... .Q.xc7/.Q.d6 2. §xf4#).
Schakend Nederland 1967
A forced move whose disadvantage lies in the va-
cation of the initial square.
The English equivalent to German's "Weg-
lenkung". White (or, in defence, Black) decoys
#2 opponent's man away from a particular line or
square where its presence has a harmful effect on
571: I. ~b6! - 2. ~xd6#, I... dxc5AB 2. '{;,e6#, I .. .
the attack (or defense).
.Q.xc5BC 2. ~b3#, I ... '{;,a6CD 2 . .£)xe3#, I .. .
~g6DA 2. .Q.c4# • A = gate opening, B = * See examples: 76,200,446,493.532, 621,809,8 11,833,
1031, 1104, 1222, 1355, 1562, 1565, 1572, 1679.
self-block, C = self-pin, D = unguard.
-+ See also: Ad-Decoy; Ad-Deploy; Ex-Deploy.
A hannful effect White's move has on his own A voluntary move whose advantage lies in the
position. Since in compositional chess both par- vacation of the initial square.
ties must play their best moves, the white errors
occur in try play, especially in White correction One of the English equivalents for "Weg-
(Correction, White) and White combinations, or fiihrung ". In logical problems a direct combina-
any problem with thematic virtual play. Another tion in which White manipulates with his own
large group of problems where White's errors piece(s) leading it (them) away from a line or a
play a major role are the compositions of Logical square where it (they) prevent(s) White from
school, in which White's tries or wrong choice executing his plan. The combination does not in-
between two or many options are parried by ~olve any other deterioration of opponent's posi-
Black's sufficient reply. Particular types of white tion except for his losing time (tempo).
errors are found in dual avoidance themes. -+ See also: Ad-Decoy; Ad-Deploy: Ex-Decoy.
= Alias: Wegzug.
Knight's chameleon nature: the colour of
A problem in which a Pawn on its starting square
Knight's square changes on each move. This fea-
in the initial position moves the length of the
ture is often utilized in retro problems to deter-
board to be promoted during the course of the so-
mine which side is to move.
lution. Named after problem 573 by Sam Loyd.
-+ See also: Parity Argument.
The oldest example is probably 574, composed a
few years earlier.
In the key White unpins two black pieces which Slowed-down Excelsior. An Excelsior which
Black in defence self-pins again. starts with a Pawn's single-step advance, thus
~ng him one move more to reach the promo-
-+ See also: Status Quo Theme Group.
tion rank. In baby position 575 the Pawn must
572 save a tempo on his first move.
Consecutive Excelsior. It is hard to conceive an
VELIMIROVIC, Milan even remotely attractive orthodox problem with
Original example
two or(God forbid!) more Excelsior marches in a
single line. On the contrary, a series play opens
up a host of possibilities, such as the combination
with Allumwandlung in 578.
2 Samuel Loyd (1841-1911). The theme named after the
poem "Exrcelsior" by H enry Wadsworth LongfeUow
#2 (1807-1882).

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems EXC - EXC

573 5 76: 5. c84:} 6. 4:}b6 7. 4:}xa4 8. 4:)b2 12. axb7 13.

b8~ 14. ~ xe5 15. ~xe4 16. ~bl 21. e8J;t 22.
LOYD, Samuel .Q..xh5 23. J;txg4 24 . .Q.xh3 25. J:J..g2 30. h8 f! 31.
2.pr London Era 1861 §c8 32. §c2 33. 4:}d3+ 4:)xd3#.
* Other example 1151.
-+ See also: Staircase, Pawn '.s-.

White forces Black, by exchange of pieces, to
#5 eliminate superfluous white force, usually to
573: 1. b4! (2. §f5/§d5) 1... §c5+ 2. bxc5 (3. avoid stalemate.
§bl#) 2... a2 3. c6 (4. §f5/§d5) J;tc7 4. cxb7 -
5. bxa8~ #. 577
574 FABEL, Karl ;
PALATZ, Franz F.
WORMALD, Robert 8. Die Schwalbe 1933
Illustrated London News

574: 1. d4+! <it?xd6 2. dxc5+ <it?c6 3. cxb6+ bxc4 4.
bxa7 - 5. axb84:)#.

= Alias: Abtauschidee (Ger.).

·~ 575


~.... --~-~.
SHINKMAN, William A.
Alain C. White: 200
aufgaben 1907
Two or more pieces of either colour exchange
functions in different variations or phases, or in a
single line of play. If the exchange takes place be-
tween two pieces, we talk about reciprocal func-
tions, if between three or more pieces, we talk
about cyclic functions of pieces. The exchange
may occur even between men of different colour,
when for instance in one variation black piece
#6 blocks a square A and white guards B, in the
575: I. d4? ~e6! 2. ?? • 1. d3! <it?e6 2. d4 <it?e7 3. d5 other black piece blocks a square B, and white
<it?f8 4. d6 <it?g8 5. d7 <it?f8 6. d8~#, (3... <it?d8 4. d6 guards A, just to give a simple example.
~c8 5. d7+ <it?d8 6. Jl.f6#).
In contemporary problems and studies the ex-
576 change of functions is very frequent, and com-
posers pursue to show it whenever they can, even
ATANASIJEVIC, if the main emphasis of the composition lies
Aleksandar elsewhere.
2.hm Mat 1973
There is a great number of themes including ex-
change of functions, typically the line-themes
Nowotnv interference and Grimshaw interfer-
ence, or Plachutta interference and Wurzburg-
Plachutta interference, just to name some of the
ser-s#33 oldest and most common ones.

EXC-FAS Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

578 fluence behaviour of usually all pieces on the

board. Some of the most popular conditions are
CAMPBELL, Joseph G Circe, Madrasi chess or Andernach chess; let
Illustrated London News alone the classic Maximummer directive.
2 Fairy chess comprises chess problems that differ from
classical (also called orthodox) chess problems in that
they are not direct mates. The term was introduced
before the First World War. While selfmate dates from
the Middle Age, helpmate was invented by Max Lange
in the late 19th century. Thomas Dawson (1889-
1951), pioneer of fairy chess, invented many fairy
578: 1. §eh3! H, I... Aal 2. §b2! ,ilxb2/§xb2 3. pieces and new conditions. He was also problem edi-
b4/§c3, (l... _ile3 2. §xe3, l... ,tih5 2. §c2+, I... tor of "The Fairy Chess Review" (1930-1951).
,ild3 2. §xd3, l... §b2 2. §xb2, I... §xb3 2. The term "Fairy Chess" was first used by a Melbourne
§xb3) • Rooks shifted turns in closing ofh-file. A inhabitant Henry Tate in his writing in "A"slralia11" on
nice icing on the cake, although Nowotny on b2 20th June in 1914.
was the main focus.
* Other example 1359. FAIRY MATE [F]

EXCLUSION A mating position where one or more fairy condi-

In Russian terminology: line closing. tions affect upon.
-+ See also: /11c/11sion. * See example 1060.
= Alias: Viklyuchenie (Rus.). = Alias: Mlirchenmatt (Ger.).


In Fairy chess problems the idea requires the in- Any unorthodox piece. Any piece that does not
evitable deviation from the rules of chess, just as conform to the FIDE Laws of Chess.
today's chess, because of its own needs, has been -+ See also: Combined Pieces; Hopper; leaper: Rider.
designed by reconstructing the pieces and rules
of the old Chatrang. FASTOSKY THEME
Fairy problems are characterized by at least one
In two set play variations two black pieces
of the following deviations from the orthodox selfpin themselves and White uses these pins for
chess (problem): mates. These pins are removed by the key move,
which in turn pins another black piece and re-
1. Different board. Two-dimensional surfaces places set mates with new answers which utilize
of different size than 8x8; different geometry, this new pin. 579
such as the cylinder board; three-dimensional
boards; etc. Inverted Fastosky Theme. The above described
scenario is reversed. See 580
2. New stipulations. Besides sel(mate and help-
mate which are practically considered to be or- 2 Pedro Fastosky (1924-1994).
thodox stipulation, there are other stipulations 579
like reflexmate, series helpmate, retractor or
other "retro" stipulations, stalemate, etc. MORRA, Juan C. ;
3. New pieces. Many different types of pieces,
Suppl. ofEchec de France
some of which are taken from the ancient chess 1958
likeFers and Alfi/; groups of pieces which follow
the basic chess principles (leapers and riders
group); some more peculiar groups (hoppers,
Chinese pieces); and many other, often with a re-
ally "weird" behaviour. #2
4. New conditions. Unlike for new pieces 579: * l... §xe4 2. _ilc3#, I... Jl_xe4 2. ,tid3# • 1.
where changes are specific for each specific type, 'tJl,'gS!-2. 'tJl,'xf5#, I... §xe4 2. ,tif3#, l... ,ilxe42.
new conditions usually have global scope and in- ..Q.f4#, ( I... §xg5 2. ~f7#, l... ~xe4 2 . 'tJl,'e3#).

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems FAT-FED

580 583
MORRA, Juan C. FEATHER. Christopher
Suppl. ofEchec de France J.
1958 Schoch-Echo /976

580: •1... ~xd5 2. ~g4#, I... §xd5 2. §f5# • 1. FEATHER THEME
~ cS! -2. ~xc7#, I... ~xd5 2. ~f3#, I... §xd5 2. [H]
d4#, J•.. ~xd5 2. ~c6#, I... .a_xd5 2. § e7#. Black pieces move across the square where black
King stood in the initial position.
If it was not his turn to move White could reach
the goal in a smaller number of moves than stipu-
lated, but he lacks the waiting move.
S The term was coined after the book with same title,
compiled and edited by Dr. Eduard Birgfeld (1887-1939),
Berlin 1922. The book contains over 900 White-
To-Play selfmates, of which some 700 were originals.


White sacrifices a piece in the black Kings field
and black Pawn captures it self-blocking a flight.
! Christopher J. Feather (1947).
s#7* 582
581: *I... exf2# • 1. ~xe3!! <if;>e5 2. ~f5+ <if;>d4 3.
~e6 fxe6 4. ~c4 e5 5. f7 e4 6. f8~ e3 7. ~f2. FEATHER. Christopher
*Other example 1667. 2.pr Castellari MT 1978
~See also: Pseudo Three-Mover; Pseudo Two-Mover.


In a helpmate twomover the black Queen stands
on the intersection of two white lines, and must
move to let one or the other white line moving
piece through. However, the black King needs
later to move to a square onto one of these lines.
Therefore the black Queen must keep the respec-
tive square free for her King, and the only way to
In the initial position Black has two (or several)
do it is by capturing one of White's line-pieces.
thematic moves against which White has no set
"" Alias: Feather Maneuver. mate. In the tries (which all threaten same mate),
583: 1. ~xb6 §c l 2. ~d4 ~ xd2# • 1. ~ xc6 Ag l White attempts to prevent these black moves, but
2.<it;>c4 ~ b3#. one of them, in turn, refutes White's try. With the

FEL-FEL Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

correct key White prepares mates to both (all) 587: 1. ,t)c4! (-), I... f!-3 2. ~ b6#A, I... f!e3!
thematic black moves. 2. f! h6#B, l... -'\,-{a5) 2. f!h6#B, 1... .Q..b4! 2.
~b61fC, l... f!-b 2. ~g2#C, I... f!b4! 2. ,t)aS#D,
585 I... .Q..-{cl) 2. ,t)a5#D, l... .Q..e3! 2. ~g2#A.
* Other example 558.
FEDOROVICH, Roman = Aliases: Florian I; Reciprocal Black Correction; Recipro-
Chernovyj prapor J 982 cal Correction.

Cyclic mates (or continuations) after random and
correction moves of three black units in a single
phase. Thematic pairs of variations may come
from three different pieces (as in 588), or some
#2 can be replaced by corrections of a line-mover
585: * I... c5/d5 2.? • 1. ,t)d6? (2. ~e4#) c5! • 1. along two different lines (such as Queen and
{)cS? d5! • t. ,t)g3! - 2. ~e4#, l... c5 2. Ag7#, Bishop corrections in a 5-fold task-record 589).
I... d5 2. ,t)g6#.
FELDMA~:"l 1 THE'.\>IE
Reciprocal mates (or continuations) after two l 520. Magyar Sakkvilag
random and correction move pairs in a single 1939
phase. Thematic pairs of variations may be made
by two different units (as in 586), or by a single
line-mover along two different lines (as in 587,
which doubles the theme).
! Tibor Feldmann (Florian) (1919-1990).
586 588: I. ,t)xd6! H, I... f!- 2. ,t)f7#A, l... f! xf6! 2.
f4#B • l... {)- 2. f4#B, I... ,t)d5! 2. ,t)d71fC • I...
FELDMANN, Tibor A- 2. 4:;d71fC, I ... -'\,xf5! 2. ,tif7#A.
I.pr Munkassakk 1936
J.hm Die Schwalbe 1963

586: 1. ~ xf6! - 2. ,t)xe5#, !...,tie- 2. f!c5#, I...
,t)d3 2. b3#, 1...,t)f-2. b3#, l... ,t)xd4 2. f!c5# •
(1... ,t)d7 2. ~xf7#, I... f! d5 2. f!b4#, I... ~c3+/
~e l 2f!(x)c3#). #2
589: 1. g7! (-), I... ~-2 2. g8~#A, I... ~a2+! 2.
587 l).xa2#B, l ...~e-2. .Q..a2#B, ! ... ~e4! 2. ~ d6#C,
I... ,£)- 2. ~d6#C, 1... ,t)e5! 2. ~ d4#D, I...
DAWSON, Thomas R. -'\,-(h4-d8)2. ~d4#D, I... -'\,d8+! 2. f!xd8#E, I...
The Problemist 1929 I
vers. J. Knoppel .ll-(c3-g7) 2. f! d8#E, I ... Jle5! 2. g8~A.
= Aliases: Cyclic Black Correction; Cyclic Feldmann;
Cyclic Florian I.

Cyclic change of primary, secondary and tertiary
#2 mate (or continuation) after tertiary corrections

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems FEL· FEL

by two black pieces in a single phase. 590 is a 592

good illustration if l ...Rxc5 is accepted as the-
matically correct primary defence DOMBROVSKIS, Alfreds
3.pr Shakhmaty 1971
MALEIKA, Gerhard
7.hm Die Schwalbe 1970


Changed mates after a random and corrective
#2 move of the same piece in two phases. The cor-
590: 1. § xcS! - 2. § xd5#, 1...{)d- 2. .Q.g l #A, rection doesn't have to be the same move - 594.
I... {)f5! 2. c3#B, I... {)e4!! 2. {)f3#C, I... §e5 To distinguish between the two, thematic form
(f!xc5) 2. {)f3#C, I... §xg5! 2. ,ilgl#A, I... where this move is same in both phases, as in
§f5!! 2. c3#B. 593, is usually called "Changed Correction".
"' Aliases: Florian I, Tertiary; Tertiary Feldmann/ Florian I. 595 shows the Feldmann 1 theme twice, before
and after the key; joined together set and actual
FELDMANN 1, WHITE play produce a double Feldmann 2 theme with
Reciprocal refutations after random and correc- four changed mates.
tion moves of two white pieces.
TOUW, Hian Bwee Chess Amateur 1919
l.hm Die Schwalbe 1965-11

593: * I... {)- 2. ~f3#, I... {)g4 2. ~f7# • 1. ~ a4!
(-), I...{)- 2. ~d i #, I... {)g4 2. ~e8#.

-. See also: Feldmann I, White, Cyclic.

"' Alias: Reciprocal White Correction.


Cyclic refutations after random and correction
moves of three (or more) white pieces.
-. See also: Feldmann I, White. #2
"' Aliases: Cyclic White Correction; Cyclic White Florian I. 594:* 1...{)6-+2. §e5#, l...{)6xh5+2. §g7# • I.
592: l {)b-? e4!A; 1. {)c5? e4? 2. fxe4#, I... bxaS!B Jl.g4! -2. ~f5#, I ... {)6-+ 2. §g7#, I ... {)xg4+
• 1. §-? bxaS!B; 1. §c8? bxa5? 2. §c5#, I... 2. §e5#.
_ilxf7!C • t. ~-? Jl.xf7!C; 1. ~ f8? .Q.xf7 2. 595: *I... §- 2. {)g6#A, I... §xe5 2. ~g5#8,
"tf,a8#, I... e4!A • 1. §c7! (-), I... e4 2. ~xd4#, I ... {:id- 2. ~g5#B, I ... {)f3 2. {)g6#A • 1. ~ d6!
I... bxa5 2. § c5#, I... Jl.xf7 2. ~a8#. (-), I... f!- 2. {)d3#C, I... §xe5 2. ~h6#D,

FEL- FER Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

l...,t)d- 2. ~h6#D, I... €)f3 2. €)d3#C, (1... €)e6 597

2. fxe6#, I... g3 2. hxg3#, 1...€\f- 2. §xg4#).
· ~~~,, ,..)§CJ 595 Mukkur

~.~if/;•@~ I.pr The Prob/emist 198911

.~--· CHEPIZHNY, Viktor I.;

m ~~ _,_,,1. ~ ~
·~. RUDENKO, Valentin F.
~~--,,~ ~f;s T,jdschrift v. d. KNSB
"··· ' · ·~"' ~
tmm ir:&
~, #2
.] m~~.3~('
= Aliases: Changed Reciprocal Black Correction; Florian 2. GOLDSCHMEDING,
FELDMANN 2, CYCLIC 2.cm Probleemblad 1946/
Mates are transferred cyclically in three phases dedicated to J. J. Seilberger
against black correction, but the correction move
changes from one phase to another.

RUDENKO, Valentin F.
I.pr Sachove umenie 1974 FENCING
Restricting the mobility of pieces. May be total
(the piece completely loses mobility) and partial
(one side puts the opponent into zugzwang or
wins the fenced piece). Theme is equally applica-
ble in moremovers and endgames.
#2 599
596: 1...€\d- 2. § fe2#A, I... €)c2 2. ~xc6#B • 1.
€)d7? - 2. ~e5#, l ...,t)d- 2. ~xf5#B, I ... €)f3 2. KUBBEL, Leonid I.
§fe2#C, I... ~d5 2. ~e6#, I... gxf6 2. €)dxf6#, I.pr II Problema /933
I... §c5! • 1. €)c4! - 2. ~e5#, 1...€\d- 2.
~xc6#C, I ... €)e6 2. ~xf5#A, 1... ~d5 2. ~xc6#,
I... gxf6 2. €)xf6# .

Changed mates (or continuations) after primary,
secondary and tertiary defence of the black piece #5
in two phases. Two corrections may either main- 599: 1. § d7! -2. §xb7#, I... ~a8 2. §dxe7 §b8 3.
tain (as in 597) or exchange (as in 598) their sec- §xh7 .(lc8 4. §d7 H .Q..xd7 5. €)xd7# • etc.
ondary vs tertiary character. = Alias: Zamurovannie (Rus.).
= Alias: Florian 2, Tertiary.
597: 1. ~ b6? - 2. €)xd6#, I... €)- 2. vtfxe6#, I...
€)f7 2. f!xf4#, I... €)f5! 2. €)c3#, I... €)xb5! • l.
To defend against White's threat, or being in a
c3! - 2. €)xd6#, I ... €)- 2. ~e5#, I ... €)f7 2. block position, all Black men move, including
~xf4#, I... ,t)fS 2. €)c5#, (1... ~fS 2. §xf4#). Pawns and the King. White has a different mate
to each man's defence.
598: *I... €)- 2. ~e3#, I... €)e4! 2. €)g6#, I... e
~ .. 2 . ""'d4#
w • I • €)c4.1 - 2. C8~#, I... €)- 2. Q Wilhelm Ferreau (?).
~f2#, I... €)d3! 2. ~f6#, I... €)e4!! 2. §f3#, {I... 600: 1. 4:)fS! - 2. €)g3#, I... €)4xf5 2. ~g2#, l...
~f5 2. § f8#). €)6xf5 2. ~g4#, I ... exf5 2. ~d5#, I ... ~xfS 2.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems FER·FID

601: I. ,ilb3? - 2. !£:id7#, I... A e4! • I. !£:ic8? - 2.

fyd6#, I... Jl.5! • 1. § d4! - 2. fyxh8#, I... !£:id5
2. !£:id7#, 1... Jl.f6 2. fyd6#, 1... ~ f6 2. !£:id7#, 1...
~xd4 2. fyd6#.
= Alias: Festif.

Federation Internationale des Echecs, the World
Chess Federation.

#2 The FIDE Albums are publications of the world
chess governing body, FIDE, via World Federa-
tion for Chess Composition (WFCC), containing
1. The medieval name for the Queen, derived the best chess problems and studies of a certain
from the Arabic "firs" or "fierz", still used in
period (usually three years in length).
Russian in form "ferz" for Queen. Ferz was "a
wise man" and King's "adviser". That explains
its transformation into a Queen, who in the medi- FIDE ALBUMS PUBLISHED SO FAR
eval time occupied a throne next to the King's in Publication Number
Europe. Originally one of the weakest pieces on Period year of problems
the board, taking one step diagonally, it suddenly 1914-44/1 1972 725
in the end of the I 5th century, after slight im- 1914-44 II 1972 1278
provements, adopted the power it has now, at the 19 14-44 III 1975 806
same time as Bishop, Pawn and by the end of the 1945-55 1964 1891
16th century King (castling) adopted their mod- 1956-58 1961 661
em movements, none of which have changed 1959-61 1966 738
since. Queen's movements had also an indirect 1962-64 1968 908
impact on the game in that now the humble Pawn 1965-67 1976 800
had the possibility to promote to the strongest 1968-70 1977 805
1971-73 1978 800
piece on the board. 1974-76 1980 800
2. In modem fairy chess Fers moves like its me- 1977-79 1984 800
dieval colleague (1 , I). 1980-82 1988 1083
* See examples: 392, 436, 1278. 1603. 1983-85
11 03
FESTIVE THEME 1989-9 1 1997 1056
In defeating the tries Black makes always a dif- 1992-94 2001 963
1995-97 2004 1153
ferent [light square for his King. The key gives
1998-2000 2007 1267
these flights, and when the black King moves on 2001-2003 2011 1349
the flights, the threats recur.

601 The Albums covering the earliest periods,

1914-44 (in three volumes) and 1945-1955, were
collected retrospectively. From the period
3.pr Buletin Problemistic
TT 1972 1956- I 958 special album tourneys have been or-
ganized by the WFCC (former PCCC). The first
Album 1956-1958 was published in 1961.
Currently, problems submitted for publication in
the Album are reviewed by a panel of three
#2 judges. Each judge may give from O to 4 points

FIG- FLE Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

for a problem; if the judge's combined scores is 8 602: 1. <t)f4+! 'it(h6 ( I... <it?h4 2. d8~+ <it'g3 3.
or greater, the problem is included in the Album. <t)e2+ ~h2 4. ~xd2 .Q.f7+ 5. <it'al +-) 2. g8,£i+!
Sometimes the necessary number of points is 'it(h7 3. ,tigf6+ <it?h6 4. ,tixg4+ <it'h7 5. 4:)ef6+
'it(g7 6. <t)e6+ <it?f7 7. d8,ti+! ~e7 8. c84:)# •
lowered to 7.5. Model mate with five Knights. Altogether four
The titles Grandmaster, International Master and Knight promotions, including Black's immediate
FIDE Master of Chess Composition are awarded threat.
on the basis of problems published in FIDE Al-
bums: each problem included in an Album is FLECK DUAL AVOIDANCE
worth I point, and each study is worth 1.66 Partial dual avoidance and different mates after
points, these scores divided by the number of primary and secondary defences of two black
composers in the case of joint compositions. For pieces, of which the latter ones are played on the
a problemist to be awarded the FIDE Master title, same square.
12 points must be accumulated; for the Interna-
tional Master title 25 points are required; and for
the Grandmaster title 70 points are needed (in
each case, these points need not be gained in a
single Album; usually the points are accumulated
over a number of Albums).

A problem the important content of which is
some figurative, often geometrical pattern,
which one or many pieces show in the course of #2
the solution (triangle, square, octagon, wheel, 603: 1. § d6! - 2. §e6#, l...,tif- 2. <t)f7#, I...
cross, etc.). <t)fxd6 2. <t)xc6 (<t)d7?), 1...,tic- 2. ~xf6#, I...
* See example 720. <t)cxd6 2. <t)d7# (<t)xc6?), ( I ... 'it(xe4 2. ~e7#, I ...
~xd6 2. ~xf6#).
In Black Correction (or Secondary Fleck) a de- FLECK THEME
fence that stops all secondary mates but lets in a White threatens three or more mates each of
new mate (and there are no further correction which is accurately forced by black thematic
moves). defences. Black moves, which allow more than
--+ See also: Correction, Black; Fleck, Secondary. one mate, are not permitted, while total defences,
which prevent all threats but allow new mates,
FIVE-KNIGHT MATE THEME [E J are allowed (these are called "Karlstrom"
Korolkov's famous study in which Black threat- defences).
ens mate in two, starting with promotion to ! Fleck, Ferenc (1908-1994).
Knight, and White combines to win by mating
black King with five Knights, three of which pro- 604
mote in the course of solution.
Good Companion 1919
Vladimir A.
1-2.pr= "64" 1937

604: 1. ,tie8! - 2. <t)c7/~f7/~e4#, I... ,tixh5 2.
<t)c7#, I ... <t)xe8 2. ~f7#, 1... <t)fS 2. ~e4#, (I...
+ ~d5 2. ~d6# = total defence).

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems FLE·FLE

605 607 is probably a record with separation of 6 sec-

ondary threats without white battery mates. 608
~TAMBUK. Sveto ; shows theme in two phases with three changed
... BARTOLOVIC, Hrvoj e mates (Mate, Changed).
Mat 1976 I after S. Ekstrom
& G Rehn Relaxed Form. Only those moves by black the-
matic piece which defend against the primary
threat (Threat, Primary) are relevant. After a
random mate White could, beside the secondary
threats, deliver the (primary) threat mate.
#2 Total Secondary Fleck. This term is sometimes
605: 1. b5l - 2. ~d6/~e5/~b3/~d3/§ l e5/§8e5/ used for Secondary Fleck in block problem.
§d l/§d8#, I... axb5 2. ~d6#, 1... §xa3 2. ~e5#,
I ... ..Q.xb2 2. ~b3#, I ... § xb2 2. ~d3#, I•.. <tie6 2. 607
13 le5#, I... <£ie4 2. §8e5#, I... <£if7 2. §di #, I...
<£if3 2. 13 d8# • Record: the 8-fold Fleck . HARTONG, Jan ;
SWANE, J an A. W.
* Other example 1241. 3.hm Schakend Nederland
-. See also: Karlstrom-Fleck Theme. 1961
" Alias: Fleck, Total.

Impure Fleck theme where some of black moves
allow two or more threatened mates. #2
606 607: 1. ~d7! - 2. ~f5#, I... <ti- 2. ~ h3/~f7/~d5/
~d3/~d I/§ g3#, 1... <£ig6 2. ~ h3#, I... <£if7+ 2.
MANSFIELD, Comins ~xf7#, I... <£ig4 2. ~ d5#, I ... <£id3 2. ~xd3#, I ...
Suomen Shakki 1967 <tic4 2. ~ di#, 1... <£ixd7 2. §g3#, (1... ~f4 2.
~fl#, I... <tixc6+ 2 . ..Q.xc6#) • Separation of 6
secondary threats without white battery.

KOVAc':EVIC, Marjan
#2 Mezija 2000
606: 1. <£idf4! - 2. ~b5/~c5/~d5/~e4/~d3/~c2/
§e4/<£ie5#, 1... §/~xf4 2. ~b5#, 1... ..Q.xb7 2.
~c5#, I ... ~xe3 2. ~d5#, I ... ..Q.xf4 2. ~e4#, I ...
,ilf6 2. ~d3#, I ... axb4 2. ~c2#, I ... <£ixb7 2.
§e4#, 1... <£ixf5 2. <£ie5#.
* Other example 406. #2
"' Aliases: Fleck, Free Fonn; Pseudo Fleck.
608: 1. <£ixf7? - 2. ~xd5#, (I...§ d- 2. <£ixd6/
FLECK, SECONDARY §f6/..Q.e6#), I... §e5 2. <£ixd6#, I... §xd3 2.
After a random removal of certain black piece §f6#, I... §d4 2 . ..Q.e6#, I... §xg3! • 1. <£ig6!
there are three or more secondary threats - 2. ~xd5#, (1... §d- 2. <£ih4/§h5/<£Je7#), I...
(Threat. Secondary), each of which appears at §e5 2. <£ih4#, I... §xd3 2. §h5#, I... §d4 2.
least once after a distinct move of that black <£ie7#., (1... ~e4/~e6 2. ~xd5/~c8#.
piece. Also, each distinct move of that piece = Alias: Fleck 2.
leads to a unique mate, either one of secondary
threats, or some new mate (in which case it is and FLECK-BURKHARDT THE:\1E
equivalent to Karlstrom variation in ordinary Fleck theme where after the key White threatens
Fleck theme). to open a battery with a random move of the

FLE • FLI Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

front-piece. Black defences separate these 611

threats and force each one to appear at least once.
2 Attributed to Friedrich Burkhardt (1914), who pub- Probleemblad 1950
lished a two-mover featuring the theme in "Bemer
Tagwacht" 1946.

STO~IC, Miroslav
Tovaris 1968 I (v)
611: 1. 'i1fc5! - 2. 'i1fxc6/'i1fxf5!J:i..xf5#, I... f:J-2.
'i1fxc6#, 1... fjxe3 2. 'iJJfS#, 1... fjxe7 2. J:i..f5#,
( I... fjxd4 2. 'i1f xd4#).

A square to which the black King can legally
609: I. ~ c3! - 2. fj-#, l ... .{,td6 2. fjxd6#, l ... .{,te7 move (that is, one not guarded by a white piece,
2. fjxe7#, l... .{,tg7+ 2. f)xg7#. l... .{,th6 2. and not occupied by a black piece). If black plays
f)xh6#, l... f! hl 2. f:Jh4#, l... f!g l,<~dS 2.
a piece to one of these squares, thus decreasing
f)g3#, l... f!e l 2. fje3#, l... f!xd l 2. f:Jd4# •
The economy record. the King's mobility, it is a self-block. Ifhe moves
a piece from one of these squares, it is square-va-
* Other example 399. cation. (Definition from FIDE Album.)
= Aliases: Burkhardt-Fleck; Fleck-Burkhardt.
Flights can constitute a theme, when the main
FLECK-KARLSTROM THEME emphasis is on flight-giving (for instance 851)
Fleck theme or separation of three or more and/or on the mates that follow moving on flights
threats with at least the same number of total (for instance 923) or on flight-acqui sition as de-
defences which prevent all threats and yield to fence strategy (for instance 9).
new mates. * Other examples: 452, 608, 650, 923, 954, I063, 1635.
! Alfred Karlstrom (1907-1967).
610 In the diagram position the King, which later will
be mated, has all 8 flights available.
I.pr Problemisten /947 612
I.pr feenschach /975

610: I. f7! - 2. fxe8~/f8f)/fjf8#, I... fxg4 2.
'i1fxg4#, 1... dxeS 2. 'i1fc6#, 1... <if1xd7 2. 'i1fc8#,
(Fleck: l... Axg7 2. fxe8'i1J#, l... .{,txd7 2. f8f)#, s#lO
I ... .{,txfl 2. f)f8#). 612: 1. 'i1fd7! Ah2 2. 'i1fh3! -'Ul 3. ~xh l Ah2 4.
-+ See also: Fleck Theme; Ojanen Theme. c:Ja7 -'tgl 5. 'i1fh3 Ah2 6. f! b7 .llg l 7. ~xg3 Ah2
= Alias: Karlstrom-Fleck. 8. f!d2+ c:Jcl 9. 'i1fc7+ .llxc7 10. fjxa2+ f!xa2#.
* Other example 1095.
Rendering of the Fleck theme in which at least FLIGHT, U~PROVIDED
once black unit self-pins allowing the mate from A King's flight for which there is no set mate in
its departure square. the initial problem position. It is considered \

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems FLI-FU

flaw, the seriousness of which must be evaluated 615

from case to case.
* See example 1282. BARULIN, Mikhail
1-2.pr Shakhmaty v SSSR
= Alias: Unprovided Flight.
King has three flight squares of the shape ofletter
CARPENTER, George E. * Other example 1561.
Chess Record Sept. 1874 = Alias: Changed Flights.

Flight square(s) that is (are) available to King af-
ter it has moved onto an immediate flight. If the
King does not escape a check, one of its extended
flights is its square of departure.
613: *l... e3 2. ~f7;~h2#, l... f2 2. 'ttfxf2,~f7#, l... 616
~rs 2. 'axf3,'ttff7# • t. 'a ht! H , 1... ~g3 2. MLADENOVIC, Miodrag
~h2#, I ... "1e3 2. it)dS#, I ... ~f5 2. ~fl#, (1 ... f2
8.pt weer 1986-8
2. ~xf2#, I ... e3 2. ~h2#).


In a single phase of a twomover White mates on
the square to which in other variations the black
King plays. There are three such squares in 614 #2
(e6, e8 and c8). 616: *I ... ~ xg3 2. Jl.xg3# • 1. ~a5? (2. ~xdS#),
-+ See also: Mates on Flight Squares. 1... "1xe6 2. 'ge7#, l... ~d4 2. 'lt,c3#, 1... 'lt,xg3!
• I. it)c5? (2. it)d7#), I ... ~d4 2. it)c2#, I ... 'it?xf6
614 2. h8~#, 1... 'ttfxg3 2. it)d3#, 1... 'lt,xe3 ! • 1.
it}d6! (2. it)g4#), I ... ~xf6 2. it)xdS#, I... 'it?xe6 2.
STO~IC, Miroslav
The Problemist 1973
it)fl#, l... ~xg3 2. it)xdS#, 1... 'ttfxe3 2. 'gxe3# •
In the try I. 'lt,a5? bK is offered an immediate
flight, after which it has squares d3 and eS on its
extended field; in the try I . it)cS? it has only eS
after I ... "1xf6 and I ... ~d4; in the solution after
1... "1xf6 and 1... "1xe6 it has two extended flights:
e6 (f6) and eS.


614: 1. a6! H, I... Jl.- 2. 'ttfe6#, I... Jl_d6! 2. 'ttfe8#, In a multi-phase problem black King is given
I... ~e8 2. c8'ttf#, 1... ~e6 2. 'ttfc6#, I... ~ c8 2. progressively more flights from phase to phase.
~f5#, I ... "1d6 2. 'ttfdS#. Preferably the highest number of flights is
granted in the solution.
617: I. 'gc6? H, 1... ~xdS 2. 'gd6#, (1... it)xc7,
Flights from a set (or try) play are replaced by
it)xa3 2. 'gc4,'ttfg l#), I... it)d6! • I. it)f4? (- ), I...
different flights in another phase. ~xeS 2. it)e2#, 1... "1e3 2. ~f2#, I... it)-! • I .
615: l... "1d4 2. ~f4#, l... "1xeS 2. ~e3# • 1. it)f3! it)g3! H, I... ~cs 2. ~gt#, I... "1xeS 2. ~h8#,
- 2. 'gcxc3#, I... ~d3 2. 'gd6#, l... "1xf3 2. l... ~c3 2. it)e2#, (I... it)- 2. it)e2#, I... it)c3 2.
'gc4#. it)f5#).

FLO-FOC Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

617 619
I.pr Szachy 1982 RobinC.O.
I.pr The Problemist /951

A treatise from the end of 15th Century where STANLEY, Charles
the middle-age problems have been harmo- Illustrated London News
nized with the new (and used up to now) rules 6.10.1849
of chess.

A characteristic mate by two Queens with oppo·
nent's King in the centre (i.e. not on the edge
lines) of the board. #3
620: 1. ,t)f5! gl~ 2. Ag2! ~xg2 3. ,t)d4# • Maybe
618 the first focal problem where one of the vectors is
interfered with. It is also possible, that Stanley
LOYD, Samuel launched the term "focal" in problem vocabulary.
New York Albion 20.9.1856 * Other examples: 64, 125, 161 , 163,198,238,354,428,
589,621, 726.857,858,894, 1450, 1509, 1605, 1674.
= Alias: Brennpunkt (Ger.).


A piece controls two focal points. Opponent aims
at forcing the piece to lose the control of one of
#3 them. As he fails, he plays so that the one or the
618: I. ~ d6! (-), 1... ~e8 2. ~e5 ~d7,~f7 other (or both) focal points change to another.
3.e8~#, ( I... ~g7 2. e8~) • Two Florence Mates.
A line piece standing in a focal position is en- Deutsches Wochenschach
gaged in guarding two or three squares (foci) on 19//
as many different lines. The adversary's plan is to
deflect this piece from simultaneous guard of
both (all) squares. The lines pointing to these foci
are called vectors, and the opponent's aim is to
carry out an interference (Vektorunterbrechung)
on one of these lines, or to force the focal piece to #S
move so that it cannot retain the guard of both 621: I. §e8+,§xa5+? ~x§ ! • Main plan 1.
(all) foci. § dS? is refuted by 1... ~xh4+ 2. Ah2 ,t\b3! •
l § g(h)S? ~xh4+ 2. Ah2 ~x§! • I. § IS!
619: *I... ~a7 2. Ab4 (.lld4? ~e7!), I... ~e7 2. ~xa3! 2. §g5 ~a2 3. §h5 ~al 4. §d5!
-'td4 (Ab4? ~a7!) • I. ,t)d7! (2. ,t)xc5), I... ~a7 ~d4,~e5 5. §xa5,§d8#, (2. §d5? ~d3! 3.
2. Ad4 (Ab4? f6!), I... ~e7 2. .llb4 (-'td4? f6!) • §xa5+ ~a6).
In the set the focal interferences are anticipatory, in * Other examples: 343, 1509, 1674.
the solution direct. = Alias: Brennpunktverlagerung (Ger.).

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems FOK-FON


In the checking tries one or the other White's the- In two or more consecutive moves one and the
matic mate does not work because Black's posi- same piece moves to the square just left by one
tion has reinforced (or White's weakened). In and the same opponent's piece.
other phases the thematic mates are carried out.
2 Yuri Fokin (1925). 624
622 AVNER,Uri
I.pr J. & M. Figueiredo
3-4.pr Vecherniy
Leningrad TT /987

h#2 b) <iftc l ~f8

#2 824: a) 1. 4:)c3 4:)a4+ 2. 4:)d5+ 4:)c3# • b) 1. 4:)d6
622: 1. !'! xf3+? -'\,xf3 (2. 4:)c2??) • 1. 4:)c2+? Axc2 4:)b7+ 2. 4:)f5+ 4:)d6#.
(2. !!xf3??) • 1. ~e8? - 2. !!xf3# (4:)c2?}, I... -+ See also: Umnov. Successive.
!'! xf4 2. 4:)c2#, 1... <iftxf4 2. -'\,d2#, I ... ~xg2! • 1. "' Alias: Pursuit Theme.
f!e7!-2. 4:)c2# (!'!xf3?}, I... -'\,xd4 2. f!xt3#, I...
<it>xd4 2. ~xb6#.
= Alias: Fokin.
At least two variations in which a black piece un-
FOLDEAK THEME blocks one and the same square in the black
A random move of black piece parries White's Kings field but blocks another. In one variation
primary threat (Threat. Primary), but allows a White guards the flight directly, in the other indi-
new mate. Trying to prevent that mate with a cor- rectly.
rection move, the piece allows White's primary 2 Leon Fontaine (1900-1976).
! Arpad Foldeak (1917 -2004). 625
623 FONTAINE, Leon
le Courrier des Echecs
PAROS, Gyorgy 1956
hm OTSB Tourney /954

825: 1. ~ b7! - 2. ~ h7#, I... 4:)gf6 2. 4:)xe3#, 1...
4:)e5 2. 4:)d4#, ( I... 4:)ef6 2. 4:)e7#).
623: I. e4! - 2. ~ xb5#, I... d- 2. 4:)g6#, I...
dxe3(ep)? 2. ~xb5#, 1...4:)b- 2. 4:)xe8#, I...
4:)bd6 2. 4:)d7#, 1... 4:)bxc7? 2. ~ b5#. FONYOD THEME
In a threemover after the key Black is in
FOLLOW MY LEADER [F] Zugzwang. Each black move is followed by a
Fairy condition. Both sides must when possible quiet move that threatens mate. Black defends
move on the square that the other side just left. against threat, and White exploits the weakness
Check is like in normal chess and parrying it created by Black. In each line Black must have at
takes precedence. least one defence on his 2nd move that parries the
= Alias: Folgeschach (Ger.). threat.

FOR-FOR Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

626 "Beschaftigungslenkung", in fact, is not a Lenkung

at all. • Black's play is just a "Nullserie".
BATA, Lorine
hm Magaziner 1953 628
HOLST, Victor
I 1320. Deutsches
Wochenschach I 6. 2. I 9 I3

626: I. ~el! (-), I... c4 2. J;td4 -,<if1xd4 3. ~xe3,
~xc4#, I... e5 2. ~fl -,e2 3. ~f5.~xe2#, I... e6
2. l£)d7 -,<if1d5 3. l£)xf6,~ d3#, I... f5 2. l£)e5
-,fxg4 3. ~c4(f3),~xg4#, I... gxh4 2. l£)xh4 -, 628: Black threatens stalemate I... a4 2. ? I. J;tg8!...
<if1f4 3. ~ c4,~f3#. which White could parry now with (I ... a4) 2. Etf7
~xa2 3. §ffl and 4. §xbl#. • Therefore 1... axb4
2. J;tb3! bxa3 3. J;tg8! axb2 4. § f7 <if1xa2 5. §a7#
A move which the side of either color is com-
an Indian maneuver after all.
pelled to make to parry an immediate and fatal
threat. The term is often used in endgame studies. e Alias: Vorplan-lnder (Ger.).


In logical combination, White's preparatory ma- Simultaneous attack on two opponent's pieces. A
neuver the sole purpose of which is to remove the typical endgame theme, but can also be seen in
obstacles that prevent the immediate execution direct problems.
of his main plan.
Perpetual Fork: Infinitely repeated fork.
* See examples: 121, 1397, 1679.
White's main plan involving a (mating) threat is PRZEPl6RKA, David
parried by Black's stalemate defence. As his Deutsches Wochenschach
foreplan, White performs a critical maneuver, af- 1913 /(v)
ter which he can carry out his main-plan, because
Black's defence does not lead to stalemate any
! The term "Vorplan-Inder" was coined by Theodor
Siers (1910-1991 ).
627 629: 1. ~ f8! (2. i£)c7+ <if1xf6 3. ~g7#} l£)xf8
2. l£)d8+! (2. fxe7??) l£)xd8 3. fxe7 (4. exd8~
SIERS, Theodor
I .pr Die Schwalbe /940
exf8l£)#) l£)g6,l£)c6 4. exd84J,exf84J#.

BELO KON, Stanlslav G.
I .pr Stella Polaris I 969

627: I. fxg4? (2. l£)e3#) §a6+! 2. ~xa6 stalemate
• 1. .Q.el! - 2. §d2 - 3. fxg4 §a6+ 4. ~xa6
<if1b4 5. §d4#. • There is hardly any Lenkung,
but the adherents of the logical school admit that

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems FOR-FOR

630: 1. 4)d2 !! d3! (fork) 2. 4)d8+ <i!tbS (2... <i!td7 3. must be legal, i.e. it could have been reached by
4)xc4 f!Xd4 4. a7 !!t2 5. 4)b2!=) 3. €}bl! f!Xd4 legal moves from the initial game position. Sec-
4. 4)e6 f!d7 S. a7 f!Xa7 6. 4)d4+ ( 1st w fork) ondly, it has to be sound, in other words it must
<i!tb4 7. 4)c6+ (2nd) <i!tb3 8. 4)d4+ (3rd) <i.t'b4 9. have a unique solution (or a stipulated number of
4)c6+ positional draw. unique solutions) and not serious duals, i.e. de-
partures from composer's solution in the most
631 important variations. Thirdly, it has to be origi-
nal, which means that nothing very similar has
Genrikh M. been composed and published earlier. Further-
4.pr Shakhmaty v SSSR more, a composition has to have a specified
/935 stipulation, a task a solver has to accomplish.
The legality of position is not adhered to in many
genres of fairy chess. Different genres of compo-
sition have also their own criteria as to the seri-
ousness of duals. The obligatory formal criteria
+ as well as permitted deviations are formulated in
631: I. 4)e8! (2. 4)f5? <i.t'g4! 3. 4)e3+ <i.t'f3 4. 4:)xfl the Codex of chess composition.
§f2) <i!tg6 2. h5+! (2. f5+ f!Xf5 3. h5+ <i!txh5 =}
§xh5 3. f5+ f!Xf5 4. g4 §e5 5. .Q.f5+! (5. 4)g7?
f5) f!Xf5 6. 4)g7 - 7. gxf5/gxh5#.
A tourney organized usually on the occasion of
* Other examples: 891, 1169, 1249, 1399. someone's birthday or memorial day, some im-
portant event like Chess Olympiad, or a theme
FORK, MOVING [E] tourney. The names of authors are usually not
A combination of two successive forks. known to the jury. The awarded participants'
names will be published with the award.
632 Unplaced entries are still at their composers'
disposal, unless they have proved unsound or
I.pr Alma-Atinskaya
Pravda /960
Twinning by changing the type of a single piece.
Theme is termed after one of the all-time most fa-
mous helpmates 633, although the idea had been
known before (for instance 634).
+ ! Henry Forsberg (1914-1981).
632: I. 4)f7+ ~xb7 2 • .Q.e4! f! hl+ (I... ~xf3?
4::)e5+= first fork) 3. ~g7 f!gl+4. ~f8 §xg8+5. 633
<i!txg8 <it?c6! 6• .Q.f3!! c4 (6... ~xf3 7. 4)e5+ =
second fork, 7 ... <i.t'd5 8. 4)xf3 <i.t'c4 9. <i.t'f7 <i.t'c3 FORSBERG, Henry
10. €}el <i.t'd2 11. <i.t'e6 g,xel 12. g,d5) 7. c3 g,cs I .pr W Pauly MT
Revista Romona de $ah
8 • .Q.xd5 g,xdS 9. ~g7 g,e4 10. 4)d6+ g,ds 11.
4::)b5 <i.t'c5 12. 4)a3 +-.
= Alias: Sliding Fork.

A problem or a study should present an interest- h#2 b) l'.a6; c) .A.a6; d) •a6; e) t a6
ing idea and obey the artistic principles of the 633: a) I. ~ f6 4)c5 2. ~ b2 §a4# • b) 1. § b6 § bl
genre in question. However, a composition has to 2. §b3 §a l#• c) 1. A c4 €}el 2 . .Q.a2 4)c2# • d)
meet certain formal criteria before its content and I. 4)c5 €}c l 2. 4)a4 !!b3# • e) I. a5 !!b3+ 2.
artistic merits are evaluated. Firstly, its position <i!ta4 4)c5#.

FOR-FOS Encyclopedia of Chess Problems


Forsberg twins where two or more pieces of one
SOLA, Penttl
2.pr The Problemist 1931
kind are converted to another kind, but retain
their colour.

3.pr Gavrilovic MT 1975

* Other example 1257.

.. Alias: Forsberg.

A relationship between the kind of promoted
637: a) 1. 1313 13c2 2. l3fl l3e5# • b) 1• ..Q.d4 ..Q.d3
piece and the piece of Forsberg's change. In
2. ..Q.f2 ..Q.b4# • c) 1. 4:)bl 4:)g3 2. 4:)d2 4:)d3#.
other words: Forsberg twins with respective pro-
motions. 635 is an early example. 636 combines
Forsberg-Andersson Theme with Forsberg-suite FORTRESS [E]
twins. Endgame motif. The side with a significant mate-
2 Gunnar Andersson (1907-1971). rial disadvantage builds the position which the
opponent despite all his strength cannot
635 penetrate.
Eskilstuna Kuriren 1938 638
I.pr Turkmenskaya Iskra

h#2 b)Ad3,b)4Jd3
635: a) 1. ~bl l3xd2 2. gl 13 l3h2# • b) 1. ~ht
Axe4 2. glA Axf3# • c) 1. ~ht ~g3 2. gl4:)
638: t. Af6 ~d6 2. Ae7+ ~es 3. Ad8 ~d6 4.
A e7+ ~c6 5. f6 h2 6. Af8 h I 'it, 7. Ah6 and draw
because Black cannot prevent the white King from
entering the fortress (e.g. on g7).
* Other examples: 838, 1664.
Two thematic black pieces which attack the
White battery are alternatively pinned by the
black King moves. White battery mates by
shut-off or capture of the other thematic black
636: a) 1. ~cl 4:)a3 2. dl4:) 4:)b3# • b) 1. ~ct Ad3 piece.
2. di A ~e3# • c) 1. ~el l3c2 2. d i 13 l3xe4#. ! Ettore Foschini (1899-1968).

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems FOS - FOU

639 641: I. ~ h8! - 2. ~h7#, I... ..Q.xd3 2. ~a8#, I...

4:)xd3 2. ~hi#, (I... 4)-4,4:)g3 2~(x)d4#) • ~
FOSCHINI, Ettore visits all four comers.
2.hm T,jdschrift v. d. NSB
1929 642
4. cm Die Schwalbe 1980

639: I. 4:)c8! - 2. !! f8#, I... ~fl 2. Jle3#, I... ~f5
2.Ad4#,(1... E!xh4+2.Axh4#, l... e42.Ad4#).
Last 4 moves of Black?
FOSCHINI, INVERTED 642: - 1. b7x~a8A + ~ h8-a8 -2. c5x~/f!/4:)d6
Two pinned black pieces are both in turn un- ~a1-h8 -3. c4-c5 ~ hl-al (-4. c3-c4 h2-h l~
pinned by the black King moves. Then White -5. c2-c3 h3-h2 -6. h2x~/f!/4:)g3 etc.) • Black
gives battery mates with shut-off or capture of Queen visits all four comer squares.
the unpinned piece.
In retrograde analysis: A related event, signifi-
640 cant for the solution, occurs in all four corners
during the retro-play. For example promotions
CACCIARI, Europe on a 1, a8, h I and h8; or a piece takes a path which
I.pr Enigmistica Popa/are goes through all four corners. See 642.
Two Grimshaw interferences between one Rook
and one Bishop.

640: I. E! cl! (-), I... ~b4 2. 4:)d6#, I... ~b3 2.
4:)xc3#, (I... ~d3 2. f!xc3#, I... ~d5 2 . .Q..xe6#).
~See also: Foschini Theme.
= Aliases: Anti-Foschini Theme; Inverted Foschini.


In direct problems: A piece visits all four cor-
ners in the same line (Merry-Go-Round theme) #2
orin variations, in a single or in more phases. See 643: 1. J;tf7! (-} 1... Ac6,!!c6 2. ~a7,4:)xb5#,
641. I... J;te6,E! e6 2 . .,llxf6,4:)f5#, (I ... A-,E!d-,4:)g-,
4:)f-,f!c- 2. 4:)xb5,~d5,4:)e2,~e4,4:)xc2#).
641 * Other example 587.
~ See also: Grimshaw Interference.
Dubuque Chess Journal FOUR-PIN-WAY THEME
Black pins one white and one b lack piece and un-
pins one white and one black piece.
,. Alias: Four-Pin-Way.
644: 1. A d2! (2. 4:)d6#}, I... Ae6 2. ~xe5#, (I...
Ac5 2. cxd3#, I... f!xf6+ 2. 4:)xf6#, I... ..Q.d5+ 2.

FOU - FRE Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

644 For example, if the black Rook captures a white

Pawn, the Rook becomes a black Pawn. If a King
HARLEY, Brian captures, he changes his movement but remains a
Good Companion 1919 royal piece. If a King captures a Pawn, it can pro-
mote on the promotion rank into another royal
piece (except into a King). A royal line piece can
not move over squares that are attacked by the
opponent's pieces, however over those fields the
King can check and checkmate.
#2 --. See also: Protean Men.


Black defence opens one white and one black Fairy condition. Pawns are placed on the 2nd and
7th rank like in normal chess. Then Black selects
line, but closes another white and another black
a piece and places it on any square of his
base-rank and White has to imitate. Then it is
White's tum to place a piece and Black's to imi-
645 tate, until all pieces have been placed. Bishops
PETROVIC, Nenad must be placed on squares of different colours.
Parallele 50 1948 Castling is made under normal rules independent
on what are the initial squares of Kings and


In the set play White mates by opening a battery.
In the tries White attempts to open the battery
#2 with the mating moves of the set. In the solution
645: 1. .Q.d8! - 2. .[)f6#, I... .[)g5 2. 'l:,g4#, (I... White abandons the battery, but the set mates are
.[)c5,'l:,xh8 2. .[)f4,~f7#). realized against new black defences (Mate
= Alias: Four-Way-Play.

The capturing piece (including the King) SAVOURNIN, Jacques
I.pr Freie Presse 1966
overtakes the movement (not the color) of the
captured piece. By multiple captures a piece can
change its movement multiple times.

Schoch-Echo 1954
647: * I... .§ f4 2 . .[)g5#, l... ~ f5 2. !i:)c5# • I.
!i:)g5+? ~f4! • 1. !i:)c5+? ~5+! • 1. ~f8! - 2.
it,a8#, I... .§f4 2. ~xf4#, I... ~f5 2. fjxf5#, I...
!i:)e3 2. !i:)g5#, I... Ae5 2. !i:)c5#.
= Alias: Freie Presse.


646: 1. §eS! (-), l... ~xe5(«6'= E ) 2. ~d4#, Each of the thematic tries has a distinct harmful
l...~xg6(«6'=t)2. §g5#, l...~xg7(«6'=•)2 . effect exploited by black refutations. The key
.il,f8#. collects all these weaknesses.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems FRI - FUH

648 650
Themes-64 1971 I.pr Schackviirlden 1938

#2 #2
648: I... b42. §a5#, 1... .§-2. ltb3# • I. 4:)fS?-2.
~a7#, I... .§f6 2. ,ilb3#, I... b4! • 1. 4:)c4? - 2.
After the key a square adjacent to the black King
v&a7/4:)b2#, 1... .§f6 2. 4:)b2#, I... §f2! • 1.
is attacked by two white units capable of giving
4:)dS! - 2. '?t,a7#, 1... .§f6 2. 4:)dc3#, 1... b4 2.
mate on that square. The square is guarded by a
4:)b6#, etc.
black piece which, in defence, has to abandon its
= Alias: French-Letonian. guard, but simultaneously it prepares a masked
guard so that only one of the white units can give
A variation (mate) for which the author has
added a piece which, apart from giving that mate, 651
has no other function in the position. FROBERG, Hilding
! The term coined by Brian Harley (1883-1955). Problemas l 979

#2 652
649: t. .§d6! H. 1... ~- 2. .§f6#, (t... v&b2+ 2.
,§f6#), 1... A- 2. ~xe2#, 1... ~el 2 . ..llg3#, 1... FROBERG, Hilding
The Problemist 1983
c3 2. 4:)d3# • Both 4:)c5 and t c4 could be

Black defences make possibility for two white
mates, but dual avoidance occurs through the
opening of a black line. White must choose the #2
mate that pins the black piece the line of which 652: 1. .§ bbS! - 2. 4:)b2#, 1... ~a5 2 . .§ dc5#, I...
has been opened. ~e5 2. .§bc5# • (1... .§a7 2. §b4#, I... §a8 2.
2 Hilding Froberg (1918-1999). .§d4#, I... .§xb5 2. ,ilxb5#, 1... 4:)d3 2. exd3#).
= Alias: Froberg I. FUHRER THEME
650: t. 4:)d6! - 2. v&d5#, 1... 4:)db4 2. 4:)ec4# Black defends against the threat by opening the
(4:)dc4?), 1... 4:)cb4 2. 4:)dc4# (4:)ec4?), (1... line of the black pinned piece with its simulta-
~xd6,e6,<~xd6 2. 4:)g4,4:)f7,~d5#). neous unpin.

FUH·GAM Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

653 655
I.pr La Settimana Deutsche Schachzeitung
Enigmistica 1935 1955

#2 #6
853: I. 4:)d7! - 2. 4:)e5#, I... .Q..d3 2. ~xc6#, I...
4:)c2 2. "tt,f7#, (I... ,tixf3,,tixa72. .Q..xe2,§xc3#). FUNDAMENTAL TRY
The term introduced by Hans Peter Rehm to de-
FUHRER 2 THEME nominate a thematic try in a logical problem with
The combination of the Fuhrer Theme with an indirect combination initiated by Black. In
Black correction where the correction move such combination the movement of white pieces
defends primary threat (Threat, Primary) with is forced by Black in order to secure Black's suc-
Fuhrer ( l) effects. cess, which is in a moremover to prevent White's
mating in the stipulated number of moves. Obvi-
654 ously this cannot happen in the correct solution,
but only in a try called by Rehm the "funda-
BANYAI, J6zsef mental try".
Schackvorlden 194/
~ See also: Roman. White.

White and Black simultaneously conduct differ-
ent maneuvering and at some point two maneu-
vers overlay with each other - their fusion
#2 occurs.
854: 1. b4! -2. 4:)xf4#, 1...4:)f-2. ~e4#, I... 4:)fd5 2.
dxc8"tt,#, (I... 4:)cd5,d5 2. ~g4,§f6#).
FUHRUNG 4.pr Shakhmaty v SSSR
A White's move during the foreplan which guar- /937
antees the success of White's attack. The combi-
nation with this move left out makes some sense,
but is refuted. The effects of the Fiihrung are the
only reason why after the foreplan the attack is
This is a voluntary move which, according to its
658: 1. "tt,aS+! § xaS 2. J;txa8 § dS! (Black con·
kind, is called either Hinfiirung (voluntary use-
quers the point of fusion!) 3. d8 § ! (3. d8~?
ful occupation ofa square) or Wegjuhrung (vol-
§dl+4. ~xdl; 3. <i!i>bl? §xd7 4. A b7 <it>xb3! 5.
untary useful departure from a square) (Sidler).
~c l §d8) 3 ••. §xd8 4• .,lldS! (now White con-
* Other example 1434. quers the point of fusion!) 4.•• § f8 S. ~ b 1 § c8 6.
.. Aliases: Conductor; Ad-Deploy; Ex-Deploy; Guidance.
J;tb7 § 18 7. <it>c2 § f2+ 8. <it>d3 § f8 9. ~c4
855: I. b8~? exfl ~! 2. ~ f8+ 4:)g7+! • I. d84:)! §f4+ 10. <it>bS § f8 11. J;tdS +-.
4:)d6 2. 4:)f7+ 4:)xf7 3. 4:)e3 4:)d6 4. 4:)f5+ 4:)xf5 5.
b8~ (6. ~ f4#) 4:)d6 6. ~f8# • "Wegfilhrung" of GAMAGE PELLE
WS from fl! The 4-move long foreplan starts with A Passive Interference of black pinned piece,
I. d84:)! which moves along the pin line Pelle Move and

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems GAM-GAR

arrives behind another piece (black or white), al- 659 shows Bicolor Gamage in thematic tries
lows white pinning piece to directly unpin that l..il,d2? ~b3 2.~b l # and l..Q..e3? c3 2.~b5#;
(active) black piece on mating move. note that in the second try l...~e2 2.~bl# is a
normal Gamage mate.
'~. ~/."'\~
~ ~ 657
?~R Similar is a static form of the theme where a
~ d~~ black pinned pieces is already interfered by a

"a~~~- FUCHS, Georges M. white piece. 660 is a complete block where two
.f Sports Referee 1919
such variations unfold after a simple waiting key,
'f ffl~~j·:"•~~ while thematic Rook or Bishop tempo-tries actu-
ally show an Anti-Bicolor-Gamage.
.... ~~
. :~~~~~~l>§ 659

#2 KOVAl:EVIC, Marjan
I.pr The Problemist 199511
657: 1. ~ bl!(-), l... ~ b4 2. ~ e4#, I... ~ b3 2.
~h7#, (I... a6,~b5...~b2+ 2. ~x-1&#, l...
-l&xbl+, 4:Jh-2. f!xbl,f! lh7#).
-+ See also: Goethart Pelle.

Black closes the line of his pinned piece allowing
659: 1. l)..d2? - 2. ,tid4#, I ... ,tib3 2. ~ b I# (Bicolor
White to unpin it directly on the mating move
Gamage), I... c3! • 1. .Q.e3?-2. ,tid4#, I... 4:Je2
(by white pinning piece).
2. ~ bl# (Gamage), I... c3 2. ~ b5# (Bicolor
Unlike the Goethart theme where the unpin is in- Gamage), I... ,tib3! • 1. ,t)g5! - 2. f! f7#, I...
direct. -l&b2,-l&a7,-l&d4 2. -'\,d2,-'\,e3,,t)xd4#.
2 Frederick Gamage (1882-1956).
658 AHUES, Herbert
GAMAGE, Frederick Mutabo 1967
I.pr Tidskrift for Schack

#2 660: 1. -'\,-? g3! • lf!e-? c3! • 1. -'\,dl! (- ), I... g3
658: 1. f! h4! (-), I... d6 2. -l&h8#, I... d5 2. -l&h3#, 2. -l&xg3#, I... c3 2. -l&a6#, l...,t)g- 2. -1&xf5#.
(I ... -l&-,4:Ja-,4:Jd2 2. 4:Jd5, f! b3,.Q.g7#). * Other example 669.
* Other examples: 77, 659, 832. -+ See also: Goethart, Bicolor.
-+ See also: Goethart Theme.
Initial game position.
White on his first move cuts the line of a black
pinned piece so that it can be directly unpinned
on mating move of the pinning white piece, ei- Before each black move White has a possibility
ther in threat or in variation(s). Alternatively the of mate, which doesn't work due to a lack of
interference may anticipate thematic pin which black tempo move.
is to be established by a black self-pin in defence. ! Toma Garai (1935-2012).

GAT-GER Encyclopedia of Chess Problems


!.4.l't"Ll. •
~ 1-2.cm Probleemblad 1970
black piece carries a positive element, which de-
fends the threat or maintains Zugzwang, but also
it usually involves a harmful effect for which rea-
son White has a mate on it (Threat. Secondary).
Similarly, in White correction (Correction,

~ ~
-~~- e
White), a random move of white key piece carries
a positive element of threatening something, or
maintaining a Zugzwang, but due to some intro-
duced or already missing element (general error)
h#2* b) Bc2 it is refuted by Black.
661: * I... !£)e5# • a) I. /£)e3 !£)a5 (*2... !£)b4#) 2. Both Black and White, in their correction play,
§c2/£)f4# • b) 1. §e3 /£)a5 (*2 ... /£)f4#)2. §ce2 can improve their defence/attack by moving the
/£)b4#. thematic piece on a particular square.
A piece moves off a line, so enabling the oppo- In problem chess terminology, the term can be
nent's line-moving piece to move across the va- used at least in two senses:
cated square. (I) to denote the division of compositions in
* See examples: 365, 1417. studies, two-movers, three-movers, more-
= Alias: Passage. movers, helpmates, selfmates, fairy prob-
lems, chess mathematical and retro-analyti-
cal problems etc.;
A task rendering: as many black defences as pos-
sible are harmful gate-openings. (2) to signify the division of, say, two-movers in
traditional, strategic, multi-phase, modem
2 Brian Harley: "Mate in Two Moves", p. 58-9.
problems, or three-movers in strategic, logi-
662 cal, Bohemian etc.


Die Schwalbe 1978 Ideas that are not so much based on the stategic
impacts of the moves but rather figures the
moves draw, the length of moves and other visual
and regular effects. Geometric themes can be cat-
egorized as follows:
( l) Movements of one piece in same variation
#2 like Snake theme, Virage, Round Trip
662: 1. Jtc8! H, 1... c- 2. §e7#, I... b-5 2. §e6#, (Rund/au./), Merry-Go-Round theme, Stair-
I... b3 2. 1:l,c3#, I... !£)d8 2. 'tf1xc7#, I... !£)d6 2. case theme, Pendulum, String theme, etc.;
'tf1e7#, I... §xg4 2. "tt,fS#, I... §g5(xf6) 2. 'tf1e4#, (2) one piece's movements in variations like
I... _ilxg4 2. "tt,h2#, I... dxe2 2. d4#, I... fxe2 2. f4# Windmill task, Star theme, Cross theme,
• 10 gate openings, a record without unprovided Knight Tour, Knight Wheel, Daisy theme,
check. Sunflower theme, etc.;
(3) combined movements of several pieces.
GENERAL [FJ * See examples: 211, 398.
A fairy piece that moves like a Queen but only on
the squares of same colour. GERARD THEME
2 Invented by Giuseppe Ciccolini (ca 1770-1833). Black's halfpinned man gives indirect checks
and White mates by cross-checks.
GENERAL ERROR 663: 1. <it>ti! - 2. 'tf1b8#, I ... e5+ 2. 1£)7d5#, I ... A---+
The term can be applied to both white and black 2. !£)3f5#, 1... _ilxe7+ 2. Axf4#, I... .Q.eS+ 2.
play. In Black correction, a random move of !£)7f5#, I... <it>eS 2. /£)c4#.

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems GHO·GOE

663 664: I. Ae7! - 2. 4:)xc5#, I ... 4:)e5 2. 4:)f4# ( 4:)xc5?

§ xc5+!), I...§ c- 2. ~xf6# ( 4:)xc5??), I... ~xe7
GUIDELLI, Giorgio 2. ~xe7# (4:)xc5? <it1d6!), I... c;t,d7 2. 4:)xf6#
2.pr £co degli Scacchi (4:)xc5? 4:)xc5!) • Cyclic shift of direct and indi-
rect functions.

A Passive Interference of black pinned piece,
which moves along the pin line Pelle Move and
#2 arrives behind another piece (black or white), al-
lows White to indirectly unpin that (active) black
GHOST CHESS [F] piece on mating move.
Fairy condition. When a capture takes place, the
captured unit is "buried" under the square where 665
it was captured; after the departure of the captur-
ISAYEV, Leonid A.
ing unit it reappears in the form of a ghost piece Western Morning News
that has all properties of original unit except that 1927
it cannot be captured any more.
-+ See also: Haunted Chess.

Fairy piece. A (1,5)-leaper. For instance: Giraffe
from a l can play to b5 or e2. #2
665: 1. 4:)xe5! - 2. §xd4#, I ... ~d2 2. 4:)d3#, I ...
GLASGOW CHESS [ F] § to 2. 4:)g6#, ( 1... c5 2. bxc5#, I ... ~d5 2. 4:)c4#).
Fairy chess variant. White Pawns promote on 7th -+ See also: Gamage Pelle.
and black on 2nd rank.
Black closes the line of his pinned piece allowing
A fairy chess variant. See Cylinder Board. White to unpin it indirectly on the mating move
(it's always a battery mate).
In each variation of a twomover there is either a Unlike the Gamage theme where the unpin is di-
reciprocal change or cyclic shift (Lacny theme) rect.
between the piece that makes the defensive move 2 Gerhardus H. Goethart (1892-1969).
and the piece that actually parries the threat (i.e.
between the indirect and direct functions of the 666
pieces). Theme can occur in Black's refutations
to tries or in White's variations in one phase. GOETHART, Gerhardus
! Hubert Gockel (1960). 3.hm Algemeen
Handelsblad /917
GOCKEL, Hubert ;
MALEIKA, Gerhard
Die Schwalbe 2002

667: a) 1. ~ b3 ~b4 2. <it1xf3 4:)5c3# • b) 1. ~ d6

#2 4:)b4 2. <it1xg3 f4# • Goethart in a helpmate.

GOE-GOL Encyclopedia of Chess Problems

667 669: l Ae-? (2. ~h7#) ~xc6! • 1. .1lf6? {)e3! • 1.

ltgS? {)f4! • 1. AcS! - 2. ~h7#, l... ~xc6 2.
HAYMANN, Jean d5#, (l... {)e3 2. {)f6#, l... {)f4 2. {)g5#).
2.pr feenschach I 990
"' See also: Gamage. Bicolor.

A check, which is in the initial position provided
for by a capture of the checking piece, splits up in
the solution in two checking moves which are
countered by the interposition.
* Otherexample 1407. In his judge's report of the 30th theme tourney of
"'See also: Gamage Theme. " Die Schwalbe" the promoter recognized three
thematic forms:
GOETHART, BICOLOR ( 1) The initial check by a single piece splits into
White on his first move cuts the line of a black two cross-checks. See 670.
pinned piece so that it can be indirectly unpinned (2) Checks are opened by the black King's
on mating move, either in threat or in varia- moves, which are in set play answered by the
tion( s). 688 shows Bicolor Goethart threats in same capture-move. 671 was the only such
three tries and after the key. example in the award.
Alternatively, the interference may anticipate (3) Checks are given by two different black
thematic pin which is to be established by a black pieces. The only such example in the theme
self-pinning defence. A try l .Af6? and a key of tourney had a terrible capture+check+Q-pro-
669 are such anticipatory interferences of the motion key. Instead, here is a beautiful and
about-to-be-selfpinned black Queen. thematically very close example 672.
! Ervin Goldschmiedt (1909-1944).
I.pr Probleemblad 1964 GOLDSCMIEDT, Ervin
Die Schwalbe 1937

668: 1. Ae3? - 2. {)h3#, l... ~xf5! • 1. ll_d4? - 2. #2
{)f3#, l... {)h4! • 1. .§ f4? -2. {)h3#, l... .§a3+! 670: * l... A-+ 2. ~xe 7# • 1. ~ bl! - 2. {)bS#, I...
• 1. .§d4! - 2. {)f3#, l... ll_xe2,.§a l ,,tih4 2. .11-+ 2. {)e2#, l... AfS+ 2. {)e4#, (l... .§xb2 2.
{)xe2,Axd5, .§ xh4#. .§xe6#, l... ~xd5 2. {)xdS#).

669 671
I.pr Schach 1996 cm Die Schwalbe 30. 7T

#2 #2

Encyclopedia of Chess Problems GOO·GRA

671: *I... _g/~xc4+ 2. ,tixc4# • 1. ,tig6! - 2. The club suffered economically from the WW I.
f!f3#, I... ~ xc4+ 2. Ad5#, I... Axc4+ 2. d5#, Furthermore, one of the reasons for the fading
(1... ~xb6 2. Ac6#, 1... Axe4 2. ~xe4#). activity was the rise of national chess magazines
and columns. The club was disbanded in 1924.
672 "' Alias: Good Companion.
MICHEL, Fran~ois
3.pr Themes-64 1956
Achieving the block (zugzwang) position with
captures of a black piece (or more black pieces)
which has the opportunity to move freely on the
board. Often seen in selfmates. With his distinc-
tive humour Alain C. White commented the term
as "An ugly name for an ugly thing!"
672: I... ~ e5+ 2. ,tiec4#, I... ~e7+ 2. ,tid5# • 1. ~ ~ ~ 673

~xf3? - 2. ~e4#, I ... ~e5+ 2. ,tixfl#, I ... ~e7+
2. ~xfl#, I ... dxc6! • 1. f! c4! - 2. f! e4#, I ... 'ifte5 Nationaltidende 9.4. I 883
2. ,£ig4#, I ... ~e7 2. ,tief5#.


Good Companion Chess Problem Club, founded
(in Philadelphia in 1913) and supported by James
fil ·iir~ ,~R~~~
t ~.St
Francis Magee Jr., may be the best known of all s#3
problem societies. The number of founding 673: 1. ~ f3! (-), 1... <£:id4 2. ~d5 ,ti- 3. ~x,ti, I ...
members was I 0, among them one of the sup- ,£ic5 2. ~c6 ,ti- 3. ~xc5, I... ,tic7 2. ~c6 ,ti- 3.
porters Alain C. White, but in the 1920s the num- ~x,ti, I... ,£id8 2. ~ d5 ,ti- 3. ~x,ti, I... ,tig7 2.
ber exceeded 600, there being members from all ~fl ,ti- 3. ~ x,ti, I... ,tig5 2. ~f5 ,ti- 3. ~ x,ti,
around the world. ( I... ,tif8 2. ~x,ti I... ,tif4 2. ~ x,ti).
The club organized solving competitions and, by
special arrangements, made efforts to enable as 674
many members as possible to participate. How-
ever, in time, the club gained fame especially for
Deutsche Schachbliitter
its composing tourneys, the original purpose of /962
which was to produce new material for solving
competitions. The club organized around 100
composing tourneys, mostly for two-movers.
The regular "Good Companion Chess Problem
Club, Our Folder" (10 issues annually) con-
tained original problems, and many twomovers #4
in the pub