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A fiber optic is a medium that transmits data, by pulses of light. It is characterized by

high bandwidth, small physical volume immunity from electromagnetic interference and
radiation. It is more expensive than other media, but capable of higher data transmission


In 1956, the term "fiber optics" was born when Narinder Kapany coined the term after
bundling a few glass rods. He then demonstrated that these rods could project light
without leaking at any point, as long as they were wrapped or coated in a dark material.

Fiber optics is used to create Internet data and images, images of internal organs, vocal
sounds in telephones, and more than 80% of cable and satellite television images. Due to
the clarity of the wiring in fiber optics, images and sounds can travel at extremely high
speeds without becoming distorted at any point.

Fiber Optics: Glass Anatomy

A fiber optic cable is basically made-up of three parts: the core, the cladding and the
buffer coating. The core is made up of extremely pure optical glass that could be bent.
The core serves as the passageway for signals that are in the form of light. The cladding
keeps the light inside the core. Following the principle of total internal reflection, the
cladding keeps light signals inside the core by bouncing it back and forth. The buffer
coating serves as the protection on the cable from external elements which may damage
the optical fiber. The buffer coating is usually made from plastic.

Optical fibers come in two major types that mainly vary in core size. A multi-mode fiber
has a bigger core diameter compared to a single-mode fiber. Optical fibers are bundled in
hundreds or in thousands to make up an optical cable. A jacket protects the fiber optic
cable from external elements.

Why Fiber Optics?

There are a lot of reasons why fiber optics is preferred by telecommunication companies.
The main reasons behind this choice are cost, efficiency and convenience.
Fiber optics glass cost less as compared to copper wires. Moreover, fiber optics is
efficient because of a number of reasons. Using light as the mode to carry information
brings about a lot of advantages. The most noticeable advantage is speed of data
transfer. This is not very surprising since light travels faster than any existing wave. Light
signals also degrade lesser than signals passing through copper conductors. Plus, light
signals require lesser power to be transmitted.
The material used in fiber optics makes it very convenient to use. Optical fibers are
thinner, more light weight and more flexible than copper wires. This makes it easier to
carry, bundle and set up. Aside from this, optical fibers do not heat up and are non-

Limitations of Fiber Optics

The main disadvantages of fiber optics are:

• it is relatively expensive to install

• it is more fragile than wire

• It is difficult to split.

Despite these limitations, almost all communication in the future will employ fiber

Fiber Optics Technology

Fiber optics works in the same way as any conventional information transfer
system. You will need something to transmit the signal, carry the signal and
something to receive as well as decode the signal.

A fiber optic relay system is composed of four main components; the transmitter, the
optical fiber, an optical generator, and an optical receiver. The transmitter gathers and
encodes the information and produces the primary signal through the optical fiber. The
optical generator acts like a step-up transformer in electrical systems. It magnifies the
signal to make up with signal degradation. And lastly, the receiver decodes and receives
the information and converts it to a form that could be recognized by the receiver.

Fiber Optic

Presented to:
Sir Jhanzaib

Presented by:
Zainab aman
Roll no 19