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Power Generation with Solar Dish Stirling Engine

Prospect of Bangladesh

ABDUL FATTAH M Ashraful Haq


071 421 045 072 150 045
EECS Department EECS Department
North South University, Dhaka North South University,Dhaka

Abstract—This electronic document is a “live” template. II. THE DISH STIRLING ENGINE PLANT
The various components of your paper [title, text, heads, The thermo-mechanical part of the Dish Stirling Engine
etc.] are already defined on the style sheet, as illustrated is an external combustion thermo dynamical machine,
by the portions given in this document. (Abstract) whose thermal source is represented by insulation.
The sun radiation is concentrated on the receiver
I. INTRODUCTION by a concentrator, with a parabolic mirror (Dish) that
One of the major problems in bangladesh is power crisis rotates according to the sun position (Figure 1).
problem. To get rid of this problem we have to adopt a
new prower source. Renewable energy is the most
capable power source available to us right now. And for
that reason stirling is one of the most best solution to
meet up our power crisis.
The Stirling cycle engine has numerous natural benefits
over other heat engines. A prime benefit of the engine
stems from the ability to operate from any heat source
including continuous combustion of sustainable fuels,
solar energy, factory waste heat, geothermal energy, or
numerous other sustainable energy sources.Stirling The engine (see (Walker, 1980)) is based on the Stir-
engines consists of a solar dish panel which is used as ling thermodynamical cycle (consisting of two
the heat source of the stirling engine and uses flammable isovolumic and two isothermal transformations) where
liquid as the moderator. Here it recycles the flammable the working gas is helium. The engine is a two-cylinder
liquid by transferring it from the heat zone to the cool engine (in "V con_guration", see Figure 2). The helium
zone and again from the cool zone to the heat zone. By
going from back and forth it will transfer the mechanical
power into electrical power by the help of generator. Due
to the external combustion, a Stirling engine produces
little noise, allowing its use in locations that are not
preferable for internal combustion engines, such as in
homes or buildings for electric power generation or other
noise sensitive areas such as submarines. The Stirling
cycle also has the theoretical efficiency of the Carnot
cycle, creating tremendous development potential.

gas is delivered by two valves from the so-called


helium bottle to the compression cylinder where the
temperature is about 20_C (low temperature).
The _rst (isovolumic) phase of the thermodynami-
cal cycle takes place when the gas, in the compression
cylinder (cold cylinder) is pushed by the corresponding
piston to the chamber of the second expansion
cylinder (hot cylinder), passing through a device
called regenerator (which gains heat while gas passes
from the heat source to the cold cylinder, and .looses.
heat while gas passes from the cold cylinder to the heat
source) and then the receiver (heat source). Along this
path, the temperature of the gas increases from about
20_C (in the cold cylinder) to about 600_C-800_C (in
the hot cylinder). The second (isothermal) phase is the Parabolic solar concentrator:
expansion of the hot gas in the expansion cylinder.
Such expansion is due to the heat accumulated in the The parabolic concentrator reflects the incoming solar
receiver and produces mechanical work. Then the hot radiation onto a cavity receiver which is located at the
gas goes back on the same path .loosing. heat, so concentrator’s focal point. The solar radiation is
performing absorbed by the heat exchanger (receiver) and thus heats
another isovolumic transformation. The last the working gas (helium) of the Stirling engine to
phase is the isothermal compression taking place in temperatures of about 650C. This heat is converted into
the cold cylinder. The cold cylinder's walls are kept at mechanical energy by the Stirling engine.
a low temperature thanks to a suitable cooling system.
The produced mechanical energy is transformed into
electrical power by an induction motor, by which the
plant supplies energy to the power network. The whole
engine is equipped with a control system the main
scope of which is to keep the receiver's temperature
constant, at a given set point value.

III. DISH STIRLING ENGINE SYSTEM


Dish-Stirling Systems transfer concentrated solar
radiation with high efficiencies into electrical energy.
Essentially the system consists of the following
components:
• Parabolic solar concentrator Generally speaking the concentrator delivers the fuel for
• Tracking system the Stirling engine. It reflects and concentrates the direct
• Stirling engine with generator solar radiation in the so-called focal point. For the
operation of the Stirling engine, temperatures as high as
possible are desired.
Stirling engine with generator:
In the simplest version, a Stirling engine consists of a
sealed system with two cylinders (expansion and
compression cylinder) filled with a working gas
(helium). The pistons of these cylinders are connected to
one crankshaft. If now the working gas in the expansion
cylinder (working cylinder) is heated (by the sun) it will
expand due to the increasing temperature; pushes the
piston down (1-2) and thus induces power.

Therefore a large point-focus concentrator with an axial


symmetrical shape is used for this system. The
concentrator consists out of 12 single segments made out
of glass fibre resin. When mounted the segments form a
nearly perfect parabolic shell.
The rim of the shell is stiffened by a ring truss to which
later on the bearings and the Stirling support structure
are attached. Thin glass mirrors, 0.8 mm thick, are glued
onto the front side of the segments in order to obtain a
durable high reflectivity of around 94%.
Part of this power is now used to push the hot working
gas from the expansion cylinder into the compression
cylinder (2-3): On its way the working gas passes
through a regenerator where a major part of its heat is
Tracking system
stored and also through a water cooled gas cooler, where
it will be cooled further down. (2-3).Once completely in
Since the concentrator always needs to be perfectly
the compression cylinder, this piston will return due to
oriented towards the sun, it is mounted on a two-axial
the inertia of the crankshaft, and the working gas is
tracking system. Therefore a simple movable steel
compressed at low temperature (3-4). By reabsorbing the
construction standing on six wheels has been developed.
heat stored in the regenerator the gas is pushed back into
Both the horizontal and the vertical orientation of the
the working cylinder. (4-1). Overall the expansion of the
concentrator are done by a small servomotor. The
hot gas in the working cylinder delivers more energy
orientation towards the sun is either determined by a sun
than is needed for the compression of the cold gas in the
tracking sensor, or by a special computer program which
compression cylinder. This surplus of energy can be
predicts the position of the sun.
used to operate an electric generator which is directly
hooked to the crankshaft of the engine.

COOLING SYSTEM

The Cryocooler consists of two dual opposed linear


compressors mounted on a central block, which is
designed to retain a high proportion of the compression
heat. Surplus heat is removed via an external mounting
fixture. The Cold Head is manufactured separately and
can be mounted directly onto the central block of the
Compressor in any orientation or separately with an
intermediate transfer tube. The unit has a design life of 5
years continuous operation. This is based on the life
testing of early experimental prototypes that have now
exceeded 55,000 hours and many other examples in
service. The Cryocooler requires an AC input to drive
the linear motors of the Compressor. This is supplied by
a Power Supply and Control Module that converts a DC
supply into an AC output of the required amplitude to
maintain reliable operation during cool down and steady
rate running. This module is designed to achieve high
Solar Receiver for the SBP/SOLO V-160/161 Stirling engine
levels of cold end temperature stability and ensures
absolute temperature control over the life of the product. As solar-only receiver, a tube receiver was developed
The control function is provided by a microprocessor which is directly connected to the cylinder heads of the
that also allows control of the temperature set point. Stirling engine. The receiver consists of very thin tubes,
approx. 3mm in diameter, which resists very high
temperatures. They form an almost closed area which is
REGENERATOR the absorber surface. The concentrated solar radiation
A regenerator helps to capture and use some of the waste heats the working gas to approx. 650C. In addition to the
heat from a previous cycle to heat the current cycle, in solar absorbing surface, the hybrid receiver is equipped
order to have the highest efficiency. The idealized cycle with a gas burner. Thus the Stirling engine can be
consists of four stages: isothermal expansion and heat operated during times when the sun is covered with
addition, constant volume heat rejection into the clouds or even in darkness.
regenerator, isothermal compression and heat rejection,
and constant volume heat recovery from the regenerator.

Link between Collector and Engine


The receiver is the link between the concentrator and the
Stirling engine. It has essentially two tasks:

1. To absorb as much of the solar radiation reflected onto


it from the concentrator as possible.
2. To pass on this absorbed energy to the Stirling engine
in form of heat with the least possible losses.

In general there are two types of receivers. One type is a


solar-only receiver which can only be operated during The hybrid Dish-Stirling system thus has the advantage
sunshine. The other type is a hybrid receiver which is of being available 24 hours a day. Therefore this system
additionally equipped with a gas burner and can be can be the ideal substitute for Diesel engines which are
operated the whole day. currently used to high numbers.
V. COST OF SOLAR DISH STIRLING ENGINE
IV. WHY STIRLING ENGINE
Cost of power generation with solar dish stirling engine is very
reasonable. The key capital expense is the power plant
The Stirling cycle is the most efficient thermodynamic installation charge. Among them stirling engine cost bears the
cycle to transform heat into mechanical or electrical major expenditure of the entire cost. And the other expenses
depend on solar dish, tracking system, cooling system and the
energy. As far back as in 1826 the Stirling engine was
required space.
invented by the Scottish Rev. Robert Stirling. In the 19th Operating and maintenance expense of solar stirling engine is
century thousands of engines of this type had already very insignificant in comparison with the other existing power
been in use. The Stirling engine has some extraordinary generation plant. As stirling engine is an evacuated system it
does not require any maintenance cost, the only system that
properties: requires to be maintained is the cooling system in every five
years. Apart from that the solar dish panel and the tracking
system requires some accidental maintenance expense which
• Compared to an Otto or Diesel engine, which is also very low.
runs on internal combustion, the Stirling engine
depends only on external heat supply, with no
preference on how the heat is generated. Thus
the Stirling engine is the ideal candidate to
convert solar heat into mechanical energy
• In the Stirling engine a constant amount of
working gas (helium or hydrogen) is constantly
heated and cooled. Due to expansion when
heated and contraction when cooled, the
working gas sets two pistons in motion, which
both are connected to a crankshaft, and thus
delivers energy.
• Since the efficiency of the Stirling engine
increases with increasing upper process
temperature, this engine is the ideal combination
to produce energy with a solar collector.
• As there is no internal combustion, this engine Cost for 25 kw power plant(APPROXIMATION):
produces almost no noise.
Cost of solar dish stirling engine-3,00,000 TK
• The potential life-cycle of a Stirling engine is
extraordinarily high since there is no internal Cost of cooling system – 80,000 TK
pollution of pistons and bearings due to
Cost of tracking system- 1,00,000 TK
combustion of fuels.
• Due to the flexibility of the heat source, a
Stirling engine can also be operated with a Total installation charge-2,50,000TK/20 year
hybrid receiver. This means that with an
Operating cost-50000-60000tk/year
additionally installed burner, the required heat
can also be generated with fossil fuels (Bio-gas Cost of per kwh-
etc.).Thus the system is also available during
cloudy periods and during night-time.
Diameter 8.5 m
Projected area 56.7 m²
Focal Length 4.5 m
Average concentration factor 2500
Reflectivity 94 %
Technology COST/KWH

GAS 4 BDT Tracking and Control Partners

Suspension azimuth
PETROL 8 BDT Stow position face down
Max. Allowable wind velocity during operation 65 km/h
Survival wind velocity in stow position 1 60 km/h
SOLAR 20 BDT Drive velocity 60 °/min.
Control system PC, micro controller
Data transfer InterBus-S
SOLAR DISH STIRLING 3.25 BDT
Remote control telephone / WWW
ENGINE

VI. PROSPECT OF BANGLADESH Stirling engine

Type single acting, 90° V-engine


In the country, presently state owned power plants Swept volume 160 cm³
generate only 3500MW of electricity per day, where as Gross power output 9 kW
demand is 6000MW. Whereas demand is increasing by Net power output 8.4 kW
500MW a year due to increase in industrialization. Grid connection 400 V, 50 Hz, 3 phase
Receiver gas temperature 650 °C
The Bangladesh government has estimated about 4.8 Working gas helium
million metric tonnes of petroleum oil to be a Gas pressure 20-150 barPower
requirement for the current calendar year (2011), up by control pressure control
1.05 million tonnes from the previous year’s demand.
Bangladesh Petroleum Corporation (BPC) will cost
about US$ 5 billion (approximatelY Tk 35,000 crore) for
the huge petroleum import. REFERENCES
Bangladesh is not only suffering from power generation
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about 85% of power generation. Even over the last 2.25 [2] J. Clerk Maxwell, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, 3rd ed., vol.
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Concentrator [7] M. Young, The Technical Writer's Handbook. Mill Valley, CA:
University Science, 1989.