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# 1 LOGIC

SOLUTIONS.
GROUP – A: CLASSWORK PROBLEMS
Q-1) Examine which of the following Ans. p : Hari is intelligent
sentences are statements in logic. q : He is hardworking
Also write whether the statements Symbolic form : p ∧ ∼ q
are atomic or compound.
i) 12 is a prime number. iii) Reema is fat or unhappy.
Ans. Prime statement. (Atomic) Ans. p : Reema is fat
q : Reema is happy
ii) Mary and her lamb went up the hill. Symbolic form : p ∨ ~ q
Ans. Composite statement (compound)
iv) The sun has not set and the Moon
iii) Ramu and Shamu are two brothers. has not risen.
Ans. Prime statement. (Atomic) Ans. p : The sun has set
q : The moon has risen
iv) Get out !
Symbolic form : ( ∼ p ) ∧ ( ∼ q )
Ans. Not a statement. (Exclamatory)

v) If you don’t study, you can’t pass v) The sky is not red or the rose is not
the examination. blue.
Ans. Composite statements (compound) Ans. p : The sky is red
q : The rose is blue
vi) Sugar is bitter or salt is sweet. symbolic form : ( ∼ p ) ∨ ( ∼ q )
Ans. Composite statements (compound)
vi) Even though it is not raining but
vii) This statement is false. the sky is cloudy.
Ans. Not a statement. ( Paradox) Ans. p : Even though it is raining
q : The sky is cloudy
viii) I like to read. symbolic form : ( ∼ p ) ∧ q
Ans. Prime statement. (Atomic)
vii) It may or may not rain but the sky
ix) Will you help me?
is cloudy.
Ans. Not a statement. (Interrogative)
Ans. p : It may rain
q : The sky is cloudy
x) Logic and mathematics are
interesting. Symbolic form : ( p ∨ ∼ p ) ∧ q
Ans. Composite statement. (compound)
viii) Irrespective of one being lucky or
Q-2) Assuming the first part of the not, one should not, one should not
sentence as p and the second as q, stop working.
write the following statements Ans. p : Irrespective of one being is lucky
symbolically. q : One should stop working
i) Prasad is intelligent or he is hard Symbolic form : ( p ∨ ~p ) ∧ ~ q
working.
Ans. p : Prasad is intelligent ix) It is not true that the whole world
q : He is hard working is mean and nasty.
Symbolic form : p ∨ q Ans. p : The whole world is mean
q : The whole world is nasty.
ii) Hari is intelligent but he is not Symbolic form : ∼ ( p ∧ q )
hardworking.

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## x) It is not true that Mathematics is iv) If A, B, C are three distinct points,

not interesting or difficult. then either they are collinear or
Ans. p : Mathematics is interesting they form a triangle.
q : Mathematics is difficult Ans. p : A, B, C are three distinct points
Symbolic form : ∼ ( ∼ p ∨ q ) q : They are collinear
r : They from a triangle
xi) It is not true that intelligent Symbolic form : p → ( q ∨ r )
persons are neither polite nor
helpful. v) If A, B, C are three distinct points,
Ans. p : Intelligent person are polite which are not collinear, then they
q : Intelligent person are helpful. form a triangle.
Symbolic form : ∼ ( ∼ p ∧ ∼ q ) Ans. p : A, B, C are three distinct points.
q : They are collinear
xii) Since it is raining the atmosphere r : They form a triangle
is very cold. Symbolic form : ( p ∧ ∼ q ) → r
Ans. p : It is raining
q : The atmosphere is very cold vi) The cross product of two vectors is
Symbolic form : p → q zero if and only if they are parallel
or at least one of them is a zero
Q-3) Assuming the first part of the vector.
sentence as p, second as q and the Ans. p : The cross product of two vectors
third as r, write the following is zero.
statements symbolically. q : They are parallel
i) Candidates are present, voters are r: Atleast one of them is a zero vector.
ready to vote but no ballot papers. Symbolic form : p ↔ ( q ∨ r )
Ans. p : Candidates are present
q : Voters are ready to vote Q-4) Translate each of the following
r : There are ballot papers. symbolic expressions to English.
Symbolic form : p ∧ q ∧ ( ∼ r ) i) p : ∆ABC is an equilateral triangle
q : ∆ABC is equiangular.
ii) A monotonic increasing sequence a) ∼ p →∼ q b) p ↔ q c) q → p
which is bounded above is Ans. a) ∼ p →∼ q
convergent. If ∆ABC is not an equilateral triangle
If the sequence is monotonic then ∆ABC is not an equiangular.
increasing and is bounded above then b) p ↔ q
it is convergent.
∆ABC is an equilateral triangle if and
Ans. p : A sequence is monotonic
only if ∆ABC is an equiangular
increasing.
c) q → p
q : The sequence is bounded above.
r : It is convergent. If ∆ABC is an equiangular than
Symbolic form : ( p ∧ q ) → r ∆ABC is an equilateral triangle.

## ii) p : Sita gets a promotion.

iii) Seeta is delicate or she is very
q : Sita is transferred to Pune.
traditional is her views hence, she
a) p ∨ q b) p ∧ q c) ∼ p ↔ q
cannot ride a huge motor cycle,
like Bullet. Ans. a) p ∨ q
Ans. p : Seeta is delicate Sita gets promotion or she is
q : She is very traditional in her transferred to Pune.
views. b) p ∧ q
r : She can ride a huge motor cycle Sita gets promotion and she is
like bullet. transferred to Pune.
Symbolic form : ( p ∨ q ) →∼ r c) ∼ p ↔ q
Sita does not get promotion if and
only if she is transferred to Pune.

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## iii) p : He is fat Q-6) Consider the following statements

q : He is hard working. p : A student is hardworking.
a) p → q b) ( ∼ p ) ∨ ( ∼ q ) q : He will pass in the examination.
i) If a student is hardworking then he
c) ( ∼ p ) ↔ ( ∼ q )
will pass in the examination.
Ans. a) p → q Ans. Symbolic form : p → q
If he is fat then he is hardworking.
b) ( ∼ p ) ∨ ( ∼ q ) ii) If a student is not hardworking
He is not fat or he is not hardworking then he will not pass in the
c) ( ∼ p ) ↔ ( ∼ q ) examination.
Ans. Symbolic form : ∼ p →∼ q
He is not fat if and only if he is not
hardworking.
iii) If a student passes in the
Q-5) Write down the converse, examination then he is
contrapositive and inverse of each hardworking
of the following statements : Ans. Symbolic form : q → p
i) If mary goes to school, then the
Lamb goes to school. iv) If a students does not pass in the
Ans. p : Mary goes to school. examination then he is not
q : Lamb goes to school. hardworking.
Symbolic form : p → q Ans. Symbolic form : ∼ q →∼ p
Converse : q → p We have
p → q ≡ ∼ q →∼ p
Statement : If Lamb goes to school
then Mary goes to school. ⇒ Statement (i) and (iv) are
Inverse : ∼ p →∼ q equivalent
q → p ≡ ∼ p →∼ q
Statement : If Mary does not go to
⇒ Statement (ii) and (iii) are
school then Lamb does not go to
equivalent.
school.
Contrapositive : ∼ q →∼ p
Statement : If Lamb does not go to
school then Mary does not go to
school.

## ii) If x < y, then x 2 < y 2 .

Ans. p : x < y; q : x 2 < y 2
Symbolic form : p → q
Converse : If x 2 < y 2 then x < y
Inverse : If x ≥ y then x 2 ≥ y 2
Contrapositive : If x 2 ≥ y 2 then x ≥ y

## iii) If x is zero, then we cannot divide

by x.
Ans. p : x is zero
q : we can divide by x.
Symbolic form : p →∼ q
Converse : If we can not divide by x
then x is zero.
Inverse : If x is not zero then we can
divide by x.
Contrapositive : If we can divide by x
then x is not zero.
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## GROUP – B: CLASSWORK PROBLEMS

Q-1) Construct truth tables for each of the following statements.
i) (p ∧ q) ∧ ~ p
Sol:
1 2 3 4 5
P q ~p (p ∧ q) (p ∧ q) ∧ ~ q
T T F T T
T F T F T
F T F F F
F F T F T

ii) (p ∧ q) ∨ ~ q
Sol:
1 2 3 4 5
p q ~p p∧q (p ∧ q) ∨ ~ p
T T F T T
T F T F T
F T F F F
F F T F T

iii) ~ (~ p ∨ ~ q)
Sol:
1 2 3 4 5 6
p q ~p ~q ~p∧~q ~ (~ p ∨ ~ q)
.T T F F F T
T F F T T F
F T T F T F
F F T T T F

iv) (p ∧ q) → (q∨ ~ p)
Sol:
1 2 3 4 5 6
p q ~p p∧q q∨~p (p ∧ q) → (q ∨ ~ p)
T T F T T T
T F F F F T
F T T F T T
F F T F T T

v) (p → q) ↔ (~ p ∨ q)
Sol:
1 2 3 4 5 6
p q ~p p→q ~p∨q (p → q) ↔ (~p ∨ q)
T T F T T T
T F F F F T
F T T T T T
F F T T T T

## vi) ~ (p ↔ q) ↔ [(p ∧ (~ q)) ∨ (q ∧ (~ p))]

Sol:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
p q ~p (p ↔ q) ~(p ↔ q) ~q p∧~q q ∧ ~p (p ∧ ~ q) ~ (p ↔ q) ↔ [(p ∧
∨ (q ∧ ~p) (~q) ∨ (q∧(~p)]
T T F F F F F F F T
T F F T T T T F T T
F T T F T F F T T T
F F T T F T F F F T
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## vii) [~ p ∧ (~ q ∧ r)] ∨ [(q ∧ r ) ∨ (p ∧ r)]

Sol:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
p q r ~p ~q ~q ∧ r ~p∧ q∧r p∧r (q ∧ r) ∨ [~p ∧ (~q ∧ r) ∨ [(q ∧ r)
(~ q ∧ r) (p ∧ r) ∨ (p ∧ r)
T T T T F F F T T T T
T T F T F F F F F F F
T F T T T T F F T T T
T F F T T F F F F F F
F T T F F F F T F T T
F T F F F F F F F F F
F F T F T T T F F F T
F F F T T F F F F F F

## Q-2) Find whether following statements are tautologies, contradictions or neither.

i) (p ∧ q) ∧ (~ p ∨ ~ q)
Sol:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
p q ~p ~q p∧q ~p ∨~q (p ∧ q) ∧ (~ p ∨ ~ q)
T T F F T F F
T F F T F T F
F T T F F T F
F F T T F T F
∴(p ∧ q) ∧ (~ p ∨ ~q) is a contradiction.

ii) (p → q) ↔ (~ p → ~ q)
Sol:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
p q ~p ~q p→q ~p→~q (p → q) ↔ (~ p → ~ q)
T T F F T T T
T F F T F T F
F T T F T F F
F F T T T T T
(p → q) ↔ (~ p → ~ q) is a contingency.

iii) (p → q) → [(~ p → q) → q]
Sol:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
p q ~p p→q ~p→q (~ p → q) → q (p → q) → [(~p → q) → q]
T T F T T T T
T F F F T F T
F T T T T T T
F F T T F T T
∴ (p → q) → [(~ p → q) → q] is a tautology.

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## iv) [(p → q) ∧ (q → r)] → (p → r)

Sol:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
P q r p→q q→r (p → q) ∧ (q → r) (p → r) [(p → q) ∧ (q → r)] → (p → r)
T T T T T T T T
T T F T F F F T
T F T F T F T T
T F F F T F F T
F T T T T T T T
F T F T F F T T
F F T T T T T T
F F F T T T T T
[(p → q) ∧ (q → r)] → (p → r) is a Tautology.

## v) [(p → (q → r)] ↔ [(p ∧ q) → r]

Sol:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
p q r q→r p → (q → r) p∧q p∧q→r [p → (q → r)] ↔ (p ∧ q) → r
T T T T T T T T
T T F F F T F T
T F T T T F T T
T F F T T F T T
F T T T T F T T
F T F F T F T T
F F T T T F T T
F F F T T F T T
∴ [p → (q → r)] ↔ [(p ∧ q) ↔ r] is a tautology.

## Q-3) Prove that the following pairs of statements are equivalent :

i) p → (q → p), ~ p → (p → q)
Sol:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
p q ~ p q → p p → (q → p) p→q ~ p → (p → q)
T T F T T T T
T F F T T F T
F T T F T T T
F F T T T T T
From column 5 and 7
p → (q → p) ≡ ~ p → (p → q)
ii) ~ (p ↔ q), (p ∧ ~ q) ∨ (~ p ∧ q)
Sol:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
p q ~p ~q p ↔ q ~ (p ↔ q) p∧~q ~p∧q (p ∧ ~ q) ∨ (~ p ∧ q)
T T F F T F F F F
T F F T F T T F T
F T T F F T F T T
F F T T T F F F F
∴ From column 6 and 9
~ (p ↔ q) ≡ (p ∧ ~ q) ∨ (~ p ∧ q)

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iii) ( p ∧ ∼ q ) ∨ ( ∼ p ∧ q )( p ∨ q ) ∧ ∼ ( p ∧ q )
Sol:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
p q ~p ~q p ∧ ~q ~p ∧ q (p ∧ ~ q) ∨ p∨q p∧q ~(p ∧ q) (p∨
∨ q) ∧
(~ p ∧ q) (p∧
∧ q)
T T F F F F F T T F F
T F F T T F T T F T T
F T T F F T T T F T T
F F T T F F F F F T F
From column 7 and 11
(p ∧ ~q) ∨ (~ p ∧ q) ≡ (p ∨ q) ∧ ~ (p ∧ q)

iv) ∼ r →∼ (p ∧ q ) ,∼ ( q → r ) →∼ p
Sol:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
p q r ~p ~r p∧q ~(p ∧q) ~r → ~ (q → r) ~(q → r) ~(q→ r)→~p
(p ∧ q)
T T T F F T F T T F T
T T F F T T F F F T F
T F T F F F T T T F T
T F F F T F T T T F T
F T T T F F T T T F T
F T F T T F T T F T T
F F T T F F T T T F T
F F F T T F T T T F T

## Q-4) State the dual of the following statement :

p ∨ (q ∧ r) ≡ (p ∨ q) ∨ r and prove that both sides of the dual are equivalent
Sol: ~ [ p ∨ (q ∨ r )] ( p ∨ q ) ∨ r 
Dual → Dual →
p ∧ (q ∧ r) (p ∧ q) ∧ r
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
p q r q∧r p ∧ (q ∧ r) p q r p∧q p ∧ (q ∧ r)
T T T T T T T T T T
F F F F F F F F F F
T F T F F T F T F F
F T F F F F T F F F
F F T F F F F T F F
F T T T F F T T F F
T T F F F T T F T F
T F F F F T F F F F
Column → I Column → II
From column I and II it is proved that both sides of dual are equivalent

Q-5) If the statement p, q are true and r, s are false, then find the truth value of the
statement pattern :
~ [(~p ∧ r) ∨ (s → ∼ q) ] ↔ (p ∧ r)
Sol: ~[(~ T ∧ F ) ∨ (F →~ T) ↔ (T ∧ F)
~[(F ∧ F) ∨ (F → F)] ↔ (T ∧ F)
~[F ∨ T] ↔ F
F↔F
T
∴Truth value of statement is True.
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## GROUP – C: CLASSWORK PROBLEMS

Q-1) Write down the negations by using Sol: p : Laloo is from India
the rules for negation : q : Bill is from U.S.A
i) (p ∨ ~ q) ∧ r Symbolic from : p ∧ q
Sol: ~ [(p ∨ ~q ) ∧ r] Negation : ~ (p ∧ q) ≡ ~ p ∨ ~q
≡ ~ (p ∨ ~ q) ∨ ~ r Statement : Laloo is not from India
– Negation of conjunction or Bill is not from U.S.A.
≡ [~ p ∧ ~ (~q)] ∨ ~ r ii) 2 + 4 > 7 or p is rational.
– Negation of disjunction Sol: p:2+4>7
≡ (~ p ∧ q) ∨ ~ r q : p is rational
– Negation of Negation Symbolic from : p ∨ q
Negation : ~ (p ∨ q) ≡ ~ p ∧ ~ q
ii) (p ∨ q) ∧ (q ∨ ~ r) Statement : 2 + 4 > 7 and p is not
Sol: ~ [(p ∨ q) ∧ (q ∨ ~ r)] rational.
≡ ~ (p ∨ q) ∨ ~ (q ∨ ~ r)
– Negation of conjunction iii) The teacher is good but the
≡ (~ p ∧ ~ q) ∨ (~ q ∧ ~ (~ r) student did not pass.
– Negation of disjunction Sol: p : The teacher is good
≡ (~ p ∧ ~ q) ∨ (~ q ∧ r) q : The student pass
– Negation of negation Symbolic from : p ∧ ~ q
Negation : ~ (p ∧ ~ q) ≡ ~ p ∨ q
iii) (~ p ∧ ~ q) ∨ (p ∧ ~ q) Statement : The teacher is not good
Sol: ~ [(~ p ∧ ~ q) ∨ (p ∧ ~ q)] or the student did pass.
≡ ~ (~ p ∧ ~ q) ∧ ~ (p ∧ ~ q)
– Negation of disjunction iv) Sachin Tendulkar’s match means
≡ ~ [~ (p ∨ q)] ∧ (~ p ∨ ~(~q)) a century.
– Negation of disjunction Sol: p : It is Sachin Tendulkar’s match
/conjunction q : He scores a century
≡ (p ∨ q) ∧ (~ p ∨ q) Symbolic from : p → q
– Negation of negation Negation : ~ (p → q) ≡ p ∧ ~ q
Statement : It is Sachin Tendulkar’s
iv) p↔q match but no century.
Sol: (p ∧ ~ q) ∨ (q ∧ ~ p) … negation of
equivalence v) It is a Mani Ratnam’s film with
A.R. Rehman’s music, therefore
v) (p ∨ ~ q) → ∼ r we are sure to get a hit.
Sol: Sol: p : It is a Mani Ratnam’s film
~[p ∨~ q →~ r]
q : A.R. Rahman’s music
(p ∨ ∼ q) ∧ ~(~ r)
r : We are sure to get a hit
…[~(p→q) = p ∧ ~ q]
… negation of implication Symbolic form : ( p ∧ q ) → r
(p ∨ ∼ q) ∧ r … negation of negation Negation : It is a Mani Ratnam’s
vi) (p ∧ q) → (~ p ∨ r) film with A.R. Rehman’s music but
Sol: ~ [(p ∧ q) → (~ p ∨ r)] we are not sure to get a hit
≡ (p ∧ q) ∧ ~ (~ p ∨ r) vi) If X missed the train, then either
– Negation of Implication he is lazy or the train went before
≡ (p ∧ q) ∧ ~ (~ p) ∧ ~ r) time.
– Negation of disjunction Sol: p : X missed the train
q : He is lazy
≡ p ∧ q) ∧ p ∧ ~ r
r : Train went before time
– Negation of Negation
Symbolic form : p → ( q ∨ r )
Q-2) Translate the following statements Negation : X missed the train and
in symbolic form and hence write neither he is lazy nor train went
negation of each of them. before time
i) Laloo is from India and Bill is from
U.S.A.
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vii) If a student has failed, then either Statement : The horse wins the
he is not sincere or the teacher is race but neither the horse nor the
bad. jockey was drunk.
Sol: p : Student has failed
q : He is sincere vi) The board will take re-exam if and
r : Teacher is bad only if the paper is leaked.
Symbolic form : p → ( ∼ q ∨ r ) Sol: p : The board will take re-exam
Negation : Student has failed but he q : The paper is leaked.
sincere and teacher is not bad Symbolic from : p ↔ q
Negation : ~[p ↔ q] ≡(p∧~q)∨ (q ∧ ~p)
Q-3) Write negations of the following Statement: The board will take re-
statements : exam but the paper was not leaked
i) This policeman is honest and he is or the paper was leaked but the
not rich. board will not take re-exam.
Sol: p : The policeman is honest
q : He is rich
Symbolic from : p ∧ ~ q
Negation : ~ [p ∧ ~ q] ≡ ~ p ∨ q
Statement : The police man is not
honest or he is rich.

## ii) The student came in merit implies

his teacher was excellent.
Sol: p : The student came in merit
q : The teacher was excellent.

Symbolic from : p → q
Negation: ~ (p → q) ≡ p ∧ ~ q.
Statement: The student came in
merit but the teacher was not
excellent.

## iii) Madhuri is rich and famous.

Sol: p : Madhuri is rich
q : Madhuri is famous
Symbolic from : p ∧ q
Negation : ~ (p ∧ q) ≡ ~ p ∨ ~q
Statement : Madhuri is not rich or
not famous.

## iv) Italy is a girl or a boy.

Sol: p : Italy is a girl
q : Italy is a boy
Symbolic from : p ∨ q
Negation : ~ (p ∨ q) ≡ ~ p ∧ ~ q
Statement : Italy is neither girl nor
boy.
v) If a horse wins the race, then the
horse or the jockey was drunk.
Sol: p : A horse wins the race.
q : The horse was drunk.
r : The jockey was drunk.
Symbolic from : p → (q ∨ r)
Negation : ~[p→(q∨ r)]≡ p ∧ (~ q ∧ ~ r)
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