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DAVID N . FRENCH, INC.

, METALLURGISTS
O N E LANCASTER ROAD
FALL 1985 N O R T H B O R O U G H . M A S S A C H U S E T T S 01532 VOL. 11 NO 3
(617)393-3635

A VIEW FROM THE PENTHOUSE: USEFUL INFORMATION FOR THE WORLD OF BOILERS

and internal pressure P, psi, is:


D ~ S = -p EQ 1
2W
where DM is the mean diameter and equal to:
D ~ = D - W EQ 2
Substituting EQ 2 in EQ 1 and rearranging to
solve for W, gives:

EQ 3 is close to the ASME Boiler and


Pressure Vessel Code, Section I equation
PG 27.2 for calculating the minimum tube wall
thickness. A small "factor of ignoranceffis
added to EQ 3 to give the Code equation for
for welded construction:
'MIN

Figure 1 All of the symbols have the same meanings as


During normal boiler operations, a cer- previously noted except S is the Code allow-
tain amount of tube wastage or wall thinning able stress given in Table PG 23.1 of the
will occur. Such wastage may be caused by: B & PV Code, Section I. For waterwalls,
erosion by fly ash, coal particles or soot economizers, low temperature superheaters and
blowers, corrosion by fuel ash or oxidation. reheaters where metal temperature is below
In most cases the metal loss cannot be pre- the creep range, the Code allowable stress is
vented. Guidelines are needed for tube re- the tensile strength at the operating temp-
placement, criteria for the extent of wall erature divided by a safety factor of four (4).
thinning that can be accepted without fail- In using EQ PG 27.2 the design pressure, usual-
ures and forced outages. ly about 10% larger than the operating pressure,
As an example, Figure 1 displays a cross is used for P.
section of a waterwall tube with severe metal Let us calculate a MWT from EQ PG 27.2
loss. The boiler has an operating drum pres- and a wall thickness at which replacement should
sure of about 2600 psig and the waterwall be made. Boiler conditions are:
tubes are specified as 2 314" OD x 0.290" MWT, 1. Design pressure: 2900 psig
SA-210 A-1 material. This sample has an 2. Tube OD: 2 314"
actual wall thickness of 0.093", and contains 3. Metal temperature: 750°F (allowable
no failure! Tube wastage is caused by molten stress from Code Table PG 23.1 is
ash in a wet bottom coal fired boiler. This 13,000 psi for SA-210 A-1)
example has lost 213 of its specified minimum
wall thickness (MWT) without failure.
An understanding for developing guide-
lines for tube replacement begins with a = 0.290 inch
simple stress analysis. The circumferential Thus our example is 2 314" OD x 0.290" MWT,
or hoop stress, S, psi, in a tube of outside SA-210 A-1.
diameter, D, inch; wall thickness, W, inch; When tube metal wastage occurs from the
o u t s i d e o f t h e t u b e , b o t h t h e d i a m e t e r and i s 60,000 p s i . B o i l e r t u b e s show c o n s i d e r -
w a l l t h i c k n e s s change. There i s a r e d i s t r i - a b l e thinning before f a i l u r e s occur. I n t h e
b u t i o n o f hoop stress w i t h i n t h e w a l l . S i n c e e x a m p l e g i v e n i n F i g u r e 1, w a l l t h i c k n e s s was
t h e stress t h a t w i l l c a u s e f a i l u r e i s i n t h e r e d u c e d by 2 / 3 . I t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o u s e
t h i n n e s t s e c t i o n a t a n unknown d i a m e t e r , i t a s a f e t y f a c t o r of 23, r a t h e r t h a n 4 , t h e r e -
i s more c o n v e n i e n t t o u s e t h e i n s i d e r a d i u s , fore.
R I , a n d mean r a d i u s R
M*
EQ 1 a n d EQ 2
I n o u r example: ~
I

a r e a l t e r e d t o r e f l e c t t h i s c h a n g e from
diameters t o r a d i i :
P = 2600 p s i g
S = 60,000/2.5 = 24,000 p s i
and: RM = RI + W EQ S o l v i n g EQ 7
2
The i n s i d e r a d i u s R I i s g i v e n by:

The w a l l t h i c k n e s s when r e p l a c e m e n t i s n e c e s -
S i n c e f a i l u r e s are n o t intended t o occur, s a r y i s 43% o f t h e o r i g i n a l s p e c i f i e d minimum
R~
t h i c k n e s s . No f a i l u r e o c c u r r e d i n t h e s a m p l e
r e m a i n s e s s e n t i a l l y c o n s t a n t as t h e w a l l shown i n F i g u r e 1 a t 1 / 3 o f t h e o r i g i n a l w a l l .
t h i c k n e s s a n d o u t s i d e d i a m e t e r are r e d u c e d . Thus f o r b o i l e r t u b e s o p e r a t i n g below
EQ 4 a n d EQ 5 are combined: t h e c r e e p r a n g e i t is q u i t e s a f e t o a l l o w
t u b e w a s t a g e t o r e d u c e t h e w a l l t o a b o u t 40%
of t h e o r i g i n a l .
The n e x t time you h a v e a b o i l e r t u b e
f a i l u r e due t o e r o s i o n o r c o r r o s i o n induced
EQ 7 i s s o l v e d f o r t h e minimum w a l l t h i c k n e s s w a l l t h i n n i n g , c a l c u l a t e t h e stress a t
necessary f o r replacement. f a i l u r e f r o m EQ 4. I ' d b e i n t e r e s t e d i n
I n o r d e r t o c a l c u l a t e W i n EQ 7 , v a l u e s knowing t h e c o n d i t i o n s when t h e t u b e s r u p -
f o r t h e p r e s s u r e , P, a n d t h e s a f e stress, S , t u r e d . P l e a s e f i l l i n t h e c h a r t below and
m u s t be a s s i g n e d . The Code u s e s d e s i g n p r e s - send it t o me.
s u r e f o r a l l stress r e l a t e d c a l c u l a t i o n s .
ORIGINAL DIMENSIONS, OD & WALL:
However, b o i l e r s a c t u a l l y. o .p e r a t e a t a l o w e r
pressure. Therefore it is appropriate t o use MATERIAL :
o p e r a t i n g drum p r e s s u r e , a b o u t 10%l e s s t h a n
DRUM PRESSURE:
d e s i g n p r e s s u r e , f o r P. The Code a l l o w a b l e
stress below t h e c r e e p r a n g e i s t h e t e n s i l e AGE OR OPERATING HOURS AT FAILURE:
s t r e n g t h a t a g i v e n t e m p e r a t u r e , d i v i d e d by a
s a f e t y f a c t o r o f 4 . F o r waterwalls and econ- FINAL DIMENSIONS, OD & WALL:
o m i z e r s a t metal t e m p e r a t u r e s below a b o u t LOCATION :
7 5 0 ° F , t h e a c t u a l t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h a t 750°F
BOILER FUEL:
i s c l o s e t o t h e Code s p e c i f i e d minimum t e n -
s i l e s t r e n g t h a t room t e m p e r a t u r e . F o r CAUSE OF WALL THINNING:
SA-210 A-1, t h i s s p e c i f i e d minimum s t r e n g t h

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