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Chapitre I Etat de l’art sur les performances des puits

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PETROLEUM EXPERT PROSPER

I.5 Aperçu sur le logiciel PROSPER Le PROSPER (Production and System Performance) est un logiciel
d'analyse de Performance des Systèmes de production. PROSPER peut aider les ingénieurs de
production ou de réservoir pour prédire l'écoulement et la température dans les tubings et les
pipelines avec exactitude et vitesse. Les calculs de sensibilité que PROSPER nous offre permettent
aux designs existants d'être optimisés, et l'influence des futurs changements sur les paramètres du
système considéré.

En séparant la modélisation de chaque composant du système de production, PROSPER permet ainsi


à l'utilisateur de vérifier chaque modèle de sous-système par le biais de la fonction matching,
PROSPER assure que les calculs sont aussi exacts que possible. Une fois un modèle du système a été
réglé aux vraies données de champ, PROSPER est utilisé avec confiance pour modeler le puits dans
les différents scénarios, et faire les prédictions avancées de pression de réservoir basées sur les
données de la production de surface.

Le logiciel PROSPER est un outil informatique Il peut nous aider à :

Avec PROSPER nous pouvons:

les gradients de pression I.INTRODUCTION:

Les puits producteurs d’huile et les réservoirs pétroliers sont susceptibles de développer des
problèmes, de dépôts(organiques et minérales), corrosion de tubing , émulsions, cross flow, Erosion,
les hydrates, les éboulements, problèmes d’interfaces, problème mécanique de la roche( gonflement
d’argile)…….tous ces problèmes constituent un inconvénient majeur dans l’industrie pétrolière 1
Introductory Summary.............................................................................................................7 1.1
NODAL* Analysis.................................................................................................................9

2 Reservoir System...................................................................................................................10

2.1 Inflow Performance Relationship........................................................................................10

2.2 Single-Phase Flow .............................................................................................................11

2.3 Productivity Index....................................................................................................... ........12

2.4 Productivity Ratio ...............................................................................................................12

2.5 Sources of Information................................................................................................... ....16

2.6 Important Definitions ..........................................................................................................17


2.6.1 Permeability........................................................................................................... ...17

2.6.2 Reservoir Thickness .................................................................................................18

2.6.3 Average Reservoir Pressure.....................................................................................18

2.6.4 Skin...........................................................................................................................18

2.7 Boundary Effects......................................................................................................... .......24

2.8 Two-Phase Flow.................................................................................................................28

2.9 Phase Behavior of Hydrocarbon Fluids..............................................................................29

2.10 Vogel's IPR.......................................................................................................................29

2.11 Composite IPR........................................................................................................... ......30

2.12 Standing's Extension of Vogel's IPR................................................................................31

2.13 Fetkovich Method........................................................................................................ .....33

2.14 Multipoint or Backpressure Testing..................................................................................33

2.15 Isochronal Tests........................................................................................................ .......35

2.16 Horizontal Wells ...............................................................................................................38

2.17 Tight Formations ....................................................................................................... .......40

2.18 Type Curves.....................................................................................................................41

2.19 Homogeneous Reservoir Type Curve..............................................................................41

2.20 Transient IPR ...................................................................................................................43

2.20.1 Infinite Homogeneous Reservoir.............................................................................43

Section 200

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Well Performance

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DOWELL CONFIDENTIAL

2.20.2 Homogeneous Reservoir With Induced Vertical Fracture .......................................45


3 Completion System ................................................................................................................47

3.1 Pressure Loss in Perforations.............................................................................................49

3.1.1 McLeod Method.........................................................................................................49

3.1.2 Karakas and Tariq Method........................................................................................53

3.1.3 Crushed-Zone Effect .................................................................................................57

3.1.4 Anisotropy Effects .................................................................................................... .57

3.1.5 Damaged-Zone Effects .............................................................................................57

3.2 Pressure Loss in Gravel Packs...........................................................................................59

4 Flow Through Tubing and Flowlines ....................................................................................62

4.1 Single-Phase Gas Flow in Pipes ........................................................................................63

4.2 Estimation of Static Bottomhole Pressure...........................................................................65

4.3 Estimation of Flowing Bottomhole Pressure.......................................................................66

4.4 Multiphase Flow..................................................................................................................66

4.5 Liquid Holdup............................................................................................................ ..........67

4.6 No-Slip Liquid Holdup.........................................................................................................67

4.7 Superficial Velocity .............................................................................................................68

4.8 Mixture Velocity ..................................................................................................................68

4.9 Slip Velocity............................................................................................................ ............68

4.10 Liquid Density...................................................................................................................68

4.11 Two-Phase Density...........................................................................................................69

4.12 Viscosity............................................................................................................................69

4.13 Two-Phase Viscosity ........................................................................................................69

4.14 Surface Tension................................................................................................................70

4.15 Multiphase-Flow Pressure Gradient Equations.................................................................70

4.16 Two-Phase Friction...........................................................................................................71

4.17 Hydrostatic Component .................................................................................................. ..72

4.18 Friction Component ..........................................................................................................72


4.19 Acceleration Component ................................................................................................. .72

4.20 Flow Patterns............................................................................................................. .......73

Schlumberger Dowell

MATRIX ENGINEERING MANUAL

Well Performance

Section 200

July 1998

Page 3 of 168

DOWELL CONFIDENTIAL

4.21 Calculation of Pressure Traverses ...................................................................................77

4.22 Gradient Curves......................................................................................................... ......78

5 Well Performance Evaluation Of Stimulated Wells .............................................................88

5.1 Artificial Lift.......................................................................................................... ...............89

5.1.1 Pumping Wells..........................................................................................................89

5.1.2 Gas-Lift Wells............................................................................................................90

5.1.2.1 Effect of Stimulation of Gas Lift Wells............................................................91

5.3 Example Problem - and Post-Acid Evaluation..........................................................93

5.4 Example Problem — Producing Well ...............................................................................110

us................................................................111

-Density Sensitivity Analysis ...................................................114

6 Pressure Loss Equations....................................................................................................116

6.1 Oil IPR Equations.............................................................................................................116

6.1.1 Darcy's Law ............................................................................................................116 6.1.2 Vogel


Test Data () Pp rb ≤ .......................................................................................116 6.1.3 Combination
Vogel = Darcy Test Data() Pr > pb .....................................................117

6.1.4 Jones IPR ............................................................................................................. ..118

6.2 Gas IPR Equations...........................................................................................................119


6.2.1 Darcy's Law (Gas) ..................................................................................................119

6.2.2 Jones' Gas IPR (General Form)..............................................................................119

6.3 Backpressure Equation.................................................................................................... 120

6.4 Transient Period Equations..............................................................................................121

6.4.1 Time to Pseudosteady State...................................................................................121

6.4.2 Oil IPR (Transient)..................................................................................................121

6.4.3 Gas IPR (Transient)................................................................................................121

6.5 Completion Pressure Drop Equations..............................................................................122

6.5.1 Gravel-Packed Wells ..............................................................................................122

6.5.2 Open Perforation Pressure Drop ............................................................................123

Section 200

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MATRIX ENGINEERING MANUAL

Well Performance

Schlumberger Dowell

DOWELL CONFIDENTIAL

7 Fluid Physical Properties Correlations...............................................................................125

7.1 Oil Properties........................................................................................................... .........125

7.2 Gas Solubility....................................................................................................................126

7.3 Formation Volume Factor of Oil........................................................................................127

7.4 Oil Viscosity ......................................................................................................................130

7.5 Gas Physical Properties ...................................................................................................134

7.6 Real Gas Deviation Factor................................................................................................135

7.7 Gas Viscosity............................................................................................................ ........138

7.8 Rock and Fluid Compressibility.........................................................................................140

7.9 Oil Compressibility ( co )......................................................................................................140


7.10 Gas Compressibility........................................................................................................142

7.11 Rock Pore Volume Compressibility.................................................................................144

8 Vertical Pressure Flowing Gradient Curves.......................................................................148

9 Calculation Of Gas Velocity.................................................................................................164

10 Partial Penetration..............................................................................................................166

11 Prats' Correlation................................................................................................................168

FIGURES

Fig. 1. Possible pressure losses in the producing system for a flowing well.................................9 Fig.
2. Location of various nodes................................................................................................10 Fig. 3. A
typical IPR curve. .........................................................................................................1 1 Fig. 4. IPR
curve for the example problem. ................................................................................15 Fig. 5. Darcy's
law for linear flow. ...............................................................................................17 Fig. 6. Positive skin
≈ damaged wellbore or reduced wellbore radius. .......................................19 Fig. 7. Well and zone of
damaged or altered permeability..........................................................20 Fig. 8. Plots based on four
point test. .........................................................................................23 Fig. 9. Evaluation of four point
test data (after Jones, Blount, and Glaze)..................................23 Fig. 10. Typical phase diagram for
black oil................................................................................29 Fig. 11. Different forms of inflow
performance relationships IPR................................................30 Fig. 12. Vogel's composite
IPR...................................................................................................31 Fig. 13. Standing's correlation for
wells with FE values not equal to 1.......................................32 Fig. 14. Flow after flow, normal
sequence (after Fetkovich). ......................................................34 Fig. 15. Flow after flow, reverse
sequence (after Fetkovich). .....................................................34 Fig. 16. Isochronal test, flow rate and
pressure

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