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GRAM POSITIVE COCCI

Staphylococcal species: Gram positive, facultative anaerobic grape-like


clusters of cocci. Distinguishable from strep species by catalase test (positive).

Organism Disease Fun facts


Staph. aureus MANY. Impetigo, Pyogenic, exotoxins (TSST), cytotoxins,
mastitis, Toxic shock
syndrome, scalded coagulase, catalase, degradative
baby, abscesses, etc. enzymes.
Staph. Endocarditis, Coagulase negative. Normal flora. Capsule.
epidermidis sepsis, Can form biofilms on catheters/valve
prosthesis replacements.
infection.
Staph. UTIs (most UTIs Coagulase negative. Vagina and ureter.
saprophyticus are Gram NO exotoxin. Pyogenic infections only.
negative)

Organism Disease Fun facts


Strep. Pyogenes Strep throat, Pyogenic, Group A Strep, M-protein
cellulitis, scarlet (fimbriae), immune related diseases,
fever ‘flesh-eating’ bacteria
Strep. Meningitis, #1 cause of bacterial meningitis in
pneumoniae pneumonia, otitis >60yr age range, capsule, major cause
media of death in elderly
Strep. mutans Cavities and Enters bloodstream during dental
endocarditis procedures, why they dose 2g
Amoxicillin beforehand.
Strep. Meningitis and Group B Strep, 30% of mothers are
agalactiae pneumonia infected, #1 cause of bacterial
meningitis in <1 mo age range
Strep. bovis Nosocomial UTIs Group D Strep, commonly found in
and endocarditis cows or other ruminant (multiple
stomached) animals

Streptococcal Species: Gram positive, facultative anaerobic pairs/chains of


cocci. Distinguishable from staph species by catalase test (negative). Coagulase
negative.
Enterococcal Species: Often occur in pairs (diplococci) or short chains.
Facultative anaerobes. Normally commensal, can be opportunistic pathogens.

GRAM POSITIVE BACILLI (RODS)

Fun fact: The two genera that form endospores are Clostridia and Bacillus.

Organism Disease Fun facts


E. faecalis Endocarditis and Part of normal intestinal flora, often
other nosocomial found in root-canals, can be
infections vancomycin-resistant.
E. faecium Neonatal Part of normal intestinal flora, can also
meningitis, gut be vancomycin resistant, less common
wound infections than faecalis.
Organism Anaerob Spore Exotoxi Disease Fun Facts
ic s n
Growth
Corynebacteri N N Y, Diptheria, The “D” in DPT vaccine. Forms
pseudomembrane near tonsils. Lives
um AB cranial nerve in upper respiratory tract.
diphtheriae toxin paralysis, CHF
Bacillus N Y Y Anthrax, Historically important. Can
anthracis cutaneous or cause skin lesions. Potential
inhalation bioweapon.
Bacillus cereus N Y Y, Food poisoning, Facultative anaerobe, vomiting
(from rice) less severe than diarrhea
entero vomiting/diarrhe (from meat or vegetables.
- a
Listeria N N N Food poisoning, Can grow in the refrigerator,
meningitis, intracellular pathogen
monocytogene abortions, (macrophages)
s endocarditis
Clostridium Y Y Y Gas gangrene Toxins liquefy tissue, “botched
(amputation), food abortion” organism. War
perfringens poisoning(10kcases/yr wounds.
)
Clostridium Y Y Y, Food Heat labile toxin, found in
poisoning/botulism canned goods, spores in soil,
botulinum ‘boto (higher mortality/rare),
x’ neck paralysis
floppy baby syndrome
Clostridium Y, Y Y, ‘Lockjaw’/Tetanus Causes spasmodic contraction
tetani Obligate neuro- of muscle, vaccine available,
toxin infection shows effects in days
to weeks
Clostridium Y Y Y, Pseudomembrano Nosocomial, very difficult to
difficile cyto- us colitis, diarrhea completely cure, toxin kills
toxin enterocytes
GRAM NEGATIVE COCCI

Organism Disease Fun facts


Neisseria Gonorrhea (pyogenic), Often coinfected w/Chlamydia, most
neonatal eye infections,
gonorrhea PID/infertility women asymptomatic, men not so
much, NO capsule
Neisseria Meningitis, Via respiratory droplets, YES capsule,
meningitidis pneumonia, meningitis outbreaks in infants and
arthritis dormitories.
Moraxella Otitis media, Spread by respiratory route.
bronchopneumonia,
catarrhalis
bronchitis/sinusitis
Acinetobacter Pneumonia, sepsis, Found in soil/can be normal flora, grows in water, can
UTIs be nosocomial infection on catheters and respirators.
spp.

GRAM NEGATIVE BACILLI (RODS)


Organism name Disease Fun facts
Escherichia coli MANY. UTIs, 80-90% of all UTIs. Most abundant
bladder/kidney
(general) infections, dysentery, facultative anaerobe in feces/colon.
pneumonia, meningitis,
etc.
E. coli ETEC Traveler’s Heat labile enterotoxin, fecal-oral
diarrhea, infant route, watery diarrhea, infects small
diarrhea intestine.
E. coli EPEC Infant diarrhea Watery diarrhea, destroy microvilli in
(infected at birth) small intestinal mucosal cells
E. coli EHEC Hemorrhagic O17:H7, binds/kills large intestinal
colitis cells with verotoxin, bloody diarrhea,
w/o inflammation.
E. coli EIEC Dysentery Invades large intestinal cells, bloody
diarrhea with inflammatory cells in
stool
Salmonella Gastroenteritis, Intracellular parasite, endotoxin, food
enterica NVD poisoning from pigs/chicken products.
Salmonella typhi Typhoid Fever Infects from intestine to Peyer’s Patch
to bloodstream which leads to fever
Shigella spp. Shigellosis Intracellular, fecal-oral from humans only, low
exposure needed to cause infection, bloody
diarrhea, very similar to EIEC.
Vibrio cholerae Cholera Usually from contaminated water, rice-water
stool, electrolyte loss, massive diarrhea, 40%
mortality untreated
Vibrio Diarrhea From eating raw shellfish.
parahaemolytic
us
Helicobacter Stomach ulcers, Produces urease (w/NH3) to neutralize
pylori gastritis, cancer stomach pH. Primary cause of
risk stomac/duodenal ulcers.
Camphylobacter Enterocolitis. S-shaped rod. Microaerophile. Bloody
jejuni Foul smelling stools, severe abdominal pain. Fever.
diarrhea. Fecal-oral.
Klebsiella UTIs, pneumonia Thick bloody sputum, opportunistic
pneumoniae nosocomial infection, large intestine,
soil and water.
Serratia UTIs, pneumonia Opportunistic nosocomial infection,
marsescens large intestine, soil and water.
Enterbacter spp. UTIs, pneumonia Opportunistic nosocomial infection,
large intestine, soil and water.
GRAM NEGATIVE BACILLI (RODS) CONT.

Organism name Disease Fun facts


Proteus vulgaris UTIs Urease positive, highly motile, live in
colon, water, and soil. Urease increases
pH.
Proteus mirabilis UTIs Urease positive, highly motile, live in
colon, water, and soil. Urease increases
pH.
Providencia UTIs Urease positive, highly motile, live in
rettgeri colon, water, and soil. Urease increases
pH.
Morganella UTIs Urease positive, highly motile, live in
morganii colon, water, and soil. Urease increases
pH.
Pseudomonas Nosocomial UTIs, Strictly aerobic, oxidase positive, motile,
pneumonia, opportunistic, grows in tap water/hot
aeruginosa skin/eye/ear infections tubs/nosepieces of your glasses.
Bacteroides Intra-abdominal Anaerobic, no spores, predominant organism in
fragilis abscesses colon (>E. coli), infects after abdominal wound
or surgery.
Haemophilus Otitis media, Endotoxin, capsule. Transmitted via
influenza sinusitis, respiratory droplets. Pathogenesis depends
bronchitis, on site colonized, systemic or local.
pneumonia,
meningitis,
epiglottitis.
Legionella Legionnaire’s Facultative, aerobic, intracellular parasite.
pneumophila disease, severe Lives in soil/water. 10-15% mortality in
atypical outbreaks (esp. nosocomial), can live in air
pneumonia conditioners.
Bordetella Whooping cough Pertussis toxin. The “P” in DPT vaccine.
pertussis Attaches to/kills epithelium/ciliated cells in
upper respiratory tract.
MEDICALLY IMPORTANT BACTERIA

Organism name Disease Fun facts


Chlamydia Atypical Cause of ~10% of pneumonias.
pneumoniae pneumonia, Transmitted via respiratory secretion.
bronchitis
Chlamydia Pneumonia Bird feces
psittaci
Chlamydia Urethritis, Only infect humans, STD and infants via
trachomatis (STD cervicitis, birth canal. 75%F/50%M asymptomatic.
strains) Infertility due to PID.
infertility due to
PID.
Chlamydia Eye infection Leading cause of blindness worldwide.
trachomatis leading to Rare in U.S. Spread via flies and hand-
(trachoma strains)
blindness eye contact.
Mycoplasma Atypical Only infects humans. Lower respiratory
pneumoniae pneumonia, tract infection. Attaches to cilia, leads
bronchitis to necrosis.
Mycoplasma PID (infrequent)
hominis
Ureaplasma Urethritis Causes ~20% of non-gonococcal
urealyticum urethritis.
Borellia Lyme disease (3 Spirochete. Most common vectorborne (via
burgdorferi stages) deer tick) disease in U.S. 1-Flu-like (easily
treatable) 2-Arthritis/Bell’s palsy, 3-Chronic
arthritis/CNS disease.
Treponema Syphilis (3 Spirochete, flagellated, easily killed. Can cross
pallidum stages), placenta. 1-painless chancre, 2-skin lesions, 3-
ulcerated granulomas.
congenital (fetal
death)
MEDICALLY IMPORTANT BACTERIA (CONT.)

Organism name Disease Fun facts


Anaplasma Fever, chills, Infects granulocytes. Normal host is
phagocytophilu headache, myalgia, mouse, humans dead end host (via
leukopenia, etc.
m deer tick).
Rickettsia Rocky mountain Tick borne. High fever and rash.
rickettsi spotted fever Mortality ~25% due to vascular
collapse.
Rickettsia Typhus Lice borne. Can spread human-human. High
prowazekki fever, headache, stupor – leading to CNS
dysfunction and myocarditis. High mortality
untreated.
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Top worldwide killer organism. Form
tuberculosis granulomas (in lungs and other areas) that
harden, then liquefy to allow bacteria to spread.
Mycobacterium Disseminated Common in severely immunosuppressed AIDS
avium (MAC) miliary disease patients. Most common systemic bacterial
infection.
Mycobacterium Leprosy Slow growing, spread by long term skin contact,
leprae intracellular growth in cool temperatures, leads
to nerve damage.