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CHAPTER 4
VENTILATION AIR SUPPLY

401.0 General. 402.3 Mechanical Ventilation. Where natural


This chapter contains requirements for ventilation air ventilation is not permitted by this section or the
supply and exhaust, evaporative cooling systems and Building Code, mechanical ventilation systems shall

o
makeup-air requirements for direct-gas-fired heaters, be designed, constructed, and installed to provide a
industrial air heaters, and miscellaneous heaters. method of supply air and exhaust air. The system
[OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4J See Sections 404.0 through 418.0. shall operate so that all rooms and spaces are
[SFMJ Air filters shall comply with all requirements of continuously provided with the required ventilation
Part 12, Title 24, Chapter 12-71, SFM Standard 12-71-1. rate while occupied.

402.0 Ventilation Air. [Not permitted for OSHPD 1, 2, 403.0 Ventilation Rates. The design outdoor air
3 &4] intake flow rate for a ventilation system shall be
402.1 General Requirements. [Not permitted for determined in accordance with Sections 403.1
OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] All rooms and occupied spaces through 403.6.
listed in Table 4-1 shall be designed to have 403.1 Zone Calculations. Zone parameters shall be
ventilation (outdoor) air for occupants in accordance determined in accordance with Sections 403.1.1
with this chapter. Ventilation air supply requirements through 403.1.3. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.2]
for occupancies regulated by the California Energy 403.1.1 Breathing Zone Outdoor Airflow. The
Commission are found in the California Energy Code. design outdoor airflow required in the breathing
402.1.1 Construction Documents. The outdoor zone of the occupiable space or spaces in a zone,
air ventilation rate and air distribution assump-
Le., the breathing zone outdoor airflow (Vbz), shall
tions made in the design of the ventilation system
be determined in accordance with Equation 4-1.
shall be clearly identified on the construction
[ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.2.1]
documents.
402.2 Natural Ventilation. Use of natural ventilation
Vbz =RpPz + RaAz (Equation 4-1)

o systems designed in accordance with this section


shall be permitted in lieu of or in conjunction with
mechanical ventilation systems. [ASHRAE 62.1:5.1]
Exception: An engineered natural ventilation
system when approved by the Authority Having
Where:

Az = zone floor area: the net occupiable floor area of


Jurisdiction need not meet the requirements of the zone ft. 2 (m2).
402.2.1 and 402.2.2. [ASHRAE 62.1:5.1]
402.2.1 Location and Size of Openings. pz = zone population: The largest number of people
Naturally ventilated spaces shall be permanently expected to occupy the zone during typical usage.. If
open to and within twenty-five (25) feet (8 m) of the number of people expected to occupy the zone
operable wall or roof openings to the outdoors, fluctuates, pz shall be permitted to be estimated based
the openable area of which is a minimum of 4 on averaging approaches described in Section 403.4. If
percent of the net occupiable floor area. Where pz cannot be accurately predicted during design, it
the openings are covered with louvers or shall be estimated based on the zone floor area and

o otherwise obstructed, openable area shall be


based on the free unobstructed area through the
opening. Where interior spaces without direct
the default occupant density listed in Table 4-1.

Rp = outdoor airflow rate required per person as


openings to the outdoors are ventilated through determined from Table 4-1.
adjoining rooms, the opening between rooms
shall be permanently unobstructed and have a Ra = outdoor airflow rate required per unit area as
free area of not less than 8 percent of the area of determined from Table 4-1. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.2.1]

o the interior room nor less than 25 ft2 (2.3 m 2).


[ASHRAE 62.1:5.1.1]
402.2.2 Control and Accessibility. The means
to open required operable openings shall be
403.1.2 Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness.
The zone air distribution effectiveness (Ez) shall be
determined using Table 4-2. [ASHRAE
readily accessible to building occupants 62.1:6.2.2.2]
whenever the space is occupied. [ASHRAE 403.1.3 Zone Outdoor Airflow. The design zone
62.1:5.1.2] outdoor airflow (Voz), Le., the outdoor airflow that

43
403.1 - 405.0 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

must be provided to the zone by the supply air where the system population (Ps) is the total population
distribution system, shall be determined in in the area served by the system. Alternative methods
accordance with Equation 4-2. [ASHRAE shall be permitted to be used to account for
62.1:6.2.2.3] population diversity when calcUlating You, provided
that the resulting value is no less than that determined
Voz =Vbz/Ez (Equation 4-2) by Equation 4-6. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.5.3]
403.2 Single-Zone Systems. When one air handler 403.4.4 Outdoor Air Intake. The design outdoor
supplies a mixture of outdoor air and recirculated air
air intake flow (Vot) shall be determined in
to only one zone, the outdoor air intake flow (Vot) shall
accordance with Equation 4-8. [ASHRAE
be determined in accordance with Equation 4-3.
[ASHRAE 62.1:6.3] 62.1:6.2.5.4]

Vot = Voz (Equation 4-3) Vot= Vou/Ev (Equation 4-8)

403.3 100% Outdoor Air Systems. When one air 403.5 Design for Varying Operating Conditions.
handler supplies only outdoor air to one or more 403.5.1 Variable Load Conditions. Ventilation
zones, the outdoor air intake flow (Vot) shall be systems shall be designed to be capable of
determined in accordance with Equation 4-4. providing the required ventilation rates in the
[ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.4] breathing zone whenever the zones served by
the system are occupied, including all full and
Vot = all zonesVoz (Equation 4-4) part-load conditions. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.6.1]
403.5.2 Short-Term Conditions. If it is known
403.4 Multiple-Zone Recirculating Systems. When
that peak occupancy will be of short duration or
one air handler supplies a mixture of outdoor air and
the ventilation rate will be varied or interrupted
recirculated return air to more than one zone, the
outdoor air intake flow (Vot) shall be determined in for a short period of time, the design shall be
accordance with Sections 403.4.1 through 403.4.4. permitted to be based on the average conditions
[ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.5] over a time period T determined by Equation 4-9.
403.4.1 Primary Outdoor Air Fraction. When [ASHRAE 62: Section 6.2.6.2]:
Table 4-3 is used to determine system ventilation
efficiency, the zone primary outdoor air fraction T = 3 v IVbz (4-9) IF (Equation 4-9)
(Zp) shall be determined in accordance with
Equation 4-5. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.5.1] where:
T = averaging time period, (min)
Zp = Voz/Vpz (Equation 4-5) v = the volume of the zone for which averaging is
being applied, ft. 3 (m3).
Vpz is the primary airflow to the zone from the air
handler, including outdoor air and recirculated
Vbz = the breathing zone outdoor airflow calculated
return air. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.5.1]
using Equation 4-1 and the design value of the zone
403.4.2 System Ventilation Efficiency. The population Pz, cfm (Lis).
system ventilation efficiency (Ev) shall be
determined using Table 4-3 or Appendix A of 403.6 Dynamic Reset. The system shall be
ASHRAE 62.1. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.5.2] permitted to be designed to vary the design outdoor
403.4.3 Uncorrected Outdoor Air Intake. The air intake flow (Vot), or the space or zone airflow as
design uncorrected outdoor air intake (Vou) shall be operating conditions change.
determined in accordance with Equation 4-6. 403.7 Exhaust Ventilation. Exhaust airflow shall be
[ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.5.3] provided in accordance with the requirements in
Table 4-4. Exhaust makeup air shall be permitted to
You =D all zones RpPz + all zones RaAz (Equation 4-6) be any combination of outdoor air, recirculated air,
and transfer air.
The occupant diversity, D, shall be permitted to be used
to account for variations in occupancy within the
404.0 Makeup Air.
zones served by the system. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.5.3]
Makeup-air requirements for direct gas-fired heaters,
The occupancy diversity is defined as: industrial air heaters, and miscellaneous heaters are
D = Psi all zones pz (Equation 4-7) fotindin Chapters 5 and 9.

44
VENTILATION-AIR SUPPLY 405.0 - 407.1

405.0 Evaporative Cooling Systems. the wetted surface or spray shall be limited in health
Evaporative cooling systems shall comply' witl.1 this facilities to nonpatient areas such as laundry rooms, food
chapter. preparation areas and boiler or machinery rooms. Similar
Evaporative cooling systems shall be provided rooms with high heating-producing equipment will be
with outside air as specified for cooling systems in considered when specifically approved by the enforcing
this code. .- . agency. The evaporative pads, shall be a synthetic type.
Ali' ducts and fire dampers that are a portion of an Filters shall be required in accordance with Tables 4-B and
evaporative cooling system shall comply with this code. 4-C except utility rooms i.e;: boiler or machinery rooms.

o 405.1 Location.
Evaporative cooling systems shall be installed so
as to minimize the probability of damage from .an
external source. .
406.0 Reserved.

Part I - Ventilation for Health Care Facilities [For


405.2 Access, Inspection, and Repair. Evaporative OSHPD 1,2,3 & 4]
c;oolers shall be accessible for inspection, service, and
replacement without removing permanent construction: 407.0 Ventilation System Details [For OSHPD 1, 2,
405.3 Installation. 3&4]
An evaporative cooler supported by the building 407.1 General.
structure shall be installed on a substantial level base 407.1.1 AJI supply-air, return air, and exhaust-air
and shall be secuteddirectlyor indirectly to the systems shall be mechanically operated and such
building structure by suitable means to prevent systems for areas listed in Table 4-A shall be operated
displacement of the cooler. continuously. Natural ventilation through windows
Modifications mflde to the supporting or other·openings such as louvers will be considered
framework of buildings as a result of the installation as supplemental to the required mechanical
shall be in accordance with the requirements of the ventilation systems.
Building Code. Openings in exterior walls shall be Exception 1. Natural ventilation shall not be
flashed in an approved manner in accordance with used in airborne infection isolation rooms and
. the requirements of the Building Code. protective environment rooms.
An evaporative cooler supported directly by the Exception 2. The number of air changes may be
ground shall be isolated from the ground by a level reduced to 25 percent of the indicated value in

o concrete slab extending not less than three (3) inches


(76 mm) above the adjoining ground level.
An evaporative cooler supported on an
aboveground platform shall be elevated at least six
Table 4-A, when the room is unoccupied, if
provisions are made to ensure the following: (1)
the number of air changes per hour indicated is
reestablished whenever the space is occupied and
(2) the pressure relationship with the
(6) inches (152 mrn) above adjoining ground level.
surrounding rooms is maintained when the air
Example: Determine the outdoor air rate required changes per hour are reduced; In areas requiring
for a single zone AC unit serving an interior 2,000 ft. 2 no continuous directional control as identified in
meeting/conference room with a design occupancy accordance with Table 4-A, ventilation systems
of 100 people. The system supplies and returns air may be shut down when the space is unoccupied
from the ceiling. ' and ventilation is not otherwise required.
Ventilation shall not be reduced in rooms
Per Table 4-2, the zone air distribution effectiveness specifically used for airborne infection control,
is 1.0 since the system supplies cooling only from the such as waiting rooms, triage rooms, corridors,
() ceiling. Using the rates from Table 4-1 for a
meeting/ conference room, the minimum system
outdoor air rate is calculated to be:
reception areas, areas adjacent to waiting areas,
airborne infection isolation rooms, negative
pressure exam room, negative pressure x-ray
treatment rooms, and protective environment
Vat = RpPz + RaAz rooms. All operating and delivery rooms shall
Ez maintain a minimum of six air changes per hour
of total air when not in use.

o = 5 x 100 + 0.06 x 2,000


1.0
=620 cfm
407.1.2 Fans serving exhaust systems shall be
located at the discharge end of the system. The
ventilation rates shown in Table 4-A shall be
considered as minimum acceptable rates and shall
405.4 Evaporative Cooling System for Health not be construed as precluding the ·use of higher
Care facilities [For OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] Direct ventilation rates if they are required to meet
C) evaporative cooling systems where the air directly contact~ design conditions.

45
407.2 - 407.5 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

407.1.3 Services/Systems and Utilities. See protective environment rooms.


Section 313.2. 407.4 Air Circulation.
407.2 Outdoor Air Intakes and Exhaust 407.4.1 Air shall be introduced at the cleanest
Outlets. areas and removed at the dirtiest areas in order to
reduce chances of airborne cross infection as
407.2.1 Outdoor Air Intakes. Outdoor air intakes
follows:
shall be located at least 25 feet (7.62 m) from exhaust
407.4.1.1 Air supplied to operating rooms,
outlets of ventilating systems, combustion equipment
cesarean operating rooms, cardiac catherization
stacks, medical-surgical vacuum systems, cooling
labs, cystoscopy rooms, delivery rooms and
towers and areas that may collect vehicular exhaust
nurseries, shall be delivered at or near the ceiling
~r other noxious fumes. The bottom of outdoor air
of the area served, and all air removed from the
mtakes shall be located as high as practicable, but not
area shall be removed near floor level. At least
less than 10 feet (3048 mm), above ground level. If
two exhaust or recirculation air inlets shall be
installed through the roof, they shall be located 18
used in all operating and delivery rooms and
inches (457 mm) above roof level or 3 feet (914 mm)
shall be located not less than 3 inches (76 mm)
above aflat roof where heavy snowfall is anticipated.
nor more than 8 inches (203 mm) above the
Exceptions: finished floor.
1. These dimensions may be reduced if it is Exception: For airborne infection isolation
demonstrated by the submission of details and rooms and protective environment rooms, see
calculations that location of intakes with respect Section 414.0 and 415.0.
to exhausts and their orientation, or the use of 407.4.1.2 Room supply air outlets and room
special filters, provides equal performance. recirculation and exhaust air inlets installed in
2. The requirements regarding the bottom of nonsensitive areas shall be located not less than 3
outdoor air intakes and installation through the inches (76 mm) above the floor.
roof do not apply to skilled nursing facilities, Exception: For airborne infection isolation
intermediate-care facilities or nonsensitive areas rooms and protective environment rooms, see
in correctional treatment centers. Section 414.0 and 415.0.
407.4.1.3 Corridors shall not be used to convey
407.2.2 Exhaust Outlets. Exhaust outlets shall
supply, return or exhaust air to or from any room
be located a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) above
if the corridor is required to be of fire resistive
adjoining grade and 10 feet (3048 mm) from
construction per the California Building Code.
doors, occupied areas and operable windows.
Exception 1: Mechanically exhausted toilet
Exception: Airborne infection isolation rooms
rooms of 50 square feet (4.7 m2) or less and small
shall comply with Section 414.1.
rooms of 30 square feet (2.79 m2) or less such as
407.2.3 Relief Air Discharge. Building relief air
janitor closets, housekeeping rooms, and
discharge shall discharge at least 10 feet (3048
electrical or telephone closets opening directly
mm) from any outside air intake.
onto corridor.
407.3 Air Balance.
Exception 2: Air transfer caused by pressure
407.3.1 The ventilation systems shall be designed
differentials in rooms required to have a positive
and balanced to provide the general air balance
or negative air balance by Table 4-A.
relationship to adjacent areas, shown in Table 4-A.
407.4.1.4 No space above a ceiling may be
The ventilation systems shall be balanced in
utilized as an outside-air, supply-air, exhaust-
accordance with the latest edition of standards
air or return-air plenum.
published by the Associated Air Balanced Council
Exception: Designs specifically approved by
(AABC) or the National Environmental Balancing
the enforcing agency.
Bureau (NEBB).
407.4.1.5 Air from a patient room, exam room,
407.3.2 Where the variation in static pressure drop
treatment room shall not be transferred to
across filters is a significant portion of the total
another similar room without first having passed
pressure drop, static pressure or pressure· differential
through air filters as required b y Table 4-B or
controls or constant volume devices may be required
Table 4-C.
to ensu~e the maintenance ofair balance relationships
407.4.1.6 Supply outlets and return and
shown m Table 4-A regardless offilter loading.
exhaust air inlets shall be located to prevent
Exception: This section does not pertain to skilled
short-circuiting.
nursing facilities, intermediate-care facilities and
407.5 Variable Air Volume.
nonsensitive areas in correctional treatment centers
401.5.1 Variable Air Volume Systems (VA V).
except for airborne infection isolation rooms and
Variable air volume .systems subjecting the patient to

46
VENTILATION·AIR SUPPLY 407.5 - 408.3

a fluctuating air movement are not acceptable for equipment with efficiencies as indicated in Table 4-B
airborne infection isolation rooms, protective or Table 4-C.
environment rooms or those critically sensitive areas Exception: Dry steam-type humidifiers for local room
listed in Table 315. For nonsensitive areas, variable humidity control may be installed in the supply air
air volume systems meeting the following criteria can duct downstream of the final filter bank where designs
be considered: are speCifically approved by the enforcing agency.
407.5.1.1 The VAV system shall comply with 408.1.6 Filter bank No.2 and filter bank No.3 media
code requirements for outside air, total air, and shall be rigid or supported (noncollapsing type) and

o pressure relationship through the full range of


operation from minimum to maximum.
407.5.1.2 The central return or exhaust fan
shall be controlled to accomplish the variable air
shall operate on the principles of impingement,
straining and diffusion.
408.2 Filters for Hospitals.
408.2.1 All air-ventilation systems shall comply
volume requirements of the individual rooms with code requirements of this section and shall have
served by the fan as described in Section filter bank efficiencies as listed in Table 4-B.
407.5.1.3. 408.2.2 Noncentral recirculating air systems
407.5.1.3 Variable air volume for return or providing cooling to high heat producing equipment
exhaust air shall be accomplished by utilizing an located in nonsensitive areas shall have a filter with
automatic modulating damper in the return or 30 percent average efficiency based on ASHRAE
exhaust air for each zone. The damper will Standard 52.1-1992 or a minimum efficiency
modulate from full open to minimum position in reporting value (MERV) of 8 based on ASHRAE
conjunction with the supply air VAV terminal b~x. Standard 52.2-1999. .
408.2.3 Noncentral air systems serving any areas
408.0 Filters [For OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4J
not listed in Table 4-B shall be provided with filter
408. 1 General. Filter efficiencies shall be certified by the
arrangement and efficiency specifically approved by
manufacturer and shall be based on ASHRAE Standard
the enforcing agency.
52.1-1992, Gravimetric and Dust-spot Procedures for
408.2.4 Noncentral recirculating air handling
Testing Air-Cleaning Devices Used in General Ventilation
systems, i.e., through-the-wall units, fan coil units,
for Removing Particulate Matter or ASHRAE Standard
52.2-1999, Method of Testing General Ventilation Air- and heat pumps may be utilized for single patient
Cleaning Devices for Removal Efficiency by Particle Size rooms of one or more beds. Filtration for these units

C) when specifically set forth in these standards.


408. 1. 1 A filter gauge shall be installed across each
shall have a minimum weight arrestance value of 50
percent, based on ASHRAE Standard 52.1-1992 or a
minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 1,
filter bank serving central air systems. The gauge
shall be red lined or a filter alarm light installed to based on ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999. The air
signal when the recommended maximum static ventilation system providing the minimum air
pressure. drop has been reached. changes of outdoor air shall comply with Table 4-B.
408.1.2 Central air-handling systems are defined as These units may be used as recirculating units only.
any unit requiring duct work on the supply or inlet All outdoor air requirements shall be met by a
side that serve more than one room. separate central air handling systems.
408.1.3 Filter banks shall be visually inspected for 408.3 Filters for Skilled Nursing Facilities,
torn media and bypass in filter frames by means of a Intermediate Care Facilities and Correctional
flashlight or equivalent, both with fans in operation Treatment Centers.
408.3.1 The air ventilation systems shall comply

o and stopped. Tears in media and bypass in filter


frames shall be eliminated in accordance with the
manufacturer's directions and the requirements of the
enforcing agency prior to commencing operation of
the system.
with code requirements of this section for skilled
nursing facilities, intermediate care facilities and
correCtional treatment centers and shall have filter
bank efficiencies as listed in Table 4-C.
408.1.4 Central air-handling systems shall be 408.3.2 Noncentral air systems serving single
maintained in a reasonably clean condition during patient rooms of one or more beds shall comply with
construction and shall be cleaned as necessary prior Table 4-C.

o to replacement of temporary filter used during


construction to ensure that clean air will be delivered
to the occupied spaces.
408.1.5 Filter bank No.1 shall be located upstream
408.3.3 Noncentral recirculating air-handling
systems, i.e. through the wall units, may be utilized
for each patient room with one or more beds.
Filtration for 'these units shall have a minimum
of the air-conditioning equipment. Filter bank No. 2 weight arrestance vqlue of 50 percent, based on
a1id filter bank No. 3 shall be located downstream of ASHRAE Standard 52.1-1992 or a minimum
(~) . the supply fan and all cooling and humidification efficiency reporting value (MERV) ofl, based on

47
408.3 - 413.2 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999. The air ventilation those needed for routine diagnostic laboratory procedures
system providing the minimum air changes of and in which highly radioactive materials or a significant
outdoor air shall comply with Table 4-C. These units volume of highly oxidizing agents are used shall be
may be used as recirculating units only. All outdoor constructed of USS 18-8 stainless steel or the equivalent
air requirements shall be met by a separate central air for a minimum distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) from the
handling system. hood. Such ducts shall be equipped with wash down
401!.3.4 Airborne infection isolation rooms, facilities and shall be consistent with fire safety
protective environment rooms and sensitive areas in requirements. Fire dampers and smoke dampers shall not
correctional treatment centers shall comply with be installed in laboratory hood exhaust systems.
Section 408.2. 410.4 The exhaust from all laboratory hoods in which
408.4 Filters for Outpatient Facilities. infectious or radioactive materials are processed shall be
408.4.1 The air ventilation systems shall comply equipped with filters having a 99 percent efficiency based on
with code requirements of this section for outpatient the DOP (dioctylphthalate) test method or a minimum
facilities and shall have filter bank efficiencies as efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 15, based on
listed in Table 4-B. ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999. Filter frames shall be
408.4.2 Noncentral air systems serving individual durable and carefully dimensioned, and shall provide an
rooms shall comply with Table 4-B. airtight fit with the enclosing duct work. All joints between
filter segments and the enclosing duct work shall be gasketed
409.0 DUCTS [FOR OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4J or sealed to provide apositive seal against air leakage.
409.1 Ducts which penetrate construction, intended for
X -ray or other radiation protection, shall not impair the 411.0 Kitchen and Dining Areas [For OSHPD 1,2,
effectiveness of the protection. 3&4J
409.2 Duct linings and their use shall meet the 411.1 The air from dining areas may be used to ventilate
requirements of Chapter 6, California Mechanical Code. the food preparation areas only after it has passed through
409.3 Cold-air ducts shall be insulated wherever afilter with at least an 80 percent average efficiency based
necessary or to prevent condensation problems. on ASHRAE Standard 52.1-1992 or a minimum
409.4 The anchorage and supporting structural elements efficiency reporting value (MER V) of 13, based on
for airducts shall be designed to withstand the lateral ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999.
forces as required by the California Building Code, Title Exception: For skilled nursing facilities,
24, Part 2. intermediate care facilities and correctional treatment
centers, the air from dining area may be used to
410.0 Laboratories [For OSHPD 1,2,3 & 4J ventilate food preparation areas only after it has
410.1 The minimum amount ofoutdoor air in laboratories passed through a filter with a 50 percent average
shall be provided in accordance with Table 4-A. A filter efficiency based on ASHRAE Standard 52.1-192 or a
with 90 percent average efficiency based on ASHRAE minimumefficiency reporting value (MERV) of 10,
Standard 52.1-1992 or a minimum efficiency reporting based on ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999.
value (MERV) of 14, based on ASHRAE Standard 52.2-
1999 shall be installed in the air-supply system at its 412.0 Boiler, Mechanical and Electrical Rooms
entrance to the media transfer room. [For OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4J
410.2 Laboratory hoods for general use shall have a 412.1 Boiler, heater and electrical equipment rooms shall
minimum average face velocity of 75 feet per minute (380 be provided with outdoor air so as to maintain combustion
m/s). Hoods in which infectious or highly radioactive rates of equipment and temperatures in the rooms and in
materials are processed shall have a face velocity of 100 adjoining areas as rated in this chapter.
feet per minute (510 m/s). Bacteriological safety cabinets 412.2 Floor surfaces in occupiedspaces above such rooms
used for processing infectious materials shall have an should not exceed a temperature of 85 OF (29.4 °C), and
average face velocity of 50 to 70 feet per minute (255 m/s suitable insulation may be required.
to 355 m/s) and shall be equipped with a means for
disinfection. 413.0 Odorous Rooms [For OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4J
410.3 Laboratory hoods shall not be connected to the 413.1 Rooms in areas where excessive heat or moisture is
general building exhaust system. Hoods in which generated, where objectional odors or dust are present, or
infectious, incompatible or highly radioactive materials are where flammable or toxic gases may accumulate, which
processed each shall have an independent exhaust system are used by health facility personnel or patients, shall be
with the fan installed at .the discharge point of the system. provided with exhaust ventilation to change the air a
Duct systems serving laboratory hoods shall be minimum often times per hour.
constructed of stainless steel of a type which will resist 413.2 Kitchen; morgues and laundries located inside a
corrosion by materials normally handled. Duct systems hospital building or skilled nursing facility in which
serving laboratory hoods used for purposes other than patients are accommodated, or treated, shall be ventilated

48
1-- - - - - - - - - - -

VENTILATION-AIR SUPPLY 413.2-416.3

with exhaust systems which will provide a minimum of registers shall be located on the wall behind the patient's
~.'.
ten air changes per hour and prevent odors from entering head, or as close to that wall as practical and shall be
~J/I patient areas. located not less than 3 inches (76 mm) nor more than 24
inches (610 mm) above the finished floor.
414.0 Airborne Infection Isolations Rooms [For Exception: For correctional treatment centers, the
OSHPD 1,2,3 & 4J location and design of the supply outlets an exhaust or
414.1 Exhaust Systems. A separate, dedicated exhaust return inlets shall not compromise the safety, security
system shall be provided for airborne infection isolation and protection ofstaff, inmates and property.

n"-- /
rooms. The dedicated system may serve more than one
airborne infection isolation room, adjoining toilet room
and anteroom. The exhaust ducts shall be identified by
415.0 Protective Environment Rooms [For
OSHPD 1,2,3 & 4J
appropriate labeling with the words "Caution Airborne 415.1 Air Distribution. The supply outlets and exhaust
Infection Isolation Rooms Exhaust" or similar and return inlets shall be located to provide airflow ,patterns

o
terminology. Such labeling shall be in a manner which is that prevent stagnation of the air and eliminate short
not readily removable and shall appear on the exhaust circuiting of the supply to the exhaust or return. Supply air
duct at intervals of not more than 20 feet (6096 mm) and shall be delivered at or near the ceiling and near the
at least once near each room and each story traversed by patient's bed. All exhaust or return registers shall be located
the exhaust system. Exhaust fans shall comply with near the entrance to the protective environment room and
Section 407.1.2. The discharge from exhaust fans shall be not less than 3 inches (76 mm) nor more than 8 inches (203
located a~ove the roof and shall be located a minimum of mm) above the finished floor.
25 feet (7620 mm) from areas that may be occupied, doors, Exception: For correctional treatment centers, the
operable windows, outdoor air intakes, or other openings location and design of the supply outlets and exhaust
into the building. The exhaust fan discharge shall be or return inlets shall not compromise the safety,
labeled in a manner which readily identifies the security and protection ofstaff, inmates and property.
precautions which should be observed. To ensure, that the
airborne contaminates do not reenter the building, one of 416.0 Alarms - Airborne Infection Isolation
the following shall be provided: Rooms and Protective Environment Rooms
414. 1. 1 Exhaust discharge from fan, shall extend at [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4J

o
least 7 feet (2134 mm) above the roof and discharge 416.1 An alarm system which is based on static pressure
vertically upward. Self-draining stacks or equivalent control, volumetric control, or directional flow
shall be used for rain protection. Rain caps which divert measurement shall be provided for each isolation room. The
the exhaust toward the roofshall be prohibited; or alarm system shall consist of a display monitor located on
414.1.2 Exhaust shall discharge above roof level and
the corridor wall near the door to the room and a visual and
through an accessible HEPA filter. The HEPA filter
audible alarm which annunciates at the room and at a
shall be located upstream of the exhaust fan and have
nurses' station or other suitable location that will provide
a minimum efficiency of99.97 percent based on the
responsible surveillance. A time delay shall be provided to
DOP method in accordance with Mil-Std. 282 or a
allow for routine openings of doors. The alarm shall
minimulrl efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 17,
annunciate when the supply, return, or exhaust fans are
based on ASHRAE Standard 52.2 1999. Filter gage
interrupted and when one of the following conditions is not
shall be installed across'thefilter. For maintenance of
being met during closed door conditions:
air balance relationship, see Section 407.3.2. The 25-
foot (7620 mm) dimension required by Section 414.1 1. When the minimum air quantity difference of 75
() may be reduced when a 99.97 percent HEPAfilter or
a~minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 17,
cfm (35.4 Lis) required by Table 4-A is not being
maintained; or
iJased on ASHRAE Standard 52.2 1999 is used and 2. When a minimum pressure differential of 0.001
the reduced dimension is specifically approved by the inch (0.003 kPa) ofwater and a minimum inward
, enforcing agency. , (outward for protective environment rooms) air
414.2 Air Distribution. The supply outlets and exhaust velocity of 100 feet per minute (0.508 m/s) is not
being maintained at the air transfer opening
(J inlets shall be located to provide airflow patterns that
prevent stagnation of the air and eliminate short
circuiting of the supply to the exhaust, and minimize
required by Table 4-A. '
416.2 Other acceptable alarm systems will be allowed when
designs are specifically approved by the enforcing agency.
exposure of health care workers to airborne infectious
particles. Supply-air outlets shall be located at or near the 416.3 [For OSHPD 4J For correctional treatment
ceiling and at the end of the airborne infection isolation centers, the alarm system shall, not create fcilse alarms or
room which is opposite >the head of the bed; Exhaust security hazards., ' ,"

49
416.4 - 418.5 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

416.4 Prior to acceptance of the rooms, the alarm system end should be installed over the sterilization door. A
shall be tested and operated to demonstrate to the owner or hood or canopy shall be connected to a dedicated
designated representative that the installation and exhaust ventilation system.
performance ofthe system conforms to design intent. 418.4 Gas Valves. Installation of gas line hand valves at
the conn~ction to the supply cylinders are required to
417.0 Testing Airborne Infection Isolation Rooms minimize leakage during cylinder change.
and Protective Environment Room [For OSHPD 1, 418.5 Alarm Systems. An Audible an visual alarm
2, 3 & 4J Prior to acceptance of the rooms, all mechanical system shall be installed to alert sterilizer operating personnel
systems shall be tested, balanced and...operated to if the airflow falls below design cubitfeet per minute(L/S).
demonstrate to the owner or designated representative that
the installation and performance of the systems conform to
design intent. All testing and balancing shall be performed
by a qualified independent agency certified by the
Associated Air Balance Council (AABC) or the National
Environmental Balancing Bureau (NEBB). Test results
shall be documented for maintenancefiles.

418.0 Design Requirements for Ethylene Oxide


(ETO) Sterilization Areas [For OSHPD 1,2,3 & 4J
418.1 Air Changes. The ETO sterilization equipment
room shall be provided with minimum air changes per hour
per Table 4-A and be maintained at a negative air balance.
418.2 Exhaust Requirements.
418.2.1 All air from the ETO sterilizer equipment
room shall be exhausted to the outside by a dedicated
system or other approved method.
418.2.2 The exhaust fan for the dedicated system shall
be located at the discharge point of the system and
identified as ETO Equipment Room Exhaust.
418.2.3 Discharge Point. The discharge point shall
be a minimum of 25 feet (7620 mm) away from any
outside intake, operable window or personnel passage.
418.3 Ventilation Requirements.
418.3.1 Aeration units. The aeration units shall be
ventilated through a nonrecirculating dedicated
ventilation exhaust system.
418.3.2 Capture box. When the drain is not located
in the ETO sterilizer equipment room, ventilation is
required by a capture box.
418.3.3 Cylinder change. When not located in the
ETO sterilizer equipment room, exhaust during cylinder
change is required by installing a hood that is part of a
dedicated ventilation exhaust system, positioned no more
than 1 foot (305 mm) above or behind the point where the
change ofcylinders takes place.
418.3.4 Sterilizer relief valve. The ventilation of
sterilizer reliefvalve is required through a pipe connected
to the outlet of the relief valve exhausted directly to the·
outdoors at a point high enough to be away from passers-
by, and not near any windows that open, nor near any
air-conditioning or ventilation air intakes.
418.3.5 Ventilation of sterilizer door area. The
system shall be designed to capture the ETO when the
door is opened following the completion of the
sterilization process. A hood or canopy closed on each

50
VENTILATION-AIR SUPPLY Table 4-A

TABLE 4-A - PRESSURE RELATIONSHIP AND VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS FOR


GENERAL ACUTE CARE HOSPITALS, SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES,
INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES, CORRECTIONAL .

TREATMENT CENTERS, OUTPATIENTS FACILITIES AND LICENSED CLINICS

n
\ __ /
A B

AIRBALANCE
C

MINIMUM
D E
CONDITIONED AIR NOT
100% O.S.A EXHAUSTE
F
ALL AIR

RELATlONSHIP AIR Minimum Air Minimum D


TO CHANGES Changes of Total Air DIRECTLY
ADJACENT IF 100% Outdoor Air Changes per TO
Area Designation AREAS" O.S.A. per hour hour OUTDOORS

Operating room, cardiac cath lab and P' 12 5 20


cystoscopy

Patient holding preparation' E 6 2 6

Delivery room, cesarean operating room P 12 5 20

Newborn/well baby nursery P 6 2 6

Post anesthesia care unit E 6 2 6 . Yes

Intensive care service spaces, P 6 2 6


Acute respiratory - care service spaces,
Burn service spaces, Coronary-
care service Spaces, Pediatric

o
intensive - care service spaces'

Newborn intensive care P 6 2 6

Emergency department:'
Waiting area N 12 2 12 Yes'
Operating room P 12 5 20
Treatment room E 6 2 6
Trauma room' P 12 5 20
Triage N 12 2 12 Yes

Patient room E 2 2 6

Patient area corridor E 2 2 4

Labor/delivery/recovery room, Labor/ E 2 2 6

o deliverylrecovery/postpartum room

Airborne infection isolation room N4

p4
12 2 12 Yes

Yes
Airbone infection isolation anteroom 10 2 10
Protective environment room p' 15 2 15

o
Protective environment anteroom N" 15 2 15

Treatment, and examination rooms E 6 2 6

Bronchoscopy and endoscopy N 12 2 12 Yes

Special purpose room (SNF & ICF only) E 6 2 6· Yes

C)
51
Table 4-A cant. 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

A B C D E F
CONDITIONED AIR NOT ALL AIR
AIRBALANCE MINIMUM 100% O.S.A EXHAUSTE
RELATIONSHIP AIR Minimum Air Minimum D
TO CHANGES Changes of Total Air DIRECTLY
ADJACENT IF 100% Outdoor Air Changes per TO
Area Designation AREAS" O.S.A. per hour hour OUTDOORS

Radiological/Imaging:
Angiography Room P 12 5 15
X-ray (diagnostic and treatment) E 6 2 6
CTScan E 6 2 6
MRlroom E 6 2 6
Fluoroscopy Room N 6 2 6 Yes
DarkRoom N 12 2 12 Yes
Negative-pressure x-ray room N 12 2 12 Yes
Ultra. sound room E 6 2 6
Gamma camera E 6 2 6
Waiting area N 12 2 12 Yes
Bedpan room N 10 Yes
Bathroom N 10 Yes

Janitors' closet, Housekeeping room N 10 Yes

Sterilizer equipment room N 10 Yes

Sub sterile room E 10 2 10 Yes

Linen and trash chute rooms N 10 Yes

Food preparation centers E 10 2 10 Yes

Dining room E 10 2 10
Dishwashing room N 10 Yes

Dietary day storage E 2


Laundry, general (clean and dirty) E 10 2 10 Yes

Soiled linen sorting and storage N 10 Yes

Clean linen storage P 2 2 2


Anesthesia storage E 8 8 Yes
Central medical and surgical supply:
Soiled or decontamination room N 4 2 4 Yes
Clean workroom P 4 2 4
Unsterile supply E 2 2 2
Pharmacy/medicine room P 2 2 4
Laboratory
General N 6 2 6
Biochemistry P 6 2 6
Cytology N 6 2 6 Yes
Glass washing N 10 2 10 Yes
Histology N 6 2 6 Yes
Microbiology N 6 2 6 Yes
Nuclear medicine N 6 2 6 Yes
Pathology N 6 2 6 Yes
Serology P 6 2 6
Sterilizing N 10 2 10 Yes
Media transfer P 4 2 4

52
VENTILATION-AIR SUPPLY Table 4-A cont.

A B C D E F
CONDITIONED AIR NOT ALL AIR
AIRBALANCE MINIMUM 100% O.S.A EXHAUSTE
RELATIONSHIP AIR Minimum Air Minimum D
TO CHANGES Changes of Total Air DIRECTLY
ADJACENT IF 100% Outdoor Air Changes per TO
Area Designation AREAS" O.S.A. per hour hour OUTDOORS

Infectious disease and virus N 6 2 6 Yes


Bacteriology N 6 2 6 Yes

C) Negative-pressure treatment/exam room

Physical therapy and hydrotherapy


N

N
12

6
2

2
12

6
Yes

Soiled workroom (utility room) N 4 2 10 Yes

Clean workroom P 4 2 6

Autopsy N 12 2 12 Yes

Toilet room N 10 Yes.

Shower room N 10 Yes

Waiting area primary care clinic N 10 2 10 Yes'

P =Positive E =Equal N =Negative


1 The pressure relationship of the entire emergency department shall be negative to other adjacent areas.
2 Air may be recirculated if a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter with a minimum efficiency of 99.97 percent or a minimum
efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 17 is installed in the return air duct which serves the waiting area.
3 The term "trauma room" as used here is the operating room space in the emergency department or other trauma reception area
that is used for emergency surgery. The first aid room and/pr "emergency room" used for initial treatment of accident victims may

o
be ventilated as noted for the "treatment rooms. " .
4 The anteroom shall have positive air pressure in relation to the airborne infection isolation room. A door louver, transfer grille, or
other acceptable means shall be provided to allow for airflow from the anteroom to the airborne infection isolation room. The
airborne infection isolation room shall have negative pressure in relation to the anteroom, and the adjoining toilet room shall have
negative pressure in relation to the airborne infection isolation room. Negative pressure shall be achieved by balancing the
exhaust cfm to no less than 75 cfm (35.4 Us) greater than the supply cfm for each airborne infection isolation room the anteroom
serves. The overall area consisting of the anteroom, airborne infection isolation room, and adjoining toilet room shall have an
equal air balance in relation to the corridor.
Exception: For correctional treatment centers, the location and design of the air transfer device shall not compromise the
safety, security and protection of staff, inmates, and property.
5 Positive-pressure shall be achieved by balancing the supply cfm to not less than 75 cfm (35.4 Us) greater than the exhaust and
return cfm for each protective environment room the anteroom serves,
6 The anteroom shall have negative air pressure in relation to the protective environment room. A door louver, transfer grille, or
other acceptable means shall be provided to allow for airflow from the protective environment room to the anteroom. The
protective environment room shall have positive-pressure in relation to the anteroom and adjoining toilet room. Positive pressure
shall be achieved by balancing the supply cfm to not less than 75 cfm (35.4 Us) greater than the exhaust and return cfm. The

o overall area consisting of the anteroom, protective environment room, and adjoining toilet room shall have an equal air balance in
relation to the corridor.
Exception: For correctional treatment centers, the location and design of the air transfer device shall not compromise the
safety, security, and protection of staff, inmates, and property.
7 Cystoscopy may have equal air balance relationship to adjacent areas when approved by Authority Having Jurisdiction.
8 For operating rooms, cardiac catheterization labs, angiography rooms, cystoscopy rooms, delivery rooms, cesarean operating
rooms, newborn intensive care, intensive care units, and nurseries provide approximately 15% excess supply air to the room or a
sufficient quantity of excess supply air to maintain an appropriate positive air balance based on the room tightness and number of

o
doors. For all rooms not listed in this footnote or not listed in Table 315 requiring either a positive or negative air balance, provide
approximately 10% differential cfm between supply and return/exhaust airflow but not less than 25 cfm differential shall be
provided regardless of room size. Room function, size, and tightness may be considered when determining the differential airflow
required.
9 Intensive care patient rooms, which contain a modular toilet/ sink combination unit within the room, shall be provided with a
minimum of 75 cfm of exhaust directly over the modular toilet/sink combination unit.

53
Table 4-8 - Table 4-C 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

TABLE 4-B - Filter Efficiencies for Central Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems
in General Acute Care Hospitals, Acute Psychiatric Hospitals, Outpatient Facilities and Licensed Clinics. 1

Filter Efficiency % Filter Bank


(Minimum efficiency reporting
Area Designation Minimum Number of Filter Banks value MERV)5
No. 11 No. 2 1 No. 3 1
Orthopedic operating room, 30% 90% 99.97%3
bone marrow transplant
operating room, organ transplant 3
operating room (8) (14) (17)

Protective environment rooms 3 30% 90% 99.97%4

(8) (14) (17)

Angiography; cardiac cath labs; 2 30% 90%


operating rooms; delivery rooms
nurseries; patient care, treatment,
cystoscopy, cesarean operating room, (8) (14)
diagnostic and related areas; airborne
infection isolation rooms; areas
providing direct patient service or clean
supplies such as sterile and clean
processes

Laboratories 2 30% 80%

(8) (13)

Administrative, med staff support areas, 1 30%


bulk storage, soiled holding areas,
food preparation areas and laundries (8)

1 Based on ASHRAE Standard 52.1-1992 or ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999.


2 Based on DOP test in accordance With MIL-STD-282 or based on ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999.
3 HEPA filters at air outlet or other locations when approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
4 HEPA filter located in the supply duct which serves the positive-pressure isolation room or rooms may serve more than one supply outlet and more
than one positive-pressure isolation room. HEPA filter or a filter with minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 17 installation shall be designed
and equipped to permit safe removal, disposal and replacement of filters.
5 The numbers in parentheses represent MERV rating based on ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999.

TABLE 4-C - Filter Efficiencies for Central Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems
in Skilled Nursing Facilities and Intermediate Care Facilities and Correctional Treatment Centers. 1

Filter Efficiency % Filter Bank

(Minimum efficiency reporting


Area Designation Minimum Number of Filter Banks valueMERVys
No. 11 No. 2 1
All areas for inpatient care, treatment 2 30% 80%
and/or diagnosis, and those areas
providing direct service or
cleaning supplies (8) (13)

Administrative, bulk storage, soiled 1 30%2


holding, laundries and food prep areas (8)

1 Based on ASHRAE Standard 52.1-1992 or ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999.


2 Filters are not required for evaporative coolers serving laundries and food preparation areas.
3 The numbers in parentheses represent MERV rating based on ASHRAE 52.2-1999.

54
VENTILATION-AIR SUPPLY Table 4-1

e
TABLE 4·1 MINIMUM VENTILATION RATES IN BREATHING ZONE 2,3
[ASHRAE 62.1 :Table 6-1]
Note: Ventilation air supply requirements for occupancies regulated by the
California Energy Commission are found in the California Energy Code.
Occupancy People Outdoor Area Outdoor Default Occupant
Category6 Air Rate Rp AirRateRA Density4
(cfmlperson) (cfmlftZ) (peoplel1,OOO ftZ)

0 Correctional Facilities
Cell
Day room
5
5
0.12
0.06
25
30
Guard stations 5 0.06 15
Booking/waiting 7.5 0.06 50

C) Educational Facilities
Day care (through age 4) 10 0.18 25
Classrooms (ages 5-8) 10 0.12 25
Classrooms (age 9 plus) 10 0.12 35
Lecture classroom 7.5 0.06 65
Lecture hall (fixed seats) 7.5 0.06 150
Art classroom 10 0.18 20
Science laboratories E 10 0.18 25
Wood/metal shop 10 0.18 20
Computer lab 10 0.12 25
Media center A 10 0.12 25
Music/theater/ dance 10 0.06 35
Multi-use assembly 7.5 0.06 100

University/College Laboratories

0 Food and Beverage Service


Restaurant dining rooms
Cafeteria/fast food dining
7.5
7.5
0.18
0.18
70
100
Bars, cocktail lounges 7.5 0.18 100

General
Conference/meeting 5 0.06 50
Corridors 0.06
Storage rooms B 0.12

Hotels, Motels, Resorts,Dormitories


Bedroom/livillg room 5 0.06 10
Barracks sleeping areas 5 0.06 20
Lobbies/ pre-function 7.5 0.06 30
() Multipurpose assembly 5 0.06 120

Office Buildings
Office space 5 0.06 5
Reception areas 5 0.06 30
Telephone/ data entry 5 0.06 60
Main entry lobbies 5 0.06 10

C) Miscellaneous spaces
Bank vaults/safe deposit 5 0.06 5
Computer (not printing) 5 0.06 4
Pharmacy (prep. area) 5 0.18 10
Photo studios 5 0.12 10

0 Shipping/receiving B 0.12

55
Table 4-1 cont. 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

TABLE 4-1 MINIMUM VENTILATION RATES IN BREATHING ZONE 2,3 (continued)


[ASHRAE 62.1 :Table 6-1]

Transportation waiting 7.5 0.06 100


Warehouses B 0.06

Public Assembly Spaces


Auditorium seating area 5 0.06 150
Places of religious worship 5 0.06 120
Courtrooms 5 0.06 70
Legislative chambers 5 0.06 50
Libraries 5 0.12 10
Lobbies 5 0.06 150
Museums (children's) 7.5 0.12 40
Museums/galleries 7.5 0.06 40

Retail
Sales (except as below) 7.5 0.12 15
Mall common areas 7.5 0.06 40
Barbershop 7.5 0.06 25
Beauty and nail salons 20 0.12 25
Pet shops (animal areas) 7.5 0.18 10
Supermarket 7.5 0.06 8
Coin-operated laundries 7.5 0.06 20

Sports and Entertainment


Sports arena (play area) 0.30
Gym, stadium (play area) 0.30 30
Spectator areas 7.5 0.06 150
Swimming (pool & deck) C 0.48
Disco/ dance floors 20 0.06 100
Health club / aerobics room 20 0.06 40
Health club/weight rooms 20 0.06 10
Bowling alley (seating) 10 0.12 40
Gambling casinos 7.5 0.18 120
Game arcades 7.5 0.18 20
Stages, studios D 10 0.06 70

GENERAL NOTES FOR TABLE 4.1


2 Smoking: This table applies to no-smoking areas. Rates for smoking-permitted spaces must be determined using other
methods.
3 Air Density: Volumetric airflow rates are based on an air density of 1.2 kgda/m3 (O.075Ibda/ft3), which corresponds to
dry air at a barometric pressure of 101.3 kPa (1 atm) and an air temperature of 21°C (70 OF). Rates shall be permitted to be
adjusted for actual density but such adjustment is not required for compliance with this chapter.
4 Default Occupant Density: The default occupant density shall be used when actual occupant density is not known.
6 Unlisted Occupancies: If the occupancy category for a proposed space or zone is not listed, the requirements for the
listed occupancy category that is most similar in terms of occupant density, activities, and building construction shall be
used.

ITEM-SPECIFIC NOTES FOR TABLE 4.1


A For high school and college libraries, use values shown for Public Spaces - Library.
B Rate may not be sufficient when stored materials include those having potentially harmful emissions.
C Rate does not allow for humidity control. Additional ventilation or dehumidification may be required to remove
moisture.
D Rate does not include special exhaust for stage effects, e.g., dry ice vapors, smoke.
E No class of air has been established for this occupancy category.

56
--------------------------------~~-------------- ----

VENTILATION-AIR SUPPLY Table 4-2 & Table 4-3

TABLE 4·2
Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness
[ASHRAE 62.1 :Table 6-2]

Air Distribution Configuration Ez

Ceiling supply of cool air 1.0

o Ceiling supply of warm air and floor return

Ceiling supply of warm air at least 15°F (8°C) above space temperature
1.0

0.8
and ceiling return.

o Ceiling supply of warm air less than 15°F (8°C) above space
temperature and ceiling return provided that the 150 £pm (0.8 m/ s)
supply air jet reaches to within 4.5 ft. (1.4 m) of floor level.
1.0

Floor supply of cool air and ceiling return provided that the 150 £pm 1.0
(0.8 m/ s) supply jet reaches at least 4.5 ft. (1.4 m) above the floor.

Floor supply of cool air and ceiling return, provided low velocity 1.2
displacement ventilation achieves unidirectional flow and thermal
stratification.

Floor supply of warm air and floor return 1.0

Floor supply of warm air and ceiling return 0.7

Makeup supply drawn in on the opposite side of the room from the 0.8

o exhaust or return.

Makeup supply drawn in near to the exhaust or return location 0.5

Notes for Table 4-2


1. "Cool air" is air cooler than space temperature.
2. "Warm air" is air warmer than space temperature.
3. "Ceiling" includes any point above the breathing zone.
4. "Floor" includes any point below the breathing zone.
5. As an alternative to using the abov~ values, determine Ez in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 129 for all air
distribution.configurations except unidirectional flow.

TABLE 4-3
System Ventilation Efficiency . .
[ASH RAE 62.1 :Table 6-3]

Max (Zp). Ev
<0.15 1.0
<0.25 0.9
<0.35 0.8
<0.45 0.7
<0.55 0.6
> 0.55· Use ASHRAE 62.1, Appendix A

Notes for Table 4-3.


1. "Max Zp" refersto the largest value of Zp, calculated usingEquation 4-5, among ali the zones served by the system.
2. Interpolating between table values is permitted. .

57
Table 4·4 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

TABLE 4·4 Minimum Exhaust Rates


[ASHRAE 62.1 :Table6-4]

Occupancy Category Exhaust Rate Exhaust Rate Exhaust Rate Exhaust Rate
cfm/unit cfm/ft2 Lis-unit L/s-m2

Art classrooms 0.70 3.5


Auto repair rooms 1 1.50 7.5
Barbershop 0.50 2.5
Beauty and nail salons 0.60 3.0
Cell with toilet 1.00 5.0
Darkrooms 1.00 5.0
Arena 2 0.50 2.5
Kitchen - commercial 0.70 3.5
Kitchenettes 0.30 1.5
Locker rooms 0.50 2.5
Locker I dressing rooms 0.25 1.25
Parking garages 3 0.75 3.7
Janitor, trash, recycle 1.00 5.0
Pet shops (animal areas) 0.90 4.5
Copy, printing rooms 0.50 2.5
Science lab classrooms 1.00 5.0
Toilets - public 4 50/70 25/35
Toilet - private 5 25/50 12.5/25
Woodwork shop I classroom 0.50 2.5

Notes For Table 4-4


1 Stands where engines are run shall have exhaust systems that directly connect to the engine exhaust and prevent escape
of fumes.
2 The rates do not include exhaust from vehicles or equipment with internal combustion engines.
3 Exhaust not required if two or more sides comprise walls that are at least 50% open to the outside.
4 Rate is per water closet or urinal. Provide the higher rate where periods of heavy use are expected to occur, e.g., toilets in
theatres, schools, and sports facilities.
5 Rate is for a toilet room intended to be occupied by one person at a time. For continuous system operation during normal
hours of use, the lower rate may be used. Otherwise use the higher rate.

58
CHAPTER 5
EXHAUST SYSTEMS
Note: Portions of this chapter have been reproduced in their entirety from NFPA 96-1999.

501.0 Scope. structural framing, roofs, roof ceilings, floors, and


This chapter includes requirements for environmental floor-ceiling assemblies continuously enclosing a
air ducts, product-conveying systems, and grease duct on four sides where one or more sides
commercial hoods and kitchen ventilation. require protection per Section 507.2.
COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL. Material subject to an
increase in combustibility or flame-spread rating
Part I - Environmental Air Ducts and Product·
beyond the limits established in the definition of
Conveying Systems

o
Limited-Combustible Material.
COMMERCIAL FOOD HEAT-PROCESSING
502.0 Definitions. EQUIPMENT. Equipment used in a food
For the purposes of this chapter, the following establishment for heat-processing food or utensils
definitions apply: and that produces grease vapors, steam, fumes,
ACCESS PANEL. A closure device used to cover an smoke, or odors that are required to be removed
opening into a duct, an enclosure, equipment, or an through a local exhaust ventilation system.
appurtenance. COMPENSATING HOOD. A hood that has an
AIR INTAKES. An opening in a building's envelope outside-air supply with air delivered below or
whose purpose is to allow outside air to be drawn within the hood. When makeup air is diffused
into the structure to replace inside air that is directly into the exhaust within the hood cavity, it
removed by exhaust systems or to improve the becomes a short-circuit hood.
quality of the inside air by providing a source of air CONCEALED SPACES. That portion(s) of a building
having a lower concentration of odors, suspended behind walls, over suspended ceilings, in pipe chases,
particles, or heating content. attics, and elsewhere whose size might normally

o AIR POLLUTION CONTROL DEVICES. Equipment


and devices used for the purpose of cleaning air
passing through them or by them in such a manner as
range from 1-3/4 inch (44.45 mm) stud spaces to
eight (8) foot (2.44 m) interstitial truss spaces and that
might contain combustible materials such as building
structural members, thermal and/ or electrical
to reduce or remove the impurities contained therein.
APPURTENANCE. An accessory or a subordinate insulation, and ducting. Such spaces have sometimes
part that enables the primary device to perform or been used as HVAC plenum chambers.
improve its intended function. CONTINUOUS ENCLOSURE. A recognized architec-
AUTOMATIC. That which provides a function tural or mechanical component of a building having a
without the necessity of human intervention. [NFPA fire resistance rating as required for the structure and
96: 3.3.6] whose purpose is to enclose the vapor removal duct
for its full length to its termination point outside the
BAFFLE PLATE. An object placed in or near an
structure without any portion of the enclosure having

o appliance to change the direction or retard the flow


of air, air-fuel mixtures, or flue gases.
CERTIFIED. A formally stated recognition and
approval of an acceptable level of competency,
a fire resistance rating less than the required value.
CONTINUOUS WELD. A metal-joining method that
produces a product without visible interruption or
variation in quality. For the purpose of the definition,
acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
[NFPA 96 3.3.9] it specifically includes the exhaust compartment of
hoods and welded joints of exhaust ducts, yet
CLASSIFIED. See Listed.
specifically does not include filter support frames or
CLEARLY IDENTIFIED. Capable of being appendages inside hoods.
recognized by a person of normal vision without
COOKING APPLIANCE FLUE OUTLET. The
causing uncertainty and indecisiveness about the
location or operating process of the identified item. opening or openings in a cooking device where
vapors, combustion gases, or both leave the cooking
CLOSED COMBUSTIBLE CONSTRUCTION. device. There might or might not be ductwork
Combustible building construction, including walls, attached to this opening.

59
502.0 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

DAMPER. A valve or plate within a duct or its FUME INCINERATORS. Devices utilizing intense
terminal components for controlling draft or the flow heat or fire to break down and/ or oxidize vapors
of gases, including air. and odors contained in gases or air being exhausted
DETECTION DEVICES. Electrical, pneumatic, into the atmosphere.
thermal, mechanical, or optical sensing instruments, FUSIBLE LINK. A form of fixed-temperature heat-
or subcomponents of such instruments, whose detecting device sometimes employed to restrain the
purpose is to cause an automatic action upon the operation of an electrical or mechanical control until
occurrence of some preselected event. In the context its designed temperature is reached. Such devices are
of this document, the event in question could be to be replaced following each operation.
excessive temperature or flame, and the action could GREASE. Rendered animal fat, vegetable shortening,
be the operation of a fire-extinguishing system. and other such oily matter used for the purposes of
DIPS. Depression or cuplike places in horizontal and resulting from cooking and/ or preparing foods.
duct runs in which liquids could accumulate. Grease might be liberated and entrained with exhaust
DISCHARGE. The final portion of a duct or pipe air or might be visible as a liquid or solid.
where the product being conveyed is emptied or GREASE DUCTS. A containment system for the
released from confinement; the termination point of transportation of air and grease vapors that is designed
the pipe or duct. and installed to reduce the possibility of the
EASILY ACCESSIBLE. See Accessible, Readily in accumulation of combustible condensation and the
Section 203.0, Chapter 2. ocCllIrence of damage if a fire occurs wi~ the system.
ENVIRONMENTAL AIR DUCT. Ducting used for GREASE FILTER. A removable component of the
conveying air at temperatures not exceeding 250°F grease removal system designed to capture grease
(121OC) to or from occupied areas of any occupancy and direct it to a safe collection point before it enters
through other than heating or air-conditioning a duct system. Filters are expected to minimize the
systems, such as ventilation for human usage, projection of flames downstream when attacked by
domestic kitchen range exhaust, bathroom exhaust flame on the upstream side and are expected to
maintain their strength, shape, and integrity when
ducts, and domestic-type clothes dryer exhaust ducts.
exposed to the anticipated rough handling, cleaning,
FACTORY-BUILT GREASE ENCLOSURES. A listed and service found in the field.
factory-built grease duct enclosure system evaluated
GREASE FILTER, MESH-TYPE. A general-purpose
for reduced clearances to combustibles, and as an
air filter designed to collect and retain lint and grease
alternative to a duct with its fire-rated enclosure.
from the air passing through it. This type of filter is
FIELD-APPLIED GREASE DUCT E(\,jCLOSURES. not tested, listed, or acceptable for commercial
A listed system evaluated for reduced clearances to cooking operations due to the increased fire hazard.
combustibles, and as an alternative to a duct with its
GREASE REMOVAL DEVICES. A system of
fire-rated enclosure. -
components designed for and intended to process
FLAMMABLE VAPOR OR FUMES. The concen- vapors, gases, and/ or air as it is drawn through such
tration of flammable constituents in air that exceeds devices by collecting the airborne grease particles
twenty-five percent (25%) of its lower flammability and concentrating them for further: action at some
limit (LFL). future time, leaving the exiting air with a lower
FIRE BARRIER WALL. A wall assembly complying amount of combustible matter.
with the requirements of NFPA 221, Standard for GREASETIGHT. Constructed and performing in
Fire Walls and Fire Barrier Walls, having a fire such a manner as not to permit the passage of any
resistance rating of four (4) hours. grease under normal cooking conditions.
FIRE PARTITION. An interior wall or partition of a HIGH BROILER. See Upright Broiler.
building that separates two areas and serves to restrict HIGH LIMIT CONTROL. An operating device
the spread of fire but does not qualify as a fire wall. installed in and serving as an integral component of
FIRE RESISTANCE RATING. A relative value in a deep-fat fryer. Its purpose is the secondary
minutes or hours assigned to materials or assemblies limitation of temperatur~ allowed by the cooking
that have withstood a fire exposure as established in operation and, if that temperature is exceeded, the
accordance with NFPA 251, Standard Methods of automatic interruption of the thermal energy input.
Tests of Fire Endurance of Building Construction HOOD. An air-intake device connected to a mechanical
and Materials. exhaust system for collecting and removing grease,

60
~~~~~--c-~~~- .. _-----~~~~~-

EXHAUST SYSTEMS 502.0

vapors, fumes, smoke, steam, heat, or odors from L1QUIDTIGHT. Constructed and performing in such a
commercial food heat-processing equipment. manner as not to permit the passage ofany liquid at any
Fixed Baffle. A listed unitary exhaust hood temperature.
design where the grease removal device is a ~ISTED. Equipment, materials, or services included
nonremovable assembly that contains an ~n a list published by an organization that is
integral fire-activated water-wash fire- acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction and
extinguishing system listed for this purpose. concerned with evaluation of products or services,
Type I is a kitchen hood for collecting and that maintains periodic inspection of production of

n'--_.-'
removing grease and smoke.
Type II is a geiteral kitchen hood for collecting
and removing steam, vapor, heat, or odors.
listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation
of services, and whose listing states that the
equipment,' material, or service meets identified
standards or has been tested and found suitable for a
INTERCONNECTED. Mutually assembled to specified purpose.
another component in such a manner that the
C) operation of one directly affects the other or that the
contents of one specific duct system are allowed to
encounter or contact the products being moved by
NONCOMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL. A material that,
in the form in which it is used and under the
conditions anticipated, will not ignite, burn, support
another duct system. combustion, or release flammable vapors when
subjected to fire or heat. Materials that are reported
LABELED. Equipment or materials to which has
as passing ASTM E 136, Standard Test Method for
been attached a label, symbol, or other identifying
Behavior of Materials in a Vertical Tube Furnace at
mark of an organization that is acceptable to the
750°C, shall be considered noncombustible materials.
Authority Having Jurisdiction and concerned with
product evaluation, that maintains periodic OPEN ,COMBUSTIBLE CONSTRUCTION. Combustible
inspection of production of labeled equipment or building constructions including wall, structural
materials, and by whose labeling the manufacturer framing, roof, roof ceiling, floor, and floor ceiling'
ii:ldicah;?s compliance with appropriate standards or assemblies adjacent to a grease duct on three or
performance in a specified manner. fewer sides where one or more sides require
protection per Section 507.2.
LIMITED-COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL. A building

Cj construction material that does not comply with the


definition of noncombustible' material, that, in the
form in which it is used, has a potential heat value
PITCHED. To be fixed or set at a desired angle or
inclination.
PRODUCT-CONVEYING DUCT. Ducting used for
not exceeding 3,500 Btu/lb. (8141 kJ /kg)(see NFPA conveying solid particulates, such as refuse, dust,
259, Standard Test Method for Potential Heat of . fumes, and smoke; liquid particulate matter, such as
Building Materials), and that complies with either of spray residu'e, mists, and fogs; vapors, such as
the following (A) or (B). Materials subject to an yapors from flammable or corrosive liquids; noxious
increase in combustibility or flame-spread rating and toxic gases; and air at temperatures exceeding
beyond the limits herein established through the 250 P (121°C).
0
' '
effects of age, moisture, or other atmospheric QUALIFIED. A competent and capable person or
conditions shall be considered combustible. company that has met the requirements and training
(A) Materials having a structural base of for a given field acceptable to the Authority Having

o noncombustible material, with a surfacing


not exceeding a thickness of 1/8 inch (3.2
mm), and with a flame-spread rating not
greater than fifty (50),
Jurisdiction. [NPPA 96: 3.3.37]
RECIRCULATING SYSTEMS. Systems for control of
smoke or grease-laden vapors from commercial
cooking equipment that do not exhaust to the outside.
(B) Materials in the form and thickness used, REMOVABLE. Capable of being transferred to
other thim as described in (A), having neither another location with a limited application of effort
a flame-spread rating greater than twenty- and tools.
five (25) nor evidence of continued progressive •
() combustion and of such composition that
surfaces that would be exposed by cutting
REPLACEMENT AIR. See Air, Makeup in Section
203.0, Chapter 2.
SALAMANDER BROILER. See Upright Broiler.
through the material on any plane would
have neither a flame-spread rating greater SHALL. Indicates a mandatory requirement.
than twenty-five (25) nor evidence of SINGLE HAZARD AREA. As considered in the
,continued progressive combustion. applicable extingui~hing system' standard (see

61
502.0 - 503.2 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

Section 513.2) or as determined by the Authority Class 1. Ducts conveying nonabrasives, such as
Having Jurisdiction. smoke, spray, mists, fogs, noncorrosive fumes
SOLID COOKING FUEL. Any solid, organic, and gases, light fine dusts, or powders.
consumable fuel such as briquettes, mesquite, Class 2. Ducts conveying moderately abrasive
hardwood, or charcoal. particulate in light concentrations, such as
SOLID-FUEL COOKING EQUIPMENT. Cooking sawdust and grain dust, and buffing and
equipment that is fired with solid cooking fuel. This polishing dust.
equipment includes ovens, tandoori charcoal pots, Class 3. Ducts conveying Class 2 materials in
grills, broilers, rotisseries, barbecue pits, or any other high concentrations and highly abrasive
type of cooking equipment that derives all or part of materials in low concentrations, such as
its heat source from the burning of solid cooking fuel. manganese, steel chips, and coke.
SOLVENT. A substance (usually liquid) capable of Class 4. Ducts conveying highly abrasive
dissolving or dispersing another substance; a material in high concentrations.
chemical compound designed and used to convert Class 5. Ducts conveying corrosives, such as
solidified grease into a liquid or semiliquid state in acid vapors.
order to facilitate a cleaning operation.
SPARK ARRESTER. A device or method that 503.0 Motors, Fans, and Filters.
minimizes the passage of airborne sparks and
embers into a plenum, duct, and flue. 503.1 General. Motors and fans shall be sized to
provide the required air movement. Motors in areas
STANDARD. A document, the main text of which that contain flammable vapors or dusts shall be of a
contains only mandatory provisions using the word type approved for such environments. A manually
"shall" to indicate requirements and that is in a form operated remote control installed at an approved
generally suitable for mandatory reference by another location shall be provided to shut off fans or blowers
standard or code or for adoption into law. in flammable vapor or dust systems. Electrical
Nonmandatory provisions shall be located in an equipment used in operations that generate explosive
appendix, footnote, or fine-print note and are not to be or flammable vapors, fumes, or dusts shall be
considered a part of the requirements of a standard. interlocked with the ventilation system so that the
TERMINATION. The final or intended end portion of equipment cannot be operated unless the ventilation
a duct system that is designed and functions to fulfill fans are in operation. Motors for fans used to convey
the obligations of the system in a satisfactory manner. flammable vapors or dusts shall be located outside
THERMAL RECOVERY UNIT. A device or series of the duct or shall be protected with approved shields
devices whose purpose is to reclaim only the heat and dustproofing. Motors and fans shall be accessible
content of air, vapors, gases, or fluids that are being for servicing and maintenance.
expelled through the exhaust system and to transfer 503.2 Fans. Parts of fans in contact with explosive or
the thermal energy so reclaimed to a location flammable vapors, fumes, or dusts shall be of
whereby a useful purpose can be served. nonferrous or nonsparking materials or their casing
TRAINED. A person who has become proficient in shall be lined or constructed of such material. When
performing a skill reliably and safely through the size and hardness of materials passing through a
instruction and practice / field experience acceptable fan could produce a spark, both the fan and the
to the Authority Having Jurisdiction. [NFPA 96 casing shall be of nonsparking materials. When fans
3.3.47] are required to be spark-resistant, their bearings
TRAP. A cuplike or U-shaped configuration located shall not be within the airstream, and all parts of the
on the inside of a duct system component where fan shall be grounded. Fans in systems handling
liquids can accumulate. materials that are likely to clog the blades, and fans
in buffing or woodworking exhaust systems, shall be
UPRIGHT BROILER. An appliance used in the of the radial-blade or tube-axial type.
preparation of food whereby foods are exposed to
intense radiant heat, and perhaps to convective heat, Equipment used to exhaust explosive or
with the food and the radiant source not limited to a flammable vapors, fumes, or dusts shall bear an
horizontal mode. identification plate stating the ventilation rate for
which the system was designed.
502.1 Product-Conveying Ducts - Classification.
Fans located in systems conveying corrosives
Product-conveying ducts shall be classified shall be of materials that are resistant to the corrosive
according to their use, as follows: or shall be coated with corrosion-resistant materials.

62
EXHAUST SYSTEMS 503.3 - 504.5

503.3 Air filters shall be listed units. Liquid adhesive exhaust ducts shall not extend into or through
coatings used on filters shall have a flash point of ducts or plenums.
350°F (177°C) or higher, as determined by the Fire 504.3.2 Domestic Clothes Dryers. When a
Code standards. compartment or space for a domestic clothes
dryer is provided, a minimum four (4) inch
~04.0 Environmental Air Ducts. diameter (102 mm) moisture exhaust duct of
504.1 Makeup and Exhaust-Air Ducts. Environ- approved material shall be installed in
accordance with this section and Section 504.0.

o mental air ducts not regulated by other provisions of


this code shall comply with this section. Ducts shall
be substantially airtight and shall comply with the
provisions of Chapter 6. Exhaust ducts shall not
When a closet is designed for the installation
of a clothes dryer, a minimum opening of 100
square inches (64,516 mm2) for makeup air shall be
extend into or through ducts or plenums. Exhaust provided in the door or by other approved means.

o ducts shall terminate outside the building and shall


be equipped with back-draft dampers. [For OSHPD
1, 2 & 4J Exception: Back-draft dampers are not required
when the exhaust fan must operate continuously.
504.3.2.1 Domestic Dryer Vents. Domestic
clothes dryer moisture exhaust ducts shall
be of metal and shall have smooth interior
surfaces.
Environmental air ducts that have an alternate
Exception: Listed clothes dryer transition
function as a, part of an approved smoke-control
system do not require design as Class 1 ducts not more than six (6) feet (1,829 mm)
product-co:p.veying ducts. in length may be used in connection
with domestic dryer exhausts.
504.2 Domestic Range Vents. Ducts used for domestic
kitchen range ventilation shall be of metal and shall Flexible clothes dryer transition
have smooth interior surfaces. Ducts for domestic range ducts shall not be concealed within
hoods shall only serve cooking appliances. construction.
Exception: Ducts for domestic kitchen 504.3.2.2 Length Limitation. Unless
downdraft grill-range ventilation installed under otherwise permitted or required by the dryer
a concrete slab floor may be of approved manufacturer's installation instructions and
approved by the Authority Having
lJ Schedule 40 PVC provided:
(1) The under-floor trench in which the duct is
installed shall be completely backfilled with
Jurisdiction, domestic dryer moisture
exhaust ducts shall not exceed a total
combined horizontal and vertical length of
Eland or gravel.
fourteen (14) feet (4,263 mm), including two
(2) Not more than one (1) inch (25.4 mm) of six (2) 90 degree (1.57 rad) elbows. Two (2) feet
(6) inch diameter (152 mm) PVC coupling (610 mm) shall be deducted for each 90
may protrude above the concrete floor surface. degree (1.57 rad) elbow in excess of two.
(3) PVC pipe joints shall be solvent cemented to 504.3.3 Commercial Clothes Dryers. Commer-
provided an air and grease-tight duct. cial dryer exhaust ducts shall be installed in
(4) The duct shall terminate above grade accordance with their listings. The installation of
outside the building and shall be equipped commercial clothes dryer exhaust ducts shall

o with a back-draft damper.


504.3 Clothes Dryers.
504.3.1 Moisture Exhaust Ducts. Moisture
comply with the appliance manufacturer's
installation instructions.
504.4 Heat (Energy) Recovery Ventilators.
exhaust ducts 'shall terminate on the outside of 504.4.1 Heat (energy) recovery ventilators shall
the building and shall be equipped with a back- be installed in accordance with their listings and
draft damper. Screens shall not be installed at the comply with the appliance manufacturer's

o duct termination. Ducts for exhausting clothes


dryers shall not be connected or installed with
sheet metal screws or other fasteners that will
obstruct the flow. Clothes dryer moisture exhaust
installation instructions. Heat (energy) recovery
vent'ilator ducts shall comply with the
provisions of Chapter 6.
504.5 Termination of Environmental Air Ducts.
ducts shall not be connected to a gas vent Environmental air duct exhaust: three (3) feet (914
connector, gas vent; or chimney, and shall only

C) serve clothes dryers. Clothes dryer moisture


mm)£rom property line; three (3) feet (914 mm) from
openings into the buildfug.

63
504.6 - Table 5-1 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

504.6 Gypsum Wallboard Ducts. Bathroom and Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems
laundry room exhaust ducts may be of gypsum in Chapter 17, using one or more of the
wallboard subject to the limitations of Section 602.1. following techniques:
(a) Combustible concentration reduction
505.0 Design of Product-Conveying Ventilation (b) Oxidant concentration reduction
Systems. (c) Deflagration suppression
505.1 General. A mechanical ventilation or exhaust (d) Deflagration presSUre containment
system shall be installed to control, capture, and Separate and distinct systems shall be provided for
remove emissions generated from product use or incompatible materials.
handling when required by the Building Code or Contaminated air shall not be recirculated to
Fire Code and when such emissions result in a occupied areas unless contaminants have been
hazard to life or property. The design of the system removed. Air contaminated with explosive or
shall be such that the emissions are confined to the flammable vapors, fumes, or dusts; flammable or toxic
area in which they are generated by air currents, gases; or radioactive material shall not be recirculated.
hoods, or enclosures and shall be exhausted by a 505.2 Minimum Velocities and Circulation. The
duct system to a safe location or treated by removing velocity and circulation of air in work areas shall be
contaminants. Ducts conveying explosives or such that contaminants are captured by an airstream
flammable vapors, fumes, or dusts shall extend at the area where the emissions are generated and
directly to the exterior of the building without conveyed into a product-conveying duct system.
entering other spaces and shall not extend into or Mixtures within work areas where contaminants are
through ducts and plenums. generated shall be diluted below 25 percent of their
lower explosive limit or lower flammability limit
Exception: Ducts conveying vapor or fumes with air that does not contain other contaminants.
having flammable constituents less than 25 The velocity of air within the duct shall be not less
percent of their lower flammability limit (LFL) than set forth in Table 5-1.
may pass through other spaces. Systems for removal of vapors, gases, and smoke
505.1.1 Incompatible materials shall not be shall be designed by the constant velocity or equal
conveyed in the same system. friction methods. Systems conveying particulate matter
505.1.2 In systems conveying flammable
shall be designed employing the constant velocity
method. Systems conveying explosive or radioactive
vapors, gases, or mists, the concentration shall
materials shall be prebalanced through duct sizing.
not exceed 29 percent of the lower flammability Other systems may be designed with balancing devices
limit (LFL). ~ such as dampers. Dampers provided to balance airflow
Exception: Higher concentrations shall be shall be provided with securely fixed minimum-
permitted if the exhaust system is designed position blocking devices to prevent restricting flow
and protected in accordance with the below the required volume or velocity.

TABLE 5-1
Minimum Conveying Velocities

Feet per Minute (m/s)

Vapors, gases, smoke, fumes Any

Fine light dusts, such as cotton, lint, and wood flour (100 mesh and under) 2,000 (10.2)

Dry dusts; powders, such as fine rubber molding power, soap dust 2,500 1 (12.7)'

Industrial dusts
Average dusts, such as sawdust, grinding dust, coal dust 3,500 (17.8)
Heavy dusts, such as metal turnings, lead dusts 4,000 (20.3)
Moist dusts and chips, such as lead dust with chips, sticky buffing lint,
quick-lime dust 4,500 (22.9)

Note:
'The velocity for aluminum and magnesium powder shall be not less than 4,000 feet per minute (20.3 m/s).

64
EXHAUST SYSTEMS 505.3 - 506.2

505.;3 Makeup Air. Makeup air shall be provided to materials may be used when it is shown that
replenish air exhausted by the ventilation system. these materials will be equivalent to metal
Makeup-air intakes shall be located so as to avoid ducts installed in accordance with this
recirculation of contaminated air within enclosures. chapter.
505.4 Hoods and Enclosures. Hoods and (2) Ducts serving a Class 5 system may be
enclosures shall be used when contaminants constructed of approved nonmetallic
originate in a concentrated area. The design of the material when the corrosive characteristics
hood or enclosure shall be such that air currents of the material being conveyed make a

o created by the exhaust systems will capture the


contaminants and transport them directly to the
exhaust duct. The volume of air shall be sufficient to
dilute explosive or flammable vapors, fumes, or
metal system unsuitable and wheh the
mixture being conveyed is nonflammable.
Approved nonmetallic material shall be
either a listed product haVing a flame-spread
dusts as set forth in Section 505.2. Hoods of steel index of twenty-five (25) or less and a smoke-
shall have a base metal thickness not less than 0.027 developed rating of fifty (50) or less on both
inch (0.69 mm) (No. 22 gauge) for Class 1 and Class 5 inside and outside surfaces without evidence
metal duct systems; 0.033 inch (0.84 mm) (No. 20 of continued progressive combustion, or
gauge) for hoods serving a Class 2 duct system; 0.044 shall have a flame-spread index of twenty-

I
inch (1.12 mm) (No. 18 gauge) for hoods serving a five (25) or less and shall be installed with
Class 3 duct system; and 0.068 inch (1.73 mm) (No. an automatic fire-sprinkler protection system
14 gauge) for hoods serving a Class 4 duct system. inside the duct.
Approved nonmetallic hoods and duct systems
may be used for Class 5 corrosive systems when the (3) Ducts used in central vacuum cleaning
systems within a dwelling unit shall be
corrosive mixture is nonflammable. Metal hoods
used with Class 5 duct systems shall be protected constructed of materials in compliance with
with suitable corrosion-resistant material. Edges of the applicable standards referenced in
hoods shall be rounded. The minimum clearance Chapter 17. Penetrations of fire walls or
between hoods and combustible construction shall floor-ceiling or roof-ceiling assemblies shall
be the clearance required by the duct system. comply with the Building Code.
505.12 Pharmacies - Compounding Area of Copper or ferrous pipes or conduits
Parenteral Solutions. lCA - Board of Pharmacy] extending from within the separation
The pharmacy shall have a designated area for the between a garage and dwelling unit to the
preparation ofsterile products for dispensing which shall: central vacuuming unit may be used.
1. Be ventilate~ in a manner not interfering with Aluminum ducts shall not be used in systems
laminar air flow. conveying flammable vapors, fumes, or explosive
Note: For additional pharmacy building standard dusts, nor in Class 2, 3, or 4 systems. Galvanized
requirements, see Chapter 12, California Building steel and aluminum ducts shall not be used when the
Code. temperature of the material being conveyed exceeds
0

505.12.1 Pharmacies -laminar flow biological 400 P (205°C).


safety cabinet. lCA - Board of Pharmacy] In Metal ducts used in Class 5 systems that are
all pharmacies preparing parenteral cytotoxic agents, not resistant to the corrosiveness of the product shall
all compounding shall be conducted within a certified be protected with appropriate corrosion-resistant
Class II Type A or Class II Type B vertical laminar
(j airflow hood with bag in - bag out design. The
material.
506.2 Construction. Ducts used for conveying
pharmacy must ensure that contaminated air plenums
that are under positive air pressure are leak tight. products shall be of substantial airtight construction
and shall not have openings other than those
Note: For additional pharmacy building standard required for operation and maintenance of the
requirements, see Chapter 12, California Building Code. system. Ducts constructed of steel shall comply with
Table 5-5 or 5-6.
506.0 Product-Conveying Ducts. Exceptions:
506.1 Materials. Materials used in product- (1) Class 1 product-conveying ducts that
conveying duct systems shall be suitable for the operate at less than four (4) inches water
intended use and shall be of metal. column (995.6 Pa) negative pressure and
Exceptions: convey noncorrosive, nonflammable, and
(1) Asbestos-cement,concrete, clay, or ceramic nonexplosive materials at temperatures not

65
506.2 - 506.7 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

exceeding 250°F (121°C) may be constructed provided with deflagration venting to a safe outside
in accordance with Tables 6-1, 6-2, 6-3, 6-4, location.
6-5, 6-7, 6-8, or, with prior approval, UMC 506.5 Supports. Spacing of supports for ducts shall
Standard No. 6-2. not exceed tWelve (12) feet (3,658 mm) for eight (8)
(2) Ducts used in central vacuuming systems inch (203 mm) ducts nor twenty (20) feet (6,096 mm)
within a dwelling unit shall be constructed for larger ducts, unless justified by the design.
of materials in compliance with the 506.5.1 Duct supports shall be designed to
applicable standards referenced in Chapter carry the weight of the duct half filled with
17. Penetrations of fire-resistive walls, or material. Where sprinkler protection is provided
floor-ceiling or roof-ceiling assemblies shall in the duct, the hanger's design shall include the
comply with the Building Code. Copper or
weight of the duct half filled with water or with
ferrous pipes or conduit extending from
the material being conveyed, whichever has the
within the separation between a garage and
higher density. Loads shall not be placed on
dwelling unit to the central vacuum unit
maybe used. connecting equipment.
The use of rectangular ducts conveying Exception: Where adequate drainage is
particulates shall be subject to approval of the provided, the weight of the water shall not
building official. The design of rectangular ducts require consideration.
shall consider the adhesiveness and buildup of 506.5.2 Hangers and supports exposed to
products being conveyed within the duct. corrosive atmospheres shall be Type 316 S5 or
Aluminum construction may be used in Class 1 equivalent.
duct systems only. The thickness of aluminum ducts 506.5.3 To avoid vibration and stress on the
shall be at least two Brown and Sharpe gauges duct, hangers and supports shall be securely
thicker than the gauges required for steel ducts set fastened to the building or structure.
forth in Tables 5-5 and 5-6. 506.5.4 Hangers and supports shall be designed
506.3 Fittings. Fittings in Class 2, 3, and 4 systems to allow for expansion and contraction. [NFPA
shall be not less than two gauges thicker than the 91:2.5.1 through 2.5.4]
thickness required for straight runs. Flexible metallic 506.6 Fire Protection. Sprinklers or other
duct may be used for connecting ductwork to fire-protection devices shall be installed within
vibrating equipment. Duct systems subject to wide
ducts having a cross-sectional dimension exceeding
temperature fluctuations shall be provided with
ten (10) inches (254 mm) when the duct conveys
expansion joints.
flammable vapors or fumes. Sprinklers shall be
Branches shall connect to main ducts at the large installed at twelve (12) foot (3,658 mm) intervals in
end of transitions at an angle not exceeding forty- horizontal ducts and at changes in direction. In
five (45) degrees (0.79 rad). vertical runs, sprinklers shall be installed at the top
Except for ducts used to convey noncorrosive and at alternate floor levels.
vapors with no particulate, accessible cleanouts shall 506.7 Duct Clearances.
be provided at ten (10) foot (3,048 mm) intervals and
at changes in direction. Access openings shall also be 506.7.1 All ductwork and system components
provided for access to sprinklers and other handling combustible material and operating at
equipment within the duct that require servicing. less than 140°F (60°C) shall have a clearance of
not less than 18 inches (46 em) from combustible
506.4 Explosion Venting. Ducts conveying
construction or any combustible material.
explosive dusts shall have explosion vents, openings
protected by antiflashback swing valves, or rupture Exception No.1: When the ductwork
diaphragms. Openings to relieve explosive forces system is equipped with an approved
shall be located outside the building. When relief automatic extinguishing system designed
devices cannot provide sufficient pressure relief, for the specific hazard, the clearance shall
ductwork shall be designed to withstand an internal be permitted to be reduced to six (6)
pressure of not less than 100 pounds per square inch inches (15 em) from combustible materials
(689 kPa). and 1/2 inch (13 mm) from combustible
If a room or building contains a dust explosion construction.
hazard that is external to protected equipment, as Exception No.2: When the combustible
defined in 2.2.3.1 of NFPA 654, such areas shall be material and construction is protected

66
EXHAUST SYSTEMS Table 5-2 - 506.7

TABLE 5·2
Reduction of Duct Clearance with Specified Forms of Protection

Clearance reduction applied to and covering all combustile surfaces Minimum Allowable Reduction in Clearance (%)
with the distance specified as required clearance with no protection
in 506.7.2

Form of Protection As Wall Protector As Ceiling Protector

(a) 3-1/2 in. (90 mm) thick masonry wall without ventilated airspace 33
(b) 1/2 in. (13 mm) thick noncombustile insulation board over 1 in. 50 33
(25.4 mm) glass fiber or mineral wool batts without ventilated airspace
(c) 0.024 in. (0.61 mm) (No. 24 gauge) sheet metal over 1 in. (25.4 mm) glass 66 66
fiber or mineral wool batts reinforced with wire, or equivalent, on rear face
with at least a 1 in. (25.4 mm) air gap

o
(d) 3-1/2 in (90 mm) thick masonry wall with at least a 1 in (25.4 mm) air gap 66
(e) 0.024 in. (0.61 mm) (No. 24 gauge) sheet metal with at least a 1 in. (25.4 mm) 66 50
air gap
(f) 1/2 in. (13 mm) thick/noncombustible insulation board with at least a 1 in. 66 50
(25.4 mm) air gap
(g) 0.024 in. (0.61mm) (No. 24 gauge) sheet metal with ventilated airspace over 66 50
0.024 in. (0.61 mm) (No. 24 gauge) sheet metal with at least a 1 in. (25.4 mm)
air gap
(h) 1 in. (25.4 mm) glass fiber or mineral wool batts sandwiched between two 66 50
sheets 0.024 in. (0.61 mm) (No. 24 gauge) sheet metal with at least a 1 in.
(25.4 mm) air gap

Extent of protection required to reduce clearances from ducts.

Noles:
1. AJOI lllq(jrOO clearanc& w11h no protection
2.8= re~el1<l e19$~FlQll penn1UGd
3. The protectlon applied to the llQnslrUellon uslng combustlble material shall extend lar QllOUgIlln each dltecIlon 10 make C = A.

by the use of materials or products board) shall have a minimum density of


listed for protection purposes or in eight (8) Ib./ft. 3 (3.6 kq/m 3 ) and have a
accordance with Table 5-2. minimum melting point of l,500°F (816°C).
506.7.1.1 Spacers and ties for protection 506.7.1.4 Insulation board used as a part of
materials shall be of noncombustible material a clearance-reduction system shall have a
and shall not be used directly behind the duct. thermal conductivity of 1 Btu in.! ft,2 hroF
506.7.1.2 With all clearance reduction (0.14 W /m2 hrOC) or less. Insulation board

o systems using a ventilated airspace, air


circulation shall be provided as described in
Table 5-2. There shall be at least one (1) inch
(2.5 cm) between the wall protector and
shall be formed of noncombustible material.
506.7.1.5 There shall be at least one (1) inch
(2.5 cm) between the duct and the wall
protector. In no case shall the clearance
combustible walls and ceilings for clearance, between the duct and the wall surface be
reduction systems using a ventilated space. reduced below that shown in Table 5-2.
506.7.1.3 Mineral wool batts (blanket or 506.7.2 Duct systems operating at elevated

67
Table 5-3 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

TABLE 5·3
Reduction of Clearances with Specified Forms of Protection

Where the required clearance with no protection from appliance, vent connector, or
single-wall metal pipe is:
36 in. 18 in. 12 in. 9 in. 6 in.
Allowable Clearances with Specified Protection (in.)
Type of protection applied
to and covering all surfaces Use Col. 1 for clearances above appliance or horizontal connector. Use Col. 2 for
of combustible material clearances from appliances, vertical connector, and single-wall metal pipe.
within the distance specified
as the required clearance Sides Sides Sides Sides Sides
with no protection and and and and and
[See Figures 9-1(a) Above Rear Above Rear Above Rear Above Rear Above Rear
through 9-1(c)] CoLI Col. 2 CoLI Col. 2 CoLI Col. 2 Col. 1 Col. 2 Col. 1 Col. 2

(1) 3-1/2 in. thick masonry 24 12 9 6 5


wall without ventilated air-
space
(2) 1/2 in. insulation board 24 18 12 9 9 6 6 5 4 3
over 1 in. glass fiber or
mineral wool batts
(3) 0.024 sheet metal over 18 12 9 6 6 4 5 3 3 3
1 in. glass fiber or mineral
wool batts reinforced with
wire on rear face with
ventilated airspace
(4) 3-1/2 in. thick masonry 12· 6 6 6 6
wall with ventilated air
space
(5) 0.024 sheet metal with 18 12 9 6 6 4 5 3 3 2
ventilated airspace
(6) 1/2 in. thick insulation 18 12 9 6 6 4 5 3 3 3
board with ventilated air-
space
(7) 0.024 sheet metal with 18 12 9 6 6 4 5 3 3 3
ventilated airspace over
0.024 sheet metal with
ventilated airspace
(8) 1 in. glass fiber or 18 12 9 6 6 4 5 3 3 3
mineral wool batts
sandwiched between two
sheets 0.024 sheet metal
with ventilated airspace

For 51 units, 1 in. = 25.4 rom.


Notes:
1 Red.uction of clearances from combustible materials shall not interfere with combustion air, draft hood clearance and relief, and accessibility of
servicing. .
2 All clearances shall be measured from the outer surface of the combustible material to the nearest point on the surface of the appliance, disregarding
any intervening protection applied to the combustible material.
3 Spacers and ties shall be of noncombustible material. No spacer or tie shall be used directly opposite the appliance or connector.
4 Where all clearance reduction systems use a ventilated air space, adequate provision for air circulation shall be provided as described.
[See Figures 9-1(a) through 9-1(c).]
5 There shall be at least 1 in. (25 rom) betWeen clearance reduction systems and combustible walls and ceilings for reduction systems using a ventilated
airspace.
6 Where a wall protector is mounted on a single flat wall away from comers, it shall have a minimum 1 in. (25 rom) air gap. To provide adequate air
circulation, the bottom and top edges, or only the side and top edges, or all edges shall be left open.
7 Mineral wool batts (blanket or board) shall have a minimum density of 8 lb. I ft.' (128 kgl m') and a minimum melting point of 1500°F (816"C).
8 Insulation material used as part of a clearance reduction system shall have a thermal conductivity of 1.0 Btu in. 1ft.' Ihr.-oF (0.144 W Im-K) or less.
9 There shall be at least 1 in. (25 mm) between the appliance and the protector. In no case shall the clearance between the appliance and the combustible
surface be reduced below that allowed in Table 5-3.
10 All clearances and thicknesses are minimum; larger clearances and thicknesses are acceptable.
11 Listed single-wall connectors shall be installed in accordance with the terms of their listing and the manufacturer's instructions.

68
EXHAUST SYSTEMS 506.7 - 507.1

temperatures above 140°F (60°C) shall have Part II - Commercial Hoods and Kitchen
clearances from combustible building construc- Ventilation
tion or any combustible material of not less than
eighteen (18) inch (46 cm).
507.0 General Requirements.
506.7.3 Where clearance is reduced by using an
507.1 Cooking equipment used in processes
airspace between the combustible wall and the
producing smoke or grease-laden vapors shall be
wall protector, air circulation shall be provided
equipped with an exhaust system that complies with
by one of the following methods.
all the equipment and performance requirements of
506.7.3.1 Air circulation shall be permitted this standard, and all such equipment and
to be provided by leaving all edges of the performance shall be maintained per this standard
wall protector open with at least a one (1) during all periods of operation of the cooking
inch (2.5 cm) air gap. equipment. Specifically, the following equipment
506.7.3.2 If the wall protector is mounted shall be kept in good working condition:
on a single flat wall away from corners, air (A) Cooking equipment
circulation shall be permitted to be provided
by one of the following: (B) Hoods
(A) Leaving top and bottom edges open (C) Ducts (if applicable)
to circulation by maintaining the one (1) (D) Fans
inch (2.5 cm) air gap. (E) Fire suppression systems
(B) Leaving top and both side edges (F) Special effluent or energy control equipment
open to circulation by maintaining the
All airflows shall be maintained. Maintenance
(1) inch (2.5 cm) air gap.
and repairs shall be performed on all
506.7.3.3 Wall protectors that cover two components at intervals necessary to maintain
walls in a corner shall be permitted to be these conditions. '
open at the top and bottom edges with at 507.1.1 All solid-fuel cooking equipment shall
least a one (1) inch (2.5 cm) air gap. [NFPA comply with the requirements of Section 517.0.

C\
91:2.6.1 through 2.6.3.8]
507.1.2 Multiple-tenancy applications shall
506.8 Protection from Physical Damage. Ducts require the concerted cooperation of design,
) installed in locations where they are subject to physical installation, operation, and maintenance
damage shall be protected by suitable guards. responsibilities by tenants and by the building
506.9 Exhaust Outlets. Outlets for exhausts that owner.
exceed 600°F (315°C) shall be in accordance with
507.1.3 All interior surfaces of the exhaust
Table 5-7.
system shall be reasonably accessible for
The termination point for exhaust ducts cleaning and inspection purposes.
discharging to the atmosphere shall be not less than
507.1.4 Cooking equipment used in fixed,
the following:
mobile, or temporary concessions, such as
506.9.1 Ducts conveying explosive or trucks,' buses, trailers, pavilions, tents, or any
flammable vapors, fumes, or dusts: thirty form of roofed enclosure, shall comply with this
(30) feet (9,144 mm) from property line; ten

o (10) feet (3,048 mm) from openings into the


building, six (6) feet (1,829 mm) from
exterior walls or roofs; thirty (30) feet (9,144
standard unless all or part of the installation is
exempted by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
507.1.5 Cooking equipment that has been listed
in accordance with UL 197 or an equivalent
mm) from combustible walls or openings
into the building that are in the direction of standard for reduced emissions shall not be
the exhaust discharge; ten (10) feet (3,048 required to be provided with an exhaust system.
mm) above adjoining grade. [NFPA 96: 4.1.1.1]

o 506.9.2 Other product-conveying outlets:


ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) from property line;
three (3) feet (914 mm) from exterior wall or
507.1.6 The listing evaluation of cooking
equipment covered by section 507.1.5 shall
demonstrate that the grease discharge at the
roof; ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) from openings exhaust duct of a test hood placed over the
into the building; ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) appliance shall not exceed 5 mg / m3 when

Cj above adjoining grade. operated with a total airflow of 0.236 cubic


meters per second (500 dm). [NFPA 96 4.1.1.2]

69
507.1 - 507.2 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

507.1.7 The responsibility for inspection, product shall be repaired and restored to
maintenance, and cleanliness of the ventilation meet its intended listing or clearance
control and fire protection of the commercial requirements and shall be acceptable to the
cooking operations shall be the ultimate Authority Having Jurisdiction. In the event
responsibility of the owner of the system of a fire within a kitchen exhaust system, the
provided that this responsibility has not been duct and its enclosure (rated shaft, factory-
transferred in written form to a management built grease duct enclosure, or field-applied
company or other party. [NFPA 96 4.1.5] grease duct enclosure) shall be inspected by
507.2 Clearance. qualified personnel to determine whether
the duct and protection method are
507.2.1 Except where enclosures are required,
structurally sound, capable of maintaining
hoods, grease removal devices, exhaust fans,
their fire-protection function, and suitable
and ducts shall have a clearance of at least
for continued operation.
eighteen (18) inches (457.2 mm) to combustible
material, three (3) inches (76.2 mm) to limited- 507.2.2 The protection methods for ducts to
combustible material, and 0 inches (0 mm) to reduce clearance shall be applied to the
noncombustible material. combustible or limited-combustible construction,
not to the duct itself.
Exception No.1: Where the hood, duct, or
grease removal device is listed for lesser Exception: Field-applied grease duct
clearances. enclosures and factory-built grease duct
enclosures.
Exception No.2: Reduced clearance to
combustible material if the combustible 507.2.3 Field-Applied and Factory Built
material is protected as follows: Grease Duct Enclosures. Field-applied grease
duct enclosures and factory-built grease duct
(a) 0.013 inch (0.33 mm) (no. 28 gauge) sheet
enclosures shall listed in accordance with UL
metal spaced out one (1) inch (25.4 mm) on
2221, Standard for Tests of Fire Resistive Grease
noncombustible spacers shall have nine Duct Enclosure Assemblies, or equivalent
(9) inch (228.6 mm) clearance to com- standard and installed in accordance with the
bustible material. manufacturer's instructions and the listing
(b) 0.027 inch (0.69 mm) (No. 22 gauge) sheet requirements. [NFPA 96: 4.3.1]
metal on one (1) inch (25.4 mm) mineral 507.2.4 Field-applied grease duct enclosures
wool batts or ceramic fiber blanket and factory-built grease duct enclosures shall
reinforced with wire mesh or equivalent demonstrate that they provide sufficient
spaced out one (1) inch (25.4 mm) on non- mechanical and structural integrity, resiliency,
combustible spacers shall have three (3) and stability when subjected to expected
inch (76.2 mm) clearance to combustible building environmental conditions, duct
material. movement under general operating conditions,
Exception No.3: Reduced clearance to and duct movement due to fire conditions.
limited-combustible materials to zero clearance [NFPA 96: 4.3.2]
where protected by metal lath and plaster, 507.2.4.1 Measures shall be taken to prevent
ceramic tile, quarry tile, other noncombustible physical damage to any material or product
materials or assembly of noncombustible used for the purpose of reducing clearances.
materials, or materials and products that are Exception: When the duct is protected with
listed for the purpose of reducing clearance a field-applied grease duct enclosure or
and are acceptable to the Authority Having factory-built grease duct enclosure.
Jurisdiction. The listed materials shall be
installed in accordance with the conditions of 507.2.4.2 The specifications of material,
the listing and the manufacturer's instructions gauge, and construction of the duct used in
and shall be acceptable to the Authority the testing and listing of field-applied grease
duct enclosures and factory-built grease duct
Having Jurisdiction.
enclosures shall be included as minimum
507.2.1.1 Measures shall be taken to prevent requirements in their listing and installation
phYSical damage to any material or product documentation. [NFPA 96: 4.3.3]
used for the purpose of reducing clearances.
507.2.4.3 The following clearance options
In the event of damage, the material or
for which field-applied grease duct

70
-~--~._-~~------ --------------------~~

EXHAUST SYSTEMS 507.2 - 508.2

enclosures and factory-built grease duct system, including electrical schematics, shall be
enclosures have been successfully evaluated available on the premises.
shall be clearly identified in their listing and 507.4 If required by the Authority Having
installation documentation and on their Jurisdiction, notification in writing shall be given of
label [NFPA 96: 4.3.4]: any alteration, replacement, or relocation of any
(1) Open combustible clearance at manufac- exhaust or extinguishing system or part thereof or
turer's requested dimensions. [NFPA cooking equipment. Satisfaction shall be provided to
96: 4.3.4(1)] the Authority Having Jurisdiction that the complete
(2) Closed combustible clearance at exhaust system as addressed in this standard is
manufacturer's requested dimensions, installed and operable in accordance with the
with or without specified ventilation. approved design and the manufacturer's instructions.
[NFPA 96: 4.3.4(2)]
(3) Rated shaft clearance at manufacturer's 508.0 Hoods.
requested dimensions, with or without
508.1 Where Required. Hoods shall be installed at or
specified ventilation. [NFPA 96: 4.3.4(3)]
above all commercial-type deep fat fryers, broilers, fry
507.2.5 A duct shall be permitted to contact grills, steam-jacketed kettles, hot-top ranges, ovens,
noncombustible floors, interior walls, and other barbecues, rotisseries, dishwashing machines, and
noncombustible structures or supports, but it similar equipment that produces comparable amounts
shall not be in contact for more than 50 percent of steam, smoke, grease, or heat in a food-processing
of its surface area per each lineal foot of contact establishment. For the purpose of this section, a food-
length. Where such direct contact is made, the processing establishment shall include any building or
duct shall be protected from corrosion due to portion thereof used for the processing of food, but
this contact. shall not include a dwelling unit.
Exception: When the duct is protected with 508.1.1 Construction. The hood or that portion
a material or product listed for the purpose of a primary collection means designed for
of reducing clearance to zero. collecting cooking vapors and residues shall be
507.2.6 Clearances between the duct and constructed of and be supported by steel not less

C) interior surfaces of enclosures shall meet the


requirements of Section 507.2.
507.3 A drawing(s) of the exhaust system installation
than 0.043 inch (1.09 mm) (No. 18 MSG) in
thickness, stainless steel not less than 0.037
inch(0.94 mm) (No. 20 MSG) in thickness, or
along with a copy of operating instructions for other approved material of equivalent strength
subassemblies and components used in the exhaust and fire and corrosion resistance.
Exceptions:
(1) Listed exhaust hoods with or without
exhaust dampers.
(2) Type II hoods shall be constructed of at least
rOven flue duct' 0.024 inch (0.61 mm) (No. 24 gauge) steel.
_J ~ Ovenflue Hoods constructed of copper shall be of

o
I.==I==:=:J=!::.::::..::::::-=dduct collar copper sheets weighing at least twenty-four
Exhaust hood I (24) ounces per square foot (7.32 kg / m 2 ).
Joints and seams shall be substantially tight.
I Solder shall not be used except for sealing a
j joint or seam.
All hoods shall be secured in place [For OSHPD
Oven I 1, 2 & 4J to resist the lateral loads given in the
i Califonria Building Code, Title 24, Part 2 by
j noncombustible supports.
508.2 All seams, joints, and penetrations of the hood
i
,,
I enclosure that direct and capture grease-laden
vapors and exhaust gases shall have a liquidtight

o FIGURE 5-1 Typical Section of Eyebrow-Type


Hood.
conti;"'uous external weld'to the hood's lower
outermost perimeter. Internal hood joints, seams,

71
508.2 - 508.4 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

filter support frames, and appendages attached determined by application of the following
inside the hood need not be welded but shall be formulas:
sealed or otherwise made greasetight. WHERE:
Exception No.1: Penetrations shall be permitted A = the horizontal surface area of the hood, in square
to be sealed by devices that are listed for such use feet (m2).
and whose presence does not detract from the
P = that part of the perimeter of the hood that is open, in
hood's or duct's structural integrity. feet (mrn).
Exception No.2: Eyebrow-type hoods over gas D = distance in feet (mm) between the lower lip of
or electric ovens shall be permitted to have a duct the hood and the cooking surface.
constructed as in Section 510.0 from the oven
flue(s) connected to the hood canopy upstream of Q = quantity of air, in cubic feet per minute (L / s).
the exhaust plenum as shown in Figure 5-1. The
duct shall be connected to the hood with a When cooking equipment is installed back to back
continuous weld or have a duct-to-duct and is covered by a common island-type hood, the
connection as shown in Figure 5-6(b) through (d). airflow reqUired may be calculated using the
Exception No.3: Seams, joints, and penetrations formula for three sides exposed. Type II hood
of the hood shall be permitted to be internally airflow requirements shall be in accordance with the
welded, provided that the weld is formed requirements for low-temperature appliance hoods.
smooth or ground smooth, so as to not trap 508.4.1.2 The minimum airflow for solid-
grease, and is readily cleanable. fuel cooking equipment, grease-burning
Exception No.4: Listed exhaust hoods with or charbroilers, and undefined equipment shall
without exhaust dampers. be:
508.3 Insulation materials other than electrical Number of Exposed Sides Formula
insulation shall have a flame-spread rating of 4 (island or central hood) Q = 300A
twenty-five (25) or less when tested in accordance 3 or less Q = 200A
with UL 723, Standard for Test for Surface Burning
Alternate formula Q = 100PD
Characteristics of Building Materials. Adhesives or
cements used in the installation of insulating 508.4.1.3 Type I hoods when the cooking
materials shall comply with the preceding equipment includes high-temperature
requirements when tested with the specific appliances such as deep-fat fryers:
insulating material. Number of Exposed Sides Formula
508.4 Hood Size. Hoods shall be sized according to 4 (island or central hood) Q = 150A
the following calculations and configured to provide 3 or less Q = 100A
for the capture and removal of grease-laden vapors. Alternate formula Q = 100PD
(See Section 511.2.2.)
508.4.1.4 Type I hoods where the cooking
508.4.1 Canopy Size and Location. For equipment includes medium-temperature
canopy-type commercial cooking hoods, the appliances such as rotisseries, grills, and
inside edge thereof shall overhang or extend a ranges:
horizontal distance of not less than six (6) inches Number of Exposed Sides Formula
(152 mm) beyond the edge of the cooking
surface on all open sides, and the vertical 4 (island or central hood) Q = 100A
distance between the lip of the hood and the 3 or less Q = 75A
cooking surface shall not exceed four (4) feet Alternate formula Q = 50PD
(1,219mm). 508.4.1.5 Type I hoods where the cooking
Exception: Listed exhaust hoods are to be equipment includes low-temperature
installed in accordance with the terms of appliances such as medium-to-low-
their listings and the manufacturer's temperature ranges, roasters, roasting
installation instructions. ovens, pastry ovens, and equipment
508.4.1.1 Capacity of Hoods. Canopy-type approved for use under a Type II hood, such
commercial cooking hoods shall exhaust as pizza ovens:
through the hood a minimum quantity of air

72
---_._--- -----------------~---_._._-_. __._---_.. --_._-_. ------,

EXHAUST SYSTEMS 508.4 - 509.2

Number of Exposed Sides Formula 508.7 Solid-Fuel Hood Assemblies. Where solid-
fuel cooking equipment is to be used, the solid-fuel
A
'---- _.
4 (island or central hood)
3 or less
Q=75A
Q=50A
hood assembly shall comply with Section 517.0.
508.8 Exhaust Outlets. An exhaust outlet within an
Alternate formula Q=50PD
unlisted hood shall be located so as to optimize the
capture of particulate matter. Each outlet shall serve
Exception: Listed exhaust hoods are to be not more than a twelve (12) foot (3658 mm) section of
installed in accordance with the terms of their an unlisted hood

n
"--
.. /
listing and the manufacturer's installation
instructions.
508.4.2 Capacity for Noncanopy Hoods.
509.0 Grease Removal Devices in Hoods.
509.1 Grease Removal Devices. Listed grease
In addition to all other requirements for
filters, baffles, or other approved grease removal
hoods specified in this section, the volume
(~
devices for use with commercial cooking equipment
of air exhausting through a noncanopy-type
~) hood to the duct system shall be not less
shall be provided. Listed grease filters shall be tested
in accordance with UL 1046, Grease Filters for
than 300 cubic feet per minute per lineal foot
Exhaust Ducts. Mesh filters shall not be used.
(465 L/ s per m) of cooking equipment.
Listed noncanopy exhaust hoods and filters 509.2 Installation.
shall be sized and installed in accordance 509.2.1 The distance between the grease
with the terms of their listing and the removal device and the cooking surface shall be
manufacturer's installation instructions. as great as possible but not less than eighteen
Exception: Listed hood assemblies (18) inches (457.2 mm). [NFPA 96: 6.2.1.1]
designed and installed specifically for the 509.2.2 Where grease removal devices are used
intended use. in conjunction with charcoal or charcoal-type
508.5 Exhaust Hood Assemblies with Integrated broilers, including gas or electrlcally heated
Supply-Air Plenums. charbroilers, a minimum vertical distance of four
(4) feet (1.22 m) shall be maintained between the
The construction and size of these hoods shall

o
lower edge of the grease removal device and the
comply with the requirements of Sections 508.1 and
cooking surface. [NFPA 96: 6.2,1.2]
508.4.
Exception No.1: Grease, removal devices
508.5.1 The construction of the outer shell or the
supplied as part of listed hood assemblies
inner exhaust shell shall comply with Section
shall be installed in accordance with the
508.1. If the outer shell is welded, the inner shell
terms of the listing and the manufacturer's
shall be of greasetight construction.
instructions. [NFPA 96: 6.2.1.5]
508.5.2 A fire-actuated damper shall be installed
Exception No.2: For cooking equipment
in the supply air plenum at each point where a
without exposed flame and where flue
supply air duct inlet or a supply air outlet
penetrates the continuously welded shell of the gases bypass grease removal devices, the
assembly. The damper shall be listed for such use minimum vertical distance shall be
or be part of a listed exhaust hood with or permitted to be reduced to not less than six
(6) inches (152.4 mm). [NFPA96: 6.2.1.3]
C) without exhaust damper. The actuation device .
shall have a maximum temperature rating of
286°F (141°e). Supply-air plenums that discharge
Exception No.3: Where a grease removal
device is listed for separation distances less
air from the face rather than from the bottom or than those required in 6.2.1.1 and 6.2.1.2,
. into the exhaust hood and that. are isolated from the listing requirements shall be permitted.
the exhaust hood by the continuously welded [NFPA 96: 6.2.1.4]
shell extending to the lower outermost perimeter 509.2.3 Grease Removal Device Protection.

o of the entire hood assembly shall not require a


fire-actuated damper.
508.6 Listed Hood Assemblies. Listed hood
assemblies shall be installed in .accordance with the
Grease removal devices shall be protected from
combustion gas outlets and from direct flame
impingement occurring during normal operation
of cooking appliances producing high flue gas
terms of their listing and the manufacturer's temperatures, such as deep-fat fryers or upright or

(J instructions. high broilers (salamander broilers), where the

73
509.2 - Figure 5-2 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

distance between the grease removal device and shall be clearly so designated, or the hood shall
the appliance flue outlet (heat source) is less than be constructed so that filters cannot be installed
eighteen (18) inches (457.2 mm). [NFPA 96: 6.2.2.1] in the wrong orientation. [NFPA 96: 6.2.5]
509.2.3.1 This protection shall be permitted to 509.3 Solid-Fuel Grease Removal Devices.
be accomplished by the installation of a steel Where solid-fuel cooking equipment is provided
or stainless steel baffle plate between the heat with grease removal devices, these devices shall
source and the grease removal device. [NFPA comply with Section 517.0.
96: 6.2.2.2]
509.2.3.2 The baffle plate shall be sized and 510.0 Exhaust Duct Systems.
located so that flames or combustion gases 510.1 General.
shall travel a distance not less than (eighteen)
18 inches (457.2 mm) from the heat source to 510.1.1 Ducts shall not pass through fire walls
the grease removal device. [NFPA 96: 6.2.2.3]' or fire partitions.
509.2.3.3 The baffle shall be located not less 510.1.2 All ducts shall lead as directly as is
than six (6) inches (152.4 mm) from the grease practicable to the exterior of the building, so as
removal devices. [NFPA 96: 6.2.2.4] not to unduly increase any fire hazard.
509.2.4 Grease Filters. Grease filters shall be 510.1.3 Duct systems shall not be interconnected
listed and constructed of steel or listed with any other building ventilation or exhaust
equivalent material and shall be of rigid system.
construction that will not distort or crush under 510.1.4 All ducts shall be installed without
normal operation, handling, and cleaning forming dips or traps that might collect residues.
conditions. [NFPA 96: 6.2.3.1 and 6.2.3.2] For In manifold (common duct) systems, the lowest
applications listed in Section 111 regulated by the end of the main duct shall be connected flush on
Office of State Fire Marshal, grease filters shall be the bottom with the branch duct. Duct systems
Class I when tested'in accordance with the test serving a Type I hood shall be so constructed and
method in Part 12, Title 24, Chapter 12~71, SFM installed that grease cannot become pocketed in
Standard 12-71-1. any portion thereof, and the system shall slope
not less than 1/4 inch per lineal foot (21 mm / m)
509.2.4.1 Filters shall be tight fitting and
toward the hood or toward an approved grease
firmly held in place and grease filters shall
be arrar:tged so that all exhaust air passes
through the grease filters. [NFPA 96: 6.2.3.3]
509.2.4.2 Filters shall be easily accessible
and removable for cleaning. [NFPA 96:
6.2.3.4]
509.2.4.3 Filters shall be installed at an
angle not less than 45 degrees from the
horizontal. [NFPA 96: 6.2.3.5]
509.2.4.4 [DHSj Grease filters shall be Class I
when tested in accordance with the test method Perspective
in SFM 12-71-1. 25.4 mm x 25.4 mm
509.2.5 Grease Drip Trays. Filters shall be (1 !n. x 1 In.) angle Square, rectangular,
(min), same gauge or round In shape
equipped with a drip tray beneath their lower
edges. [NFPA 96: 6.2.4.1] (~I~)~~O.D. of duct
3.2 mm (Va In.)
[v-- Continuous perimeter weld
6.4 mm (V-4 In.) weld studs or
509.2.5.1 The tray shall be kept to the , less than I.D. , bolts at each comer and
: of hood collar: 102 mm(4In.)(max)ct
minimum size needed to collect grease and F==:il TN
-.i. "-
"om"
J"
shall be pitched to drain into an enclosed
we. ~"~Its. Joint with (S1S.6°C) 1500°F rated
metal container having a capacity not 6.4 mm (V-4 in.) gasket or sealant
steel (min)
exceeding one (1) gallon (3.785 L) [NFPA 96:
6.2.4.2, and 6.2.4.3].
Detail of sealed hood-duct joint
509.2.6 Grease Filter Orientation. Grease filters
that require a specific orientation to drain grease FIGURE 5·2 Permitted Duct-to-Hood Collar
Connection.

74
EXHAUST SYSTEMS 510.1-510.3

reservoir. Where horizontal ducts exceed 510.1.8 Ducts, Non-Grease. Ducts and
seventy-five (75) feet (22,860 mm) in length! the plenums serving Type II hoods shall be
slope shall be not less than one (1) inch per lineal constructed of rigid metallic materials as set
foot (83 mm/ m). forth in Chapter 6. Duct bracing and supports
510.1.5 Openings required for accessibility shall shall comply with Chapter 6. Ducts subject to
comply with Section 510.3. positive pressure shall be adequately sealed.
510.1.6 A sign shall be placed on all access 510.2 Clearance.
panels stating the following: 510.2.1 Clearance between ducts and combustible

Cl ACCESS PANEL-DO NOT OBSTRUCT


510.1.7 Duct bracing and supports shall be of
materials shall be provided in accordance with the
requirements of Section 507.2.
510.2.2 Listed grease ducts shall be installed in
noncombustible material! securely attached to the
structure and designed to carry gravity and lateral accordance with the terms of their listings and
manufacturers' instructions.
loads within the stress limitations of the Building
Code. Bolts, screws, rivets, and other mechanical 510.3 Openings.
fasteners shall not penetrate duct walls. 510.3.1 Openings shall be provided at the sides
or at the top of the duct, whichever is more
accessible, and at changes of direction. Openings
shall be protected by approved access panels
Telescoping duct Joint
that comply with Section 510.3.4.5.
Exception: Openings shall not be required
1.0. (mm) ~ Exhaust duct in portions of the duct that are accessible
Inside section
from the duct entry or discharge.
Weld around 510.3.2 For hoods with dampers in the exhaust
or supply collar, an access panel for cleaning and
~50.8 mm (max)
[2 In. (max)] inspection shall be provided in the duct or the
hood collar. This access panel shall be as close to

I: the hood as possible but shall not exceed

o
i.D. (mm) + 6.4 mm
Outside section 6-gauge [1.6 mm ('h.-In.)] eighteen (18) inches (457.2 mm).
(max) black Iron
Exception: Dampers that are accessible
from under the hood.
v
Notes: 1. Duct size decreases (going upward) with each telescope. 510.3.3 Exhaust fans with ductwork connected to
2. Smaller (inside) duct section is always above or uphill (on both sides shall have access for cleaning and
sloped duct), to be self-draining into larger (outside) duct. inspection within three (3) feet (0.92 m)of each side
of the fan. [NFPA 96: 7.3.7] ,
510.3.4 Openings in Ducts. Openings shall
Bell duct Joint
conform with Sections 510.3.4.1 through
510.3.4.5. [NFPA 96: 7.4]
Male end I.D.mm - Exhaust duct 510.3.4.1 Horizontal Ducts. On horizontal
ducts, at least one 20 inch by 20 inch (508
!~ ~ Weld around mm by 508 mm) opening shall be provided
U t
l
1.0. mm + 6.4 mm
(max)'
~~
~_
50.8 mm (max)
[2 In. (max)]
for personnel entry. [NFPA 96: 7.4.1.1]
510.3.4.1.1 Horizontal ducting shall be
secured sufficiently to allow for the weight
of personnel entry into the duct. Where an
Female end I.D.mm
V black
jlS-gaU ge [1.6 mm ('A.-in.)]
iron opening of this size is not possible, openings
large enough to permit thorough cleaning
v
shall be provided at twelve (12) foot (3.7 m)
Notes: 1. Duct size stays the same through~ut the duct system. intervals. [NFPA 96: 7.4.1.3]
2. Smaller (Inside) maie duct end Is elways above or uphill (on
sloped duct). to be self-draining into larger (outside) female
510.3.4.1.2 Support systems for horizontal
duct end. grease duct systems 609 mm (24 in.) and
larger in any crof;1s-sectional.dimension shall
FIG,URE 5-3 Telescoping and Bell-Type Duct be designed for ,the weight of the ductwork
Connections.

75
510.3-510.7 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

plus 363 kg (800 lb) at any point in the duct Exception No.1: Duct-to-hood collar
systems. [NFPA 96: 7.4.1.3] connections as shown in Figure 5-2 shall
510.3.4.2 Onnonlisted ductwork, the edge be per~tted.
of the opening shall be not less than 1-1 /2 Exception No.2: Penetrations shall be
inch (38.1 mm) from all outside edges of the permitted to be sealed by other listed
duct or welded seams. [NFPA 96: 7.4.1.4] devices that are tested to be greasetight
510.3.4.3 Vertical Ducts. On vertical and are evaluated under the same
ductwork where personnel entry is conditions of fire severity as the hood or
possible, access shall be provided at the top enclosure of listed grease extractors and
of the vertical riser to accommodate whose pres~nce does not detract from
descent. [NFPA 96: 7.4.2.1] the hood's .or duct's structural integrity.
510.3.4.3.1 Where personnel entry is Exception No.3: Internal welding shall
not possible, adequate acceSS for be permitted, provided the joint is
cleaning shall be provided on each formed or ground smooth and is readily
floor. [NFPA 96: 7.4.2.2] accessible for inspection.
510.3.4.4 Access Panels. Access panels 510.5.2.2 Overlapping duct connections of
shall be of the same mate:dal and thickness either the telescoping or the bell type shall
as the duct (Section 510.5.1). Access panels be used for welded field joints, not butt-
shall have a gasket or sealant that is rated for weld connections. The inside duct section
1,500°F (815.6°C) and shall be greasetight. shall always be uphill of the outside duct
Fasteners, such as bolts, weld studs, latches, section. The difference between inside
or wing nuts, used to secure the access dimensions of overlapping sections shall not
panels shall be carbon steel or stainless steel exceed 1/4 inch (6.4 mm). The overlap shall
and shall not penetrate duct walls. not exceed two (2) inches (50.8 mm). (See
Figure 5-3.)
Exception: Listed grease duct access
door assemblies (access panels) shall be 510.6 Exterior Installations.
installed in accordance with their terms 510.6.1 The exterior portion of the
of the listings and the manufacturer's ductwork shall be vertical wherever possible
instructions. and shall be installed and adequately
510.3.4.5 Opeitings for installation, servicing, supported on the exterior of a building.
and inspection oflisted fire protection system Bolts, screws, rivets, and other mechanical
devices and for duct cleaning shall be fasteners shall not penetrate duct walls.
provided in ducts and enclosures and shall Clearance of any ducts shall comply with
conform to the requirements of 510.3. Section 507.2.
Enclosure opeitings required to reach access 510.6.2 All ducts shall be protected on the
panels in the ductwork shall be large enough exterior by paint or other suitable weather-
for the removal of the access panel. protective coating or shall be constructed of
510.4 Listed Grease Ducts. Listed grease ducts noncorrosive stainless steel. Ductwork
shall be installed in accordance with the terms of the subject to corrosion shall have minimal
listing and the manufacturer's instructions. contact with the building surface.
510.5 Other Grease Ducts. Other grease ducts 510.7 Interior Installations.
shall comply with the requirements of this section. 510.7.1 In all buildings more than one story in
510.5.1 Materials. Ducts shall be constructed of height, and in one-story buildings where the roof-
and supported by carbon steel not less than ceiling assembly is required to have a fire
0.054 inch (1.37 mm) (No. 16 MSG) in thickness resistance rating, the ducts shall be enclosed in a
or stainless steel not less than 0.043 inch (1.09 continuous enclosure extending from the lowest
mm) (No. 18 MSG) in thickness. fire-rated ceiling or floor above the hood, through
any concealed spaces, to or through the roof so as
510.5.2 Installation.
to maintain the integrity of the fire separations
510.5.2.1 All seams, joints, penetrations, required by the applicable Building Code
and duct-to-hood collar connections shall provisions. The enclosure shall be sealed around
have a liquidtight continuous external weld. the duct at the point of penetration of the lowest

76
-,~- -------'---
---------'-~--I

i
EXHAUST SYSTEMS 510.7 - Figure 5-4

fire-rated ceiling or floor above the hood in order described in Section 507.2 are not applicable to

A
~'
to maintain the fire resistance rating of the
enclosure and shall be vented to the exterior of ,the
enclosures.
Exception: Clearance from the outer surfaces
building through weather-protected openings. of field-applied grease duct enclosures and
Exception: The continuous enclosure factory-built grease duct enclosures to the
provisions shall not be required ~here a field- interior surfaces of construction installed
applied grease duct enclosure or a factory- around them shall be permitted to be
built grease duct enclosure (see Section reduced where the field-applied grease duct
507.2.3) is protected with a listed duct- enclosure materials and the factory-built
through-penetration protection system grease duct enclosures are installed in
equivalent to the fire resistance rating of the accordance with the conditions of their
assembly being penetrated, and the materials listings and the manufacturers' instructions
are installed in accordance with the conditions and are acceptable to the Authority Having
of their listings and the manufacturers' Jurisdiction.
instructions and are acceptable to the
510.7.3 For field-applied grease duct enclosures
Authority Having Jurisdiction.
and factory-built grease duct enclosures, the
For applications listed in Section 111 regulated by the materials and products shall conform to Sections
Office ofthe State Fire Marshal, see Section 510.7.1.1. 510.7.3.1 through 510.7.3.3.
510.7.1.1 [For SFMj A grease duct serving a 510.7.3.1 Field-applied grease duct
Type I hood which penetrates aceiling, wallorfloor enclosures and factory-built grease duct
shall be enclosed in a duct enclosure from the point enclosures shall demonstrate that they
of penetration. A duct may only penetrate exterior provide sufficient mechanical and structural
walls. at locations where unprotected openings are
permitted by the building code. Duct enclosures I

shall be constructed in accordance with the I FA!

California Building Code. Duct enclosures shall be $-I


of a least one-hour fire resistive construction in all

o
I
buildings and shall be of two-hour fire-resistive I
I
construction in Types I and II fire-resistive I
I
buildings. The duct enclosure shall be sealed I
I
around the duct at the point of penetration and I
I
vented to the exterior through weather protected I 9.9m
1(32ft 6 in.)
openings. The enclosure shall be separated from the I
I
duct by at least three (3) inches (76mm) and not I
more than twelve (12) inches (305mm) and shall I
I
serve as single grease exhaust duct system. I
I
510.7.2 The enclosure required in Section 510.7.1
shall conform to Sections 510.7.2.1 through 510.7.2.3.
510.7.2.1 If the building is less than four stories

o in height, the enclosure wall shall have a fire


resistance rating of not less than one (1) hour.
510.7.2.2 If the building is four stories or more
in height, the enclosure wall shall have a fire
resistance rating of not less than two (2) hours.
Notes: 1. Fresh air inteke (FAI) ~pplies to any air intake, Including an
510.7.2.3 Clearance from the duct or the exhaust operable door or window.

o fan to the interior surface of enclosures of 2. Example:


FAI is same plane as exhaust or lower: 3 m [10ft (min)]
combustible construction shall be not less than between closest edges.
eighteen (18) inches (457.2 mm), and clearance FA! above plane of exhaust: 3 m + .076 m (10ft + 0.25 ft) per
degree between closest edge
from the duct to the interior surface of enclosures
of noncombustible or limited-combustible

c) construction shall be not less than six (6) inches FIGURE 5-4 Exhaust Termination Distance from
(152.4 mm). Provisions for reducing clearances as Fresh Air Intake (FAI) or Operable Door or
Window.

77
510.7 - Figure 5-6(b) 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

integrity, resiliency, and stability when


subjected to expected building environmental
conditions, duct movement under general
operating conditions, and duct movement
due to interior and exterior fire conditions.
510.7.3.2 Measures shall be taken to prevent
-
Wind direction
/

! !
/~
/ ' Exhaust air

I
physical damage to any covering or
enclosure material. Any damage to the r it Possible
roof line

covering or enclosure shall be repaired and


the covering or enclosure restored to meet its -f
0.92m (min)
intended listing and fire-resistive rating and [3 ft(min)J
to be acceptable to the Authority Having
Jurisdiction. L
510.7.3.3 In the event of a fire within a kitchen
exhaust system, the duct, the enclosure, or the Outside air intake
covering directly applied to the duct shall be
inspected by qualified personnel to determine FIGURE 5-5 Upblast Fan Clearances.
whether the duct, the enclosure, and the
covering directly applied to the duct are 6.4mm ('A-in.) carbon
steel or stainless steel
structurally sound, capable of maintaining bolts 102 mm (max)
their fire protection functions, suitable for [4 In. (max)]
on center
continued operation, and acceptable to the
Authority Having Jurisdiction.
510.7.4 For listed grease ducts, see Section 510.4.
510.7.5 If openings in the enclosure walls are
provided, they shall be protected by approved
self-closing fire doors of proper rating. Fire
doors shall be installed in accordance with
NFPA 80, Standard for Fire Doors and Fire
Windows. Openings on other listed materials or
products shall be clearly identified and labeled Unassembled position Assembled position
according to the terms of the listing and the
manufacturer's instructions and shall be FIGURE 5-6(a) Typical Section of Duct-to-Fan
acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Connection-Butt Joint Method.
The panels shall be readily accessible.
510.7.6 Each duct system shall constitute an
Flanges to be positioned 6.4-mm (V.-In.) carbon
individual system serving only exhaust hoods in so that the gasket Is 815.6°0 (1500°F) steel or stainless steel
one fire zone on one floor. Multiple ducts shall protected from direct rated gasket bolts 102 mm7max).
contact with grease / M' I [4 In. (max)]
not be permitted in a single enclosure unless In mum on center
. "'" 25.4 x 25.4 x 3.2 mm
acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction. "y (1 in. x 1 in. x % in.)
\ ~==~a=n~gle. flange \-.::====\
510.8 Termination of Exhaust System.
510.8.1 The exhaust system shall terminate as
follows:
(A) Outside the building with a fan or duct.
(B) Through the roof, or to the roof from
outside, as in Section 510.8.2, or through a
wall, as in Section 510.8.3.
510.8.2 Rooftop Terminations.
510.8.2.1 Rooftop terminations shall be Unassembled position Assembled position

arranged with or provided with the


following: FIGURE 5-6(b) typical Section of Duct-to-Fan
Connection.i...Overlapping Method.

78
--------------_.---------- - - - - - - -

EXHAUST SYSTEMS Figure 5-6(c) - 510.8

6.4-rnm ('h-in.) carbon


device that is applied to exhaust systems
steel or stainless steel shall not inhibit the performance of any fan.
815.6°C (1500°F) bolts 102 mm (max)
rated sealant [4 In. (max)) Exception: Grease containers that are
on center
evaluated for equivalency with the
preceding requirements and listed as
such.
(D) A listed grease duct complying with Section

o 510.4, or with ductwork complying with


Section 510.5.
(E) A hinged upblast fan supplied with flexible:
weatherproof electrical cable and service
hold-open retainer to permit proper
Unassembled position Assllmbled position inspection and cleaning that is listed for
commercial cooking equipment, provided
FIGURE 5-6(c) Typical Section of Duct-to-Fan the ductwork extends a minimum of
Connection---'Sealant Method.
eighteen (18) inches (457.2 mm) above the
815.6°C (15DDOF) 6.4-mm ('I4-in.) carbon
roof surface and the fan discharges a
rated gasket \ steel or stainless steel minimum of forty (40) inches (1.02m)
Lock washer weld studs 102 mm (max)
above the roof surface. (See Section 511.1.1.)
Fan Inlet
'I. Minimum
[4 in. (max))
on center
(F) Other approved fan, provided (1) it meets
cone -----. ~§ 25.4 x 25.4 x 3.2 mm the requirements of Sections 510.8.2(C) and
~ ..o:::~==j (1 in. x 1 in. x % In,/-,)---A~:::::====l
~ angle flange 511.1.3, and (2) its discharge or its extended
duct discharge meets the requirements of
Section 510.8.2(B).
510.8.2.2 Listed flexible connectors may be
Continuous' used on exterior roof locations when
perimeter required for proper equipment vibration
weld

o Unassembled position

FIGURE 5-6(d) Typical Section of Duct-to-Fan


Connection-Direct to Fan Inlet Cone Method.
Assembled position
isolation.
510.8.2.3 Fans shall be provided with safe'
access and a work surface for inspection and
cleaning.
510.8.3 Wall Terminations.
(A) A minimum of ten (10) feet (3.05 ni.) of clearance 510.8.3.1 Wall terminations shall be
from the outlet to adjacent buildings; arranged with or provided with the
property lines, and air intakE;s. Where space following properties:
limitations absolutely prevent a ten (10) foot (A) Through a noncombustible wall. with a
(3.05m) horizontal separation from an air minimum of ten (10) feet (3.05 m) of
intake, a vertical separation shall be permitted, clearance from the outlet to adjacent
with the exhaust outlet being a minimum of buildings, property lines, grade level,
three (3) feet (0.92 m) above any air intake combustible construction, or electrical
located within ten (10) feet (3.05 m) equipment or lines, and the closest
horizontally. point of any air intake or operable door
(B) The exhaust flow directed up and away or window at or below the plane of the
from the surface of the roof and a minimum exhaust termination. The closest point
of forty (40) inches (1.02 m) above the roof of any air intake or operable door or
window above the plane of the exhaust
surface.
termination shall be a minimum of ten

o (C) The ability to drain grease out of any traps


or low points formed in the fan or duct near
the' termination of the system into a
collection container that is noncombustible,
(10) feet (3.05 m) distant, plus 0.25 feet
(0.076m) for each 1 degree from horizontal,
the angle of degree being measured
from the center of the exhaust termination
closed, rainproof, structurally sound for the to the center of the air intake or operable

o service to which it is applit;d, .and willI).ot


sustain combustion. A grease collection
door or window. (See Figure 5-4.)
Exception: A wall termination in a:

79
510.8 - 511.2 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

secured area can be at a lower located shall have the same fire resistance
height above grade if acceptable to rating as the enclosure.
the Authority Having Jurisdiction. 511.1.3 Utility set exhaust fans, if installed at the
(B) The exhaust flow directed perpendicularly rooftop termination point, shall meet the
outward from the wall face or upward. requirements of Section 510.8.2.1(A) through
(C) All the ductwork pitched to drain the Section 510.8.2.2. If the fan is installed within the
grease back into the hood(s), or with a building, it shall be located in an easily accessible
drain provided to bring the grease back area of adequate size to allow for service or
into a container within the building or removal. If the duct system connected to the fan is
into a remote grease trap. in an enclosure, the space or room in which the
(D) A listed grease duct complying with exhaust fan is located shall have the same fire
Section 510.4, or other ducts complying resistance rating as the enclosure. The fan shall be
with Section 510.5. connected to the exhaust duct by flanges securely
bolted as shown in Figures 5-6(a) through 5-6(d)
(E) An approved fan, provided it meets the
or by a system specifically listed for such use.
requirements of Sections 510.8.3.1(C)
Flexible connectors shall not be used. Exhaust
and 511.1.1 or 511.1.3.
fans shall have a drain directed to a readily
510.9 Solid-Fuel Duct Systems. Where solid-fuel accessible and visible grease receptacle not to
cooking equipment is to be vented, the duct system exceed one (1) gallon (3.8 L).
shall comply with Section 517.0.
511.1.4 Exhaust fan housings shall be
constructed of carbon steel not less than 0.054
511.0 Air Movement. inch (1.37 mm) (No. 16 MSG) in thickness or
511.1 Exhaust Fans for Commercial Cooking stainless steel not less than 0.043 inch (1.09 mm)
(No. 18 MSG) in thickness or, if listed,
Equipment.
constructed in accordance with the terms of the
Where solid-fuel cooking equipment is to be vented, listing.
the duct system shall comply with Section 517.0.
511.1.5 Openings for cleaning, servicing, and
511.1.1 Approved upblast fans with motors inspection shall conform to the requirements of
surrounded by the airstream shall be hinged, Section 510.3.3 Clearances shall conform to the
supplied with flexible weatherproof electrical requirements of Sections 507.2, or 510.7.2.3 if
cable and service hold-open retainers, and listed installed within an enclosure.
for this use. (See Figure 5-5.) Installation shall 511.1.6 All wiring and electrical equipment shall
conform to the requirements of Section 510.8.
comply with the California Electrical Code.
511.1.2 In-Line Exhaust Fans.
511.2 Airflow.
511.1.2.1 In-line fans shall be of the type
511.2.1 The air velocity through any duct shall
with the motor located outside the airstream
be not more than 2,500 feet (457.2 m) per minute.
and with belts and pulleys protected from
the airstream by a greasetight housing. Exception: Transition duct sections shall be
They shall be connected to the exhaust duct permitted to be connected to hoods and exhaust
by flanges securely bolted as shown in fans that do not meet this velocity, provided that
Figure 5-6(a), or by a system specifically they do not exceed three (3) feet (0.92 m) in
listed for such use. Flexible connectors shall length and do not contain traps for grease.
not be used. 511.2.2 Exhaust-air volumes for hoods shall be
511.1.2.2 If the design or positioning of the of sufficient level to provide for capture and
fan allows grease to be trapped, a drain removal of grease-laden cooking vapors. Test
directed to a readily accessible and visible data, performance acceptable to the Authority
grease receptacle, not exceeding one (1) Having Jurisdiction, or both, shall be provided,
gallon (3.8 L), shall be provided. In-line displayed, or both, upon request.
exhaust fans shall be located in an easily Exception: Lower exhaust-air volumes shall
accessible area of adequate size to allow for be permitted during no-load cooking
service or removal. If the duct system conditions, provided they are sufficient to
connected to the fan is in an enclosure, the capture and remove flue gases and residual
space or room in which the· exhaust fan is vapors from cooking equipment.

80
------~ -------,---,~----~~---,---~---,--,- -

EXHAUST SYSTEMS 511.2 - 512.3

511.2.3 A hood exhaust fan(s) shall continue to 511.5 Solid-Fuel Air Movement Requirements. Where

e operate after the extinguishing system has been


activated, unless fan shutdown is required by a
listed component of the ventilation system or by
the design of the extinguishing system. It shall
solid-fuel cooking equipment is used, exhaust and
replacement air also shall comply with Section 517.0.
512.0 Auxiliary Equipment.

not be required to restart the hood exhaust fan 512.1 Dampers. Dampers shall not be installed in
when the extinguishing system is activated if the exhaust ducts or exhaust duct systems.
exhaust fan and all cooking equipment served Exception: Where specifically listed for such use
by the fan had previously been shut down. or where required as part of a listed or approved
511.3 Replacement Air. Replacement air quantity device or system.
shall be adequate to prevent negative pressures in the 512.2 Electrical Equipment.
commercial cooking area(s) from exceeding 0.02 inch 512.2.1 Wiring systems of any type shall not be
water column (4.98 kPa). installed in ducts.
Exceptions: 512.2.2 Motors, lights, and other electrical
(1) When its fire-extinguishing system devices shall not be installed in ducts or hoods
discharges, makeup air supplied or located in the path of travel of exhaust
internally to a hood shall be shut off. products.
(2) Compensating hoods shall meet the Exception: Where specifically approved for
airflow requirements specified in such use.
Sections 508.4.1.3 through 508.4.1.5. 512.2.3 Lighting units in hoods shall be listed
Compensating hoods shall extract at for use over commercial cooking appliances
least 20 percent of their required exhaust and installed in accordance with the terms of
airflow from the kitchen area. their listing.
511.4 Common Duct (Manifold) Systems. 512.2.4 Lighting units on hoods shall not be
511.4.1 Master kitchen exhaust ducts that serve located in concealed spaces.
multiple tenants shall include provision to bleed Exceptions:
air from outdoors or from adjacent spaces into the (1) Where part of a listed exhaust hood.

o master exhaust duct where required to maintain


the necessary minimum air velocity in the master
exhaust duct.
511.4.2 This bleed-air duct shall connect to the
(2) Where specifically listed for such use
and installed in accordance with the terms
of the listing.
512.2.5 All electrical equipment shall be installed
top or side of the master exhaust duct. in accordance with the California Electrical Code,
511.4.3 The bleed-air duct shall have a fire with due regard to the effects of heat, vapor, and
damper at least twelve (12) inches (304.8 mm) grease on the equipment.
from the exhaust duct connection. 512.3 Other Equipment.
511.4.4 The bleed-air duct shall have the same 512.3.1 Fume incinerators, thermal recovery
construction and clearance requirements as the units, air pollution control devices,. or other
main exhaust duct from the connection to the devices shall be permitted to be installed in
exhaust duct to at least twelve (12) inches (304.8 ducts or hoods or located in the path of travel of
mm) on both sides of the fire damper. exhaust products where specifically approved
511.4.5 Each bleed air duct shall have a means for such use. Downgrading other parts of the
of adjusting (e.g., using volume dampers) the exhaust system due to the installation of these
bleed-air quantity. approved devices, whether listed or not, shall
511.4.6 Such means shall be installed in between not be allowed.
the fire damper and the source of bleed air. 512.3.2 Any equipment, listed or otherwise, that
511.4.7 A bleed air duct shall not be used for the provides secondary filtration or air pollution
exhaust of grease-laden vapors and shall be so control and that is installed in the path of travel of
labeled. exhaust products shall be provided with an
approved automatic fire-extinguishing system for
511.4.8 Unused tenant exhaust' connections to
the protection of the component sections of the
the master exhaust duct that are not used as
equipment and shall include protection of the
bleed air connections ,shall 'be discbnnected and

C) sealed at the main duct. "


ductwork downstream of the equipment, whether
or not the equipment is provided with a damper.

81
512.3 - 513.2 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

If the equipment can be a source of ignition, it Exception 1: Automatic fire-extinguishing


shall be provided with appropriate detection to equipment provided as part of listed
operate the fire-extinguishing system. recirculating systems complying with
512.3.3 Where a cooking exhaust system standard UL 197, Standard for Safety-
employs an air pollution control device that Commercial Electric Cooking Appliances.
[NFPA 96:10.2.5]
recirculates air into the building, the provisions
of Section 516.0 shall apply. Exception 2: Public schools, kitchens, without
deep-fat fryers, shall be upgraded to a UL 300
512.4 Solid-Fuel Auxiliary Equipment. Where solid-
compliant system during state funded
fuel cooking comprises any part of a cooking operation, modernization projects that are under the
additional provisions and equipment as described in jurisdiction ofthe Division ofthe State Architect.
Section 517.0 shall be used where required.
513.2.3 In existing systems, when changes in the
cooking media, positioning, or replacement of
513.0 Fire-Extinguishing Equipment. cooking equipment occur, the fire-extinguishing
513.1 General Requirements. system shall be made to comply with 513.2.2.
513.1.1 Fire-extinguishing equipment for the [NFPA 9610.2.3.1]
protection of grease removal devices, hood 513.2.4 Modification of Existing Hood
exhaust plenums, and exhaust duct systems Systems
shall be provided. 513.2.4.1 Any abandoned pipe or conduit
513.1.2 Cooking equipment that produces from a previous installation shall be
grease-laden vapors (such as, but not limited to, removed from within the hood, plenum,
deep-fat fryers, ranges, griddles, broilers, woks, and exhaust duct. [NFPA 9610.2.7.1]
tilting skillets, and braising pans) shall be 513.2.4.2 Penetrations and holes resulting
protected by fire-extinguishing equipment. from the removal of conduit or piping shall
513.2 Types of Equipment. be sealed with listed or equivalent liquid
513.2.1 Fire-extinguishing equipment shall tight sealing devices. [NFPA 96 10.2.7.2]
include both automatic fire-extinguishing 513.2.4.3 The addition of obstructions to
systems as primary protection and portable fire spray patterns from the cooking appliance
extinguishers as secondary backup. [NFPA nozzle(s) such as baffle plates, shelves, or
96:10.2.1] . any modification shall not be permitted.
513.2.1.1 A placard identifying the use of [NFPA 96 10.2.7.3]
the extinguisher as secondary backup means 513.2.4.4 Changes or modifications to the
to the automatic fire suppression system hazard .after installation of the fire-
shall be conspicuously placed near each extinguishing systems shall result in
portable fire extinguisher in the cooking reevaluation of the system design by a
area. [NFPA 96:10.2.2] properly trained and qualified person(s) or
513.2.2 Commercial cooking equipment that produce company. [NFPA 96 10.2.7.4]
grease laden vapors shall be provided with a Type I 513.2.5 Fixed Baffle Hoods with Water Wash.
Hood, in accordance with this Code, and an Grease removal devices, hood exhaust plenums,
automatic fire extinguisher system that is listed and and exhaust ducts requiring protection in
labeled for its intended use as follows: accordance with Section 513.1.1 shall be
1. Wet chemical extinguishing system (NFPA 17A, permitted to be protected by a listed fixed baffle
Standard for Wet Chemical Extinguishing hood containing a constant or fire-actuated
Systems), complying with UL 300. water-wash system that is listed and in
compliance with UL 300 or other equivalent
2. Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems (NFPA standards and shll be installed in accordance
12, Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing with the requirements of their listing. [NFPA 96:
Systems), 10.2.8.1]
3. Automatic fire sprinkler systems (NFPA 13, 513.2.5.1 The water for listed, fixed baffle
Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler hood assemblies shall be permitted to be
Systems). supplied from the domestic water supply
All existing dry chemical and wet chemical extinguishing when the minimum water pressure and
systems shall comply with UL 300, no later than the flow are provided in accordance with the
second required servicing of the system following the terms of the listing. [NFPA 96: 10.2.8.3]
effective date of this section. 513.2.5.2 The water supply shall be

82
EXHAUST SYSTEMS 513.2 - 513.9

monitored by an annunciated low water 513.5.2 The means for manual actuator(s) shall
pressure switch. be mechanical and shall not rely on electrical
513.2.5.3 The water wash in the fixed baffle power for actuation.
hood shall be activated by the cooking Exception: Electrical power shall be
equipment extinguishing system. permitted to be used for manual activation if
513.3 Simultaneous Operation. Fixed-pipe a standby power supply is provided or if
extinguishing systems in a single hazard area shall supervision is provided as per 513.7.1.
be arranged for simultaneous automatic operation 513.6 System Annunciation.
upon actuation of anyone of the systems. 513.6.1 Upon activation of an automatic fire-
Exception No.1: Where the fixed-pipe extinguishing system, an audible alarm or visual
extinguishing system is an automatic sprinkler indicator shall be provided to show that the
system. system has activated.

o Exception No.2: .A dry or wet chemical system


shall be permitted to be used to protect common
exhaust ductwork by the methods specified in
NFPA 17A, Standard for Wet Chemical
513.6.2 Where a fire alarm signaling system is
serving the occupancy where the extinguishing
system is located, the activation of the automatic
fire-extinguishing system shall activate the fire
alarm signaling system.
Extinguishing Systems, in lieu of simultaneous
automatic operation. 513.7 System Supervision.
513.4 Fuel Shutoff. 513.7.1 Where electrical power is required to
operate the automatic fire-extinguishing system,
513.4.1 Upon activation of any fire-extinguishing
it shall be monitored by a supervisory alarm,
system for a cooking operation, all sources of fuel
with a standby power supply provided.
and electric power that produce heat to all
equipment requiring protection by that system Exceptions:
shall automatically shut off. (1) Where automatic fire-extinguishing
Exception No.1: Steam supplied from an systems include automatic mechanical
external source. detection and actuation as a backup
detection system.

o Exception No. 2: Solid-fuel cooking operations.


513.4.2 Any gas appliance not requiring
protection, but located under the same ventila-
ting equipment, shall also automatically shut off
(2) Where fire-extinguishing systems are
interconnected or interlocked with the
cooking equipment power sources so that
if the fire-extinguishing system becomes
upon activation of any extinguishing system. inoperable due to power failure, all sources
513.4.3 Shutoff devices shall require manual reset. of fuel or electric power that produce heat
513.5 Manual Activation. to all cooking equipment serviced by that
hood shall automatically shut off.
513.5.1 A readily accessible means for manual
activation shall be located between forty-two (42) 513.8 Special Design and Application.
inches and sixty (60) inches (1,067 mm and 1,524 513.8.1 Hoods containing automatic fire-
mm) above the floor, located in a path of exit or extingUishing systems are protected areas;
egress, and' clearly identify the hazard protected. therefore, these hoods are not considered

o The automatic and manual means of system


activation external to the control head or releasing
device shall be separate and independent of each
other so that failure of one will not impair the
obstructions to overhead sprinkler systems and
shall not require floor coverage underneath.
513.8.2 A single listed detection device shall be
permitted for more than one appliance when
operation of the other. installed in accordance with the tenns of the listing.
Exceptions: 513.9 Review and Certification.

o (1) The manual means of system activation


shall be permitted to be common with
the automatic means if the manual
activation device is located between the
513.9.1 Where required, complete drawings of
the system installation, including the hood(s),
exhaust duct(s), and appliances, along with the
interface of the fire-extinguishing system
control head or releasing device and the detectors, piping, nozzles, fuel shutoff devices,

o
first fusible link. agent storage container(s), and manual actuation
(2) An automatic sprinkler system. device(s), shall be provided. I
~

83
513.9 - 514.3 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

513.9.2 Installation of systems shall be 514.1.6 Cooking equipment shall not be operated
performed only by persons properly trained and while its fire-extinguishing system or exhaust
qualified to install the specific system being system is nonoperational or otherwise impaired.
provided. The installer shall provide certification 514.1.7 Secondary filtration and pollution
that the installation is in agreement with the control equipment shall be operated in
terms of the listing and the manufacturer's accordance with the terms of their listing and the
instructions and / or approved design. manufacturer's recommendations. [NFPA 96:
513.10 Portable Fire Extinguishers. 11.1.7]
513.10.1 Portable fire e~tinguishers shall be 514.1.8 Inspection and maintenance of
installed in kitchen cooking areas in accordance equipment allowed in Section 512.3.1 shall be
with Chapter 3, Title 19 California Code of conducted by properly trained and qualified
Regulations. Such extinguishers shall use agents per-sons at a frequency determined by the
that saponify upon contact with hot grease, such manufacturer's instructions or equipment listing.
as sodium bicarbonate and potassium bicar- [NFPA 96: 11.1.8]
bonate dry chemical and potassium carbonate 514.2 Inspection. Maintenance of the fire-
solutions. Class B gas-type portables such as CO2 extinguishing system and listed exhaust hoods
and halon shall not be permitted in kitchen containing a constant or fire-actuated water system
cooking areas. Manufacturer's recommendations that is listed to extinguish a fire in the grease
shall be followed. removal devices, hood exhaust plenums, and
513.10.1.1 Portable fire extinguishers listed exhaust ducts shall be made by properly trained,
specifically for use in the kitchen cooking qualified, and certified person(s) or company
areas shall also be permitted. acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction at
513.10.2 Other fire extinguishers in the kitchen least every six (6) months. [NFPA 96 11.2.1]
area shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 514.2.1 All actuation components, including
3, TItle 19 California Code ofRegulations. remote manual pull stations, mechanical or
513.11 Solid-Fuel Fire-Extinguishing Equipment. electrical devices, detectors, actuators, and fire-
actuated dampers, shall be checked for proper
Where solid-fuel cooking equipment is served by fire-
operation during the inspection in accordance
extinguishing equipment, the provisions of Section
with the manufacturer's listed procedures. In
517.0 shall apply.
addition to these requirements, the specific
inspection requirements of the applicable NFPA
514.0 Procedures for the Use and Maintenance of standard shall also be followed. [NFPA 96:11.2.2
Equipment. &11.2.3]
514.1 Operating Procedures. 514.2.2 Fusible links (including fusible links on
514.1.1 Exhaust systems shall be operated fire damper assemblies) and automatic sprinkler
wheJ;lever cooking equipment is turned on. heads shall be replaced at least semiannually, or
more frequently if necessary where required by
514.1.2 Filter-equipped ~xhaust systems shall
the manufacturer. [NFPA 96: 11.2.4]
not be operated with filters removed.
514.2.3 If required, certificates of inspection and
514.1.3 Openings provided for replacing air
maintenance shall be provided.
exhausted through ventilating equipment shall
not be restricted by covers, dampers, or any 514.3 Cleaning.
other means that would reduce the operating 514.3.1 Hoods, grease removal devices, fans,
efficiency of the exhaust system. ducts, and other appurtenances shall be cleaned
514.1.4 Instructions for manually operating the to bare metal or the original factory coating at
fire-extinguishing system shall be posted frequent intervals prior to surfaces becoming
conspicuously in the kitchen and shall be heavily contaminated with grease or oily
reviewed periodically with employees by the sludge. After the exhaust system is cleaned, it
management. shall not be coated .with powder or other
substance. The entire exhaust system shall be
514.1.5 Listed exhaust hoods shall be operated
inspected by a properly trained, qualified, and
in accordance with the terms of their listings and
certified company or person(s) in accordance
the manufacturer's instructions.
with Table 5-4.
EXHAUST SYSTEMS Table 5-4 - 515.3

TABLE 5·4 514.4 Operation, Maintenance, and Inspection of


Solid-Fuel Cooking Equipment.
8 Exhaust System Inspection Schedule
Where solid-fuel cooking equipment is used, the
special provisions of Section 517.0 shall apply.
Type or Volume of Cooking Frequency
Frequency
MontWy
515.0 Minimum Safety Requirements for Cooking
Systems serving solid-fuel cooking operations
Equipment. '
Systems serving high-volume cooking Quarterly
515.1 Cooking Equipment.
operations such as 24-hour cooking,
515.1.1 Cooking equipment shall be approved
charbroiling, or wok cooking based on one of the following criteria:
Systems serving moderate- Semiannually (A) Listings by a testing laboratory.
volume cooking operations (B) Test data acceptable to the Authority

l\
Systems serving low-volume cooking Annually Having Jurisdiction. .
j operations, such as churches, day camps, 515.1.2 Installation.
seasonal business~s, or senior centers 515.1.2.1 All listed appliances shall be
installed in accordance with the terms of
514.3.1.1 Upon inspection, if found to be
their listings and the manufacturer's
contaminated with deposits from grease-
instructions.
laden vapors, the contaminated portions of
the exhaust system shall be cleaned by a 515.1.2.2 Cooking appliances requiring
properly trained, qualified, and certified protection shall not be moved, modified, or
company or person(s) acceptable to the rearranged withc>ut prior reevaluation of the
Authority Having Jurisdiction in accordance fire-extinguishing system by the system
with Section 514.3. [NFPA 96: 11.4.1] installer or servicing agent, unless otherwise
allowed by the design of the fire-
514.3,1.2 When a vent-cleaning service is
extinguishing system.
used, a certificate showing date of inspection
or cleaning shall be maintained on the Exception: Cooking appliances moved
premises. After cleaning is completed, the to. perform maintenance. and cleaning,
vent-cleaning contractor shall place or provided the appliances are returned to
display within the kitchen area a label their original· positioning prior to
indicating the date cleaned and the name of cooking operations, and any dis-
the servicing company. It shall also indicate connected fire-extinguishing system
areas not cleaned. nozzles attached to the appliances are
reconnected in accordance with the
514.3.2 Flammable solvents or other flammable
manufacturer's listed design manual.
cleaning aids shall not be used.
515.1.2.3 All deep-fat fryers shall be
514.3.3 At the start o£.the cleaning process,
installed with at least a sixteen (16) inch
electrical switches that could be activated
(406.4 mm) space between the'fryer and
accidentally shall be locked out.
surface flames from adjacent cooking
514.3.4 Components of the fire suppression equipment.
system shall not be rendered inoperable during
the cleaning process. Exception: Where a steel or tempered
glass ba££1eplate is installed at a
Exception: Servicing by properly trained minimum eight (8) inches (203 mm) in
and qualified persons in accordance with height between the fryer and surface
Section 514.2. flames of the adjacent appliance.
514.3.5 Care shall be taken not to apply cleaning
515.2 Operating Controls. Deep-fat fryers shall be
chemicals on fusible links or other detection
equipped with a separate high-limit control in
devices of the automatic extinguishing system.
addition to the adjustable operating control
514.3.6 When cleaning procedures are completed, (thermostat) to shut off fuel or energy when the fat
all electrical switches and system components temperature reaches 475°F (246°C) at one (1) inch
shall be returned to an operable state: All access (25.4 mm) below the surface. .
panels (doors) and cover plates shall be
replaced. Dampers and. diffusers shall be 515.3 Cooking Equipment Maintenan'ce. [NFPA
positioned for proper airflow. 96: 11.5]

85
515.3 - 516.3 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

515.3.1 An inspection and servicing of the substitution or exchange of cooking appliances,


cooking equipment shall be made at least filter components, blower components, or fire-
annually by properly trained and qualified extinguishing system components that would
persons. [NFPA 96: 11.5.1] violate the listing of the appliance.
515.3.2 Cooking equipment that collects grease 516.2.3 A recirculating system shall not use
below the surface, behind the equipment, or in cooking equipment that exceeds that
cooking equipment flue gas exhaust, such as recirculating system's labeled maximum limits
griddles or charbroilers, shall be inspected and, for that type of equipment, stated in maximum
if found with grease accumulation, cleaned by a energy input, maximum cooking temperature,
properly trained, qualified, and certified person and maximum square area of cooking surface or
acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. cubic volume of cooking cavity. [NFPA
[NFPA 96: 11.5.2] 96:13.2.6]
516.2.4 A fire-actuated damper shall be installed
516.0 Recirculating Systems. at the exhaust outlet of the system. The damper
shall be constructed of at least the same gauge as
516.1 General Requirements. Recirculating
the shell. The actuation device shall have a
systems containing or for use with appliances used maximum temperature rating of 375°F (190°C).
in processes producing smoke or grease-laden
vapors shall be equipped with components 516.2.5 No electrical wiring shall be installed
complying with the following: in the interior sections of the hood plenum that
might become exposed to grease.
(A) The clearance requirements of Section 507.2.
Exception: As permitted by California
(B) A hood complying with the requirements of Electrical Code.
Section 508.0.
516.2.6 The power supply of any electrostatic
(C) Grease removal devices complying with precipitator (ESP) shall be of the "cold spark,"
Section 509.0. ferro-resonant type in that the voltage falls off as
(D) The air movement requirements of Sections the current draw of a short increases.
511.2.1 and 511.2.2. 516.2.7 Listing evaluation shall include the
(E) Auxiliary equipment (such as particulate following:
and odor removal devices) complying with (A) Capture and containment of vapors at
Section 512.0. published and labeled airflows.
(F) Fire-extinguishing equipment complying (B) Grease discharge at the exhaust outlet
with the requirements of Section 513.0. of the system not to exceed an average
Exception: References to ducts in of 5 mg/m3 of exhausted air sampled
Sections 513.1.1 and 513.5.1. from that equipment at maximum
amount of product that is capable of
(G) The use and maintenance requirements of
being processed over a continuous eight
514.0. (8) hour test per EPA Test Method 202,
(H) The minimum safety requirements of Determination of Condensable Par-
Section 515.0. ticulate Emissions for Stationary
(I) All the requirements of this chapter. Sources, with the system operating at its
minimum listed airflow.
516.2 Design Restrictions. All recirculating
systems shall comply with Section 516.2. (C) Listing and labeling of clearance to
combustibles from all sides, top, and
516.2.1 Only gas- or electrically fueled cooking
bottom.
appliances shall be used. Gas-fueled appliances
shall not have the combustion flue outlet(s) directly (D) Electrical connection in the field in
connected to the recirculating system. Gas-fueled accordance with California Electrical Code.
appliances shall have a minimum eighteen (18) (E) Interlocks on all removable components
inch (457.2 mm) clearance from the flue outlet to that lie in the path of airflow within the
the ffiter inlet in accordance with Section 509.2.2 unit to ensure that they are in place during
and shall meet the installation requirements of operation of the cooking appliance.
NFPA 54, National Fuel Gas Code, or NFPA 58, 516.3 Interlocks. The recirculating system shall be
Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code. provided with interlocks of all critical components
516.2.2 Recirculating systems shall be listed and operations as indicated in Sections 516.3.1
with a testing laboratory. There shall be no through 516.3.4 such that, if any of these interlocks

86
EXHAUST SYSTEMS 516.3 - 517.2

are interrupted, the cooking appliance shall not be with the manufacturer's instructions shall be
able to operate. performed by qualified service personnel a
516.3.1 All closure panels encompassing minimum of once every six (6) months, or more
airflow sections shall have interlocks to ensure frequently if required.
the panels are in place and fully sealed. Exception: Fire-extinguishing equipment
516.3.2 Each filter component (grease and odor) shall be inspected in accordance with
Section 514.2.
shall have an interlock to prove the component
is in place. 516.6.6 A signed and dated log of maintenance

o 516.3.3 Each ESP shall have a sensor to prove its


performance is as designed, with no interruption
of the power to exceed two (2) minutes. This
as performed in accordance with Sections 516.6.4
and 516.6.5 shall be available on the premises for
use by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
sensor shall be a manual reset device or circuit.
516.3.4 An airflow switch or transducer shall be 517.0 Solid-Fuel Cooking Operations.
provided after the last filter component to 517.1 Venting Application. Venting requirements
ensure that a minimum airflow is maintained. of solid-fuel cooking operations shall be determined
This device opens the interlock circuit when the in accordance with Sections 517.1.1 through 517.1.6.
airflow falls 25 percent below the system's 517.1.1 Where solid-fuel cooking equipment is
normal operating flow or 10 percent below its required by the manufacturer to have a natural
listed minimum rating, whichever is lower. This draft, the vent shall comply with Section 517.4.
switch or transducer shall be a manual reset
device or circuit. 517.1.2 Where the solid-fuel cooking equipment
has a self-contained top, is the only appliance to
516.4 Location and Application Restrictions. The
be vented in an isolated space (except for a single
location of recirculating systems shall be approved by
water heater with its own separate vent), has a
the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Items to be reviewed
separate makeup-air system, and is provided
in the fire risk assessment shall include, but not be
limited to, life safety, combustibility of surroundings, with supply and return air (not supplied or
proximity to air vents, and total fuel load. returned from other spaces), the system shall

o
comply with Sections 517.4 and 517.6.
516.5 Additional Fire Safety Requirements.
517.1.3 Where the solid-fuel cooking equipment
516.5.1 In addition to the appliance nozzle(s), a
recirculating system shall be listed with the is located in a space with other vented
appropriate fire protection for grease filters, equipment, all vented equipment shall have an
grease filtration, odor filtration units, and exhaust system interlocked with a makeup-air
ductwork where applicable. system for the space as per Section 517.6.
516.5.2 In addition to any other fire-extinguishing 517.1.4 Natural draft ventilation systems and
system actuation device, there shall be a fire- power-exhausted ventilation systems shall
extinguishing system actuation device installed comply with Sections 517.3, 517.4, and 517.6.
downstream of any ESP. 517.1.5 Where a solid-fuel cooking appliance
516.5.3 The requirements of Section 513.6 shall allows effluent to, escape from the appliance
also apply to recirculating system locations. opening, this opening shall be covered by a hood

o 516.6 Use and Maintenance.


516.6.1 Automatic or manual covers on cooking
appliances, especially fryers, shall not interfere
with the application of the fire suppression system.
and an exhaust system that meets the
requirements of Sections 517.3, 517.4, and 517.6.
517.1.6 Solid-fuel cooking operations shall have
spark arresters to minimize the passage of
516.6.2 All filters shall be cleaned or replaced in airborne sparks and embers into plenums and
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. ducts. Where ,the solid-fuel cooking operation is
516.6.3 All ESPs shall be cleaned a minimum of not located under a hood, a spark arrester shall

o once per week following manufacturer's


cleaning instructions.
516.6.4 The entire hood plenum and the blower
section shall be cleaned a minimum of once
be provided to minimize the passage of sparks
and embers into flues and chimneys.
517.2 Location of Appliances.
517.2.1 Every appliance shall be located with
every three (3) months.
respect to building construction and other

C) 516.6.5 Inspection and testing of the total


operation and all safety interlocks in accordance
equipment so as to permit access to the appliance.

87
517.2 - 517.7 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

517.2.2 Solid-fuel cooking appliances shall not these sparks and embers into the grease removal
be installed in confined spaces. The space or device and into the hood and duct system.
room shall be of ample size to permit adequate 517.5.2 Filters shall be a minimum of four (4)
circulation of heated air. feet (1.2 m) above the appliance cooking surface.
Exception: Solid-fuel cooking appliances 517.6 Air Movement for Solid-Fuel Cooking.
listed for installation in confined spaces Exhaust system requirements shall comply with the
such as alcoves shall be installed in provisions of the code for hooded operation or shall
accordance with the terms of the listing and be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's
the manufacturer's instructions. recommendation for unhooded applications.
517.2.3 Solid-fuel cooking appliances shall not 517.6.1 A replacement or makeup-air system
be installed in any location where gasoline or shall be provided to ensure a positive supply of
any other flammable vapors or gases are likely replacement air at all times during cooking
to be present. operations.
517.3 Hoods for Solid-Fuel Cooking. 517.6.2 Makeup-air systems serving solid-fuel
517.3.1 Hoods shall be sized and located in a cooking operations shall be interlocked with the
manner capable of capturing and containing all exhaust-air system and powered, if necessary, to
of the effluent discharging from the appliances. prevent the space from attaining a negative pressure
while the solid-fuel appliance is in operation.
The hood and its exhaust system shall comply
with the provisions of the code. 517.7 Fire-Extinguishing Equipment for Solid-
Fuel Cooking.
517.3.2 All solid-fuel cooking equipment
served by hood and duct systems shall be 517.7.1 Approved fire-extinguishing equipment
separate from all other exhaust systems. shall be provided to protect all solid-fuel-
burning cooking appliances that might be a
Exception: Cooking equipment not requiring source of ignition of grease in the hood, grease
automatic fire-extinguishing equipment (as removal device, or duct.
per the provisions of Section 510.0) shall be
Exception: If acceptable to the Authority
permitted to be installed under a common
Having Jurisdiction, solid-fuel-burning
hood with solid-fuel cooking equipment that
cooking appliances constructed of solid
is served by a duct system separate from all
masonry or reinforced portland or refractory
other exhaust systems.
cement concrete and vented in accordance
517.4 Exhaust Systems for Solid-Fuel Cooking. with NFPA 211, Standard for Chimneys,
Where a hood is not required, in buildings where the Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid Fuel-Burning
duct system is three stories or less in height, a duct Appliances, Chapters 3 and 4, shall not require
complying with Section 510.0 shall be provided. fixed automatic fire-extinguishing equipment.
517.4.1 If a hood is used, the duct system shall 517.7.2 Approved fire-extinguishing equipment
conform with the Section 510.0. shall be provided for the protection of grease
517.4.2 A listed or approved grease duct system removal devices, hoods, and duct systems.
shall be provided for solid-fuel cooking exhaust Exception: If acceptable to the Authority
systems that are four stories in height or greater. Having Jurisdiction, solid-fuel-burning
517.4.3 Where a hood is used, the duct system cooking appliances constructed of solid
shall conform with the requirements of Section masonry or. reinforced portland or refractory
510.0. cement concrete and vented in accordance
with NFPA 211, Standard for Chimneys,
517.4.4 Wall terminations of solid-fuel exhaust Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid Fuel-Burning
systems shall be prohibited. Appliances, Chapters 3 and 4, shall not require
517.5 Grease Removal Devices for Solid-Fuel automatic fire-extinguishing equipment.
Cooking. Grease removal devices shall be 517.7.3 Approved fire-extinguishing equipment
constructed of steel or stainless steel or be approved for solid-fuel-burning cooking appliances, where
for solid-fuel cooking. required, shall comply with NFPA 211 and shall
517.5.1 If airborne sparks and embers can be be comprised atwater-based agents.
generated by the solid-fuel cooking operation, 517.7.4 Fire-extinguishing equipment shall be
spark arrester devices shall be used prior to the rated and designed to extinguish solid-fuel cooking
grease removal device to minimize the entrance of fires, in accordance with the manufacturer's

88
EXHAUST SYSTEMS 517.7 - 517.8

recommendations. The fire-extinguishing devices of any type in any portion of the


equipment shall be of sufficient size to totally appliance, flue pipe, and chimney of a natural
extinguish fire in the entire hazard area and draft solid-fuel operation.
prevent reignition of the fuel. 517.8.4 No solid-fuel cooking device of any
517.7.5 All solid-fuel appliances (whether or not type shall be permitted for deep-fat frying
under a hood) with fireboxes of 5 ft. 3 (0.14 m 3) involving more than one (1) quart of liquid
volume or less shall at least have a listed 2-A- shortening, nor shall any solid-fuel cooking
rated water-type fire extinguisher or a 1.6 gal (6 device be permitted within three (3) feet (0.92 m)
L) wet chemical fire extinguisher listed for Class of any deep-fat frying unit.
K fires in accordance with NFPA 10, in the
immediate vicinity of the appliance. [NFPA
96:14.7.8]
517.7.6 Solid-fuel appliances with fireboxes
exceeding 5 ft. 3 (0.14 m 3) shall be provided with a
fixed-water-pipe system with a hose in the
immediate vicinity of the appliance. [NFPA
96:14.7.9.1] The hose shall be equipped with an
adjustable nozzle capable of producing a fine to
medium spray or mist. [NFPA 96 14.7.9.1.1] The
nozzle shall be of the type that cannot produce a
straight stream. [NFPA 9614.7.9.1.2] The system
shall have a minimum operating pressure of 40 psi
(275.8 kPa) and shall provide a minimum of 5 gpm.
[NFPA 96:14.7.9.2]
517.7.7 Fire suppression for fuel storage areas
shall comply with Section 517.9.
517.7.8 In addition to the requirements of

o
Sections 517.7.5 or 517.7.6, where any solid-fuel
cooking appliance is also provided with
auxiliary electric, gas, oil, or other fuel for
ignition or supplemental heat and the appliance
is also served by any portion of a fire-
extinguishing system complying with Section
513.0, such auxiliary fuel shall be shut off upon
actuation of the fire-extinguishing system.
517.8 Other Safety Requirements.
517 .8.1 Metal-fabricated solid-fuel cooking
appliances shall be listed for the application
where produced in practical quantities or shall be
approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
When listed, they shall be installed in accordance
with the terms of their listings and with the
applicable requirements of this standard.
517.8.2 Site-built solid-fuel cooking appliances
shall be submitted for approval to the Authority
Having Jurisdiction before being considered for
installation. All units shall be installed, operilted,
and maintained in accordance with the
approved terms of the manufacturer's instruc-
tions and any additional requirements set forth
by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
517.8.3 Except for the spark arrester required in
Section 517.1.6, there shall be no additional
(j
89
Table 5-5 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

TABLE 5-5
Minimum Sheet Metal Thickness for Round Ducts for Product-Conveying System Ducts

Reinf. Class 1
~egative Spacing
Pressure (Inches) Up to 7" 8" to 11" 12" to 15" 16" to 19" 20" to 23" 24" to 35" 36" to 47" 48" to 59" 60"

To 7" 0 .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .127 (10 ga.)
96 .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)
48 .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.)
24 .021 12ha.) .021 124 Q:a.) .021 i2ha.) .021 i24 Q:a.) .021 (24 Q:a.\ .021 i2ha.\ .027 i22 Q:a.\ .033 i20 Q:a.) .044 i18 Q:a.)

8" to 11" 0 .021 (24 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
96 .021 (24 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
48 .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)
24 .021 i24 l?:a.) .021 124 Q:a.) .021 i2ha.) .021 i24 l?:a.) .027 122 l?:a.) .027 (22 Q:a.) .044 (18 Q:a.) .055 (16l?:a'\ .055 (16 l?:a.)

12" to 15" 0 .021 (24 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
96 .021 (24 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.)
48 .021 (24 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
24 .021 (2ha.) .021 (2ha.) .021 (24 ga.) .027 (22 l?:a.) .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.\ .055 (16 ga.)

16" to 20" 0 .021 (24 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .112 (11 ga.)
96 .021 (24 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.)
48 .021 (24 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097(12 ga.) .112 (11 ga.)
24 .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 l?:a.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 Q:a.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12l?:a.)
Class 2
To 7" 0 .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .127 (10 ga.)
96 .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)
48 .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.)
24 .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.)

8" to 11" 0 .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
96 .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
48 .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)
24 .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.)

12" to 15" 0 .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
96 .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.)
48 .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
24 .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.)

16" to 20" 0 .027 (22 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .112 (11 ga.)
96 .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.)
48 .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
24 .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.)

Class 3
107" 0 .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .127 (10 ga.)
96 .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)
48 .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)
24 .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)

8" to 11" 0 .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga:)
96 .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
48 .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)
24 .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)

90
EXHAUST SYSTEMS Table 5-5 - Table 5-6

TABLE 5-5 (Continued)

e Negative
Pressure
Minimum Sheet Metal Thickness for Round Ducts for Product-Conveying System Ducts
Reinf.
Spacing
(Inches) Up to 7" 8" to 11"
Class 3

12" to 15" 16" to 19" 20" to 23" 24" to 35" 36" to 47" 48" to 59" 60"
12" to 15" 0 .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
96 .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.)
48 .033 (20 ga.) .033(20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)
24 .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068(14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)

16" to 20" 0 .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .112 (11 ga.)
96 .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (l1ga.) .112 (11 ga.)
48 .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) ,044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
24 .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)
Class 4
To 7" 0 .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .127 (10 ga.)

C) 8" to 11" 0
96
48
24
.055 (16 ga.)
.055 (16 ga.)
.055 (16 ga.)

.055 (16 ga.)


.055 (16 ga.)
.055 (16 ga.)
.055 (16 ga.)

.055 (16 ga.)


.055 (16 ga.)
.055 (16 ga.)
.055 (16 ga.)

.055 (16 ga.)


.055 (16 ga.)
.055 (16 ga.)
.055 (16 ga.)

.055 (16 ga.)


.068 (14 ga.)
.068 (14 ga.)
.068 (14 ga.)

.068 (14 ga.)


.068 (14 ga.)
.068 (14 ga.)
.068 (14 ga.)

.097 (12 ga.)


.097 (12 ga.)
.097 (12 ga.)
.097 (12 ga.)
.097 (12 ga.)
.097 (12 ga.)
.097 (12 ga.)
.097 (12 ga.)
.097 (12 ga.)
.097 (12 ga.)

96 .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
48 .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
24 .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)

12" to 15" 0 .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
96 .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.)
48 .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
24 .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)

16" to 20" 0 .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .112 (11 ga.)
96 .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.)
48 .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) ;068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
24 .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) 0.097 (12 ga.)

TABLE 5-6

o Negative Reinf.
Minimum Sheet Metal Thickness for Rectangular Ducts

Class 1
Longest Side of Duct
Class 2

Pressure Spacing Up to 12" 13" to 24" 25" to 36" 37" to 48" 49" to 60" Up to 12" 13" to 24" 25" to 36" 37" to 48" 49" to 60"

To 7" 48 .021 (24 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)
To 7" 24 .021 (24 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) : .ass (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.)
To 7" 12 .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .021(24 ga.) .021 (24 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.)

8" toll" 48 .027 (22 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
8" to 11" 24 .027 (22 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)
8" toll" 12 .021 (24 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .027 (22 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.)

12" to 15" 48 .044 (18 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.)
12" to 15" 24 .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) :097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)

o
12" to 15" 12 .027 (22 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .055 (16 ga.)

16" to 20" 48 .068 (14 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .112 (11 ga.)
16" to 20" 24 .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112(11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .068 (14·ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (llga.) .112 (11 ga.)
16" to 20" 12 .033 (20 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .033 (20 ga.) .044 (18 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)
Class 3 Class 4
To 7" 48 .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
To 7" 24 .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
To 7" 12 .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)

o 8"to 11"
8"to11"
8"to11"

12" to 15"
12" to 15"
48
24
12

48
24
.044 (18 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
.044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)
.044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)

.044 (18 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)


.044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
.068 (14 ga.)
.068 (14 ga.)

.097 (12 ga.)


.055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)
.055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)
.055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)

.055 (16 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)


.055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)
.097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
.097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)
.097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)

.097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)


12" to 15" 12 .044 (18 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)

Cj 16" to 20"
16" to 20"
16" to 20"
48
24
12
.068 (14 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .112 (11 ga.)
.068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)
.044 (18 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .068 (14 ga.) .055 (16 ga.) .068 (14 ga.)
.112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.) .112 (11 ga.)
.097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.) .097 (12 ga.)

91
Table 5-7 - Table 5-8 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

TABLE 5-7
Construction, Clearance, and Termination Requirements for Unlisted Single-Wall Metal Chimneys

MINIMUM THICKNESS TERMINATION CLEARANCE


ABOVE ABOVE ANY PART COMBUSTIBLE NONCOMBUSTIBLE
ROOF OF BUILDING WITHIN CONSTRUCTION CONSTRUCTION

CHIMNEYS SERVING WALL LINING OPENING 10' 25' 50' Interior Inst. Exterior Inst. Interior Inst. IExterior Inst.
BUilding-heating and
industrial-type low-heat 0.127"
appliances (1,000" F (Mfs. Std. None 3' 2' 18" 6"
operating-1 ,400" F 10 ga.)
temp. maximum)' Up to 18" diameter, 2"
Medium·heat industrial- 0.127" Up to 18" Over 18" diameter, 4"
trial-type appliances (Mfrs. Std. dia.-2-1/2"
(2,000"F maximum)'" 10 ga.) Over 18" 10' 10' 36" 24"
1/2" on 4-1/2" bed
High-heat industrial- 0.127" 4-1/2" laid
appliances (Mfrs. Std. on 4·1/2" 20' 20' See footnote 3
(Over 2,000"F),,2 10 ga.) bed
Residential-type
incinerator'
0.127" (Mfrs.
Std. 10 ga.)
None 3' 2' Not permitted 18" Not permitted I 4"

1. Lining shall extend from bottom to top of chimney. inches x 25.4 = mm


2. Lining shall extend from 24 inches (610 mm) below connector to 24 feet (7,315 mm) above. feet x 304.8 = mm
3. Clearance shall be as specified by the design engineer and shall have sufficient clearance from bUildings (OF - 32) x 5/9 =°C
and structures to avoid overheating combustible materials [maximum 160"F (71°C)].

TABLE 5-8
Vent Selection Chart
Column I
Type B, Gas Column II Column III Column IV
Round or Oval Type BWGas Typel Plastic Pipe
All listed gas appliances 1. Gas-burning wall 1. Oil-burning appliances 1. Condensing appli-
with draft hoods such as: heaters listed for use listed for use with ances listed for use
with Type BW vents Type Lvents with a· specific
1. Central furnaces plastic pipe
2. Floor furnaces 2. Gas appliances as recommended
3. Heating boilers shown in column I and identified in the
4. Ranges and ovens manufacturer's
5. Recessed wall furnaces installation
instructions
(above wall section)
6. Room and unit heaters
7. Water heaters

92
CHAPTER 6
DUCT SYSTEMS

601.0 $e<ope. products venting systems extending into or through


601.1 Ducts and plenums that are portions of a ducts or plenums.
heating, cooling, absorption or evaporative cooling, See Chapter 5 for limitations on environmental air
or product-conveying system shall comply with the systems exhaust ducts extending into or through
requirements of this chapter. ducts or plenums.
601.2 Sizing Requirements. Duct systems used with Exhaust ducts under positive pressure and
blower-type equipment that are portions of a heating, venting systems shall not extend into or pass
cooling, absorption, evaporative cooling, or outdoor-air through ducts or plenums. For appliance vents and

o ventilation system shall be sized in accordance with


Chapter 17, or by other approved methods.
Exception: [HCD 1JDuct sizing calculations are not
requiredfor existing duct systems.
chimneys, see Chapter ~:
602.2 Combustibles Within Ducts or Plenums.
Materials exposed within ducts or plenums shall be
noncombustible or shall have a flame spread index
not greater than twenty-five (25) and a smoke
developed index not greater than fifty (50), when
602.0 Material.
tested. as a composite product in accordance with
602.1 General. Supply air, return air, ~d outside one of the following test methods; NFPA 255,
air for heating, cooling, or evaporative cooling Method ofTest of Surface Burning Characteristics of
systems shall be conducted through duct systems Building Materials, ASTM E84, Surface Burning
constructed of metal as set forth in Tables 6-1, 6-2, 6- Characteristics of Building Materials, or UL 723, Test
3, 6-4, 6-7, 6-8, 6-9, and 6-10, or metal ducts for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building
complying with UMC Standard No. 6-2 or the Materials, except as indicated below.
referenced HVAC duct construction standard in
Chapter 17. Rectangular ducts in excess of two (2) Exceptions:
inches w.g. shall comply w'ithUMC Standard No. 6-2 (1) Return~air and outside-air ducts, plenums,

0.... or the referenced HVAC duct construction standard


in Chapter 17. Ducts, plenums, and fittings may be
constructed of concrete, clay, or ceramics when
or concealed spaces that serve 'a dwelling
unit shall be permitted to be of combustible
construction.
installed in the ground or in a concrete, slab, (2) , Air filters meeting the requirements of
provided the joints are tightly sealed. Sections 312.0 and 503.3.
Corridors shall not be used to convey air to orfrom (3) Water evaporation media in an evaporative
rooms if the corridor is required to be of fire-resistive cooler.
construction per the California Building Code.
(4) Charcoal filters when protected with an
Exception [For OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4J: See Section approved fire suppression system.,
407.4.1.3.
(5) Electrical wiring in plenums shall comply
Not permitted for [OSHPD 1,- 2, 3 & 4] Concealed with NFPA 70, National Electrical Code.

o building spaces or independent construction within


buildings may be ~sed as ducts or.plenums.
When gypsum products are exposed ~, ducts or
plenums, the air temperature shall be restricted to a
Electrical wires and cables and optical fiber
cables shall be listed and labeled as suitable
for use ,in plenums and shall have a flame
spread distance not greater than five (5) feet
range from 50'F (10'C) to 125'F (52'C), and moisture (1,524 mm), an average optical density not
content shall be controlled so that the material is not greater than 0.15, and a peak optical density
adversely affeCted. For the purpose of this section, not greater than 0.5, when tested in accordance
gypsum products shall not be exposed in ducts withNFPA 262, Flame Travel and Smoke of
serving as supply from evaporative coolers, and in Wires 'and Cables' for Use in Air-Handling
other air-handling systems regulated by this chapter Spaces.
~
when the temperature of the gypsum product will be (6) Nonmetallic fire spriTIkIer piping in plenums
below the dew point temperature.
See Chapter 8 for limitations on combustion
shall be listed and labeled as suitable for use
in plenums and shall have a flame spread I
93
602.2 - 602.5 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

distance not greater than five (5) feet (1,524 feet (3048 mm) in length may be used to connect
nun), an average optical density not greater supply, return or exhaust-air terminal devices to rigid
than 0.15 and, a peak optical density not duct systems. Where constant volume, variable volume
greater than 0.5, when tested in accordance or mixing boxes are utilized, flexible duct of not more
with ill 1887, Fire Test of Plastic Sprinkler than 10 feet (3048 mm), may be used on the inlet side
Pipe for Visible Flame and Smoke for alignment. An internal impervious liner shall be
Characteristics. provided to isolate insulation material from
(7) Nonmetallic pneumatic tubing in plenums conditioned air.
shall be listed and labeled as suitable for use 602.4 Joints and Seams of Ducts. Joints of duct
in plenums and shall have a flame spread systems shall be made substantially airtight by
distance not greater than five (5) feet means of tapes, mastics, gasketing, or other means.
(1,524mm), an average optical density not
greater than 0.15, and a peak optical density Crimp joints for round ducts shall have a contact
not greater than 0.5, when tested in accordance lap of at least 1-1/2 inch (38 mm) and shall be
with ill 1820, Fire Test of Pneumatic Tubing mechanically fastened by means of at least three (3)
for Flame and Smoke Characteristics. sheet-metal screws equally spaced around the joint,
or an equivalent fastening method.
(8) Loudspeakers and recessed lighting fixtures,
including their assemblies and accessories, Joints and seams for 0.016 inch (0.41 mm) (No.
in plenums shall be listed and labeled as 28 gauge) and 0.013 inch (0.33 nun) (No. 30 gauge)
suitable for use in plenums and shall have a residential rectangular ducts shall be as specified in
peak rate of heat release not greater than 100 Table 6-1 for 0.019 inch (0.48 mm) (No. 26 gauge)
kilowatts, an average optical density not materiaL
greater than 0.15, and a peak optical density Joints and seams for rectangular duct systems
not greater than 0.5, when tested in accordance shall be as specified in Table 6-1.
with ill 2043, Fire Test for Heat and Visible Joints and seams for flat oval ducts and round
Smoke Release for Discrete Products and ducts in other than single-dwelling units shall be as
their Accessories Installed in Air-Handling specified in Table 6-8.
Spaces.
Joints and seams and all reinforcements for
(9) Smoke detectors. factory-made air ducts and plenums shall meet with
(10) Duct insulation, coverings, and linings and the conditions of prior approval in accordance with
other supplementary materials complying the installation instructions that shall accompany the
with 605.0. product. Closure systems for rigid air ducts and
(11) Materials in a Group H, Division 6, fabrication plenums shall be listed in accordance with UL 181A,
area including the areas above and below Standard for Closure Systems for Use with Rigid Air
the fabrication area sharing a common air Ducts and Air Connectors. Closure systems for
recirculation path with the fabrication area. flexible air ducts shall be listed in accordance with
ill 1818, Standard for Closure Systems for Use with
602.3 Factory-Made Air Ducts. Factory-made air
Flexible Air Ducts and Air Connectors.
ducts shall be approved for the use intended or shall
conform to the requirements of the referenced 602.5 Metal. Every duct, plenum, or fitting of metal
standard for air ducts in Chapter 17. Each portion of a shall comply with Table 6-1 or 6-8.
factory-made air duct system shall be identified by the Exceptions:
manufacturer with a label or other suitable (1) Ducts, plenums, and fittings for systems
identification indicating compliance with the serving single-dwelling units may comply
referenced standard for air ducts in Chapter 17 and its with Table 6-9.
class designation. These ducts shall be listed and shall
(2) Duct systems complying with UMC Standard
be installed in accordance with the terms of their
6-2 or the referenced HVAC duct construction
listing and the requirements of UMC Standard No. 6-
standard in Chapter 17, with prior approval,
5. Flexible air connectors are not permitted.
or duct systems complying with UL 181,
602.3.1 Flexible Ducts. [For OSHPD1, 2, 3 & Standard for Factory~Made Air Ducts and
4] In hospital building projects and all other health- Air Connectors.
care facilities, including clinics and correctional (3) Duct systems complying with the UMC
treatment centers, flexible ducts of not more than 10 Standard 6-2 Or the referenced HVAC duct

94
DUCT SYSTEMS 602.5 - 604.6

construction standard in Chapter 17, be riveted, bolted, or metal screwed to each side of

e with prior approval.


602.6 Tin. Existing tin ducts may be used when
cooling coils are added to a heating system, provided
the duct at not more than the intervals specified.
Horizontal round ducts forty (40) inches (1,016
mm) or less in diameter when suspended from above
the first ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) of the duct or shall be supported at intervals not more than as set
plenum measured from the cooling coil discharge forth in Table 6-7 with one hanger installed to comply
are constructed of metal of the gauge thickness set with the requirements listed below:
forth in Tables 6-1, 6-8, or 6-9 of this chapter or are of

o
604.2.1 Ducts shall be equipped with tight~
approved material and construction. Tin ducts . fitting circular bands extending around the
completely enclosed in inaccessible concealed areas
entire perimeter of the duct at each specified
need not be replaced. All accessible ducts shall be
support interval.
insulated to comply with Table 6-6 of this chapter.
For the purpose of this subsection, ducts shall be 604.2.2 Circular bands shall be not less than one
considered accessible where the access space is thirty (1) inch (25.4,mm) wide nor less than equivalent
(30) inches (762 mm) or greater in height. to the gauge of the duct material it supports.
602.7 Vibration Isolators. Vibration isolators Exception: Ducts ten (10) inches (254 mm)
installed between mechanical equipment and metal and less in diameter may be supported by
ducts (or casings) shall be made of an approved No. 18 gauge galvanized steel wire.
material and shall not exceed ten (10) inches (254 604.2.3 Each circular band shall be provided
mm) in length. with a suitable means of connecting to the
suspending support.

603.0 Quality of Material. 604.2.4 Ducts shall be braced and guyed to


prevent lateral or horizontal swing. '
Galvanized steel shall be of lock-forming quality with a
604.3 Factory-Made Air Ducts. Listed Class 0 or
minimum coating of 1.25 ounces of zinc per square foot
Class 1 factory-made air ducts may be installed in
(0.04 kg/m3) conforming to the requirements of UMC
any occupancy covered by this code.
Standard No. 2-2.
Factory-made air ducts shall nbt be used for

o 604.0 Installation of Ducts.


604.1 General. Air ducts installed under a floor in a
vertical risers in air-duct systems serving more than
two stories. Such ducts shall not penetrate construction
where fire dampers are required.
crawl space shall be installed so as to maintain a Factory-made air ducts shall be installed with at
vertical clearance of eighteen (18) inches for all least four (4) inches (102 mm) of separation from
portions of the duct that would obstruct access to earth, except when installed as a liner inside of
any part of the crawl space. concrete, tile, or metal pipe; they shall be protected
604.2 Metal Ducts. Ducts shall be securely fastened from physical damage.
in place at each change of direction and as set forth The temperature of the air to be conveyed in any
in Table 6-7. Vertical rectangular ducts and vertical of these classes of ducts shall not exceed 250°F (122°C).
round ducts shall be supported as set forth in Table 604.4 Protection of Ducts. Ducts installed in
6-7, Part A. Riser ducts shall be held in place by locations where they are exposed to mechanical

() means of metal straps or angles and channels to


secure the riser to the structure.
damage by vehicles or from other causes shall be
protected by approved barriers.
Metal ducts shall be installed with at least four (4) 604.5 Support of Ducts. Installers shall provide the
inches (102 mm) separation from earth. Metal ducts manufacturer's field fabrication and installation
when installed in or under a concrete slab shall be instructions.
encased in at least two (2) inches (51 mm) of concrete. In the absence of specific supporting materials

o Ducts shall be installed in a building with


adequate clearance so as to permit retaining the full
thickness of fireproofing on structural members.
Supports for rectangular ducts as set forth in
and spacing, approved factory-made air ducts may
be installed as set forth in Table 6-10.
604.6 Protection Against Flood Damage. In flood
hazard areas, ducts shall be located above the design
Table 6-7, when suspended from above, shall be flood elevation or shall be designed and constructed
installed on two opposite sides of eac:h duct and shall to prevent water from entering or accumulating
within the ducts during floods up to the design flood

95
604.6 - 606.2 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

elevation. If the ducts are located below the design of ASTM E 2231, Specimen Preparation and Mounting
flood elevation, the ducts shall be capable of resisting of Pipe and Duct Insulation Materials to Assess
hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and stresses, Surface Burning Characteristics, shall be used. Air
including the effects of buoyancy, during the duct coverings and linings shall not flame, glow,
occurrence of flooding to the design flood elevation. smolder, or smoke when tested in accordance with
ASTM C 411, Hot-Surface Performance of High-
Temperature Thermal Insulation, at the temperature
605.0 Insulation of Ducts.
to which they are exposed in service. In no case shall
Supply- and return-air ducts and plenums of a the test temperature be below 250°F (121°C).
heating or cooling system shall be insulated to
Factory-made air ducts and faced insulations
achieve the minimum thermal (R) value as set forth
intended for installation on the exterior of ducts shall
in Tables 6-6 A and B. [OSHPD 1,2, 3 & 4J Cold air
be legibly printed with the name of the manufacturer,
ducts shall be insulated wherever necessary or to prevent
the thermal resistance (R) value at installed
condensation problems.
thickness, and the flame-spread index and smoke
Exceptions: developed index of the composite material.
(A) Factory-installed plenums, casings, or 605.1 [For OSHPD 1, 2, 3(surgical clinics) & 4J
ductwork furnished as a part of HVAC Thermal acoustical lining materials shall not be installed
equipment tested and rated in accordance within ducts, terminal boxes, sound traps, and other in-
with approved energy efficiency standards. duct systems serving areas such as operating, cesarean
(B) Ducts or plenums located in conditioned operating rooms, delivery rooms, post anesthesia care
spaces. units, cystoscopy, cardiac cath labs, nurseries, intensive
(C) For runouts less than ten (10) feet (3 m) in care units, newborn intensive care units, and airborne
length to air terminals or air outlets, the rated R infection Isolation rooms unless terminal filters with 90
value of insulation need not exceed R-3.5 (R-Q.6). percent average efficiency based on ASHRAE Standard
(D) Backs of air outlets and outlet plenums 52.2-1992 or minimum efficiency rating value (MERV) of
exposed to unconditioned or indirectly 14 are installed downstream of the duct lining.
conditioned spaces with face areas exceeding 605.2 [For OSHPD 1, 2 & 4J Thermal or acoustical
five (5) square feet (0.5 m:) need not exceed R- lining materials shall not be installed within ducts which
2 (R-0.4); those five (5) square feet (0.5 m 2) or are downstream of the 99.97 percent high-efficiency
smaller need not be insulated. particulate air (HEPA) filter or with minimum efficiency
(E) Ducts and plenums used exclusively for rating value (MERV) of17 required in Section 408.2.1 for
evaporative cooling systems. protective environment rooms.
Approved materials shall be installed within ducts
and plenums for insulating, sound deadening, or other 606.0 Smoke Dampers, Fire Dampers, and Ceiling
purposes. Materials shall have a mold, humidity, and Dampers.
erosion-resistant surface that meets the requirements 606.1 Smoke Dampers. Smoke dampers shall
of the referenced standard for air ducts in Chapter 17. comply with the standards for leakage-rated
Duct liners in systems operating with air velocities dampers referenced in Chapter 17, and shall be
exceeding 2000 feet per minute (10.16 m/s) shall be installed in accordance with approved manufacturer's
fastened with both adhesive and mechanical fasteners, installation instructions when required by the
and exposed edges shall have adequate treatment to Building Code. Smoke dampers shall be labeled by
withstand the operating velocity. an approved agency.
Insulation applied to the surface of ducts, 606.2 Fire Dampers. Fire dampers shall comply

J including duct coverings, linings, tapes, and


adhesives, located in buildings shall have a flame-
spread index not greater than twenty-five (25) and a
smoke developed index not greater than fifty (50),
with the standard for fire dampers referenced in
Chapter 17, and shall be installed in accordance with
the approved manufacturer's installation instructions
when required by the Building Code. Fire dampers
when tested in accordance with NFPA 255, Method shall have been tested for closure under airflow
of Test of Burning Characteristics of Building conditions and shall be labeled for both maximum
Materials, or in accordance withASTM E 84, Surface airflow permitted and direction of flow. When more
Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, or in than one damper is installed at a point in a single air
accordance with the provisions of UL 723, Test for path, the entire airflow shall be assumed to be
Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials. passing through the smallest damper area. Fire
The specimen preparation and mounting procedures dampers shall be labeled by an approved agency.

96
~~~._._.- .--

DUCT SYSTEMS 606.2 - 608.4

Ductwork shall be connected to damper sleeves dampers to close in the enclosed space having a
or assemblies in accordance with the fire damper common atmosphere where openings are required
manufacturer's installation instructions. to be protected.
606.3 Ceiling Radiation Dampers. Ceiling radiation 3. Where analysis demonstrates shutoff would
dampers shall comply with the standard for ceiling create agreater hazard.
radiation dampers referenced in Chapter 17, and The HVAC system shall not be restarted again until all
shall be installed in accordance with the manu- the dampers are reset and fully opened.
facturer's approved installation instructions in the
n
\ ...... ,~
/
fire-resistive ceiling element of floor-ceiling and roof-
ceiling assemblies when required by the Building 607.0 Ventilating Ceilings.
Code. Fire dampers not meeting the temperature 607.1 General. Perforated ceilings may be used for
limitation of ceiling radiation dampers shall not be air supply within the limitations of this section. Exit
used as a substitute. Ceiling radiation dampers shall corridors, when required to be of fire-resistive
be labeled by an approved agency. construction by the Building Code, shall not have
ventilating ceilings.
606.4 Multiple Arrangements. When size requires
the use of multiple dampers, the installation shall be
607.1.1 [For OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4J Ventilating
ceilings are not permitted in health facilities.
framed in an approved manner to ensure that the
dampers remain in place. 607.2 Requirements. Ventilating ceilings shall
comply with the following provisions:
606.5 Access and Identification. Dampers shall be
provided with an approved means of access large 607.2.1 Suspended ventilating ceiling material
enough to permit inspection and maintenance of the shall have a Class I flame-spread classification on
both sides, determined in accordance with the
damper and its operating parts. 'The access shall not
Building Code. Suspended ventilating ceiling
impair fire-resistive construction. Access shall not
supports shall be of noncombustible materials.
require the use of tools, keys, or special knowledge.
Access points shall be permanently identified on the 607.2.2 Lighting fixtures recessed into
exterior by a label with letters not less than 1/2 inch ventilating ceilings shall be of a type approved
for that purpose.
(12.7 mm) in height readi~g: SMOKE DAMPER or

o FIRE DAMPER. Access doors in ducts shall be tight


fitting and suitable for the required duct construction.
606.6 Freedom from Interference. Dampers shall be
608.0 Use of Under-Floor Space as Supply Plenum
for Dwelling Units.
installed in a manner to ensure positive closing or An under-floor space may be used as a supply plenum,
opening as required by function. Interior liners or provided,:
insulation shall be held back from portions of a 608.1 'The use of under-floor space shall be limited to
damper, its sleeve, or adjoining duct that would dwelling units not more than two stories in height.
interfere with the damper's proper operation. Exterior Except for the floor immediately above the under-
materials shall be installed so as to avoid interference floor plenum, supply ducts shall be provided
with the operation or maintenance of external extending from the plenum to registers on other
operating devices needed for proper function. floor levels.
606.7 Temperature· Classification of Operating Exception: In flood hazard areas, under~floor
Elements. Fusible links, thermal sensors, and spaces shall not be used as supply plenums
pneumatic or electric operators shall have a unless the flood opening requirements in the
temperature rating or classification as required by Building Code are satisfied.
the Building Code. . 608.2 Such spaces shall be cleaned of all loose
combustible scrap material and shall be tightly and
606.8 When the automatic activation ofa smoke damper or
substantially enclosed.
a combination smoke-fire damper occurs,the HVAC system

o serving such dampers shall immediately shut down.


Exceptions:
1. HVAC systems that are part of an engineered
608.3 The enclosing material of the under-floor
space, including the sidewall insulation, shall be not
more flammable than one (1) inch (25.4 mm)
(nominal) wood boards (flame-spread index of 200).
smoke evacuation system. Installation of foam plastics is regulated by the
2. Where the automatic activation causes all the Building Code,
smoke dampers and combination smoke-fire 608.4 Access shall be through an.opening in the floor

97
608.4 - 609.0 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

and shall be not less than twenty-four (24) inches by supply-air duct served by such equipment. Smoke
twenty-four (24) inches (610 mm x 610 mm). detectors shall be labeled by an approved agency
608.5 A furnace supplying warm air to under-floor approved and listed by California State Fire Marshal for
space shall be equipped with an automatic control air duct installation and shall be installed in
that will start the air-circulating fan when the air in accordance with the manufacturer's approved
the furnace bonnet reaches a temperature not higher installation instructions. Such devices shall be
than 150°F (66°C). Such control shall be one that compatible with the operating velocities, pressures,
cannot be set higher than 150°F (66°C). temperatures, and humidities of the system. Where
608.6 A furnace supplying warm air to such space fire-detection or alarm systems are provided for the
shall be equipped with an approved temperature building, the smoke detectors required by this section
limit control that willlirnit outlet air temperature to shall be supervised by such systems and installed in
200'F (93°C). accordance with NFPA 72 and the California Building and
Fire Codes.
608.7 A noncombustible receptacle shall be placed
below each floor opening into the air chamber, and Exceptions:
such receptacle shall conform to the following: (1) When the space supplied by the air-moving
608.7.1 The receptacle shall be securely suspended equipment is served by a total coverage
from the floor members and shall be not more smoke-detection system complying with the
than eighteen (18) inches (457 mm) below the California Fire Code, interconnection to such
system may be used to accomplish the
floor opening.
required shutoff.
608.7.2 The area of the receptacle shall extend
(2) Automatic shutoff is not required when all
three (3) inches (76 mm) beyond the opening on
occupied rooms served by the air-handling
all sides.
equipment have direct exit to the exterior
608.7.3 The perimeter of the receptacle shall have and the travel distance does not exceed 100
a vertical lip at least one (1) inch (25.4 mm) high feet (30,480 mm).
at the open sides if it is at the level of the bottom
of the joists, or three (3) inches (76 mm) high if the (3) Automatic shutoff is not required for Group
receptacle is suspended. R, Division 3 and Group U Occupancies.
608.8 Floor registers shall be designed for easy (4) Automatic shutoff is not required for
removal in order to give access for cleaning the approved smoke-control systems or where
receptacles. analysis demonstrates shutoff would create
a greater hazard, such as may be encountered
608.9 Exterior walls and interior stud partitions
in air-moving equipment supplying
shall be fire-stopped at the floor.
specialized portions of Group H
608.10 Each wall register shall be connected to the Occupancies. Such equipment shall be
air chamber by a register box or boot. required to have smoke detection with
608.11 A duct conforming with Section 602.0 shall rem·ote indication and manual shutoff
extend from the furnace supply outlet at least six (6) capability at an approved location.
inches (152 mm) below combustible framing. (5) Smoke detectors that are factory installed in
608.12 The entire ground surface of the under-floor listed air-moving equipment may be used in
space shall be covered with a vapor barrier having a lieu of smoke detectors installed in the
minimum thickness of four (4) mils (0.1016 mm) and main supply-air duct served by such
a flame-spread index of 200 or less. equipment.
608.13 Fuel-gas lines and plumbing waste cleanouts
are not located within the space.

609.0 Automatic Shutoffs.


Air-moving systems supplying air in excess of 2,000
cubic feet per minute (944 Lis) to enclosed spaces
within buildings shall be equipped with an automatic
shutoff. Automatic shutoff shall be accomplished by
interrupting the power source of the air-moving
equipment upon detection of smoke in the main

98
c) c) n' '-.---/ o f)
\_-"
o fJ)'
I\~.

o
c
()
TABLE 6-1 Duct Construction for 4 foot Duct Lengths -;
(J)
-<
2 W.g.
11
DUCT CONSTRUCTION TABLE 6-1 FOR 4 FT. DUCT LENGTHS INTERMEDIATE
(J)
-;
STATIC REINFORCEMENT m
POS.ORNEG. TRANSVERSE JOINT REINFORCEMENT s:
(J)

0) CD CD 0 0 CD (2) 0 CD @ @) ®

,If~ ,~ ~
*
.....
MAX- 3
L
><
« W
c@r@"
DRIVE SLIP T-3
W--u- T-24 T-25a 1/2" -II-
--il-- T ,Btl
~ C
JEL
.....
:Z
~
......
C)
Z
(3
«
~
C)
W
MAX:-i3"C
~
*

I
Q
1 ']
1 I
t=====i
STANDING S (BAR
REINFORCED) T-13

~it~H
(WITH GASKET) ~L !~LT
~H---i OR [

I~t J~,
c
<i. a..
tJ)
0 HEMMED "S" SLIP T-6 T-25b
C) (.)
I-
(.)
u:
Z
u: H = 1-3/8"
DUCT Z SLIP
BACKUP
DIM. :::I W W GAGE (WITH GASKET)
C 0:: 0:: STANDINGS STANDINGS STANDING S (ANGLE
T-10 T-12 REINFORCED) T-14 T·24a ANGLE ZEE
10" dn 26 None 24 None HxT HxT HxT+HR H=1 %" HxT H xT (MIN) H x BxT (MIN)
11"-20" 26 4" C 24
· 1x22ga. 1x24 gao 1x%

21"-28 " 26 4" D 24


· 1 %x20ga.
1 x20 gao or
1'h x22 gao NOT
USED
26ga. tx22 gao

1 %x 12 gao
1 x%x 18ga.

1 x 18 gao or
29"-30" 26 4" E 24 * 1 %x 18ga. 24ga. or
1 Ihx 20 gao
1 'hx20ga. 1 x%HR
31"-42 11 24 4" F 24
· 1 %x 18ga. 1 'hx 18 gao
1%x22ga.
1 'hx%Bar
22ga
1'hx%x16ga.
43"-48 II 22 4" G 24
· 1 %x 18ga. 1 'hx 18 gao
1% x20ga.
1 'hx%Bar
20ga. 1 'hx 18 gao
1'hx'ls
49"-60" 24 2" F 24
· 1 % x 18 gao 114x 18 gao
1 % x22ga.
1'hx%Bar
22ga. 1 'hx20ga.

61 11 -72 11 24 2" H 24
· 1 % x 18 gao
1 'hx%Bar
2x% 1'hx%x%
7311~8411

85 11 _96 11
22
22
2"
2"
I
I
22
22
·*
NOT GIVEN NOT GIVEN
2%x20ga.
2 x 'Is Angle
20 gao + rods NOT GIVEN
2X%6 2x1 \l6x12ga.

NOTES: 5. Contents of the n.1ITOW scope tables and these noles do not constitute all COMMENT:
1. *Menns use back~up member from columns 11 or 12 Exception: the drive only requirements for the construction's compliance. Complete details are provided Construction tables are prepared in "narrow scope" for 2 11 water gage and I II 'wafer
requires back-up over ISlengih. in the manual entitles HVAC Duct Construction Standards, Metal and Flexible. gage pressure classification. These tables have been produced for the convenience of
2.. Spacing in column 3 refers to joint-to-joint. joinl-to-intemlediate. or The manual is al.'ailable from local SMACNA chapler offices of the National those contractors or engineers who wish to have fewer options.
intennediate-to-intermediate. Association office; inquire for tenns. Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning
3. The same sheet thickness must be used on all sides of duct Each duct 6. Construction confoIll1.ing to Lbo standard does not prevent somc traditionally Contractors' National Association~ Chantilly, Va.
dimension. width, or depth, controls lite minimum reinforcement requirements
for that particular side.
acceptable rumble (noise) under sudden pressure change conditions such as stan
up and shut down ofsystems.
n;t
0-
4. Duci sides 19 11 wide and larger which have more than ten square feet of
unbroced panel shall be beaded or crossbroken unless the ducts will bave
m
0>
co external insulation or intcmalliner. The applies to duct of20'ga. or.1ess.
......
I
CO
..... TABLE 6·2 Duct Construction for 5 Foot Duct Lengths
o
o wt
CT
CD
2 11 W.g. DUCT CONSTRUCTION TABLE 6-2 FOR 5 FT. DUCT LENGTHS
0>

STATIC
POS.ORNEG. TRANSVERSE JOINT REINFORCEMENT
INTERMEDIATE
REINFORCEMENT '"
(0 o CD o o . CD CD CD o @ @ @

I~"L..' 1'I'D-I
MAX--- 3

r
I-- a=;:=-
~l
j[l ~
~ I
'U -I f:;-

r:
DRIVE SLIP T-3 WI HR --11- T B I-:-
111211

1~U ~~
r;.;1
T-24 ,.R. T-25a
1=+
~
6 I:::-. L ~
r-
,-..
cz ~
MAX:--j 3" H I H· STANDING S (BAR
LII
Z =~ REINFORCED) T-13 Ll
~ H----! l =
I

.... (WITH GASKET)

~
OR [
r;.;1

<
u
< § 'IF~I ~
,~~~::-;
t:l.c HEMMED "S" SLIP T-6
C tI:l U
T-25b
E-< ro.: ro.:
DUCT U
;;;J ~ ~ SLIP
BACKUP H = 1-3/8"
~ ~
DIM. GAGE
~ STANDINGS
T-IO
STA1"lDING S
T-12
STANDING S (ANGLE
REINFORCED) T-14
(WITH GASKET) I T-24a I A1"'lGLE ZEE
10" dn 26 None 24 None HxT HxT HxT+HR Hx 1 %" HxT HXT(MIN) Hx BxT (MIN)
11"-20" 26 5' C. 24
· 1x22 gao 1 x 22.ga. 1x'h·
21"-26 " 26 5' D 24
· 1 'Ai x 20 gao 1 x20 gao NOT
USED
26ga. 1 x 22 gao 1 x%x 18ga.

27"-30 " 24 5' E 24


· 1 'Ai x 18 gao 1 x 18 gao 24ga. 1 !4 x 12 gao
or
31"-36 " 22 5' F 24
· I 1 % x 18 gao
---
1 'hx 18 gao
1 %x22ga.
1 'hx% Bar
22ga
1 'hx 20 gao
1x%

I\)
37"-54 " 24 2Y2'
-
I F 24
· I 1 %x 189a. 1'hx18ga.
1 %x20 gao
1 'hx 'h Bar
22ga.
1'hx'h
1 'h x % x 16 gao o
o
.......
55"-60" I 24 I 2'h'
-
G 24
· I 1 %x18ga. 1 'hx 18 gao
1 %x22ga.
1 'hx'AiBar
22ga. + rods 1 'hx 18 gao
~
C
1 %x 18ga.
61"-72 " 22 2'h' H 24 2x% 1'hx%x% "11
NOT GIVEN NOT GIVEN
1'hx 'Ai Angle
20 gao + rods NOT GIVEN
o
73"-84 " 22 2W I 22 :c
85"-96 " 20 2Y2' I 22
2 'h x20 gao
2x%Angle
2x'YtG 2x 1 %x 12ga. z
5>
NOTES:
1. *Means use back-up member from columns II or 12 Exception: the drive only
5. Contents of the narrow scope tables and these notes do not constitute all
requirements for the construction's compliance. Complete details are provided
COMMENT:
Construction tables are prepared in "narrow scope" for 2" water gage and I II water
s::
m
2.
. reguires back-up over 18" lengdt.
Spacing in column 3 refers to joint-ta-joint., joint-la-intermediate, or
in the manual entitles HVAC Duct Construction Standnrds, Metal and Flexible.
The manual is available from local SMACNA chapter ofliccs orthe National
gage pressure classification. These tables have been produced tor the convenience of
those contr.tctors or engineers who wish to have fewer options.
o
:::I:
3.
inrcnnedialc-to-intcnncdiate.
The same sheet thickness must be used on al1 sides of ducl. Each duct 6.
Association office, inquire for terms.
Construction confonning to tbe standard does not prevent some traditionally
Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning
Contractors' National Association, Chantilly, Va. »
Z
dimensioIl;, width, or depth, controls the minimum reinforcement requirements acceptable rumble (noise) under sudden pressure change conditions such as start

4.
for that particular side.
Duct sides 19 11 wide and larger which have more than ten square feet of
up and shut down of systems. o
»
unbrnced panel shall be beaded or crossbroken unless the ducts will have r
external insuJation or intemalliner. The applies to duct of20 gao or less. o
oo
m
•.•• ••• _ _ •• . · • m _

DUCT SYSTEM Table 6-3 - Table 6-5

RECTANGULAR ALUMINUM DUCT


ADAPTED FROM 3" W.G. (760 Pal OR LOWER
TABLE 6-'3
THICKNESS ADJUSTMENTS
Galv. Steel Ga. (mm) 28 (0.48) 26 (0.55) 24 (0.70) 22 (0.78) 20 (1.00) 18 (1.31) 16 (1.61)

o nominal
Min. Alum. equivalent* (mm)

Commercial size (mm)


0.023
(0.58)
0.025
0.027
(0.69)
0.032
0.034
(0.86)
0.04
0.043
(1.09) ,
0.05
0.052
(1.32)
0.063
0.067
(1.70)
0.071
0.083
(2.11)
0.09
(0.60) (0.80) (1.00) (1.27) (1.60) (1.80) (2.29)

o lbs wtISf. Alum.


.A11oy 3003-H-14.
Consult Appendix-5 for Weights

TABLE 6-4
DIMENSION ADJUSTMENTS
Galv. Rigidity Class
Alum. dim. per Galv. Class C
A B
E E
C 0
F
E
H
F
I
G

I"
H
K
I
** .. ..
J K L
**
.. Calculate an effective I. = 3 x that used for steel.

TABLE 6-5
REINFORCEMENTS r

Steel Angle Size, Equivalent Alum.-


Inches (mm) Cod Angle Size, Inches

C)
Steel Bar Alum.Ba"-
1 x 1 x 16 Ga. C 11/4x11/4x1/8 1 x 1/8 11/2 x 1/8 or 11/4 x 3/16
(25 x 25 x 1.61) (31.8 x 31.8 x 3.2) (25 x 3.2) (38.1 x 38.1 or
31.8 x 4.8)
1 x 1 x 1/8 0 11/2x11/2x1/8 1112 x 1/8 1112 x 1/8 or 11/4 x 3/16
(25 x 25 x 3.2) (38.1 x 38.1 x 3.2) ,(38.1 x 3.2) (38.1 x 38.1 or
31.8 x 4.8)
11/4 x 11/4 x 1/8 F 13/4 x 13/4 x 1/8- ,
(31.8 x 31.8 x 3.2) (44.5 x 44.5,x 3.!)
1112 x 11/2 x 1/8 G 21/2 x 21/2 x 1.18
(31.8 x 31.8 x 3.2) (63.5 x 63.5 x 3.2)
2 x 2 x 1/8 H 21/2 x 2112 x 3/16
(51 x 51 x 3.2) (63.5 x 63.5 x 4.8)
2 x 2 x 3/16 I 21/2 x 21/2 x 3/8 or 3 x 3 x 1/4
(51 x 51 x 4.8) (63.5 x 63.5 x 7.9 or 76.2 x76.2 x 6.4)
2 x 2 x 1/4 J 21/2 x 2112 x 3/8 or 3 x 3 x 1/4
(51 x 51 x 6.4) (63.5 x 63.5 x 7.9 or 76.2 x 76.2 x 6.4)

u 21/2 x 2112 x 3/16


(63.5 x~ 63.5 x 4.8)

·"Alloy 6061-T6 Strength nonnally.


K 3 x 3 x 3/8 or 31/2 x 3112 x 1/4
(76.2 x 76.2 x 9.5 or 88.9 x 88.9 x 6.4)

Any aluminum shape substituted must have a moment of inIIrtia three times that of steel and have 30,000 psi minimum yield strength.

SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards Metal and Flexible· Second Edition
()
101
Table 6-6A 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

TABLE 6·6 A (I·P Units)


Minimum Duct Insulation R Value· Cooling and Heating Only Supply Ducts and Return Ducts

Climate Zone Duct Location

Envelope HDD65 CDDSO Exterior Ventilated Unvented Unvented Uncon- Indirectly Buried
Criteria Table Attic Attic wi Attic wi ditioned Can-
Backloaded Roof Spaceb ditioned
Ceiling Insulation' Space'

Heating-Only Ducts

5-1 to 5-7 0-1,800 all none none none none none none none
5-8 to 5-12 1,801-3,600 all R-3.5 none none none none none none
5-13 to 5-15 3,601-5,400 all R-3.5 none none none none none none
5-16 to 5-18 5,401-7,200 all R-6 R-3.5 none none none none R-3.5
5-19 to 5-20 7,201-9,000 all R-6 R-6 R-3.5 none none none R-3.5
5-21 to 5-22 9,001-10,800 all R-8 R-6 R-6 none R-3.5 none R-3.5
5-23 10,801-12,600 all R-8 R-6 R-6 none R-6 none R-6
5-24 12,601-16,200 all R-8 R-8 R-6 none R-6 none R-6
5-25 16,201-19,800 all R-lO R-8 R-8 none R-6 none R-6
5-26 19,801+ all R-l0 R-l0 R-8 none R-8 none R-6

Cooling-Only Ducts

5-15,18,20, all 0-1,800 R-l.9 R-1.9 R-1.9 R-1.9 R-l.9 none none
22 to 26
5-12,14,17, all 1,801-3,600 R-3.5 R-1.9 R-3.5 R-l.9 R-1.9 none none
19,21
5-7,9,11,13, all 3,601-5,400 R-3.5 R-3.5 R-6 R-1.9 R-l.9 none none
16
5-4,6,8,10 all 5,401-7,200 R-6 R-6 R-6 R-3.5 R-l.9 none none
5-3,5-5 all 7,201-9,000 R-6 R-6 R-6 R-3.5 R-3.5 none R-3.5
5-2 all 9,001-10,800 R-6 R-6 R-8 R-3.5 R-3.5 none R-3.5
5-1 all 10,801+ R-8 R-8 R-8 R-3.5 R-3.5 none R-3.5

RetumDucts

5-15 to 5-26 all climates R-3.5 R-3.5 R-3.5 none none none none none

Notes:
Insulation R-values, measured in (h·ft'·'P)/Btu, are for the insulation as installed and do not include film resistance. The
required minimum thicknesses do not consider water vapor transmission and possible surface condensation. Where exterior
walls are used as plenum walls, wall insulation shall be as required by the most restrictive condition.
Insulation resistance measured on a horizontal plane in accordance with ASTM C518 at a mean temperature of 75'P at the
installed thickness.
Includes crawl spaces, both ventilated and nonventilated.
Includes return-air plenums with or without exposed roofs above.
Vapor retarders shall be installed on supply ducts in spaces vented to the outside in geographic areas where the average sum-
mer dewpoint temperature based on the 2-1/2 percent column of dry-bulb and mean coincident wet-bulb temperature
exceeds 60 0 P (16°C).
Insulation shall have an approved weatherproof barrier.

102
DUCT SYSTEMS Table 6-68

TABLE 6-6 B (I-P Units)


Minimum Duct Insulation R Value" Combined Heating and Cooling Ducts

Climate Zone Duct Location

Envelope HDD65 CDDSO Exterior Ventilated Unvented Unvented Uncon- Indirectly Buried
Criteria Attic Attic wi Attic wi Roof ditioned Conditioned
Table Backloaded Insulation' Spaceb Space'
Ceiling

5-1 0-900 10,801+ R-8 ' R-6 R-8 R-3.5 R-3.5 none R-3.5
5-2 0-900 9,001-10,800 R-6 R-6 R-8 R-3.5 R-3.5 none R-3.5
5-3 0-900 7,201-9,000 R-6 R-6 R-6 R-3.5 R-3.5 none R-3.5

o 5-4
5-5
5-6
5-7
0-900
901-1,800
901-1,800
901-1,800
0-7,200
7,201+
5,401-7,200
0-5,400
R-6
R-6
R-6
R-3.5
R-3.5
R-6
R-6
R-3.5
R-6
R-6
R-6
R-6
R-3.5
R-3.5
R-3.5
R-1.9
R-1.9
R-3.5
R-3.5
R-1.9
none
none
none
none
R-3.5
R-3.5
R-3.5
R-1.9
5-8 1,801-2,700 5,401+ R-6 R-6 R-6 R-3.5 R-3.5 none R-3.5
5-9 1,801-2,700 0-5,400 R-6 R-3.S R-6 R-1.9 R-1.9 none R-1.9
5-10 2,701-3,600 5,401+ R-6 R-6 R-6 R-3.5 R-3.5 none R-3.S
5-11 2,701-3,600 3,601-5,400 R-6 R-6 R-6 R-3.5 R-3.5 none R-1.9
5-12 2,701-3,600 0-3,600 R-3.5 R-3.5 R-3.5 R-1.9 R-1.9 none R-1.9
5-13 3,601-5,400 3,601+ R-6 R-6 R-6 R-3.5 R-3.5 none R-3.5
5-14 3,601-5,400 1,801-3,600 R-6 R-3.5 R-6 R-1.9 R-3.5 none R-1.9
5-15 3,601-5,400 0-1,800 R-3.5 R-3.5 R-3.5 R-1.9 R-1.9 none R-1.9
5-16 5,401-7,200 3,601+ R-6 R-6 R-6 R-3.5 R-3.5 none R"3.5
5-17 5,401-7,200 1,801-3,600 R-6 R-6 R-6 R-1.9 R-3.5 none R-3.5
5-18 5,401-7,200 0-1,800 R-6 R-3.S R-3.5 R-1.9 R-3.5 none R-3.5
5-19 7,201-9,000 1,801+ R-8 R-6 R-6 R-1.9 R-3.5 none R-3.5
5-20 7,201-9,000 0-1,800 R-6 R-6 R-6 R-1.9 R-3.5 none R-3.5
5-21 9,001-10,800 1,801+ R-8 R-6 R-6 R-1.9 R-6 none R-3.S
5-22 9,001-10,800 0-1,800 R-8 R-6 R-6 R-1.9 R-3.5 none R-3.5
5-23 10,801-12,600 all R-8 R-6 R-6 R-1.9 R-6 none R-6
5-24 12,601-16,200 all R-8 R-8 R-8 R-1.9 R-6 none R-6
5-25 16,201-19,800 all R-10 R-8 R-8 R-3.5 R-6 none R-6
5-26 19,801+ all R-lO R-10 R-8 R-3.5 R-8 R-3.5 R-6

Notes:
, Insulation R-values, measured in (h·ft2·'F)/Btu, are for the insulation as installed and do not include film resistance. The
required minimum thicknesses do not consider water vapor transmission and possible surface condensation. Where exterior
walls are used as plenum walls, wall insulation shall be as required by the most restrictive condition.
Insulation resistance measured on a horizontal plane in accordance with ASTM C518 at a mean temperature of 75'F at the

o installed thickness.
b Includes crawl spaces, both ventilated and nonventilated.

, Includes return air plenums with or without exposed roofs above.


d Vapor retarders shall be installed on cooling supply ducts in spaces vented to the outside in geographic areas where the average

summer dewpoint temperature based on the 2-1/2 percent column of dry-bulb and mean coincident wet-bulb temperature
exceeds 60°F (16°C).
, Insulation shall have an approved weatherproof barrier.

o
103
Table 6-7 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

TABLE 6-7
Duct Support
inches x 25.4 = mm
feet x 304.8 = m
A. Vertical Ducts

Maximum Maximum
Side of Diameter
Rectangular Metal Strap or of Round Strap
Duct Angle Bracket Ducts

24" 1" x l/S" strap' 10" 0.047" (No. IS gauge)


galvanized steel 2" wide'

36" 1" x 1" x l/S" angle' 20" 0.05S" (No. 16 gauge)


galvanized steel 2" wide'

4S" l-l/S" x l-l/S" x l/S" angle' 40" l/S" steel x 1_1/2'"

60" 1-1/2" x 1-1/2" x l/S" angle' 60" l/S" steel x 2'"

Over 60" 2" x 2" x l/S" angle' Over 60" 3/16" steel x 2'"

B. Horizontal Ducts

IS" 1" x IS gauge' Same gauge as galvanized steel duct


10" 1" wide or (No. IS gauge galVanized
30" 1" x IS gauge' steel wire) on 10' centers

4S" 1" x l/S'" 20" Same gauge as galvanized steel


duct, 1" wide or (No. S gauge
60" 1" x l/S'" galvanized steel wire) tied to
40" 1" galvanized steel band
SO" 1" x l/S'" around duct on 10' centers

60" Same gauge as galvanized steel


duct, 1~1/2" wide on 6' centers

Over 60" ~ ame gauge as galvanized steel


duct, 1-1/2" wide on 4' centers

C. Horizontal Ducts - Trapeze-Type Supports

Maximum
Diameter of Round Horizontal
Duct or Side of Support Hanger
Rectangular Duct Angle3

36" 1-1/2" x 1-1/2" x l/S" 1/4" round rod or 1" x 1" x l/S" angle

4S" 2" x 2" x l/S" 1/4" round rod or 1" x 1" x l/S" angle

60" 2" x 2" x l/S" 5/16" round rod or 1" x 1" x l/S" angle

S4" 2" x2" x l/S" 3/S" round rod or 1" x 1" x l/S" angle

Notes:
, Spaced vertically not more than 12 feet on centers.
'Spaced horizontally not more than 10 feet on centers.
3 Spaced not more than S feet on centers.

104
m ~ ~ n ~_~ ~ ~ ,

DUCT SYSTEMS Table 6-8 - Table 6-9

TABLE 6-8 inches x 25.4 = mm

~
" 2"WC=498Pa
Construction Details for Round and Flat-Oval Ducts ;10" wc = 2.5 kPa
~/"/
Aluminum STEEL - THICKNESS IN INCHES
B. &s. Gage (STEEL - GALVANIZED SHEET GAUGE) GIRTH JOINTS'
Duct Diameter Pressure < 211 we Pressure < 211 WC2 Pressure > 2" < 1011 we Minimum Girth
Max. Width Longitudinal Welded ReinforcinSJ Maximum
(In Inches) Round Round Flat-Oval Spiral Seam Seam Fittings Pressure> 2 11 < 1011 we Spacing and Angle Size

Upt09 24 0.019 0.024 0.019 0,024 0,030 2"Slip None


(26) (24) (26) (24) (22)
Over 9 24 0.019 0.024 0.024 0.030 0,036 4"Slip None
Up to 14 (26) (24) (24) (22) (20)

Over 14 22 0,024 0.030 0.024 0,030 0.036 4"Slip None


Up to 23 (24) (22) (24) (22) (20)

Over 23 20 0.030 0.036 0.030 0.036 0,036 4"Slip None


Up to 37 (22) (20) (22) (20) (20)

Over 37 18 0.036 0.047 0,036 0.036 0.047 1-1/4" x 1-1/4" x 1/8" 1-1/4" x 1-1/4" x 1/8"
Up to 51 (20) (18) (20) (20) (18) Flange on 72"
Over 51 16 0.047 0,058 X 0.047 0,047 1-1/4" x 1-1/4" x 1/8" 1-1/4" x 1-1/4" x 1/8"
Up to 61 (18) (16) (18) (18) Flange on 72"

Over 61 14 0.058 0.070 X 0.058 0,058 1-1/2" x 1-1/2" x 1/8" 1-1/2" x 1-1/2:', x 1/8"
Up to 84 (16) (14) (16) (16) Flange on 48"

Notes:
1 For pressure < 2 inches WC (498 Pa), any of the following joints are acceptable: butt slip; pipe slip; pipe lock; roll slip; snap
slip; plenum lock; and companion flange.
2, Acceptable longitudinal seams for pressure < 2 inches we (610 mm): Acme (grooved); snap lock; standing; and spiral.

o
TABLE 6-9
Thickness of Metal Ducts and Plenums Used for Heating or Cooling for a Single-Dwelling Unit

GALVANIZED STEEL

Minimum Equivalent Approximate

o Round ducts and enclosed


Thickness,
Inches (mm)
Galvanized Sheet
Gauge No.
Aluminum
B.&S. Gauge

rectangular ducts
14" (356 mm) or less 0.013 (0.33) 30 26
Over 14" (356 mm) 0.016 (0.41) 28 24

o hxposed rectangular ducts


14" (356 mm) or less
Over 14" (356 mm)
0.016 (0.41)
0.019 (0.48)
28
26
24
22

o 105
Table 6-10 2007 CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE

TABLE 6-10
Alternate Supports for Factory-Made Air Ducts

Maximum Support
Class 1 Duct Material Minimum Support Material Spacing, Feet

Rigid round fibrous No. 26 gauge x 5/8" 6


wide galvanized iron strap

Corrugated metal No. 18 gauge galvanized 6


iron wire

Flexible No. 26 gauge x 1-1/2" 4


wide galvanized iron strap

inches x 25.4 = mm
feet x 304.8 =m

106