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Tome 103

Tome
2017, n° 2
103
2017
C’est en 1917 que parut le premier numéro du Bulletin de la Société française de n° 2
musicologie. Cette publication prit en 1922 le nom de Revue de musicologie et
s'enracina progressivement dans le terreau musicologique pour devenir
l’unique périodique français offrant un discours sur la musique à avoir
traversé le XXe siècle. Son centenaire est l’occasion de retracer son histoire et,

Un siècle de musicologie en France


ce faisant, de penser la musicologie qui s’est écrite dans ses
deux cent trente livraisons.
Proposer une histoire intellectuelle de la Revue de musicologie c’est
s’intéresser à la fabrique de la musicologie à l’échelle de la communauté
savante qui s’est regroupée autour de la Sfm et de sa revue, c’est montrer

Volume 1
comment sa production tient à sa matérialité et à ses thématiques, aux
méthodes qui la sous-tendent et aux pratiques d’écriture dans lesquelles
s’incarne la pensée des auteurs, c’est comprendre l’importance des différents
contextes politiques, culturels et scientifiques qu’elle a traversés, c’est encore
suivre son devenir, de sa conception à sa réception.
Le présent volume, sous-titré Structuration nationale et interaction
internationale, s’organise en trois chapitres : I. Du contexte historique aux
enjeux intellectuels ; II. La fabrique du savoir : rubriques, fonctionnement,
positionnement ; III. Une histoire mondiale de la Revue de musicologie.
Un siècle de musicologie en France
Avec la contribution de :
Vincent Arlettaz • Yves Balmer • Francesc Cortès • Cécile Davy-Rigaux • Louis
Histoire intellectuelle de la Revue de musicologie
Delpech • Michel Duchesneau • Anders Edling • Gabriela Elgarrista • Joël-
Marie Fauquet • Annegret Fauser • Jean Gribenski • Inga Mai Groote • Martin Volume 1
Guerpin • Nancy Hachem • Sara Iglesias • Suzanne Kassian • Barbara Kelly •
Hervé Lacombe • Marie-Pier Leduc • Catherine Massip • Christopher Brent sous la direction d’Yves Balmer et Hervé Lacombe
Murray • Michela Niccolai • Guillemette Prévot • Emmanuel Reibel • Angélica
Rigaudière • Alexandre Robert • Valentina Sandu-Dediu • Thomas Soury •
Naomi Tazaki • Rebecca Thumpston • Henri Vanhulst • Maria Alice Volpe

Publié avec le soutien du ministère de la Culture et de la Communication / DPG - SIAF,


Mission aux Commémorations nationales.

[+ logos Culture/CNRS/SNL]

ISSN 0035-1601
Revue de musicologie
Tome 103 (2017) • no 2
p. 697-710

The Contribution of France


to Brazilian Musicology.
Between Interdisciplinarity
and Musicologie Tout Court

Maria Alice Volpe

French musicology had a key role in the process of institutionalization of Brazil-


ian musicology in the university during the 1980s as Brazilian prominent figures
had untaken their studies at French institutions between the 1960s and 1970s:
Régis Duprat (1930), Gerard Béhague (1937–2005), Flavio Silva (1939), and José
Maria Neves (1943–2002). During those decades, France — more than Germany,
Italy, Portugal, Spain or the United States — was the center where Brazilian stu-
dents sought for specialized training in musicology. The Franchophile influence
in Brazil has proved to be as strong in music research as it has been in so many
fields. That long-lasting influence dates from the French Artistic Mission (1816),1
gaining force and spreading in many fields throughout the nineteenth- and early
twentieth-century,2 and persisting in the outcomes of the cutting-edge French
Mission for the foundation of the University of São Paulo (1934).3

1. See Lilia Moritz Schwarcz, O Sol do Brasil. Nicolas-Antoine Taunay e as Desventuras dos Artistas
Franceses na Corte de D. João, São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2008.
2. Among the many French influences in Brazil during the nineteenth-century, one may mention
Comte’s positivism, Gobineau’s racial theory, and Taine’ mesologism. See José Luis Petruc-
celli, “Doutrinas francesas e o pensamento racial brasileiro, 1870–1930,” in Estudos Sociedade
e Agricultura, 7, 1996, pp. 134–49, online: http://r1.ufrrj.br/esa/V2/ojs/index.php/esa/
article/viewFile/98/94, accessed Sept. 26, 2017. By late nineteenth- and early twentieth-cen-
tury, Brazilian society also experienced its belle époque, having art nouveau highly spread in urban
culture. See Jeffrey D. Needel, A Tropical Belle Epoque. Elite Culture and Society in Turn-Of-The-
Century Rio de Janeiro, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. The impact of biological
and racial determinism in Brazilian music historiography has been discussed by Maria Alice
Volpe, “National Identity in Brazilian Music Historiography,” in Indianismo and Landscape in the
Brazilian Age of Progress. Art Music from Carlos Gomes to Villa-Lobos, 1870s-1930s, PhD diss., The
University of Texas at Austin, 2001 (Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press, 2001).
3. See Patrick Petitjean, “As missões universitárias francesas na criação da Universidade de
São Paulo (1934–1940),” in Amélia I. Hamburguer, ed., A ciência nas relações Brasil-França
Maria Alice Volpe

In such a Francophile context, and marked interest for the French human sci-
ences, the French Society of Musicology (SFM) and its journal Revue de Musicologie
(Rdm) did not fulfill the same coalescing function to Franco-Brazilian musico-
logical relations. As much as the SFM had been a central organization for the
698
implantation of musicology in France, and its networking with the international
musicological world during the 1910s and 1920s, it seems that SFM relinquished
its fully international potential in the decades after the Second World War as it
did not capitalize on the emerging interest for the musics of the world aroused by
UNESCO’s lines of actions. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the SFM
and the activity around its journal made it possible to compensate for the lack of
institutionalization of the discipline. Several decades later, this institutionaliza-
tion became effective, especially in the University, but the journal seems to have
narrowed the range of its topics, thus, losing a great deal of its structuring func-
tion at international level. Symptomatically, Latin American and Brazilian musi-
cology is practically invisible in the Revue de musicologie, with the exception of some
book reviews4 by Luiz Heitor Corrêa de Azevedo (1905–1992), the founding edi-
tor of the Revista Brasileira de Música (1934–1942), and professor of the University
of Brazil (currently the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro), who settled in
Paris in the late 1940s to serve as director of the UNESCO Music Office in Paris
(1947–1965). Corrêa de Azevedo was also Professor of Latin American Music
History at the Institute of Higher Studies of Latin America at the University of the
Sorbonne (1954–1968), and a founding member of the UNESCO International
Music Council (1949), where he served until the end of his life.
It was precisely the need for specific training in the musicological discipline
that led Régis Duprat, after completing his degree in History at the University of
São Paulo in 1961 — there he was a student of Paul Hugon (Political Economy),
Robert Aubreton (Greek Literature), Florestan Fernandes (Sociology), Emilio
Willems and Egon Schaden (Anthropology and Ethnology), Gilda de  Mello
e Souza (Aesthetics), and Sérgio Buarque de Hollanda (History of Brazil) — to
decline the invitation of the latter to continue his post-graduate studies as his
disciple, and instead, to go to France in the early 1960s to study musicology. With

(1850-1950), São Paulo: Edusp/Fapesp, 1996; Patrick Petitjean, “Ciências, impérios, rela-
ções científicas franco-brasileiras,” in A. I. Hamburguer, A ciência nas relações Brasil-França
(1850-1950); Ana Beatriz Feltran Maia, “As missões francesas na criação da Universidade de
São Paulo: uma análise dos relatos e seus significados nos anuários da Faculdade de Filosofia,
Ciências e Letras (1934–1949),” in Anais do XXVI Simpósio Nacional de História – ANPUH, julho
2011, online: www.snh2011.anpuh.org/resources/anais/14/1312990552_ARQUIVO_tex-
toanpuh2011finalrevisado.pdf, accessed Sept. 26, 2017.
4. Luiz Heitor Corrêa de Azevedo, book reviews on Robert Stevenson’s Music in the Aztec and Inca
Territory (Revue de musicologie, 55/1, 1969, pp. 88–91); Lincoln Spiess and Thomas Standford’s
An Introduction to some Mexican Musical Archives (Revue de musicologie, 56/2, 1970, pp. 244–45); and
Gérard Béhague’s Music in Latin America (Revue de musicologie, 67/2, 1981, pp. 243–44).

Revue de musicologie
The Contribution of France to Brazilian Musicology

a scholarship from the French government (thanks to Prof. Aubreton’s endorse-


ment) during the years of 1962 and 1963, Régis Duprat studied with exponents
of musicology, including Jacques Chailley (History of Music) at the Institute
of Musicology of the University of Paris-Sorbonne, Marcel Beaufils (Musical
699
Aesthetics) at the Paris Superior Conservatoire, Solange Corbin (Musicology) at
the École pratique de hautes études, and also internationally renowned scholars
from the “mother disciplines,” including Fernand Braudel (History), and Pierre
Francastel (Art History) at the EPHE. Duprat’s PhD  Dissertation Música na
Matriz e Sé de São Paulo Colonial [Music in the Parish Church and See of Colonial
São Paulo],5 worked under the supervision of Sérgio Buarque de Hollanda and
Jacques Chailley, was a result of the first interinstitutional cooperation between
Brazilian and French universities in the area of musicology. It was defended at
the University of Brasília (Brazil), in 1966, before the Examination Committee
compounded by Sérgio Buarque de Hollanda (University of São Paulo), Gilbert
Chase (Tulane University, New Orleans), and Claudio Santoro (University of
Brasília/ Head of the Department of Music), bestowing Régis Duprat with the
first doctoral degree in music awarded by a Brazilian institution.
The French influence on Duprat’s intellectual formation had certainly
begun early with his family background, and continued during his youth years,
as he recalls in his Curriculum Vitae Essay for the University of São Paulo’s Full
Professorship in 1997:
I have a well-kept notebook […] a 135-page booklet that I began writing
on September 8, 1954, and interrupted on October 23, 1961, where I laid
aesthetic (if I may say so) impressions and reflections. In the mid-1950s my
readings were, of course, at least in the ideological field, especially Marxist,
and I remember well the French edition of Henri Lefèbvre’s Contribution
à l’esthétique (1953), and the pernicious Zdanov’s Sobre a literatura, a filosofia
e a música [On Literature, Philosophy, and Music] (1950). Other readings
included Edouard [sic] [Charles] Lalo, Notions d’Esthétique; Taine, Philosophie de
l’art and Do ideal na arte [On the ideal in art]; Bosanquet, História de la Estética
[History of the Aesthetics], in Spanish translation of  1949; Gisèle Brelet,
Esthétique et création musicale (1948) and L’interprétation créatrice (1951), and above
all Mikel Dufrenne, Phénoménologie de l’Experience Esthétique (1953), who had so
much impact on my studious mind; also Vie des formes, by Focillon and, a few
years later, Abraham Moles, Théorie de l’information et perception esthétique, pub-
lished in Paris in 1959, and which introduced us all to the information theory
age. I read this literature, among other works, in the 1950s, and I still have
in my library the same copies, inseparable companions of my questions and
aporia concerning the art world. It is a literature that goes from Marxism to
phenomenology in aesthetics. The latter constituted a current that marked

5. Published as book: Régis Duprat, Música Na Sé de São Paulo Colonial, São Paulo: Paulus, 1995.

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Maria Alice Volpe

my intellectual development at that time and, over the years, particularly in


the last ten or fifteen, led me to the study of hermeneutical ontology as well as
existential (not existentialist) currents. […] The content of this bibliography
confirms my impression that I had access to good literature on aesthetics and
700 art history. In the same year of its publication, I read, among others, Émile
Mâle, L’art religieux de la fin du Moyen Âge en France, published in Paris in 1949.
This bibliography was improved and expanded during my specialization
in Aesthetics with an incomparable teacher who was Gilda de Melo, when
I returned to USP to complete my degree in History.6

Although these formation years could simply have meant a general intellectual
background, future directions taken by Duprat’s musicological thinking have
shown that such a multidisciplinary schooling was in continuous dialogue with
his specific training in musicology, through which Chailley’s idea of musicologie
tout cour merged with Braudel’s concept of longue durée, and the Nouvelle Histoire
approach. For reasons to be investigated in the history of the musicological insti-
tutionalization process in France, the SFM and its journal did not offer, at that
time, a forum for discovering the debates, issues, and methodological reflections
on music history and aesthetics, despite the fact that Gisèle Brelet (just to mention
an author read by Brazilian musicologists) was a member of the SFM.
Régis Duprat arrived in Paris in the early 1960s with substantial knowledge
of the French thought. Duprat’s Paris years enriched his intellectual background
on Humanities with first-hand experience with French scholars from many areas,
but certainly, his musicological training was of chief importance for fulfilling an
area of expertise scarce in Brazil at that time. Duprat’s continuous involvement
with the Nouvelle Histoire is evident not only from his life-long connections with
the University of São Paulo but also from the strong impression of his personal
contact with Braudel in Paris. The Braudelian longue durée is a recurring issue in
Duprat’s teaching of musicology. However, the impact of the Nouvelle Histoire’s
theoretical and methodological framework on Duprat’s musicological construal
is still to be fully estimated.
Duprat’s PhD dissertation (1966) is considered a watershed in Brazilian
musical historiography for proposing an approach to music in relation to the
Colonial administrative system that overcomes the bio-sociological determinism
of previous studies.7 The École des Annales’s theoretical and methodological frame-

6. Régis Duprat, Memorial para Concurso de Professor Titular do Departamento de Música da Univer-
sidade de São Paulo, manuscript, 1997, online: www2.eca.usp.br/eca50anos/sites/default/
files/memoriais/M316%20RE%CC%81GIS%20DUPRAT%2C%201997.pdf, accessed
Sept. 26, 2017 (translation is mine).
7. For an insightful discussion of these historiographical issues, see Diósnio Machado Neto,
“Curt Lange e Régis Duprat: os modelos críticos sobre a música no período colonial bra-

Revue de musicologie
The Contribution of France to Brazilian Musicology

work, resulting from Duprat’s schooling with Braudel, provokes a rupture in the
historiographical chain attached to culturalism, and brings a new model based
on social, economic, and political structures in permanent negotiation, and medi-
ated by long-term historical structures.8 Duprat’s concern for a socioeconomic
701
and political history of music was candidly expressed in the article “O estanco
da música no Brasil colonial” [The illegal monopoly of music in Colonial Brazil]
(1968)9. More recently, Duprat’s article “Musicologia à luz da Hermenêutica”
[Musicology in the light of Hermeneutics]10 proposes some reflections on the
“criticism to the Nouvelle Histoire” that awaits for full consequences in musicol-
ogy. Duprat’s work has searched simultaneously for the specificities of the musi-
cological craft within a larger transdisciplinary view, which owes a great deal to
the French scholarship.
This search for the domain of the specific tools of musicology undertaken by
Régis Duprat was emblematic of the challenges faced by that generation, which
included Gérard Béhague and José Maria Neves, who also sought musicological
training in the same French center.
Gérard Béhague can be considered the head of Franco-Brazilian-American
musicology. He was born in France, but raised in Rio de Janeiro, and returned
to Paris in 1959, where he studied at the University of Paris-Sorbonne with
Jacques Chailley, and attended his first seminars in ethnomusicology with Tran
van Khê at the musée de L’Homme. He then moved to the United States to
take his PhD degree at Tulane University, completed in 1966 with the dis-
sertation Popular Music Currents in the Art Music of the Early Nationalistic Period in
Brazil, circa 1870–1920,11 under the supervision of Gilbert Chase, and started
teaching at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in the same year.
Béhague was Professor of Musicology/Ethnomusicology at The University of
Texas at Austin for more than three decades (1974–2005), served as Chair of the
Department of Music (1980–1989), and as Editor-in-Chief of the Latin American
Music Review (1980–2005). Béhague’s outstanding international career provided

sileiro” [Curt Lange and Régis Duprat: the critical models about music in the Brazilian
colonial period], in Revista Brasileira de Música, 23/2, 2010, pp. 73–94.
8. Machado Neto, “Curt Lange e Régis Duprat…”.
9. Régis Duprat and Nise Poggi Obino, “O Estanco da Música no Brasil Colonial,” in Yearbook
for Inter-American Musical Research, IV, 1968, pp. 98–109, online: www.jstor.org/stable/77978,
accessed Sept. 26, 2017. Revised version in Neide Marcondes and Manoel Belotto, Labirintos
e Nós: Imagem Ibérica Em Terras da América, São Paulo: EDUNESP, Imprensa Oficial do Estado,
1999, pp. 53–74.
10. Régis Duprat, “Musicologia à luz da Hermenêutica,” in Claves, 3, 2007, pp. 7–19, online:
http://periodicos.ufpb.br/index.php/claves/article/view/2721, accessed Sept. 26, 2017.
11. Published as: Gérard Béhague, The Beginnings of Musical Nationalism in Brazil, Detroit: Informa-
tion Coordinators, 1971.

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Maria Alice Volpe

countless opportunities to interact with scholars from many countries, but it is


worth mentioning his friendship with Gilbert Rouget and Jean Jacques Nattiez.
Rouget’s work on music and trance12 and Béhague’s work on Afro-Brazilian reli-
gious music (candomblé in Bahia)13 were in continuous dialogue. Rouget was a kind
702
friend to write a sensitive article in tribute after Béhague’s decease.14 Béhague’s
work on candomblé also owes a great deal to Roger Bastide’s sociological studies
on Afro-Brazilian culture, not only in his sociological approach to the symbolic
world15 but also to transe16 in candomblé ritual. It must be noted that Bastide suc-
ceeded Claude Lévi-Strauss at the University of São Paulo.
Béhague’s prize-winning book on Villa-Lobos (1994)17 was certainly nour-
ished by former studies on the Brazilian composer by French musicologists, such
as Henri Prunières,18 Suzanne Demarquez,19 and Marcel Beaufils.20 Béhague
acknowledged cultural receptivity between Brazil and France in his book on
Brazilian popular music written for a wider French readership, Musiques du Brésil:
De la cantoria a la samba-reggae (1999).21

12. Gilbert Rouget, La musique et la transe. Esquisse d’une théorie générale des relations de la musique et de
la possession, Paris: Gallimard, 1980.
13. Gérard Béhague, “Notes on Regional and National Trends in Afro-Brazilian Cult Music,” in
Merlin Forster, ed., Tradition in Renewal, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1975, pp. 68–80;
“Correntes Regionais e Nacionais na Música do Candomblé Baiano,” in Afro-Ásia, 12, 1976,
pp. 129–36; “Some Liturgical Functions of Afro-Brazilian Religious Music in Salvador,
Bahia,” in The World of Music, 19/3–4, 1977, pp. 4–23; “Patterns of Candomblé Music Per-
formance: An Afro-Brazilian Religious Setting,” in Gérard Béhague, ed., Performance Practice:
Ethnomusicological Perspectives, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1984, pp. 222–54; “Afro-Bra-
zilian traditions,” in The Garland encyclopedia of world music, Volume 2: South America, Mexico, Central
America, and the Caribbean, New York: Garland Publishers, 1998; “Expressões musicais do plu-
ralismo religioso Afro-Baiano: a negociação de identidade,” in Brasiliana, 1, 1999, pp. 40–47.
14. Gilbert Rouget, “In memoriam Gérard Béhague,” in Cahier de musiques traditionnelles, 19, 2006,
pp. 251–252, online : https://ethnomusicologie.revues.org/122, accessed Sept. 26, 2017.
15. Roger Bastide, O Candomblé da Bahia: rito nagô, São Paulo: Companhia Editora Nacional,
1958; Sociologia do Folclore Brasileiro, São Paulo: Editora Anhambi, 1959; Les Amériques noires. Les
civilisations africaines dans le Nouveau Monde, Paris: Payot, 1967; As religiões africanas: contribuição a
uma sociologia das interpenetrações de civilizações, São Paulo: Universidade de São Paulo, Escola de
Comunicações e Artes / Departamento do Jornalismo e Editoração, 1971.
16. Roger Bastide, Le Rêve, la transe et la folie [Dream, Trance, and Madness], preface by François
Laplantin, Paris: Flammarion, 1972.
17. Gérard Béhague, Heitor Villa-Lobos. The Search for Brazil’s Musical Soul, Austin, Texas: Institute
of Latin American Studies Monographs/University of Texas Press, 1994.
18. Henri Prunières, “Œuvres de Villa-Lobos,” in La Revue Musicale, 9/3, Jan. 1928, pp. 258–59.
19. Suzanne Demarquez, “Villa-Lobos,” in La Revue Musicale, 10, Nov. 1929, pp. 1–22; “Les
Choros de Villa-Lobos,” in Musique, 4, Jan. 1929, pp. 707–13.
20. Marcel Beaufils, Villa-Lobos: musicien et poète du Brésil, preface by Pierre Vidal, Paris: Université
de Paris, 1967.
21. Gérard Béhague, Musiques du Brésil. De la Cantoria a la Samba-Reggae, book with CD, Arles: Cite
de la Musique/Actes Sud, 1999.

Revue de musicologie
The Contribution of France to Brazilian Musicology

Perhaps one may credit Béhague’s outstandingly comprehensive knowledge


of Latin American Music to the French Encyclopédisme. It was first attested by
his book Music in Latin America (1979),22 and soon followed by his contributions to
The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1980; 2001), Basso’s Dizionario enci-
703
clopedico universale della musica e dei musicisti (1983), and the last edition of Die Musik
in Geschichte und Gegenwart (2003). Another instance of Béhague’s interaction with
the French scholarship is his contribution to the encyclopedia Musiques: une encyclo-
pédie pour le xxie siècle (2003), edited by Jean-Jacques Nattiez. Béhague’s last tribute
to his patricians was his last trip to France in May 2005 upon the request of the
CNRS to give his appraisal of the Ethnomusicology Laboratory at the musée de
l’Homme.23 Béhague’s legacy to the field is enormous. His former students have
payed tribute to his memory with several statements. “Even more impressive
was Béhague’s ability to combine and synthesize so much information, to move
seamlessly between analyses of classical, popular, or traditional music […], all
the while linking the focus of his interests to broader conceptual concerns.”24
“If one seeks to encapsulate the essence of Dr. Béhague’s scholarly contribu-
tion, it might well be that he established the examination of the art musics and
traditional musics of Latin America as a legitimate endeavor of musicology and
ethnomusicology.”25 Moreover, “the chief legacy of the great Latin Americanist
lies in the relentless pursuit of integration between historical musicology and
ethnomusicology.”26
Flavio Silva obtained a scholarship for studies in musicology in Paris
in 1968. He studied with Jacques Chailley, Tran Van Khê, Simha Arom, Claude
Laloum, Émile Leipp, and Claudie Marcel-Dubois, dedicating mostly to ethno-
musicology. Silva prepared the essay Origines de la samba urbaine a Rio de Janeiro
[Origins of urban samba in Rio de Janeiro], under the supervision of Marcel-
Dubois, and the assistance of Luiz Heitor Corrêa de Azevedo. Silva’s essay was
completed only in 1974, after returning to Brazil and doing intense research in
about 2,500 periodicals published in Rio de Janeiro between 1916 and 1918.
José Maria Neves headed to France in 1969 with the primary goal of study-
ing conducting at the National Superior Conservatory of Music. Neves attended

22. Gérard Béhague, Music in Latin America. An Introduction, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall,
1979.
23. G. Rouget, “In memoriam Gérard Béhague,” paragraph 4.
24. Robin Moore, “Editor’s Note,” in Latin American Music Review, 27/1, 2006, pp. 1–9.
25. John M. Schechter, “A tribute to Gérard Béhague,” in Latin American Music Review, 26/2,
2005, pp. 143–57.
26. Maria Alice Volpe, “O legado de Gérard Béhague (1935-2005),” in Revista Brasileira de
Música, 23/1, 2010, pp. 167–73, online: URL: http://rbm.musica.ufrj.br/edicoes/rbm23-1/
rbm23-1-08-memoria.pdf, accessed Sept. 26, 2017.

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Maria Alice Volpe

a number of courses in Paris: Fundamental Music and Applied to Audiovisual


(a theoretical introduction to electroacoustic music) with Pierre Schaeffer at
the National Conservatory of Music of Paris (1970); Choral Conducting with
Stephane Caillat at the Catholic Institute of Paris (1971); Orchestral Conducting
704
with Maestro Pierre Dervaux at the National Conservatory of Music of Paris
(1971); and Composition and Musical Analysis with Louis Saguer at the Centre
régional des œuvres universitaires et scolaires de Paris (1971 and 1976). Neves
earned a Master’s degree in Musicology (1969-1971) with the thesis Synthèse de la
pensée musicale de H. Villa-Lobos [Synthesis of H. Villa-Lobos’s musical thinking]
(1971), and a PhD in Musicology (1973-1976) with the dissertation Tendences de la
musique brésilienne contemporaine [Trends in Brazilian contemporary music] (1976)27
at the University of Paris IV-Sorbonne. According to Neves’s autobiographical
essay Trajetórias (2002), the supervision of his Master’s and PhD research were
under the responsibility of Jacques Chailley, but effectively guided by Luiz Heitor
Corrêa de Azevedo.28 Neves received French government scholarships to study
in France during a period in which “the French still believed that this was a way
of disseminating French culture, but then they became disillusioned because,
despite all the efforts, we became Americanized.”29
It is quite meaningful for Brazilian musicology that Régis Duprat, Gérard
Béhague, Flavio Silva, and José Maria Neves learned the foundations of musicol-
ogy with Jacques Chailley. The vademecum of the time, Précis de Musicologie (1958),30
a “collective work published under the direction of Jacques Chailley,” by the
Institute of Musicology of the University of Paris, guided the discipline in vari-
ous countries, including Brazil. Précis offers an overview of French musicological
intelligence at the time. In addition to Chailley (Institute of Musicology of the
University of Paris-Sorbonne), the collected essays included Constantin Brăiloiu
and André Schaefner (both from the Department of Musical Ethnology of the
musée de l’Homme), Claudie-Marcel Dubois (Department of Ethnomusicology

27. Published as book: José Maria Neves, Música Contemporânea Brasileira, São Paulo: Ricordi,
1981 (2nd revised and enlarged edition by Salomea Gandelman, Rio de Janeiro: Contra Capa
Livraria, 2008).
28. “After a few months of my arrival [in Paris], thanks to the indication of Flavio Silva, I went to
visit Jacques Chailley, with Luiz Heitor Corrêa de Azevedo, and so I started in musicology,
which originally was not my goal. I did not go to France do that. In fact, it was Flavio who
introduced me to Chailley, and through both of them [Flavio Silva, and Luiz Heitor Corrêa
de Azevedo], I started my Masters in Musicology, which Chailley only accepted because
Luiz Heitor accepted and guided me. Because Chailley did not feel comfortable dealing with
the Choros, Villa-Lobos, my Masters, and then my Doctorate.” José Maria Neves, Trajetórias,
Serie da Academia Brasileira de Música, paper read in Rio de Janeiro on May, 7, 2002,
manuscript, p. 5 (translation is mine).
29. J. M. Neves, Trajetórias, p. 6 (translation is mine).
30. Jacques Chailley, ed., Précis de Musicologie, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1958.

Revue de musicologie
The Contribution of France to Brazilian Musicology

of the National Museum of Popular Arts and Traditions), François Lesure


(National Library, and RISM), Eugène Borrel (French Musicology Society),
and Gisèle Brelet (International Library of Musicology). It also included Marcel
Beaufils (Paris Conservatory), author of an important study on Villa-Lobos.31
705
More than that, Précis expresses the conceptual integration of musicology tout
cour by upholding a comprehensive view of the area. It places chapters, such
as “L’ethno-musicologie” [Ethnomusicology], signed by Claude Marcel-Dubois
and Constantin Brăiloiu, along with others focused on traditional historical
musicology approaches such as archival and library research (Élisabeth Lebeau),
encyclopedias, dictionaries and music stories (Simone Wallon), organology
(André Schaeffner and Roger Cotte), classical antiquity (Henri-Irénée Marrou-
Davenson), and Eastern (Armand Machabey), Byzantine (Pierre Fortassier),
plainchant (Solange Corbin), following several chapters on the European music
of the many historical periods; then a bibliography on jazz (André Hodeir), and
chapters on musical analysis (Roland Manuel), philosophy and aesthetics of
music (Gisèle Brelet), acoustics (Robert Siohan) and musical physiology (Raoul
Husson), dance (Émile Haraszti), etc. It is true that the Précis de Musicologie, as a
compendium, served the purpose of offering a comprehensive representation
of the field, and such collective work reflected precisely the agglomeration of
scholars around a specialty, derived more from the need to delve into subjects
and approaches than properly by a conceptual schism. According to Duprat
(2009) — who lived through that institutional framework at the time — “it was not
only a ‘comprehensive representation of the field’ but rather of truly ‘contextual’
studies in the most updated sense of contemporary demands.”32
Chailley’s extraordinary musicological view was generous enough to give
the opportunity to quite a number of research on Brazilian music in so many
different topics — sacred music during the Colonial Period (Duprat), Heitor Villa-
Lobos (Neves), 20th-century nationalism and modernism movements in Brazilian
art music (Neves), and Brazilian popular music (Silva). It must be mentioned that
Chailley’s attention to Brazilian students was in great part made possible by the
Brazilian musicologist Luiz Heitor Corrêa de Azevedo. The contribution of Luiz
Heitor (as he signed his publications) has been discussed in different perspec-
tives.33 However, there is a great deal to scrutinize, particularly on his activities
abroad, in the United States, and France.

31. Marcel Beaufils, Villa-Lobos. Musicien et poète du Brésil, Preface by Pierre Vidal, Paris: Université
de Paris, 1967.
32. Régis Duprat’s testimony to Maria Alice Volpe, electronic correspondence, Oct. 10, 2009.
33. There are a number of studies about Luiz Heitor Corrêa de Azevedo’s contribution, among
which one may mention: Vasco Mariz, Três Musicólogos Brasileiros. Mário De Andrade, Renato
Almeida, Luiz Heitor Corrêa De Azevedo, Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 1983; Dulce Mar-

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Maria Alice Volpe

Corrêa de Azevedo can be considered the first Brazilian to play the role
of a Latin-Americanist at international level. Luiz Heitor Corrêa de Azevedo’s
scholarly activities abroad included congresses and conference papers, books and
journal articles, mostly in emerging institutions and venues devoted to folk and
706
popular musics of the world, and contemporary music. To mention only his
main publications in France. Corrêa de Azevedo’s articles in La Revue Musicale
dealt with topics such as the musical life in Rio de Janeiro (1938), music in Brazil
(1940), the African heritage in the music of the New World (1958), contemporary
music creation in Latin America (1958), and the musique légère and dance music of
the nineteenth- and twentieth-centuries (1962). Corrêa de Azevedo published an
interesting article on the presence of France in the formation of musical culture
in Brazil at journal Le Conservatoire (Paris, 1951), and the influence of Debussy
in Latin America (1965).34 Corrêa de Azevedo published extensively on Latin

tins Lamas, Luiz Heitor Corrêa de Azevedo, 80 Anos. Depoimentos, estudos, ensaios de musicologia, São
Paulo: Sociedade Brasileira de Musicologia, 1985. Régis Duprat, “Luís Heitor Corrêa de Aze-
vedo: o Cinquentenário de um Livro,” in Revista Música, 9/10, 1998–1999, pp. 11–19, online:
www.revistas.usp.br/revistamusica/article/view/61751/64621; Pedro Moura Aragão, Luiz
Heitor Corrêa de Azevedo e os estudos de folclore no Brasil. Uma análise de sua trajetória na Escola Nacional
de Música (1932–1947), Dissertação de Mestrado [Master of Music (MM) in Musicology],
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 2005; Cecília de Mendonça, A Coleção Luiz Heitor
Corrêa de Azevedo: música, memória e patrimônio, Dissertação de Mestrado [Master of Music (MM)
in Musicology], Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, 2007, online: http://por-
tal.iphan.gov.br/uploads/ckfinder/arquivos/A%20cole%C3%A7%C3%A3o%20Luiz%20
Heitor%20Corr%C3%AAa%20de%20Azevedo.pdf; Corinne A. Pernet, “‘For the Genuine
Culture of the Americas’: Musical Folklore and the Cultural Politics of Pan Americanism,
1933–50,” in Jessica C. E. Gienow-Hecht, ed., Decentering America, New York: Berghahn Books,
2007, pp. 132–68; Felipe Barros, Construindo um acervo etnográfico musical. Um estudo etnográfico sobre
o arquivo de Luiz Heitor Corrêa de Azevedo, seu método de campo e documentação produzida durante suas
viagens a Goiás (1942), Ceará (1943) e Minas Gerais (1944), Dissertação de Mestrado [Master
of Music (MM) in Musicology], Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 2009; Maria Alice
Volpe, “Traços romerianos no mapa musical do Brasil,” in Antonio Herculano Lopes, ed,
Música e História no Longo Século XIX, Rio de Janeiro: Fundação Casa de Rui Barbosa, 2011,
pp. 15–35, online: www.researchgate.net/publication/267212850_Tracos_romerianos_
no_mapa_musical_do_Brasil_In_Lopes_Antonio_Herculano_org_Musica_e_Historia_no_
Longo_Seculo_XIX_Rio_de_Janeiro_Fundacao_Casa_de_Rui_Barbosa_2011_v1_p_15-
35?_iepl%5BviewId%5D=33wO4UnNB50Ef24lnn0HTdKM&_iepl%5BprofilePublication
ItemVariant%5D=default&_iepl%5Bcontexts%5D%5B0%5D=prfpi&_iepl%5BtargetEntit
yId%5D=PB%3A267212850&_iepl%5BinteractionType%5D=publicationTitle; Henrique
Drach, A rabeca de José Gerôncio. Luiz Heitor Corrêa de Azevedo: música, folclore e academia na primeira
metade do século XX, Tese de Doutorado [PhD], Universidade Federal Fluminense, 2011, online:
www.historia.uff.br/stricto/teses/Tese-2011_Henrique_Drach.pdf; Jairo Botelho Cavalcanti,
Luiz Heitor Corrêa de Azevedo na historiografia musical brasileira. História, ideologia e sociabilidade, Tese de
Doutorado [PhD], Universidade de São Paulo, 2011, online: www.teses.usp.br/teses/dispo-
niveis/27/27157/tde-12122011-230722/publico/TESE_JAIRO_CAVALCANTI.pdf; see
also www.luizheitornaescola.com.br (all accessed Sept. 26, 2017).
34. Luiz Heitor Corrêa de Azevedo, “L’Influence de Debussy: Amerique Latine,” in EdithWeber,
ed., Debussy et l’évolution de la musique au xxe siècle, Paris: CNRS Éditions, 1965, pp. 233–37.

Revue de musicologie
The Contribution of France to Brazilian Musicology

American music, including books, such as La Musique en Amerique Latine (Paris:


Centre de Documentation Universitaire, 1954), and La Musique au Brésil (Paris:
Brazilian Embassy, 1972); and journals, such as La Musique dans le Monde (1958).
Corrêa de Azevedo wrote many articles on Villa-Lobos, Brazilian music, and
707
Latin American music to reference works, such as Les Hommes, Les Instruments,
Les Œuvres (Norbert Dufourcq, ed., Larousse, 1965); Dictionnaire de la Musique
(Marc Honegger, ed., 1970 and 1976); Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart,
Supplement (vols 15 and 16, 1972-1979, Friedrich Blume, ed.); The New Grove
Dictionary of Music and Musicians (Stanley Sadie, ed., 1980); La Grande Encyclopedie,
Supplement “Amerique Latine: Musique” (Larousse, 1981). This list does not
mention Corrêa de Azevedo’s numerous publications in Brazil, United States,
and other countries.35
One may say that most of the French contribution to the musicological
training of Brazilian scholars in the 1960s and 1970s — including Régis Duprat,
Gerard Béhague, Flavio Silva, and José Maria Neves — was substantially due,
directly or indirectly, to Luiz Heitor’s diplomatic labors. More recently — and
also linked to Luiz Heitor’s liason in Paris — is the musicological research devel-
oped by Manoel Aranha Corrêa do Lago (1953), whose studies on the modernist
relations between France and Brazil during the late nineteenth and early twen-
tieth centuries, reaching the World War I period with another French Mission
(1917-1918) of Paul Claudel and Darius Milhaud in Brazil,36 express the renew-
ing cultural and musicological relations between the two countries.
The Brazilian musicological experience along the 20th-century has expressed
a pronounced bent for interdisciplinary approaches, in which European and
North-American musicologists, folklorists, historians, sociologists, anthropolo-
gists, philosophers, literature and art scholars have certainly provided an impor-
tant basis for discussion, and the reworking of theory, methods, and approaches

35. For a complete list of Luiz Heitor Corrêa de Azevedo’s output, see Dulce Martins Lamas,
Luiz Heitor Corrêa de Azevedo, 80 Anos…, pp. 141–69.
36. Manoel Aranha Corrêa do Lago, O círculo Veloso-Guerra e Darius Milhaud no Brasil. Modernismo
musical no Rio de Janeiro antes da Semana [Veloso-Guerra circle and Darius Milhaud in Brazil:
musical modernism in Rio de Janeiro before the Modern Art Week], Tese de Doutorado
[PhD], Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, 2005, online: www.unirio.br/
ppgm/arquivos/teses/manoel-lago, accessed Sept. 26, 2017 (revised version enriched with
iconographic material, published as book: Rio de Janeiro: Reler, 2010). Manoel Aranha
Corrêa do Lago, ed., O Boi no Telhado Darius Milhaud e a Música Brasileira no Modernismo francês,
Rio de Janeiro: Instituto Moreira Salles, 2012. Manoel Aranha Corrêa do Lago, “‘Ad dis-
sonantiam per consonantiam’: The Scope and Limits of Darius Milhaud’s System of ‘Poly-
tonalité Harmonique.’ The immanent and Poietic Levels,” Part 1, in Revista Brasileira de Música,
28/2, 2015, pp. 265–304, online: http://rbm.musica.ufrj.br/edicoes/rbm28-2/rbm28-2-03.
pdf, and Part 2, in Revista Brasileira de Música, 29/1, 2016, pp. 181–215, online: http://rbm.
musica.ufrj.br/edicoes/rbm29-1/rbm29-1-09.pdf (both accessed Sept. 26, 2017).

tome 103 (2017) • no 2


Maria Alice Volpe

to better suit the Brazilian case.37 The integrated view of historical, sociologi-
cal and anthropological aspects marked the Brazilian musicology since Mário
de Andrade, Renato Almeida, Luiz Heitor Corrêa de Azevedo, Vicente Salles,
Régis Duprat, Gerard Béhague, Elizabeth Travassos, among others. Although
708
the current perception about Brazilian musicology may confer preponderant
weight to the American influence, it is necessary to recognize the key role of
the French background during the foundational decades of the institutionaliza-
tion of the discipline in the university. However, despite the importance of the
relationship between Brazilian musicology and France, the Revue de musicologie
remains very little represented in the collections of libraries,38 and the Brazilian
musicologists with closest French connections at that time — Luiz Heitor Corrêa
de Azevedo, Gerard Béhague, Régis Duprat, and José Maria Neves — never pub-
lished a research article of their own in the Revue de musicologie. So it seems that the
Revue de musicologie was mostly devoted to mainstream musicology.

37. Maria Alice Volpe, “Musicologia em contextos institucionais interdisciplinares: desafios inter-
gerações, um testemunho brasileiro” [Musicology in interdisciplinary institutional contexts:
intergenerational challenges, a Brazilian testimony], in Edite Rocha and José Antônio Baêta
Zille, eds, Musicologia[s], 3, Barbacena, MG: EdUEMG , 2016, pp. 159–72, URL: www.rese-
archgate.net/publication/316740656_Musicologia_em_contextos_institucionais_interdisci-
plinares_desafios_intergeracoes_um_testemunho_brasileiro?_iepl%5BviewId%5D=fSasa1
9VwPBL35HwwaTXSKv9&_iepl%5BprofilePublicationItemVariant%5D=default&_iepl
%5Bcontexts%5D%5B0%5D=prfpi&_iepl%5BtargetEntityId%5D=PB%3A316740656&_
iepl%5BinteractionType%5D=publicationTitle, accessed Sept. 26, 2017.
38. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro / Federal University of Rio de Janeiro – School of
Music’s Library has sparse issues (1933, 1937, 1938, 1959, 1959-66, 1990-99, 2002, 2003);
Biblioteca Nacional – Brasil – Rio de Janeiro / National Library – Brazil – Rio de Janeiro
has only one issue (1968).

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The Contribution of France to Brazilian Musicology

• • • • •
l'auteur Maria Alice Volpe est titulaire de la chaire de musicologie à l’université fédérale de Rio

de Janeiro. Elle est docteur de l’université du Texas à Austin, et a reçu son master de l’UNESP
(Brésil). Elle a contribué à de nombreuses publications au Brésil et à l’étranger (EDUSP, UMI-
Research Press, Ashgate, Latin American Music Review, Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, Enciclopédia 709
da Música Brasileira, Oxford Dictionary of Caribbean and Afro-Latin American Biography, Brasiliana). Elle a
été conférencière invitée dans de multiples conférences nationales et internationales (Casa de Rui
Barbosa, Universidade de São Paulo, Biblioteca Nacional-Brasil; Universidade Nova de Lisboa,
Universidade de Coimbra, Fundação Gulbenkian-Portugal; Ibermúsicas-Mexico; King’s College-
-London, Universitá di Bologna, Ibero-Amerikanisches Institut-Berlin). Elle est rédactrice en chef
de la Revista Brasileira de Música. Membre de l’Académie brésilienne de musique, de l’IMS et membre
fondatrice de l’ARLAC-IMS, elle a reçu plusieurs subventions du gouvernement brésilien pour
ses recherches, et est experte pour différents ministères brésiliens. Contact : volpe@musica.ufrj.br

résumé La musicologie française a joué un rôle clé dans le processus d’institutionnalisation de

la musicologie brésilienne dans l’université au cours des années 1980, car plusieurs musicologues
brésiliens majeurs avaient étudié dans des institutions françaises entre les années 1960 et 1970 :
Régis Duprat (1930), Gerard Béhague (1937-2005 ), Flavio Silva (1939) et José Maria Neves (1943-
2002). Pendant ces décennies, la France – plus que lʼAllemagne, lʼItalie, le Portugal, lʼEspagne ou
les Etats-Unis – fut le centre où les étudiants brésiliens venaient acquérir une formation spécialisée
en musicologie. Lʼinfluence française au Brésil sʼest révélée aussi forte dans la recherche musi-
cale que dans de nombreux domaines. Lʼhéritage français dans la musicologie brésilienne consiste
principalement dans lʼinteraction continue entre interdisciplinarité et vision globale de la musico-
logie. La pensée musicologique de Duprat formule un enseignement pluridisciplinaire dans lequel
lʼidée de « musicologie tout court » de Chailley fusionne avec le concept de « longue durée » de
Braudel et lʼapproche Nouvelle histoire. La recherche infatigable de Béhague d’une intégration
de la musicologie historique et de l’ethnomusicologie a permis une connaissance encyclopédique
de la musique latino-américaine. Malgré un tel contexte francophile et un intérêt marqué pour les
sciences humaines françaises, la Société française de musicologie (Sfm) et la Revue de musicologie n’ont
pas rempli la même fonction de coalescence dans les relations musicologiques franco-brésiliennes.

abstract French musicology played a key role in the institutionalization of musicology in the Brazilian university
during the 1980. In the 1960s and 1970s, many prominent Brazilian figures studied at French institutions, among
them Régis Duprat (1930–), Gerard Béhague (1937–2005), Flavio Silva (1939–), and José Maria Neves (1943–
2002). During those years, France—more than Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and the United States— was the
country to which Brazilian students preferred to travel for specialized training in musicology. Francophilia has thus
proven to be as strong in the area of musicological research as it has been in many other fields as well. The Francophile
legacy in Brazilian musical study reveals itself primarily in the continuous interplay between interdisciplinarity and
comprehensive musicology. Duprat’s musicological thinking demonstrates the multidisciplinary schooling in which
Jacques Chailley’s idea of musicologie tout court merged with Fernand Braudel’s concept of longue durée and
the notion of the Nouvelle Histoire. Béhague’s relentless pursuit of an integration between historical musicology
and ethnomusicology led to an encyclopedic knowledge of Latin American music. Despite this context of Francophilia
in Brazil, and the marked Brazilian interest in the French humanities, the Société francaise de musicologie and the
Revue de musicologie did not demonstrate equal attentiveness to the advancement of Franco-Brazilian musicologi-
cal relations.

• • • • •

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