Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 36

Welcome to the exhibition about the history of

Slovenia. The fragments of our history you are


about to see, feel and hear at this exhibition are
only a few of many you can find in museums, on
show grounds and scenes all over Slovenia. They
have been displayed here and now you are invited
on a journey through our country and its stories.
With its extraordinary position at the crossroads of natural
routes connecting the Alps, the Adriatic Sea and the Pannonian
plain, the territory that is now Slovenia has been acting as a point
of contact between various cultures and peoples since the oldest
times. With their activities and way of life, these cultures and
peoples have left us a rich heritage. Over the millennia, geographic
diversity influenced the settlement types that characterise
individual regions which were far from uniform.
Dear visitors, dear guests ...

The castle on a hill above the town - known simply as the Ljubljana castle
- is history in itself. Due to the Turkish invasions in the 15th century, the original
fortress was replaced by a stone castle and later enlarged a number of times.
It was the residence of foreign nobles - feudal lords and aristocrats, a strategic
military fortress in both world wars, and also the city jail and a temporary
residence for immigrants.
The extensive and professionally demanding renovation, which lasted for
more than five decades, has allowed the Ljubljana castle in recent years to
become the picturesque venue of numerous cultural events and performances.
Throughout this, it has remained the famous sign and symbol of Ljubljana;
along with our latest acquisition, the funicular, it is one of the most visited
tourist spots in the capital and the whole of Slovenia.
In addition to the beautiful views, monumental castle architecture, artistic
events and opportunities for walks and refreshments, we also wish to offer
the hundreds of thousands of town visitors an insight into the history,
specialities and sights of this bit of the world between the Alps and
the Adriatic Sea.
A group of top historians, museologists and designers, led by Dr. Božo Repe,
MA Blaž Vurnik and Irena Šinkovec, faced an uneasy task. I am glad that they
managed to set up a contemporary exhibition, which gives a concise, clear
and comprehensive presentation of Slovenian history, with an emphasis on
selected themes and personalities. May it satisfy the curiosity of the different
generations of visitors, locals and foreigners, and our guests with special
needs.
My special thanks also go to Blaž Peršin, director of the Museum and galleries
in the city of Ljubljana and Stane Miklavec, the head of the Ljubljana Castle
(Ljubljana Festival) for all his efforts, so that along with the necessary
expertise, the exhibition could shine in the right light.
I believe that this attractive, popular and at the same time professional
»introduction« will also draw you to visit the City Museum and other galleries
of Ljubljana, where you can further satisfy your craving for knowledge.

Welcome to the most beautiful city in the world - and see you again soon!

Zoran Janković
Mayor of Ljubljana
Prehistory and the Roman Period (200 000 BC – 500)
7

Middle Ages and Early Modern Times (500 – 1800)


15

Long nineteenth century and World War I (1800–1918)


31

Kingdom of Yugoslavia and World War II (1918 – 1945)


37

Socialist Yugoslavia (1945 – 1991)


43

Independent Slovenia (Since 1991)


51

5
B a s e m e n t

200 000 BC – 500


Prehistory and the Roman Period

With its extraordinary position at the crossroads of


natural routes connecting the Alps, the Adriatic Sea
and the Pannonian plain, the territory that is now
Slovenia has been acting as a point of contact between
various cultures and peoples since the oldest times.
With their activities and way of life, these cultures and
peoples have left us a rich heritage. Over the millennia,
geographic diversity influenced the settlement types
that characterise individual regions which were far
from uniform.
The oldest, and rare, traces left by humankind in
Slovenian territory date back far to the Stone Age,
in the period of glaciations separated by interglacial
warmings, i.e. around 200,000 years ago.

Emonec,
2nd century
National Museum
of Slovenia

7
The Neanderthals settled here appro- the most interesting settlement types. items of practical use (jewellery, buc- contacts. Legends compiled by Greek
ximately 80,000 years ago. Around The oldest pile-dwellings date back to kles). Despite their value and signifi- and Roman writers provide accounts
40,000 years ago, they were joined by the Neolithic Period, i.e. around 4500 cance, these items were often used as of Slovenian territory and the routes
the Cro-Magnons, our immediate an- BC, and the most recent ones to the Co- cult offerings dedicated to gods inhabi- which long before the arrival of the
cestors. They ensured their survival by pper Age, i.e. around 1800 BC. A chan- ting caves and rivers. The Late Bronze Romans had been used by Etruscan
hunting and gathering and made stone ged way of living which went from con- Age is characterised by extensive flat traders as well as those coming from
and bone tools. However, a high level stant migrations, dictated by hunting cremation burial sites, where the dead Greece and the Orient. The most re-
of development is evidenced by a flute requirements, to farming and animal were incinerated and interred. The en- nowned is the so-called Amber Route
from the Divje babe cave and a needle husbandry enabled people to develop tire period is named after this group as along which amber was freighted from
from Potočka zijalka. new activities and produce more dura- the Urnfield culture. the Baltic to the plains of the River Po,
ble artefacts. Clay vessels, hand mills, which is evidenced by amber jewellery
A long era of cold periods must have loom weights, polished stone and bone The use of iron and rich iron ore depo- found in well-to-do women’s graves in
passed before humans were finally tools may be mentioned as the most sits in Slovenian territory considerably our territory. The routes leading from
able to settle permanently. This was common relics from these people. changed its settlement structure. The the Black Sea to the Adriatic Sea are
made possible by a warming that follo- number of settlements established reflected in one of the versions of the
wed the Ice Age and the domestication Interest in revealing the new resulted on naturally well-protected elevations Argonauts legend.
of both plants and animals. Moreover, in the discovery of metals: copper was rose significantly in the Early Iron Age
extra food also facilitated an increa- followed by more solid bronze and from the 8th to the end of the 4th cen- The end of the Prehistoric Period is
se in the population. By establishing then iron. The oldest copper finds in turies BC. Hill forts – villages fortified marked by Celtic migrations starting
permanent settlements, man decisi- Slovenia originate in the 4th millenni- by stone walls – were settlements of around 400 BC, which outlined a new
vely encroached on the natural envi- um BC, whilst more extensive metal- larger communities which were orga- ethnic image of Europe and are confir-
ronment for the first time in history. work only developed during the Late nised in a hierarchical manner. Princes, med by both written records and archa-
The geographically diverse territory Bronze Age (13th – 8th centuries BC), warriors, craftsmen, traders and high- eological finds. The Celts reached our
of present-day Slovenia gave rise to when many new settlements sprang quality blacksmith wares intended for territory in around 300 BC. The many
various types of settlements, ranging up in the south-eastern Alpine region. warfare, “Situla Art” and other achie- Celtic tribes also involved the Norici. In
from caves and lowlands to lakesides Bronze was appropriate for fabricating vements placed the people inhabiting the late 2nd century BC, the latter esta-
and river banks. Pile-dwellings cha- new forms of tools and weapons (axes, Slovenian territory in Prehistory only blished the Norican Kingdom (Regnum
racteristic of the Ljubljana Marshlands sickles, knives, swords and daggers) a step away from the nearby urban ci- Noricum) to which the tribes inhabiting
can certainly be regarded as some of as well as both decorative objects and vilisations with which they maintained Slovenian also belonged. A special ac-

45000 BC 3200 BC

The oldest flute in


the world
approximately 45,000
years ago
National Museum of
Slovenia

The wooden wheel


with an axle from
Ljubljana Marsh
around 3200 BC
City Museum of Ljubljana

9
count of Celtic warriors who in the eyes Ancient Rome with its magnificent
of Roman writers were fearless and empire, multi-ethnicity and – on could
bloodthirsty is rendered by rich finds even say – first globalisation made an
of Celtic weapons. The Celts also left us indelible impression on Western civili-
the first money. sation. Slovenian territory underwent
considerable development during the
In the 3rd century BC at the very latest, Roman period. Centres of Romanisa-
interest in our territory was also shown tion were towns connected by means
by the Romans. They were originally at- of the strong road network. Each town
tracted by the favourable trade routes, had its administrative territory, i.e. the
whilst the establishment of the Roman wider hinterlands from which it derived
town of Aquileia in 181 BC was strate- its existence. The territory of today’s
gically important for conquering the Slovenia was divided into five agri (Ter-
pre-Alpine region. It was not many years geste – Trieste, Emona – Ljubljana, Ce-
later that they occupied Istria and, by leia – Celje, Neviodunum – Drnovo pri
progressively conquering land and Ro- Krškem and Poetovio – Ptuj). Poetovio
manising the population, succeeded in which was located on both banks of
pushing the border far towards the east. the Drava River was the largest Roman
In the period 35–33 BC, the Delmatae, town located in Slovenian territory.
Iapodes and Pannonians were subdu-
ed, and around 15 BC the allied Noricum Towns acted as important administra-
was annexed. Pannonia was occupied tive centres and centres of crafts and
during 14–9 BC. The newly conquered trade. Town construction was planned
territories were gradually included in in detail, involving city walls, roads, the
the Roman Empire and legal order. The sewage system, residential buildings
western and later central parts of Slo- and a square flanked with administra-
venia became a constituent part of Italy, tive buildings and the central sanctu-
whilst the other parts belonged to the ary. Only Emona was built following a
provinces of Noricum and Pannonia. proper rectangular ground plan, with

5th century BC 1th century

Situla from Vače


5th century BC
National Museum of
Slovenia

Cup made from mosaic


glass
1st century
City Museum of Ljubljana

11
the other towns being adjusted to the Iuliarum is its name found in written
existing natural relief. records.
During these unsettled times, Chri-
The Romans were not only masters of stianity also played an important role.
building the road network and towns The faith which was once persecuted
but also brought certain other novelties finally gained the status of the only
to our territory. A two-field system and official state religion with the Battle
a plough were used in agriculture, mar- of the Frigidus in 394 AD which was
shlands were drained and riverbeds re- fought precisely in our territory, i.e.
gulated, mining and crafts flourished, between Hrušica and Ajdovščina and
and trade remained one of the most which Theodosius won. Some towns
important activities. Goods were frei- became seats of dioceses. As early as
ghted on roads and along waterways. on the onset of the 4th century AD, bi-
Amphorae were marked to describe shop Victorinus was active in Ptuj whe-
their contents and their producer. Mo- re he wrote ecclesiastical texts. Sacral
ney operations started to gain ground. architectural monuments, inscriptions
and objects intended for everyday use
The Marcomannic Wars (167–180 AD) decorated with Christian symbols have
put an end to those peaceful times. been preserved from the period of Late
Barbarian incursions and the plague Antiquity.
also devastated our territory. Internal
discords, civil wars and external pres- During the Migration Period (5th and
sures were typical of the following cen- 6th centuries), the settlement pattern
turies. In the 3rd century AD, a new de- in Slovenian territory was altered con-
fensive system started to be built along siderably. The splendour of the former
the Karst passes intended to protect towns was superseded by safe hig-
Italy from the east. It stretched from hland positions. On their way to Italy,
the Gulf of Kvarner in the south to the the Huns, Goths and Langobards also
Gail Valley in the north. Claustra Alpium settled here for a short period.

3rd century

Emona
Interior of a sewer

Roman coins
3rd century
Regional Museum Ptuj

13
f l o o r
G r o u n d

500 – 1800
Middle Ages and Early Modern Times

Middle Ages

In the territory of what is today Slovenia, the one-


millennium-long Middle Ages began at the end of the 5th
and start of the 6th centuries, after the ancient state-
like, political, economic, social, cultural and religious
structures had gradually collapsed. The medieval
period lasted approximately until the end of the 15th
century.

The Holy Trinity,


Francesco Robba, 1721
City Museum of Ljubljana

15
Compared to Late Antiquity, the Mid- pulation, the settlement of the Slavs
dle Ages launched several new featu- helped shape a new linguistic, social,
res of civilisation. Many of them have economic, cultural and religious ima-
had a lasting influence on the history ge of the eastern Alpine region. The
of this territory, thereby reaching well settlement of Slavs ended approxi-
beyond medieval times, whilst some mately around the year 800.
remain components of the modern
world even today. The latter undoub- Both Carantania, a proto-state forma-
tedly involve ethnic-linguistic featu- tion of the Alpine Slavs in the territo-
res, the settlement pattern and the ry of present-day Koroška (Carinthia)
religious image. The settling of mainly which, after having been politically
southern Slavic and, to a considerably independent from the second half of
smaller extent, western Slavic groups the 7th to the mid-8th century, was
along the Drava, Mura and Sava rivers a dependent principality under the
which, since the middle and in parti- Frankish state until 820, and the con-
cular the end of the 6th century, had siderably less structured tribal forma-
inhabited the relatively empty and tion of Carniolans situated south of
politically non-organised territory of the Karavanke mountain range, who
the Eastern Alps, may be regarded as since the late 8th century were li-
laying the linguistic-ethnical founda- kewise incorporated into the Frankish
tions on which the Slovenian nation state, were the first two communiti-
was formed much later in a long-la- es populating the present Slovenian
sting process involving various ethnic national territory or its environs. It is
associations, political formations and here that a new identity was created
identities. whose core was Slavic.

Although the Slavic newcomers had To the north of the Karavanke moun-
taken over certain cultural elements tain range, the Slavic principality of
from the Romanised indigenous po- Carantania emerged after the year

7th century 10th century

Slavic fastener
7th – 8th century
National Museum of Slovenia

Freising manuscripts
10th century
Facsimile, original kept at
the Bavarian State Library
in Munich

17
600, remaining an independent politi- derably during the centuries of feu-
cal community until the mid-8th cen- dalism, was preserved until the early
tury. It was here that the Slavic ethnic 15th century as a symbolic act of han-
community of Carantanians was for- ding over power to Carinthian dukes.
med. The military pressure exerted A ceremony unknown to feudalism,
by the Avars forced the Carantanian during which a peasant symbolically,
prince Borut to subject, shortly befo- using the Slovenian language, handed
re 743, to the Bavarians and Franks in over power to a new duke dressed in
exchange for their support. When in peasant clothing, who in terms of his
752 the princely authority was assu- social status was a German-speaking
med by Borut’s nephew Hotimir, who nobleman, was particularly attracti-
had been Christianised in Bavaria, the ve to the Medieval and Early Modern
process of Christianisation in Caranta- Period writers, for instance the reno-
nia commenced. Revolts against Chri- wned 16th century French jurist, Jean
stianisation and the Christian prince in Bodin.
the 660s could not prevent the chan-
ges which enabled Carantanians to be After 861, the margrave of the Franki-
integrated into the Western European sh march of Lower Pannonia was the
cultural sphere. A failed revolt against Slavic Prince Kocelj. After having joi-
the Frankish authority in 820 put an ned the 869 revolt against the Franks,
end to Carantania’s internal indepen- he ruled as an independent prince in
dence. It was replaced by a Frankish the capital located in Blatenski kostel
administration. up to 874. During Kocelj’s reign, the
brothers Constantine and Methodius,
Carantanian political elites vested po- Greek missionaries from the surro-
wer in the tribal prince with an instal- undings of Thessaloniki, were active
lation ceremony which involved him in the Lower Pannonia. The Slavic li-
being placed on the Prince’s Stone. turgical language was introduced by
The ceremony, albeit changed consi- them.

1248

Ulrik III. Spanheim


Coin that was minted between
1248 and 1269 in Kamnik.
City Museum of Ljubljana

19
The Freising Manuscripts (Brižinski eval urbanism is still recognisable in either cultivated land themselves, The dislocation of political centres
spomeniki), comprising three religious the town centres of nearly all modern using a workforce in bondage or, espe- resulted in a specific structure of the
texts, written in the 10th century in an towns of Slovenia. cially from the 12th century onwards, social and political elites and in a drain
archaic Slovenian language, are a re- granted a lease on land to peasants, on funds. Apart from that, it preven-
presentative example of linguistic dif- Through Christianity which, given that receiving rent in exchange. During the ted the creation of major domestic
ferentiation from other southern and the two most significant young men High Middle Ages (11th to 13th cen- centres, thereby quite marginalising
western Slavic languages. Along with belonging to the Carantanian prince- tury), peasants differed considerably Slovenian ethnic territory in political,
the Stična (first half of the 15th cent.)ly family were raised in the Christian in terms of their legal status, whilst in economic and cultural terms. This si-
and the Rateče (Klagenfurt) Manu- faith, again started to spread around the Late Middle Ages a relatively uni- tuation could not even be improved by
scripts (second half of the 14th cent.), 743 despite resistance offered by one form class of subjects was formed. To- monasteries, the centres of literacy in
they constitute rare written evidence part of the Carantanian social elite wns were small and did not go beyond a distinctly oral medieval culture, or
of the structure and development of and managed to established itself, at the role of local markets and local pro- courts of certain important territori-
the language that was spoken by a lar- least on the surface, in the 9th cen- ducers of various crafts. al landlords, such as the court of the
ge majority of the population. tury, Slovenian ethnic territory beca- princely Counts of Celje in the first
me part of the Catholic Western and From 820 onwards, Slovenian ethnic half of the 15th century, which were
One of the Middle Ages’ lasting legaci- Central Europe in both religious and territory was incorporated into vari- well familiar with current intellectual
es is the settlement pattern of today’s cultural terms. ous political entities (Carolingian sta- and cultural developments in Europe.
Slovenia. Thus, the origin of certain te, East Frankish state, Holy Roman
villages can be traced back to the Ear- The medieval period is characterised Empire, Hungarian Kingdom, Venice),
ly Middle Ages, whilst the majority of by the distinct predomination of agri- whose centres were outside it. In the
The Dance of Death
them sprang up during the period of culture and the countryside. Agricul- course of the High and Late Middle
Janez de Kastua, 1490
the High Medieval economic and de- ture operated within a specific organi- Ages (11th to 15th cent.), the provin- In the Church of
mographic expansion from the 10th sational form, i.e. an estate, and within ces of Styria, Carniola, Carinthia, Gori- The Holy Trinity in
Hrastovlje
to the 13th century. It was in the 12th, the social framework of feudal order. zia, Celje and Istria were formed. The-
13th and 14th centuries that the An estate in the form of either fiefs or se were autonomous territorial units
majority of towns also came into exi- allods belonged to a landlord. Individu- under the rule of the provincial prince
stence, whereas some settlements al nobles, or the Church, e.g. various or provincial nobles which remained in
received their town charters during dioceses, were capable of acting as existence, with the exception of Celje,
the 15th century. Nowadays, medi- landlords or feudal lords. Feudal lords until 1918.

1490

21
f l o o r
G r o u n d

E a r ly M o d e r n T i m e s

Early Modern Times in Slovenian history cover the


period between the end of the 15th and end of the
18th centuries. The onset of the period is marked by a
demographic recovery after the crisis of the Late Middle
Ages, whilst its end is indicated by the first, not exactly
successful modernisation attempts and reforms of
the Theresian age. From today’s point of view, the most
significant result of this period is the creation of the
Slovenian literary language.

F. K. Remb, a detail of the


baroque fresco
from the beginning of the 18th
century
Knight's Hall of the Brežice castle
Museum of Posavje Region, Brežice

23
A distinctly leading role in the econo- the number of inhabitants in Maribor
my of Early Modern Times was still pla- and Trieste did not exceed 2,000.
yed by the relatively underdeveloped
and not very productive agriculture In certain industries, such as the iron
functioning within the framework of industry, mining and linen trade, and
feudal estates. Agricultural producti- in distant trade, trade capital encou-
on was based on a three-year crop ro- raged the emergence of more flexible
tation, cereal production and pasture forms of entrepreneurial organisation
livestock farming. such as manufacturing, which is cha-
racteristic of early capitalism. Moreo-
With the rising demands of landlords, ver, some traits of mercantilism appe-
an escalating state tax burden, infla- ared and were consolidated in the
tion, impeded rural trade, and demo- first half of the 18th century.
graphic pressure causing farm fra-
gmentation, discontent among the In the late 15th century, more efficient
rural population grew. This discontent state and provincial administrations
was vented during major supra-regi- created an institutional background
onal and regional peasant uprisings, against which political, financial-po-
such as the uprisings of 1515, 1573, litical and religious-political disputes
1635, and 1713, and in a series of local between provincial prince and provin-
rebellions. As regards non-agrarian cial Estates were sparked off, ending
activities, tradesmen united in guilds with the ultimate victory of the pro-
prevailed in towns. Towns, whose in- vincial prince in the 1620s.
habitants accounted for approxima-
tely six percent of the total popula- A major part of Slovenian ethnic terri-
tion, turned to local centres of trade tory still belonged to the Holy Roman
and commerce. With the exception of Empire whose name was changed to
Ljubljana, whose population around the Holy Roman Empire of the Ger-
1700 stood at approximately 7,500, man Nation at the end of the 15th

16th century

Plate
16th century
City Museum of Ljubljana

Glass from the time


of the Reformation
16th century
City Museum of Ljubljana

25
century. Within the framework of the Protestant, most notably Lutheran,
Empire, the Slovenian provinces be- ideas started to consolidate in the
longed to the hereditary possessions 1530s and 1540s, reaching their
of the Austrian Habsburgs who ruled peak approximately between 1560
Styria, Carniola, Carinthia, Gorizia and and 1590. Protestantism gained
Trieste. It was these provinces that ground particularly among the no-
formed Inner Austria. Prekmurje was bles and among certain sections of
part of the Hungarian Kingdom, whist the middle classes. Propelled by a
the coastal towns of Koper, Izola and wish to spread the ‘Pure Gospel’, Slo-
Piran were, like Resia, under Venetian venian Protestants started to write
rule. and publish their works in the Slove-
nian language. It was in this context
Despite the fact that in the 16th cen- that the idea of the connectedness
tury the Ottoman Empire still posed a and unity of the people speaking
dangerous threat, Slovenian ethnic different dialects of the Slovenian
territory was quite efficiently de- language emerged for the first time.
fended by the system of strongholds Yet the Protestant writers were still
established in Croatia and Slavonia unable to draw precise boundaries of
after the 1530s (Military Border), the Slovenian language. Neverthe-
which was mainly financed by the less, both Primož Trubar (around
Inner Austrian provinces, and an ef- 1508–1586), the author of the first
fective signalling network of piles. Slovenian book and numerous other
Self-defensive anti-Ottoman measu- religious-literary texts, and other
res also involved churches with walls Protestant writers established Slo-
erected around them called tabori. venian as a fully developed literary
From the end of the 16th century language. During the period of the
onwards, the majority of Slovenian Catholic Restoration and Counter-
ethnic territory was safe from Turki- Reformation, the considerably less
sh invasions. ambitious religious-literary under-

1508

Primož Trubar
(1508 – 1586)
the author of the first
Slovenian book

27
takings by the Catholic part drew gave a considerable boost to cultural
precisely on their work. life in Slovenia. The most evident re-
sult of this revival was the flourishing
With the expulsion of Protestants (pri- of Baroque art. Baroque art, with its
ests, the middle class and the nobles), secular and ecclesiastical architec-
the operation of religious commissi- ture, sculpture, painting and carving,
ons, burning of Protestant books, and today continues to contribute signi-
introduction of other Counter-Refor- ficantly to the architectural image of
mation measures, the Slovenian pro- old town centres and to that of chur-
vinces (with the exception of Prekmur- ch interiors. Right at the end of Early
je under Hungarian rule) were quite Modern Times, there was a small gro-
violently re-Catholicised and united in up of intellectuals who were capable
religious terms at the end of the 16th of expressing much more clearly the
century and onset of the 17th century. idea of Slovenians as a separate na-
During the Catholic Restoration, the tional community with a common hi-
arrival of Jesuits and Capuchins, the story, language and culture. However, Valvasor: LjubljanA
systematic education of clergy and its their standpoints did not meet with J. V. Valvasor, 17th century
City Museum of Ljubljana
stricter discipline and morals, as well general acceptance until well into the
as new forms of picturesque, senses- following period.
oriented Baroque piety encouraged
a dynamic religious life in the spirit of
the victorious Catholicism.

The last quarter of the 17th centu-


ry and first half of the 18th century

29
FLOOR

1800 - 1918
Long nineteenth century and
World War I

In the course of the Long Nineteenth Century,


Slovenian territory was also subject to modernisation
impulses that fundamentally changed its economic,
social, cultural and political image. Improvements
in agriculture together with the progress achieved
in medicine and public health resulted in population
growth. (Proto)-Industrialisation encouraged the social
structure to change, thereby accelerating the process
of urbanisation. Construction of the railway network
resulted in a revolution in the transport field, making
the economy more dynamic and enhancing mobility.
It was the Revolution of 1848 that struck a death blow
to the feudal society of Estates which had been dying
for a long time.

Rudolf Maister
(1874 – 1934)
Mirsad Begić, 2010
City Museum of
Ljubljana

31
By way of the political democratisation values. Time itself also became more
which followed the period of Neo-ab- and more valuable. If at the end of the
solutism, citizens were granted fun- 18th century people still lived to the
damental rights and included in the rhythm of bells from a church bell-to-
process of political decision-making. wer, the time on the eve of World War
Apart from that, cultural development One was measured in minutes and se-
was outright impressive. conds.

The victory of reason, manifest in the The tendency towards progress was,
development of both science and tech- however, not only limited to individu-
nology, made people believe they lived als but also to nations. The early initi-
in a transitional period which moved atives demonstrated by a small group
in one direction only: from scarcity to of intellectuals who – in line with the
abundance, from ignorance to kno- objectives of the Absolutist State – de-
wledge, from barbarism to civilisation. voted themselves to utilitarian enligh-
Delving into the depths of the past, tenment of the common people, soon
which became a lot like an obsession, gave birth to a tendency towards rege-
was in fact focused on the future. “The nerating the previously neglected ver-
past lies in ruins, the present is full of nacular (the Zois Circle). Research work
misery, the future is the source of all the conducted in linguistic, ethnographic,
good!” This immense belief in progress historical and other fields gradually
opened up optimistic perspectives. A made intellectuals come to realise that
belief that man can, by employing both there is both a linguistic and historical
his knowledge and diligence, rise abo- unity of the Slavic population in Inner
ve the previously almost unchangeable Austria (as well as Venetia and Prek-
circumstances, turned into a generally murje). In the second half of the pre-
accepted motto. Middle-class values March era, the ethnic term ‘Slovenec’
such as hard work, economy, education (‘a Slovenian’) increasingly replaced
and perseverance came to be universal the older names (‘Krajnci’, ‘Wendi’),

1853

whilst in the decade preceding the Re-


volution the term ‘Slovenija’ (‘Slovenia’)
also gained ground as a designation for
Slovenian ethnic territory regardless of
its political borders. In the identity cri-
sis brought about by the processes of
supra-regional economic and cultural
The map of the
Slovenian land and integration, the communications revo-
regions lution, disintegration of the traditional
Peter Kozler, 1853 forms of legitimating power as well as
City Museum of Ljubljana
secularisation processes, the traditi-
onal estate-based bonds and sense
of affiliation to both local and regional
communities progressively made way
to a sense of belonging to the Sloveni-
an language and the Slovenian nation.
Nation became the greatest value.

33
The Revolution of 1848 enabled the solders were dying in large numbers
Slovenian national movement to pass not only in action but also due to the
from culture to politics. Already a co- unendurable winter conditions left an
uple of weeks after the Revolution indelible impression in the collective
broke out in Vienna, Slovenian intel- memory of Slovenians. The war was
lectuals clearly formulated the “United nevertheless felt by all Slovenians;
Slovenia” programme, requiring that a they fought on all European fronts, and
special Slovenian state be established at home they suffered scarcity, had
in Slovenian ethnic territory as an au- often to leave their homes and were
tonomous federal unit of a federalised affected by a generally deteriorated
monarchy. The programme received situation. The hinterland of the Isonzo
mass support at what was termed ta- Front extending across nearly one-half
bor meetings (1868–1871) and remai- of Slovenian territory was where the
ned an ideal of Slovenian politics of troops gathered, army hospitals opera-
the 19th and 20th centuries; however, ted and provisional camps for prisoners
it was impossible to put it into effect of war were set up. The end of the war
within the framework of the dual mo- ushered in considerable political chan-
narchy. Slovenians could nevertheless ges, facilitating the formation of the
be proud of an outstanding cultural first Slovenian statehood.
development; they joined the new sta-
te as the most developed nation of Yu-
goslavia in both economic and cultural
terms.

Slovenian history concerning World


War One is closely connected with the
Isonzo Front, which was opened upon
Italy entering the war in May 1915.
The high-mountain battlefield where

1869 1803

An invitation
to the Vižmarje tabor
meeting
17 May 1869, Poster
National Museum of
Contemporary History
of Slovenia

France Prešeren
(1800 – 1849)
Alojzij Šubic, 1903
Reproduction, City
Museum of Ljubljana

35
FLOOR

1918 - 1945
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
and World War II

At the end of World War One, Slovenians were


administratively split, living in a crumbling monarchy
forced to its knees by defeat in the recent war and by
internal political and national antagonisms. There
was a consensus among political elites as regards the
Slovenian political future whose main element involved
political integration with southern Slavic nations
within a single state.
A decision on integration within the framework of a
state outside Austria-Hungary was not easy for the
Slovenian political elite. Loyalty to the monarchy had
been taken for granted for centuries by all social
classes, i.e. by the common people, politicians and, in
particular, by the influential clergy. In terms of culture
and mentality, Slovenians considered themselves to
be closest to the Czechs and Slovaks of all the Slavic
nations, but they had decided to establish their own
state and, what is more, there were Austrians situated
in-between them.

Members of the Eagle society


practicing gymnastics
1920
National Museum of Contemporary
History of Slovenia

37
As regards the south Slavs, particularly various parts of the former monarchy. cians, traditionally split into liberal and tion of the King’s dictatorship in 1929
the Serbs, Slovenian politicians had an Moreover, it led the initial battles for catholic camps and a workers’ social de- and the imposition of the Octroyed
idealised image of them and in fact did the northern border. mocracy, from which the communists constitution in 1931. The new name
not know them well. What gave rise to spun off, also retained these internal Kingdom of Yugoslavia was intended
most concerns were the different reli- By merging the State of SCS with the divisions in the new state, although to exert new unitarist pressure on the
gions. Kingdom of Serbia, a new state was for- there were more political parties. The non-Serbian population of the state and
The gap in time which occurred betwe- med which existed in various forms for two most important political camps in may be considered as denouncement
en disintegration of the dual monarchy seven decades. The Kingdom of Serbs, the new state were similarly distingui- of the true parliamentary democracy
and the formation of the Kingdom of Croats and Slovenians, from 1929 on- shed from each other by either suppor- concept. In 1939 a political agreement
Serbs, Croats and Slovenians was filled wards the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, re- ting or rejecting the centralist concept was reached between Serbs and Cro-
by the State of Slovenians, Croats and presented a new experience in the po- of the system of government. The new ats according to which the latter should
Serbs (“State of SCS”) episode. This sta- litical development of Slovenians. As a political idea was called “unitary Yugo- be granted autonomy. The Parliament
te, which encompassed the southern constitutional parliamentary kingdom, slavship”, according to which the three was dissolved, with the senate under
Slavic provinces of the then former the state had an apparently democratic “tribes” should flow into one nation. the King’s control ruling by decree. The
Austria-Hungary, only existed for 32 form. Only three nations were recogni- This was supposed to be the answer first Yugoslav state failed to include the
days, received no wider international sed which, in the name of the Yugoslav to the question of whether Serbia, as a entire Slovenian population within its
recognition and its jurisdiction did not identity, were referred to as tribes. The- victorious state in the Great War, had ei- borders. With the Carinthian Plebiscite
extend across the entire territory which re was a permanent political conflict ther expanded its territory with Croati- of 1920 and under the Treaty of Rapallo
it deemed belonged to it. Nevertheless, between the centralist and autonomist an and Slovenian territories or liberated of 1921, Carinthian Slovenians and Slo-
Slovenians had some sort of a confede- concepts at the level of the nations. those areas. venians living in the Littoral (one-third
rate status, maintained diplomatic con- of the total population!) remained out-
tacts with certain states of the former The first disillusionment for Slovenians The kingdom’s political reality was re- side the borders of the Yugoslav state.
monarchy and had a government hea- came in the form of the initial constitu- flected in the fact that no assembly of Soon afterwards, pressure started to be
dquartered in Ljubljana. The latter ac- tion, passed in 1921, which was a cen- the Kingdom of SCS lasted until the end exerted by national majorities, in Italy
complished many important functions tralist piece of legislation, granting the of its term of office because they were also by fascism and in Austria, after the
associated with the transitional period, main role to the king. Slovenian politi- all dissolved. Thus, up to 38 gover- 1938 Anschluss, by Nazism. The situa-
mainly as regards supplying the popula- nments followed each other in the pe- tion was similar for Slovenians living in
tion with basic goods and the transit of riod between the two world wars. The the Hungarian state.
the huge Isonzo Army passing through lack of democracy in the Yugoslav state
Slovenian territory on its way back to was especially manifested in introduc- As regards the Slovenian economy, set-

1920

King Aleksander
(1888 – 1934)
Lojze Dolinar, 1938
City Musem of Ljubljana

The building of the


Slovenian cultural centre
in Trieste after it was
burned down on 13 July
1920 by Italian fascists.
National Museum of
Contemporary History
of Slovenia

39
ting the Yugoslav state up meant that a pation regimes was the total destruc-
new economic area had opened in ter- tion of the Slovenian population and
ritories with varying levels of economic the settlement of the German or Italian
development. The gap between the population in its place. To this end, even
more developed north of the country genocidal methods were used. Armed
and its considerably less economically resistance was initially organised by
developed southern parts remained the Communist Party and was led by
unchanged during all the decades of the Liberation Front, which embraced
its existence. In Slovenia, this period numerous organisations. It joined the
is characterised by progressive indu- Yugoslav resistance movement which
strialisation, accompanied by deagra- was recognised as part of the Allied
rianisation of rural areas and the rapid Forces in the fight against fascism and
urbanisation of towns. A young, predo- Nazism in Europe under occupation.
minantly Yugoslav-oriented economic Already during the war, the Liberation
elite was established for the first time Front started to build the new, people’s
in history. Despite the centralised state, power and a federal republic within the
the entire Slovenian school system was emerging new Yugoslavia. One group of
conducted in the Slovenian language pre-war politicians and the population
for the first time ever. Moreover, this did, afraid of the revolutionary intenti-
period saw the founding of the first uni- ons of the liberation action, collaborate
versity and several cultural institutions, with the occupiers, organising armed
with culture generally advancing. forces against the liberation movement.
A fierce conflict between the partisan
Upon the invasion of the Kingdom of movement and the collaboration for-
Yugoslavia by the Axis powers on 6 April ces, which already took shape during
1941, Slovenia too became part of the the war, ended in post-war extrajudici-
maelstrom of World War Two. Sloveni- al mass killings of members of the colla-
ans, now split up between Germany, boration forces.
Italy and Hungary, faced the worst atro-
cities of occupation. The aim of all occu-

1933 1940

“The Skyscraper”
postcard
City Museum of Ljubljana

SITUATION ON APRIL 1940


Hinko Smrekar,
caricature
City Museum of Ljubljana

41
FLOOR

1945 – 1991
Socialist Yugoslavia

The foundations for the post-1945 Yugoslav state,


popularly referred to as the “Avnoj Yugoslavia” or the
“Second Yugoslavia”, were already built during the war,
in particular at the second AVNOJ (Anti-Fascist Liberation
Council for Yugoslavia) meeting held in November 1943.
After the war, power was taken by the liberation
movement’s political bodies which took the first
revolutionary measures, conducted the agrarian
reform and nationalisation, and organised the first
elections as early as in November 1945.

The first flight attendants


at Brnik Airport
1962
National Museum of
Contemporary History
of Slovenia

43
The elections were not democratic and with the opponents. Members of the ally subsided. Apart from that, the first stitutional amendments passed in the
therefore political opponents of the armed forces which during the war five-year plan had been implemented late 1960s and in particular the 1974
new authorities refused to take part in had collaborated with the occupying which meant that the new state’s eco- constitution accounted for the final
them, although voters showed strong regimes and armies were mainly su- nomy was now provided with bases in victory of the federal concept, whe-
support for the policy representing bject to extrajudicial mass killings in terms of both energy and industry. A reby the republics were granted the
the liberation struggle. Backed by the various parts of Slovenia, whilst the special, Yugoslav model of socialism, status of independent states united
Liberation Front’s victory in the elec- influence of the political opposition i.e. the Self-Management Socialism, within the Yugoslav federation. Ac-
tions, the revolutionary authorities was diminished by the authorities in a was gradually established. In the eco- cordingly, Yugoslavia held a position
could go on transforming the state in series of trials which were Stalinist in nomic field, self-management gave somewhere in-between a federation
the spirit of socialism, which was also terms of both their contents and the rise to workers’ councils organised wi- and a confederation. Whilst individual
manifested in the contents of the first aim pursued. thin companies which formally mana- republics had the right to secede, the
constitution passed in 1946. It was ged them. Following the “Trieste Cri- method of how any of them might ac-
drafted according to the Soviet model, The first post-war period was cha- sis”, the border question with Italy was tually secede was not prescribed.
but granted individual republics the racterised by administrative sociali- finally solved. The border started to
right of self-determination, including sm, whereby the state was centrali- open up gradually, with the number of Josip Broz Tito as the supreme autho-
the right to secede. sed up to the smallest detail. Whilst those crossing it on an upward trend. rity and, in fact, the president of both
Yugoslavia obtained the Littoral By signing the Austrian State Treaty, the state and the Communist Party
Slovenia as a federative unit obtained under the 1947 Paris Peace Treaty, Yugoslavia had to cede Carinthia and and the supreme commander of the
its first constitution in 1947. Despite the question of the border with Italy was granted the right of protection army for life, succeeded in maintai-
ideological pressures exerted on the remained unsolved. A major uphea- for the Slovenian (and Croatian) mi- ning the internal peace in the coun-
population by the authorities, the val was the 1948 clash with the Co- norities. In the political sphere, the try. This was also made possible by
latter generally enjoyed support from minform, triggering serious internal Slovenian Communist Party reluctan- the international community (which
the people. This support was certain- conflicts and an economic slowdown. tly opposed the Belgrade authorities’ granted the country loans worth mil-
ly manifested in the mass participati- In foreign policy terms, it resulted in centralism. The 1963 constitution de- lions) and the reputation Tito enjo-
on in reconstruction of the destroyed Yugoslavia distancing itself from the fined Yugoslavia as “socialist”, stipu- yed as commander of the liberation
and burned country, which in many other socialist countries. lating self-management at all levels movement during World War Two, his
segments was conducted in the form of social, political and economic life. break with Stalin, and the constitu-
of voluntary work. In the aftermath In the early 1950s, the political pres- Centralism started to make way for a ent role he played in the Non-Aligned
of the war, scores were also settled sure exerted by the authorities gradu- federal model only after 1966. Con- Movement. Following Tito’s death in

1959 1962

A poster for
the Tito rally
1949
City Museum of Ljubljana

The opening of the first


self-service store in
Ljubljana
November 1959
National Museum of
Contemporary History
of Slovenia , Marjan Ciglič

45
1960

On the way to a holiday


destination
1960s
National Museum of
Contemporary
History of Slovenia,
Edi Šelhaus

47
1980, the accumulated national ten-
sions and the economic crisis openly Tone Pavček reading the
May declaration at the
erupted. The only remaining integra- gathering on Congress
tive mechanism were the Yugoslav Square
People’s Army (‘YPA’) and the national- 8th May 1989
Museum of Contemporary
ly split League of Communists. Kosovo History of Slovenia, Tone Stojko
became one of the core problems.
Whilst this was exclusively a conflict A poster of the group
New Collectivism for the
between the Serbian and Kosovar po- youth rally
litical leaderships, it also involved the 1987
leaderships of all the other republics City Museum of Ljubljana
since it actually concerned the con-
stitutional system at the state level.
When the nationalist and centralist
policy in Serbia finally prevailed, re-
lations between the republics started
to deteriorate. At the lowest point of
this process, Serbia started an econo-
mic war against Slovenia. The army le-
adership, which began intervening in
such conflicts, clearly showed that it
would not allow the Yugoslav state to
be changed too radically. In Slovenia,
various different social movements to protect the republic’s statehood.
started to build up the opposition and After the multi-party elections held
the political climate began to be more in 1990, the new authorities started
democratised. The Slovenian poli- to take measures aimed at achieving
tical leadership launched measures Slovenia’s independence.

1987 1989

49
f l o o r

Since 1991
Independent Slovenia

The late 1980s in Eastern Europe was a period of


the turbulent demolition of Communist regimes,
disintegration of the Soviet empire and end of the
Cold War. This was also relevant to Yugoslavia whose
socialist orientation, national antagonisms and
economic crisis, mainly characterised by hyperinflation
and a fall in the standard of living, heralded its
imminent end.

Slovenian forest
Darinka Mladenovič

51
Slovenia’s gaining of independen- Defence Force (TD), the latter succe- venia and its inclusion in key inter- The latter was, following a series of
ce was not a sudden step taken by eded in keeping one part of military national organisations such as the bankruptcies of once important com-
Slovenian politicians but a process equipment out of the hands of the United Nations was a top priority of panies, irretrievably on the wane. Slo-
carefully conducted within all the YPA. Moreover, some TD officers laid Slovenian authorities during the first venian politicians’ inability to ensure
more important institutions of the the groundwork for the organisatio- year of the country’s independence. an adequate balance between the
political system. Since autumn 1989, nal conditions of the military aspect Apart from that, other independen- social state and an economic enviro-
the Slovenian Assembly had been of gaining independence. ce measures had to be taken such as nment which would give rise to new,
passing declarations, constitutional the introduction of the country’s own development-oriented companies
amendments and other acts stipula- 25 June 1991 saw the declaration of currency. After Slovenia had become started to be manifested during at-
ting Slovenia’s sovereignty and esta- independence of the Republic of Slo- part of the international community, tempts to keep the former industrial
blishing the bases for Slovenia’s new venia, which occurred in Ljubljana’s it was faced with a transitional period giants like Litostroj, TAM and Mura on
legal order which would be indepen- Republic Square. On the very same ni- characterised by privatisation, dena- the verge of existence. New possibi-
dent from the Yugoslav one. On 23 ght, the Federal Secretariat of the In- tionalisation and the passage from a lities offered by the market economy
December 1990, as many as 88.2% terior, which was backed by the YPA, socialist to a market economy. Under as well as the waiver of some former
of those participating in the plebiscite intended to take control of the state the new market economy conditions, social rights characteristic of the so-
on the sovereignty and independence borders in Slovenia, an act ordered by Slovenia’s economic development was cialist state caused major changes in
of Slovenia voted in favour of an inde- the federal government. The Ten-Day outstanding, in particular when com- Slovenian society.
pendent state, with the outcome im- War, which followed the declaration pared to other post-socialist transiti-
posing an obligation on the Slovenian of sovereignty and independence, en- on countries in Europe. Both economic Despite problems pertaining to the
authorities to achieve independence ded with negotiations in Brioni which and political relations with the former transition period and economists’ in-
within six months. This period then were also attended by European di- Yugoslav republic were gradually nor- variably discouraging forecasts, Slo-
saw an intense process of adopting plomats. Under the Brioni Declaration, malised. However, the transition time venia managed in due time to satisfy
the respective legislation and solving a three-month moratorium was put itself and the enforcement of liberal the criteria for joining the European
several conflicts with the federation on the implementation of Slovenia’s capitalist economic principles with no Union in 2004, when it also joined
and the army. The latter, in particular, independence, while the European adequate social regulation resulted in NATO, and for adopting the euro in
tried several times to involve Slovenia Community undertook to recognise rapidly growing social disparities and 2007. In the first half of 2008, Slove-
in an armed conflict so as to justify its the independent Slovenia. the impoverishment of that part of nia presided over the European Uni-
intervention. When the YPA attemp- the population whose survival depen- on.
ted to disarm the Slovenian Territorial The international recognition of Slo- ded on non-competitive industries.

1991

The ceremony at the


Republic Square
1991
Marjan Garbajs

Soldiers of the
Yugoslavian army
leaving Slovenia
1991
Marjan Garbajs

53
Lipizzan horses
Darinka Mladenovič

55
The church of St.
Michael in Črna vas on
Ljubljana Marsh
Architect Jože Plečnik
Darinka Mladenovič

57
Lake Cerknica
Darinka Mladenovič

59
I The map of the Slovenian
G King Aleksander, H Josip Broz Tito, land and regions,
Lojze Dolinar, 1938 Boris Kalin, 1948 Peter Kozler, 1853
City Musem of Ljubljana City Museum of Ljubljana City Museum of Ljubljana

H
H
G
G

FLOOR
I
I

F
F

D Bible,
E The Holy Trinity, F Rudolf Maister,
Jurij Dalmatin, 1584

f l o o r
City Museum of Ljubljana, Francesco Robba, 1721 Mirsad Begić, 2010
facsimile City Museum of Ljubljana City Museum of Ljubljana
C
C

D
D
E
E

G r o u n d
C The Dance of Death,
Janez de Kastua, 1490
In the Church of The Holy Trinity in Hrastovlje

B
B

A
A

B a s e m e n t
A Situla from Vače, B Emonec,
5th century BC 2nd century
National Museum of Slovenia National Museum of Slovenia

61
HEAD Head and exhibition concept Irena Šinkovec
prof. dr. Božo Repe
Coordination content / production mag. Blaž Vurnik
AUTHORS
Concept design Majda Kregar, Miha Kerin
prof. dr. Janez Bogataj, prof. dr. Janez Cvirn,
prof. dr. France M. Dolinar, Matija Janežič, Production team Brane Filipič, Miha Kerin, mag. Katarina Toman Kracina,
doc. dr. Tomaž Kladnik, dr. Tone Kregar, Majda Kregar, Nejc Saje, Irena Šinkovec, Peter Žmak
izr.  prof. dr. Janez Marolt, prof. dr. Dušan Nećak,
prof. dr. Božo Repe, Irena Šinkovec, doc. dr. Marko Štuhec, Design Ambient d.o.o., RPS d.o.o., Irena Šinkovec,

PRODU C TION
mag. Blaž Vurnik Zavod Strup produkcija
 
C ONTENTS

OBJECTS conservation and restoration Head: mag. Katarina Toman Kracina


treatment, copies and scenography Maja Banović, Jože Drešar, Restavratorski center Slovenije,
Muzej in galerije mesta Ljubljane / Mestni muzej Alenka Drol, Borut Kamšek, Roman Kamšek, Jože Kovačič,
Ljubljana, Narodni muzej Slovenije, Muzej novejše Damijan Kracina, Gregor Nartnik, Špela Špojler – Ocvirk,
zgodovine Slovenije, Arhiv republike Slovenije, Narodna Miran Pflaum, Narodni muzej Slovenije, RPS d.o.o.,
galerija Slovenije, Pokrajinski muzej Celje, Pokrajinski Janko Samsa, Bojana Zavodnik.
muzej Maribor, Pokrajinski muzej Ptuj, Pokrajinski muzej
Koper, Dolenjski muzej Novo mesto, Posavski muzej Multimedia and Graphics
Brežice, Belokranjski muzej Metlika, Koroški pokrajinski Head of production Nejc Saje, Zavod Strup produkcija
Programming of multimedia showcases Jasmin Talundžić, Propaganda d.o.o.
muzej, Kobariški muzej, Muzej narodne osvoboditve Graphic design of multimedia showcases Janko Mandić
Maribor, Muzej novejše zgodovine Celje, Vojaški muzej Montage and graphics of video contents Blaž Čadež, Strup d.o.o.
slovenske vojske, Vojni muzej Logatec, Zgodovinski arhiv Programming of contents browser Srđan Prodanović
Ljubljane, Miklova hiša Ribnica, Slovenski verski muzej, Illustrations, scenography Gregor Nartnik, atelje NAGI
Mirsad Begić, Jakov Brdar, Pipistrel d.o.o., Assistant scenography Damjan Horvat
Dr. Viljenka Škorjanec, Častivredni vinski konvent Montage of Video contents Tomaž Gorkič
sv. Urbana Ljubljana. Editing browser of contents Anja Kuhar
Special effects Nejc Saje, Blaž Čadež
Introductory films Nina Cijan, Anton Jurečič (actors), Nejc Saje (camera),
Film material and photos Empera3zz (mask), Tina Bonča, Sandra Brlan (costumes),
Slovenski filmski arhiv, RTV Slovenija, Fotodokumentacija Sašo Kalan (sound), Srečko Čoragić (Cast),
Dela, Libra News d.o.o., neodvisna medijska produkcija, Tomaž Gorkič (microman), Mateja Dermelj (language review),
Video produkcija Kregar, Gregor Babič, David Badovinac, Jaka Ivanc (help)
Arhej d.o.o., Valentin Benedik, Marjan Garbajs,
Andrej Gaspari, Sašo Kovačič, Tomaž Lauko, Videogames Bugbrain Inštitut; creative head and programmer:
Alenka Mihorič, Darinka Mladenovič, Hrvoje Oršanič, Dušan Kastelic; graphic and animations: Igor Šinkovec
Matevž Paternoster, Zvone Pelko, Janez Rupnik, Digitalization of materials Matej Satler
Nejc Saje, Bojan Salaj, Marko Smerke in
fotodokumentacija slovenskih muzejev. Exhibition layout RPS d.o.o.
and equipment

Computer control and equipment Ličer Solutions d.o.o., Propaganda d.o.o.

Video surveillance system Ličer Solutions d.o.o.

Audio guiding Lambda s.p.

CIP - Kataložni zapis o publikaciji Entire graphic image AND Planar d.o.o.
Narodna in univerzitetna knjižnica, Ljubljana INFORMATION GRAPHIC

Language review Katja Paladin


94(497.4)
Translation into English and Murray Bales, Darja Erbič, Marjana Karer,
LJUBLJANA castle : Slovenian history : exhibition / [authors Language Review Multilingual prevajalska agencija
Janez Bogataj ... [et al.] ; translation into English Murray Bales
... [et al.] ; photos Valentin Benedik ... et al.]. - Ljubljana : Promotion, Programmes Communication services, Museum and Galleries of Ljubljana
Muzej in galerije mesta Ljubljane, 2010 for youth and adults

RENOVATION OF LJUBLJANA CASTLE


ISBN 978-961-6509-22-0
Architects Ambient d.o.o.; Miha Kerin, Majda Kregar, Edo Ravnikar,
Smiljan Buzeti, Brane Kregar, Sonja Podbreznik
1. Bogataj, Janez, 1947- Civil engineering Konstatbiro d.o.o., Edo Štok
Mechanical instalations Install d.o.o.
251515136 Electical instalations Eldata d.o.o.
Municipality of Ljubljana
Mayor: Zoran Janković

Exhibition
Museums and Galleries of Ljubljana
Director: Blaž Peršin

Exhibition location
Ljubljana Castle
Ljubljana Festival

June 2010

Published by: © Museum and Galleries of Ljubljana: 2010


Design: Planar d.o.o. Photos: Valentin Benedik,
Marjan Garbajs, Andrej Gaspari, Tomaž Lauko, Darinka
Mladenovič, Matevž Paternoster, Nejc Saje, Marjan
Smerke and photo documentation of the Slovenian
museums. Print: ČukGraf, number of copies: 5000

Centres d'intérêt liés