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ISBN (13) : 978-81-224-2621-5

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Classification of Welding Process 1

Classification of Welding Process 1

Classification of Welding Process

1

2

Welding Science and Technology

1.2.1 Source of Energy

Introduction to Welding Technology

3

1.2.2 Surface Contaminants

atomic hydrogen welding bare metal arc welding carbon arc welding AHW BMAW gas metal arc
atomic hydrogen welding
bare metal arc welding
carbon arc welding
AHW
BMAW
gas metal arc welding GMAW
–pulsed arc GMAW.P
CAW
–short circuiting arc GMAW.S
Arc
–gas CAW.G
gas tungsten arc welding
GTAW
welding
–shielded CAW.S
–twin CAW.T
–pulsed arc GTAW.P
(AW)
plasma arc welding
PAW
Solid
electrogas welding
flux cored arc welding
EGW
shielded metal arc welding SMAW
state
Brazing
FCAW
stud arc welding
SW
welding
(B)
submerged arc welding
SAW
ISSWI
–series SAWS
coextrusion welding
cold welding
diffusion welding
explosion welding
forge welding
friction welding
hot pressure welding
roll welding
ultrasonic welding
CEW
CW
DFW
AB
EXW
BB
FOW
Soldering
Welding
Other
CAB
(S)
processes
welding
FRW
DFB
HPW
DB
ROW
FLB
USW
FB
IB
Oxyfuel
IRB
dip soldering
OS
Resistance
gas
RB
furnace soldering
FS
welding
welding
arc brazing
block brazing
carbon arc brazing
diffusion brazing
dip brazing
flow brazing
furnace brazing
induction brazing
infrared brazing
resistance brazing
torch brazing
TB
(RW)
induction soldering
IS
(OFW)
infrared soldering
IRS
electron beam welding
EBW
iron soldering
INS
–high vacuum EBW.HV
resistance soldering
RS
torch soldering
TS
–medium vacuum EBW.MV
–nonvacuum EBW.NV
wave soldering
WS
ESW
Thermal
Adhesive
Allied
flash welding
FW
electrostag welding
flow welding
FLOW
spraying
bonding
processes
projection welding
PW
(THSP)
(ABD)
IW
resistance seam welding RSEW
–high frequency
induction welding
laser beam welding
percussion welding
thermit welding
LBW
RSEW.HF
PEW
–induction
resistance spot welding
upset welding
RSEW.I
TW
RSW
UW
AAW
–high frequency UW.HF
Oxygen
Thermal
Arc
OAW
–induction
UW.I
cutting
cutting
cutting
(AC)
air acetylene welding
oxyacetylene welding
oxyhydrogen welding
pressure gas welding
OHW
(OC)
(TC)
PGW
electric arc spraying
flame spraying
plasma spraying
EASP
FLSP
PSP
air carbon arc cutting
carbon arc cutting
gas metal arc cutting
gas tungsten arc cutting
metal arc cutting
plasma arc cutting
AAC
CAC
GMAC
chemical flux cutting
metal powder cutting
oxyfuel gas cutting
–oxyacetylene cutting
–oxyhydrogen cutting
FOC
GTAC
POC
Other
MAC
OFC
cutting
PAC
OFC.A
shielded metal arc cutting SMAC
OFC.H
–oxynatural gas cutting OFC.N
–oxypropane cutting
oxygen arc cutting
oxygen lance cutting
OFC.P
EBC
AOC
electron beam cutting
laser beam cutting
LBC
LOC
–air LBC.A
–evaporative LBC.EV
–inert gas LBC.IG
–oxygen LBC.O

Fig. 1.1 Master Chart of Welding and Allied Processes

4

Welding Science and Technology

1.2.3 Protecting Metal From Atmospheric Contamination

1.2.4 Control of Weld Metallurgy

1.3.1 Importance of Welding

1.3.2 Applications of Welding

Introduction to Welding Technology

5

6

Welding Science and Technology

Introduction to Welding Technology

7

Introduction to Welding Technology 7

8

8

8

Review of Conventional Welding Processes

9

Tank pressure gage Tank valve Line pressure gage Acetylene regulator All fittings on oxygen cylinder
Tank pressure gage
Tank valve
Line pressure gage
Acetylene regulator
All fittings on oxygen
cylinder have right
hand threads
Pressure gages
Regulator
Tank valve
To welding torch
1.4 m
All fittings
have left hand
threads for
Acetylene cylinder
175 N/mm (max.)
1
m
Oxygen tank
pressure 1550 N/mm (max.)
2
2

Fig. 2.1 Cylinders and regulators for oxyacetylene welding [1]

10

Welding Science and Technology

Reducing valves Torch and or regulators Flame mixing device Combustible gas Gas supply Tip Hoses
Reducing valves
Torch and
or regulators
Flame
mixing device
Combustible
gas
Gas
supply
Tip
Hoses
Manual control
Oxygen
valves

Torch tip

3500 C 2100 C
3500 C
2100 C
Manual control Oxygen valves Torch tip 3500 C 2100 C 1275 C Oxyacetylene mixture Inner Luminous

1275 C

Oxyacetylene

mixture

Inner Luminous cone: 1st reaction

Outer envelope (used for pre-heating): 2nd reaction

C 2 H 2 + O 2 → 2 CO + H 2

Total heat liberated by 1st reaction

(227 + 221) = 448 kJ/mol C 2 H 2

2CO + O 2 = 2CO 2 + 570 kJ/mol of acetylene

H 2 +

1

2 O 2 = H 2 O + 242 kJ/mol

Total heat by second reaction = (570 + 242) = 812 kJ/mol of C 2 H 2

Total heat supplied by the combustion = (448 + 812) = 1260 kJ/mol of C 2 H 2

Fig. 2.2 Schematic sketch of oxyacetylene welding torch and gas supply [1].

Review of Conventional Welding Processes

11

Inner cone No acetylene feather Inner cone 2/10th shorter xx 5x5x Inner cone 1/2 of
Inner cone
No acetylene
feather
Inner cone
2/10th shorter
xx
5x5x
Inner cone
1/2 of outer
cone
Acetylene
feather two
xx
times the
inner cone
2x2x

NEUTRAL

(most welding)

OXIDIZING (brass, bronze,

Cu, Zn & Sn alloys)

REDUCING (LC + Alloy steels, monel)

Fig. 2.3 Neutral, oxidizing and reducing flames

Electrode Arc stream Extruded coating Molten metal Gaseous shield Slag Base metal Crater Penetration
Electrode
Arc stream
Extruded coating
Molten metal
Gaseous shield
Slag
Base metal
Crater
Penetration

Fig. 2.4 Diagrammatic sketch of arc flame

12

Welding Science and Technology

2.2.1 Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Review of Conventional Welding Processes

13

Excessive granular flux Consumable electrode Fused flux shield Solidified weld Flux feed tube Granular flux
Excessive granular flux
Consumable electrode
Fused flux shield
Solidified
weld
Flux feed tube
Granular flux

Fig. 2.5 Submerged arc welding-working principle

2.2.2 Submerged Arc Welding

14

Welding Science and Technology

To automatic wire feed Welding electrode Flux feed tube Electrode lead Fused flux Granulated Finished
To automatic wire feed
Welding electrode
Flux feed tube
Electrode lead
Fused flux
Granulated
Finished weld surface
Solidified slag
flux
V-groove
Base metal
Weld metal
Weld pool
Work lead (Ground)
Weld backing
Direction of welding

Fig. 2.5 Submerged arc welding process

2.2.3 Tungsten inert gas (Tig) Welding

Review of Conventional Welding Processes

15

Direction of Current welding conductor Shielding gas in Gas nozzle Nonconsumable tungsten Electrode Gaseous
Direction of
Current
welding
conductor
Shielding
gas in
Gas
nozzle
Nonconsumable
tungsten
Electrode
Gaseous shield
Arc
Welding wire
Optional copper backing bar

Fig. 2.6 Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) Welding

16

Welding Science and Technology

2.2.4 Metal Inert Gas (MIG) Welding

Solid electrode Shielding wire gas in Current conductor Direction Wire guide and contact tube of
Solid
electrode
Shielding
wire
gas in
Current
conductor
Direction
Wire guide and
contact tube
of welding
Gas nozzle
Welding
Gaseous
electrode
shield
Arc
Weld metal

Base

metal

Fig. 2.7 Metal Inert Gas (MIG) Welding

Review of Conventional Welding Processes

17

2.2.5 Metal Active Gas (MAG) Welding

Note: Sometimes a water circulator is used Wire reel Gas supply Wire Shielding gas drive
Note: Sometimes a water
circulator is used
Wire
reel
Gas
supply
Wire
Shielding gas
drive
Welding
Controls for
governing wire
drive, current.
Gas flow and cooling
water, if used
machine
Contactor

Fig. 2.8 Schematic diagram of MIG/MAG (CO 2 ) welding

18

Welding Science and Technology

2.2.6 Atomic Hydrogen Welding

Tungsten

electrodes Trigger for separating electrodes
electrodes
Trigger for separating
electrodes

Fig. 2.8 Atomic hydrogen welding torch

Review of Conventional Welding Processes

19

2.3.1 Electroslag Welding

Filler wires

(electrodes) Direction of welding Electrode Slag pool Water- Weld pool cooled dam Weld metal Weld
(electrodes)
Direction
of welding
Electrode
Slag pool
Water-
Weld pool
cooled
dam
Weld metal
Weld
Section of
Starting
electroslag weld
piece

Fig. 2.9 Electroslag welding set-up

2.3.2 Spot Welding

20

Welding Science and Technology

20 Welding Science and Technology Electrodes Fig. 2.10 Principle of resistance spot welding • • •

Electrodes

Fig. 2.10 Principle of resistance spot welding

2.3.3 Projection Welding

Before welding

After welding
After welding

Fig. 2.11 Projection welding

Review of Conventional Welding Processes

21

2.3.4 Seam Welding

Force Force Current
Force
Force
Current

Fig. 2.12 Sketch of seam welding

2.3.5 Flash Welding

2.3.6 Butt (Upset) Welding

22

Welding Science and Technology

Bar stock

Power source 1. 2. Solid contact 3.
Power source
1.
2.
Solid contact
3.

Light contact –

Flash

welding

Solid contact –

Upset

butt welding

Airgap – Percussion welding

Force or impact

Clamps or dies

Fig. 2.13 Sketch of resistance butt welding

2.3.7 Percussion Welding

Trigger Fixed clamp Sliding clamp Work Spring Power supply
Trigger
Fixed clamp
Sliding clamp
Work
Spring
Power
supply

Fig. 2.14 Principle of percussion welding

Review of Conventional Welding Processes

23

2.3.8 High Frequency Resistance Welding

Butt weld Force Force High frequency current
Butt weld
Force
Force
High
frequency
current

Fig. 2.15 Sketch of high frequency resistance welding

2.4.1 Friction Welding

24

Welding Science and Technology

Stationary chuck Rotating chuck Thrust cylinder (A) Brake Motor
Stationary chuck
Rotating chuck
Thrust cylinder
(A)
Brake
Motor

Direction of rotation

Thrust cylinder (A) Brake Motor Direction of rotation (B) Start Thrust applied Stage 3 begins Forge

(B)

cylinder (A) Brake Motor Direction of rotation (B) Start Thrust applied Stage 3 begins Forge and

Start

Thrust applied

Stage 3 begins

Forge and brake

Fig. 2.16 Friction welding (A) Equipment (B) Stages

2.4.2 High Frequency Pressure Welding

Coil

carrying high-

frequency current

Force
Force

Force

Joint area heated by induced eddy currents

Fig. 2.17(a) Using a high-frequency current to heat the interface in pressure welding

Review of Conventional Welding Processes

25

Weld point Weld seam Weld rolls Current Vee Induction coil Impeder Tube travel
Weld point
Weld seam
Weld rolls
Current
Vee
Induction coil
Impeder
Tube
travel

Fig. 2.17(b) Sketch of high-frequency pressure welding

2.4.3 Ultrasonic Welding

Transducer Applied force Welding tip Anvil Fig. 2.18(a) Ultrasonic welding
Transducer
Applied
force
Welding tip
Anvil
Fig. 2.18(a) Ultrasonic welding
Welding • Transducer Applied force Welding tip Anvil Fig. 2.18(a) Ultrasonic welding Motion of welding tip

Motion of

welding tip

26

Welding Science and Technology

Clamping force Coupling system R-F excitation coil Transducer Sonotrode tip Polarization coil Vibration (H.F.)
Clamping
force
Coupling system
R-F excitation coil
Transducer
Sonotrode
tip
Polarization
coil
Vibration (H.F.)
(15000 – 75000 Hz)
Anvil

Fig. 2.18(b) Ultrasonic welding (detailed sketch)

Review of Conventional Welding Processes

27

2.4.4 Explosive Welding

Detonator Explosive Rubber spacer Flayer plate Gap. 15–24° contact angle 1 = to 2 1
Detonator
Explosive
Rubber spacer
Flayer plate
Gap.
15–24° contact angle
1
=
to
2 1 of
4
Target plate
flayer plate
thickness
Anvil
Weld
Weld

interface

Fig. 2.19 Principle of operation of explosive welding

28

Welding Science and Technology

2.5.1 Electron Beam welding

Review of Conventional Welding Processes

29

Filament Control electrode Anode Positioning diaphragm Magnetic focussing lens Workpiece Welding voltage
Filament
Control
electrode
Anode
Positioning
diaphragm
Magnetic
focussing
lens
Workpiece
Welding
voltage
Control
voltage

Fig. 2.20 Principle of electron beam welding

30

Welding Science and Technology

2.5.2 Laser Beam Welding

Review of Conventional Welding Processes

31

Pumping

energy input

Laser media Laser beam output Output mirror Totally (partially transparent) reflective Random mirror
Laser media
Laser
beam
output
Output mirror
Totally
(partially transparent)
reflective
Random
mirror

fluorescence

(losses)

(a) Power supply and controls Turning Laser mirror Laser light source beam Focusing optics
(a)
Power
supply and
controls
Turning
Laser
mirror
Laser light source
beam
Focusing
optics

(b)

Work

Fig. 2.21(b) Schematic diagram of laser welding

32

Welding Science and Technology

32 Welding Science and Technology • •
32 Welding Science and Technology • •

Review of Conventional Welding Processes

33

θ

θ

π

π θ

θ ∝ λ

π

λ

λ

34

Welding Science and Technology

   

2.5.3 Plasma Arc Welding

Review of Conventional Welding Processes

35

Electrode: normally tungsten with negative polarity. Water cooled copper electrode with positive polarity used for
Electrode: normally tungsten with
negative polarity. Water cooled
copper electrode with positive
polarity used for aluminium welding
Tungsten
electrode
Water cooled
nozzle
+
Powder
Water cooled
injection
nozzle
+
Workpiece
Workpiece
Transferred arc
Non-transferred arc

Fig. 2.22 Plasma arc welding

36

Welding Science and Technology

36 Welding Science and Technology •

3.2.1 Arc Welding Power Sources 37

3.2.1 Arc Welding Power Sources 37

3.2.1 Arc Welding Power Sources

37

38

Welding Science and Technology

3.2.2 Arc Characteristics

Ohm's law Current Arc characteristic Voltage
Ohm's law
Current
Arc characteristic
Voltage

Fig. 3.1 Typical arc characteristic compared with Ohm’s law

3.2.3 Arc-length Control

Welding Science

39

I 3 Increasing I 2 current I I 1 3 I 2 I I >
I
3
Increasing
I
2
current
I
I
1
3
I
2
I
I >
I
>
I
1
3
2
1
Arc length
Arc voltage

Arc length

(mm) 6 (long) 3 mm (medium) 2 mm 1 (short) 15 V Voltage
(mm)
6
(long)
3
mm
(medium)
2
mm
1
(short)
15 V
Voltage

150 A

Current

Fig. 3.2 Arc characteristics for welding copper (G.T.A. welding)

Arc length 4 mm 3 mm 16.5 V B 16.5 2 mm 15 V 15
Arc length
4
mm
3
mm
16.5
V
B
16.5
2
mm
15 V
15
1
mm
A
13.3
V
13.3
C
X
Z
X Current
Y
= 143 A
Voltage

Y = 150 A

Z = 156 A

Fig. 3.3 Variations in voltage and current with change in arc-length

40

Welding Science and Technology

O.C.V. Normal operating range Current Voltage
O.C.V.
Normal
operating
range
Current
Voltage

Fig. 3.4 Typical power supply characteristics used in manual GTA welding operation

3.2.4 Self Adjusting Arc in GMA Welding

Welding Science

41

400 1.6 mm dia 1.2 mm diameter wire electrode 300 0.8 mm dia 200 100
400
1.6 mm
dia
1.2 mm diameter
wire electrode
300
0.8 mm dia
200
100
Arc
unstable
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
Welding current (A)

Wire feed speed m/min

Fig. 3.5 Wire feed rate Vs current for three electrodes in CO 2 welding

40 Slope 2 V/100 A B A 35 V 30 20 10 100 200 300
40
Slope 2 V/100 A
B
A
35 V
30
20
10
100
200
300
400
500
Voltage (V)

Current (A)

Fig. 3.6 Output characteristics for a constant-potential power-supply unit

42

Welding Science and Technology

Welding Science

43

3.3.1 Alternating-current Welding Power Sources

Transformer Reactor Mains input Arc
Transformer
Reactor
Mains
input
Arc
Laminated iron core Tappings From transformer To arc
Laminated
iron core
Tappings
From
transformer
To arc

Fig. 3.7 Tapped reactors

44

Welding Science and Technology

Reactor Transformer Mains input Arc
Reactor
Transformer
Mains
input
Arc
Reactor winding To arc From Trans- Core former In out Laminated core
Reactor winding To arc
From
Trans-
Core
former
In out
Laminated core

Fig. 3.8 Moving core reactor

Welding Science

45

Control

current

+ – Saturable Transformer reactor Arc
+
Saturable
Transformer
reactor
Arc

Auxiliary

transformer

Variable resistor adjusts current supply to control winding. From To arc transformer
Variable resistor
adjusts current
supply to control
winding.
From
To arc
transformer

Control winding: amount of current flowing in this winding determines magnitude of current supplied to the arc.

Fig. 3.9 Saturable reactor used to regulate welding current

Rotating the screw feed moves the coils closer together or farther apart. Moveable coil Laminated
Rotating the screw feed
moves the coils closer
together or farther apart.
Moveable
coil
Laminated
core
Fixed
coil

Fig. 3.10 Moving-coil transformer

Core moved in or out to raise or lower current Fig. 3.11 Moveable-core transformer
Core moved in
or out to raise
or lower current
Fig. 3.11 Moveable-core transformer

46

Welding Science and Technology

Mains

input

Tapped

reactors

Primary winding
Primary
winding
Secondary Arc winding Arc Arc
Secondary
Arc
winding
Arc
Arc

Transformer

Fig. 3.12 Multi-operator transformer unit

3.3. 2 Direct-Current Welding Power Sources

Welding Science

47

(a)

(b)

Mains

input

Mains Transformer Rectifier Output Block diagram Rectifier + Output – Transformer
Mains
Transformer
Rectifier
Output
Block diagram
Rectifier
+
Output
Transformer

Circuit diagram

Fig. 3.13 Simple three-phase full-wave rectifier unit for welding

Transformer Reactor
Transformer
Reactor
full-wave rectifier unit for welding Transformer Reactor Mains Input + – Output to arc Fig. 3.14
full-wave rectifier unit for welding Transformer Reactor Mains Input + – Output to arc Fig. 3.14

Mains

Input

+

Output

to arc

Fig. 3.14 Drooping characteristic output from rectifier unit

48

Welding Science and Technology

3.3.3 Solid-state Welding Power Sources

Mains

input

Tr + T R C F – A S
Tr
+
T
R
C
F
A
S

Elements of a transistorised power-supply unit to give either a drooping characteristic or a constant-potential output

T—transformer R—rectifier Tr—transistor regulator A—arc F—feedback voltage and/ or current from arc S—reference setting C—command unit (compares signals from F and S ; amplifiers error to give command signal for Tr)

Fig. 3.15 Transisterised power supply unit

Welding Science

49

3.5.1 Arc Energy Input

50

Welding Science and Technology

A r A m A z
A r
A
m
A z

Fig. 3.16 Bead-on-plate cross section

×

××

×

Welding Science

51

3.6.1 Arc Welding

φ

3.6.2 Resistance Welding

 

µ Ω

52

Welding Science and Technology

µ Ω

π ρ ρ

3.7.1 Introduction