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Preface

Contents

SIPROTEC
Introduction 1
Functions 2
Multifunctional Machine Mounting and Commissioning 3
Protection
7UM62 Technical Data 4
Appendix A
V4.6
Literature

Manual
Glossary

Index

C53000-G1176-C149-7
Note
For safety purposes, please note instructions and warnings in the Preface.

Disclaimer of liability Copyright


We have checked the text of this manual against the hardware and Copyright © Siemens AG 2010. All rights reserved.
software described. However, deviations from the description Dissemination or reproduction of this document, or evaluation and
cannot be completely ruled out, so that no liability can be accepted communication of its contents, is not authorized except where ex-
for any errors or omissions contained in the information given. pressly permitted. Violations are liable for damages. All rights re-
The information given in this document is reviewed regularly and served, particularly for the purposes of patent application or trade-
any necessary corrections will be included in subsequent editions. mark registration.
We appreciate any suggestions for improvement.
We reserve the right to make technical improvements without Registered Trademarks
notice. SIPROTEC, SINAUT, SICAM and DIGSI are registered trademarks
Document Version V04.63.00 of Siemens AG. Other designations in this manual might be trade-
Release date 03.2010 marks whose use by third parties for their own purposes would in-
fringe the rights of the owner.

Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Order no.: C53000-G1176-C147-7


Preface

Purpose of this Manual

This manual describes the functions, operation, installation, and commissioning of devices 7UM62. In particu-
lar, one will find:
• Information regarding the configuration of the scope of the device and a description of the device functions
and settings → Chapter 2;
• Instructions for Installation and Commissioning → Chapter 3;
• Compilation of the Technical Data → Chapter 4;
• As well as a compilation of the most significant data for advanced users → Appendix A.

General information with regard to design, configuration, and operation of SIPROTEC 4 devices are set out in
the SIPROTEC 4 System Description /1/.

Target Audience

Protection engineers, commissioning engineers, personnel concerned with adjustment, checking, and service
of selective protective equipment, automatic and control facilities, and personnel of electrical facilities and
power plants.

Applicability of this Manual

This manual applies to: SIPROTEC 4 Multifunctional Machine Protection 7UM62; firmware version V4.6.

Indication of Conformity

This product complies with the directive of the Council of the European Communities on the
approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to electromagnetic compatibility (EMC
Council Directive 2004/108/EC) and concerning electrical equipment for use within specified
voltage limits (Low-voltage directive 2006/95 EC).
This conformity is proved by tests conducted by Siemens AG in accordance with the Council
Directives in agreement with the generic standards EN61000-6-2 and EN 61000-6-4 for the
EMC directive, and with the standard EN 60255-27 for the low-voltage directive.
The device has been designed and produced for industrial use.
The product conforms with the international standard of the series IEC 60255 and the German
standard VDE 0435.

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Preface

Additional Standards IEEE Std C37.90 (see Chapter 4, Technical Data")

Additional Support

Should further information on the System SIPROTEC 4 be desired or should particular problems arise which
are not covered sufficiently for the purchaser's purpose, the matter should be referred to the local Siemens rep-
resentative.

Our Customer Support Center provides a 24-hour service.

Phone: 01 80/5 24 70 00

Fax: 01 80/5 24 24 71
E-mail: support.energy@siemens.com

Training Courses

Enquiries regarding individual training courses should be addressed to our Training Center:

Siemens AG

Power Transmission and Distribution

Siemens Power Academy TD

Humboldt Street 59

90459 Nuremberg

Telephone:0911 / 4 33-70 05

Fax:0911 / 4 33-79 29

Internet: www.siemens.com/power-academy-td

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Preface

Safety Information

This manual does not constitute a complete index of all required safety measures for operation of the equip-
ment (module, device), as special operational conditions may require additional measures. However, it com-
prises important information that should be noted for purposes of personal safety as well as avoiding material
damage. Information that is highlighted by means of a warning triangle and according to the degree of danger,
is illustrated as follows.

DANGER!
Danger indicates that death, severe personal injury or substantial material damage will result if proper precau-
tions are not taken.

WARNING!
indicates that death, severe personal injury or substantial property damage may result if proper precautions are
not taken.

Caution!
indicates that minor personal injury or property damage may result if proper precautions are not taken. This
particularly applies to damage to or within the device itself and consequential damage thereof.

Note

indicates information on the device, handling of the device, or the respective part of the instruction manual
which is important to be noted.

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Preface

WARNING!
Qualified Personnel

Commissioning and operation of the equipment (module, device) as set out in this manual may only be carried
out by qualified personnel. Qualified personnel in terms of the technical safety information as set out in this
manual are persons who are authorized to commission, activate, to ground and to designate devices, systems
and electrical circuits in accordance with the safety standards.

Use as prescribed

The operational equipment (device, module) may only be used for such applications as set out in the catalogue
and the technical description, and only in combination with third-party equipment recommended or approved
by Siemens.
The successful and safe operation of the device is dependent on proper handling, storage, installation, opera-
tion, and maintenance.

When operating an electrical equipment, certain parts of the device are inevitably subject to dangerous voltage.
Severe personal injury or property damage may result if the device is not handled properly.

Before any connections are made, the device must be grounded to the ground terminal.

All circuit components connected to the voltage supply may be subject to dangerous voltage.
Dangerous voltage may be present in the device even after the power supply voltage has been removed (ca-
pacitors can still be charged).

Operational equipment with open circuited current transformer circuits may not be operated.

The limit values as specified in this manual or in the operating instructions may not be exceeded. This aspect
must also be observed during testing and commissioning.

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Preface

Typographic and Symbol Conventions

The following text formats are used when literal information from the device or to the device appear in the text
flow:

Parameter Names

Designators of configuration or function parameters which may appear word-for-word in the display of the
device or on the screen of a personal computer (with operation software DIGSI), are marked in bold letters in
monospace type style. The same applies to the titles of menus.

1,234A

Parameter addresses have the same character style as parameter names. Parameter addresses contain the
suffix A in the overview tables if the parameter can only be set in DIGSI via the option Display additional set-
tings.

Parameter Options

Possible settings of text parameters, which may appear word-for-word in the display of the device or on the
screen of a personal computer (with operation software DIGSI), are additionally written in italics. The same
applies to the options of the menus.

„Messages“
Designators for information, which may be output by the relay or required from other devices or from the switch
gear, are marked in a monospace type style in quotation marks.

Deviations may be permitted in drawings and tables when the type of designator can be obviously derived from
the illustration.

The following symbols are used in drawings:

Device-internal logical input signal

Device-internal logical output signal

Internal input signal of an analog quantity

External binary input signal with number (binary input,


input indication)
External binary output signal with number
(example of a value indication)
External binary output signal with number (device indication) used as
input signal

Example of a parameter switch designated FUNCTION with address


1234 and the possible settings ON and OFF

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Preface

Besides these, graphical symbols are used in accordance with IEC 60617-12 and IEC 60617-13 or similar.
Some of the most frequently used are listed below:

analog input values

AND-gate operation of input values

OR-gate operation of input values

Exclusive OR gate (antivalence): output is active, if only one of the


inputs is active

Coincidence gate: output is active, if both inputs are active or inactive


at the same time

Dynamic inputs (edge-triggered) above with positive, below with nega-


tive edge

Formation of one analog output signal from a number of analog input


signals

Limit stage with setting address and parameter designator (name)

Timer (pickup delay T, example adjustable) with setting address and


parameter designator (name)

Timer (dropout delay T, example non-adjustable)

Dynamic triggered pulse timer T (monoflop)

Static memory (RS-flipflop) with setting input (S), resetting input (R),
output (Q) and inverted output (Q)

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Contents

1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
1.1 Overall Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
1.2 Application Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
1.3 Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27

2 Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
2.1 Introduction, Reference Power System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
2.1.1 Function Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
2.2 Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
2.2.1 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
2.2.2 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
2.2.3 Information List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
2.3 Ethernet EN100 Modul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
2.3.1 Function Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
2.3.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
2.3.3 Information List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
2.4 Functional Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
2.4.1 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
2.4.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
2.4.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
2.5 Power System Data 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
2.5.1 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
2.5.2 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
2.5.3 Information List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
2.6 Change Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
2.6.1 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
2.6.2 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
2.6.3 Information List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
2.7 Power System Data 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
2.7.1 Function Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
2.7.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
2.7.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
2.7.4 Information List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64

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2.8 Definite-Time Overcurrent Protection (I>, ANSI 50/51) with Undervoltage Seal-In. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
2.8.1 Function Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
2.8.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
2.8.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
2.8.4 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
2.9 Definite-Time Overcurrent Protection (I>>, ANSI 50, 51, 67) with Direction Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
2.9.1 Function Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
2.9.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
2.9.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
2.9.4 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
2.10 Inverse-Time Overcurrent Protection (ANSI 51V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
2.10.1 Function Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
2.10.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
2.10.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
2.10.4 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
2.11 Thermal Overload Protection (ANSI 49) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
2.11.1 Function Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
2.11.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
2.11.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
2.11.4 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
2.12 Unbalanced Load (Negative Sequence) Protection (ANSI 46) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
2.12.1 Function Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
2.12.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
2.12.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
2.12.4 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
2.13 Startup Overcurrent Protection (ANSI 51). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
2.13.1 Function Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
2.13.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
2.13.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
2.13.4 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
2.14 Differential Protection and Its Protected Objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
2.14.1 Differential Protection (ANSI 87G/87M/87T) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
2.14.1.1 Function Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
2.14.1.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
2.14.1.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
2.14.1.4 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
2.14.2 Protected Object Generator or Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
2.14.2.1 Function Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
2.14.2.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
2.14.3 Protected Object Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
2.14.3.1 Function Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
2.14.3.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
2.14.4 Current Transformer Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
2.14.4.1 Function Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

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Contents

2.15 Earth Current Differential Protection (ANSI 87GN,TN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128


2.15.1 Function Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
2.15.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133
2.15.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135
2.15.4 Information List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135
2.16 Underexcitation (Loss-of-Field) Protection (ANSI 40) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136
2.16.1 Function Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136
2.16.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139
2.16.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143
2.16.4 Information List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144
2.17 Reverse Power Protection (ANSI 32R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145
2.17.1 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145
2.17.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146
2.17.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148
2.17.4 Information List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148
2.18 Forward Active Power Supervision (ANSI 32F). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149
2.18.1 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149
2.18.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150
2.18.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151
2.18.4 Information List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151
2.19 Impedance Protection (ANSI 21) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152
2.19.1 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152
2.19.2 Power Swing Blocking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157
2.19.3 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158
2.19.4 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163
2.19.5 Information List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164
2.20 Out-of-Step Protection (ANSI 78) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165
2.20.1 Measuring Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165
2.20.2 Out-of-Step Protection Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167
2.20.3 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169
2.20.4 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174
2.20.5 Information List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174
2.21 Undervoltage Protection (ANSI 27) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175
2.21.1 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175
2.21.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176
2.21.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
2.21.4 Information List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
2.22 Overvoltage Protection (ANSI 59) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178
2.22.1 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178
2.22.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179
2.22.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180
2.22.4 Information List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180

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2.23 Frequency Protection (ANSI 81) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181


2.23.1 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
2.23.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
2.23.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
2.23.4 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
2.24 Overexcitation (Volt/Hertz) Protection (ANSI 24) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
2.24.1 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
2.24.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
2.24.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
2.24.4 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
2.25 Inverse-Time Undervoltage Protection (ANSI 27) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
2.25.1 Function Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
2.25.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
2.25.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
2.25.4 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
2.26 Rate-of-Frequency-Change Protection df/dt (ANSI 81R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
2.26.1 Function Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
2.26.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
2.26.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
2.26.4 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
2.27 Jump of Voltage Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
2.27.1 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
2.27.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
2.27.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
2.27.4 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
2.28 90-%-Stator Earth Fault Protection (ANSI 59N, 64G, 67G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
2.28.1 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
2.28.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
2.28.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
2.28.4 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
2.29 Sensitive Earth Fault Protection (ANSI 51GN, 64R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
2.29.1 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
2.29.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
2.29.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
2.29.4 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
2.30 100-%-Stator Earth Fault Protection with 3rd Harmonics (ANSI 27/59TN 3rd Harm.) . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
2.30.1 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
2.30.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
2.30.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
2.30.4 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222

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2.31 100-%-Stator Earth Fault Protection with 20 Hz Voltage Injection (ANSI 64G - 100%) . . . . . . . . . . . .223
2.31.1 Function Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223
2.31.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .226
2.31.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230
2.31.4 Information List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230
2.32 Sensitive Earth Fault Protection B (ANSI 51GN). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231
2.32.1 Function Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231
2.32.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .234
2.32.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235
2.32.4 Information List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235
2.33 Interturn Protection (ANSI 59N (IT)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236
2.33.1 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .236
2.33.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .238
2.33.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .239
2.33.4 Information List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .239
2.34 Rotor Earth Fault Protection R, fn (ANSI 64R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240
2.34.1 Function Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240
2.34.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .242
2.34.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244
2.34.4 Information List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244
2.35 Sensitive Rotor Earth Fault Protection with 1 to 3 Hz Square Wave Voltage Injection
(ANSI 64R - 1 to 3 Hz). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .245
2.35.1 Function Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .245
2.35.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249
2.35.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250
2.35.4 Information List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250
2.36 Motor Starting Time Supervision (ANSI 48) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .251
2.36.1 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .251
2.36.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .253
2.36.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .254
2.36.4 Information List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .254
2.37 Restart Inhibit for Motors (ANSI 66, 49Rotor) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255
2.37.1 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255
2.37.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259
2.37.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262
2.37.4 Information List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262
2.38 Breaker Failure Protection (ANSI 50BF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263
2.38.1 Function Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263
2.38.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .266
2.38.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267
2.38.4 Information List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267

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2.39 Inadvertent Energization (ANSI 50, 27) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268


2.39.1 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
2.39.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
2.39.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
2.39.4 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
2.40 DC Voltage/Current Protection (ANSI 59NDC/51NDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
2.40.1 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
2.40.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
2.40.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
2.40.4 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
2.41 Analog Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
2.41.1 Function Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
2.41.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
2.41.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
2.42 Monitoring Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
2.42.1 Measurement Supervision. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
2.42.1.1 Hardware Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
2.42.1.2 Software Monitoring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
2.42.1.3 Monitoring of External Transformer Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
2.42.1.4 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
2.42.1.5 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
2.42.1.6 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
2.42.2 Supervision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
2.42.2.1 Fuse Failure Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
2.42.2.2 Malfunction Responses of the Monitoring Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
2.42.2.3 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
2.42.2.4 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
2.42.2.5 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
2.43 Trip Circuit Supervision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
2.43.1 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
2.43.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
2.43.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
2.43.4 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
2.44 Threshold supervision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
2.44.1 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
2.44.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
2.44.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
2.44.4 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
2.45 External Trip Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
2.45.1 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
2.45.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
2.45.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
2.45.4 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315

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2.46 Temperature Detection by Thermoboxes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316


2.46.1 Function Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316
2.46.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317
2.46.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .319
2.46.4 Information List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .324
2.47 Phase Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .325
2.47.1 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .325
2.47.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .326
2.48 Protection Function Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .327
2.48.1 Pickup Logic for the Entire Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .327
2.48.1.1 Function Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .327
2.48.2 Tripping Logic for the Entire Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .328
2.48.2.1 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .328
2.48.2.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .328
2.49 Auxiliary Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329
2.49.1 Processing of Annunciation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329
2.49.1.1 Function Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329
2.49.2 Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .331
2.49.2.1 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .331
2.49.2.2 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .332
2.49.3 Measurement (Secondary/Primary/Percentage Values) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .333
2.49.3.1 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .333
2.49.3.2 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .337
2.49.4 Thermal Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .338
2.49.4.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .338
2.49.4.2 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .339
2.49.5 Diff- and Rest. Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .340
2.49.5.1 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .340
2.49.6 Min/Max Measurement Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .341
2.49.6.1 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .341
2.49.7 Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .342
2.49.7.1 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .342
2.49.8 Set Points (Measured Values) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .343
2.49.8.1 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .343
2.49.9 Set Points (Statistic) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .343
2.49.9.1 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .343
2.49.10 Oscillographic Fault Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .344
2.49.10.1 Function Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .344
2.49.10.2 Setting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .344
2.49.10.3 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .345
2.49.10.4 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .345
2.49.11 Date and Time Stamping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .346
2.49.11.1 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .346
2.49.12 Commissioning Aids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347
2.49.12.1 Test Messages to the SCADA Interface during Test Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347
2.49.12.2 Checking the System Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347
2.49.12.3 Checking the Binary Inputs and Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .348
2.49.12.4 Creating a Test Fault Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .348

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2.50 Command Processing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349


2.50.1 Control Device. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
2.50.1.1 Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
2.50.2 Types of Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
2.50.2.1 Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
2.50.3 Command Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
2.50.3.1 Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
2.50.4 Interlocking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
2.50.4.1 Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
2.50.5 Command Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
2.50.5.1 Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

3 Mounting and Commissioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361


3.1 Mounting and Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
3.1.1 Configuration Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
3.1.2 Hardware Modifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
3.1.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
3.1.2.2 Disassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
3.1.2.3 Switching Elements on the Printed Circuit Boards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
3.1.2.4 Interface Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
3.1.2.5 Reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
3.1.3 Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
3.1.3.1 Panel Flush Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
3.1.3.2 Rack and Cubicle Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
3.1.3.3 Panel Surface Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
3.2 Checking Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
3.2.1 Checking Data Connections of Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390
3.2.2 System Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
3.2.3 Termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
3.2.4 Analog Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
3.2.5 Time Synchronization Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
3.2.6 Optical Fibres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
3.2.7 Checking the Device Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
3.2.8 Checking System Incorporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397

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3.3 Commissioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .400


3.3.1 Test Mode / Transmission Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401
3.3.2 Testing System Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401
3.3.3 Checking the Binary Inputs and Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .403
3.3.4 Tests for Circuit Breaker Failure Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .406
3.3.5 Testing Analog Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .406
3.3.6 Testing User-defined Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .406
3.3.7 Checking the Rotor Ground Fault Protection at Standstill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .407
3.3.8 Checking the 100 % Stator Earth Fault Protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
3.3.9 Checking the DC Voltage / DC Current Circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .414
3.3.10 Trip/Close Tests for the Configured Operating Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .414
3.3.11 Commissioning Test with the Machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .414
3.3.12 Checking the Current Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .419
3.3.13 Checking the Differential Protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .421
3.3.14 Checking the Earth Current Differential Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .424
3.3.15 Checking the Voltage Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .428
3.3.16 Checking the Stator Ground Fault Protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .430
3.3.17 Checking the 100 % Stator Ground Fault Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .438
3.3.18 Checking the Sensitive Ground Fault Protection as Rotor Ground Fault Protection . . . . . . . . . . .439
3.3.19 Checking the Rotor Ground Fault Protection during Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .440
3.3.20 Checking the Interturn Fault Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .441
3.3.21 Checks with the Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .443
3.3.22 Creating Oscillographic Fault Recordings for Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .447
3.4 Final Preparation of the Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .449

4 Technical Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .451


4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .453
4.1.1 Analog Inputs/Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .453
4.1.2 Auxiliary Voltage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .454
4.1.3 Binary Inputs and Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .455
4.1.4 Communication Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .457
4.1.5 Electrical Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .461
4.1.6 Mechanical Stress Tests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .462
4.1.7 Climatic Stress Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .463
4.1.8 Service Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .464
4.1.9 Certifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .464
4.1.10 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .464
4.2 Definite-Time Overcurrent Protection (ANSI 50, 51 67). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .465
4.3 Inverse-Time Overcurrent Protection (ANSI 51V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .466
4.4 Thermal Overload Protection (ANSI 49) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .471
4.5 Unbalanced Load (Negative Sequence) Protection (ANSI 46) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .473
4.6 Startup Overcurrent Protection (ANSI 51) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .475
4.7 Differential Protection (ANSI 87G/87M/87T) for Generators and Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .476
4.8 Differential Protection (ANSI 87G/87M/87T) for Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .478
4.9 Earth Current Differential Protection (ANSI 87GN,TN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .481

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4.10 Underexcitation (Loss-of-Field) Protection (ANSI 40) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482


4.11 Reverse Power Protection (ANSI 32R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
4.12 Forward Active Power Supervision (ANSI 32F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484
4.13 Impedance Protection (ANSI 21) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
4.14 Out-of-Step Protection (ANSI 78) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
4.15 Undervoltage Protection (ANSI 27). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488
4.16 Overvoltage Protection (ANSI 59). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
4.17 Frequency Protection (ANSI 81) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
4.18 Overexcitation (Volt/Hertz) Protection (ANSI 24) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492
4.19 Rate-of-Frequency-Change Protection df/dt (ANSI 81R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494
4.20 Jump of Voltage Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
4.21 90-%-Stator Earth Fault Protection (ANSI 59N, 64G, 67G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496
4.22 Sensitive Earth Fault Protection (ANSI 51GN, 64R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
4.23 100-%-Stator Earth Fault Protection with 3rd Harmonics (ANSI 27/59TN 3rd Harm.) . . . . . . . . . . . . 498
4.24 100-%-Stator Earth Fault Protection with 20 Hz Voltage Injection (ANSI 64G - 100%) . . . . . . . . . . . 499
4.25 Sensitive Earth Fault Protection B (ANSI 51GN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500
4.26 Interturn Protection (ANSI 59N (IT)). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
4.27 Rotor Earth Fault Protection R, fn (ANSI 64R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
4.28 Sensitive Rotor Earth Fault Protection with 1 to 3 Hz Square Wave Voltage Injection
(ANSI 64R - 1 to 3 Hz) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504
4.29 Motor Starting Time Supervision (ANSI 48) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505
4.30 Restart Inhibit for Motors (ANSI 66, 49Rotor) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506
4.31 Breaker Failure Protection (ANSI 50BF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507
4.32 Inadvertent Energization (ANSI 50, 27) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508
4.33 DC Voltage/Current Protection (ANSI 59NDC/51NDC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509
4.34 Temperature Detection by Thermoboxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510
4.35 Threshold supervision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511
4.36 User-defined Functions (CFC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512
4.37 Additional Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517
4.38 Operating Range of the Protection Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523

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4.39 Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .525


4.39.1 Panel Flush and Cubicle Mounting (Housing Size 1/2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .525
4.39.2 Housing for Panel Flush Mounting or Cubicle Mounting (Size 1/1). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .526
4.39.3 Panel Flush Mounting (Housing Size 1/2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .527
4.39.4 Housing for Panel Surface Mounting (Size 1/1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .527
4.39.5 Dimensional Drawing of Coupling Device 7XR6100-0CA0 for Panel Flush Mounting. . . . . . . . . .528
4.39.6 Dimensions of Coupling Unit 7XR6100-0BA0 for Panel Surface Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .529
4.39.7 Dimensional Drawing of 3PP13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .530
4.39.8 Dimensional Drawing of Series Device 7XT7100-0BA00 for Panel Surface Mounting . . . . . . . . .531
4.39.9 Dimensions of Series Unit 7XT7100-0EA00 for Panel Flash Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .532
4.39.10 Dimensional Drawing of Resistor Unit 7XR6004-0CA00 for Panel Surface Mounting or
Cubicle Flush Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .533
4.39.11 Dimensions of Resistor Unit 7XR6004-0BA00 for Panel Surface Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .534
4.39.12 Dimensional Drawing of 20 Hz Generator 7XT3300-0CA00 for Panel Surface Mounting or
Cubicle Flush Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .535
4.39.13 Maßbild 20 Hz-Generator 7XT3300-0CA00/DD für Schalttafel- oder Schrankeinbau . . . . . . . . . .536
4.39.14 Dimensional Drawing of 20 Hz Generator 7XT3300-0BA00 for Panel Surface Mounting . . . . . . .537
4.39.15 Maßbild 20 Hz-Generator 7XT3300-0BA00/DD für Schalttafelaufbau. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .538
4.39.16 Dimensional Drawing of 20 Hz Bandpass 7XT3400-0CA00 for Panel Surface Mounting or
Cubicle Flush Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .539
4.39.17 Dimensional Drawing of 20 Hz Bandpass 7XT3400-0BA00 for Panel Surface Mounting . . . . . . .540

A Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .541
A.1 Ordering Information and Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .542
A.1.1 Ordering Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .542
A.1.1.1 Order Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .542
A.1.2 Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .546
A.2 Terminal Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .549
A.2.1 Panel Flush Mounting or Cubicle Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .549
A.2.2 Panel Surface Mounting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .551
A.3 Connection Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .553
A.3.1 7UM62 - Connection Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .553
A.3.2 Connection Examples for RTD Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .561
A.3.3 Schematic Diagram of Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .562
A.4 Default Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .565
A.4.1 LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .565
A.4.2 Binary Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .566
A.4.3 Binary Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .566
A.4.4 Function Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .567
A.4.5 Default Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .568
A.4.6 Pre-defined CFC Charts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .569
A.5 Protocol-dependent Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .570
A.6 Functional Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .571
A.7 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .576
A.8 Information List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .593
A.9 Group Alarms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .615

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Contents

A.10 Measured Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 616

Literature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 619

Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 621

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633

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Introduction 1
This chapter introduces the SIPROTEC 4 7UM62. It provides an overview of the scopes of application, features
and of the functional scope.

1.1 Overall Operation 22

1.2 Application Scope 25

1.3 Characteristics 27

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Introduction
1.1 Overall Operation

1.1 Overall Operation

The digital multifunctional protective relay 7UM62 is equipped with a high performance microprocessor. All
tasks such as the acquisition of the measured values and issuing of commands to circuit breakers and other
switching equipment are processed digitally. Figure 1-1 shows the basic structure of the device.

Analog Inputs

The measuring inputs (MI) section effect a gavanic isolation. They convert currents and voltages from the
primary transformers to levels appropriate for the internal processing of the device.

Figure 1-1 Hardware structure of the numerical multi-functional device 7UM62 (Maximum configuration)

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Introduction
1.1 Overall Operation

The device has 8 current and 4 voltage inputs. Three current inputs are used on each side of the protected
object for measuring of the phase currents. 2 current inputs are equipped with sensitive input transformers (IEE)
and can measure secondary currents in the mA range. 3 voltage inputs acquire the phase-to-earth voltages
(connection to phase-to-phase voltages and voltage transformers in V connection is possible as well). The 4th
voltage input is for the displacement voltage measurement for the stator and rotor earth fault protection.

The IA input amplifier group allows high impedance connection for analog input values and contains filters op-
timized for measured value processing bandwidth and speed.

The AD analog digital converter group contains high-resolution ΣΔ digital converters (22 bits) and memory com-
ponents for data transfer to the microcomputer.

Micro Computer System

The implemented software is processed in the microcomputer system (µC). Major functions are:
• Filtering and conditioning of the measured signals,
• Continuous monitoring of the measured quantities,
• Monitoring of the pickup conditions for the individual protection functions,
• Querying of limit values and time sequences,
• Controlling signals for logic functions,
• Decision for trip commands,
• Signalling of protective actions via LEDs, LCD, relays or serial interfaces,
• Recording of messages, fault data and fault values for fault analyis,
• Management of the operating system and the associated functions such as data recording, real-time clock,
communication, interfaces, etc.

Adaptation of Sampling Frequency

In order for the protection and measurement functions to produce correct results over a wide frequency range,
the actual frequency is continuously measured and used for adjusting the sampling frequency for the mea-
sured value processing. This ensures measuring accuracy in the frequency range from 11 Hz to 69 Hz.

The sampling frequency adjustment can, however, operate only when at least one a.c. measured quantity is
present at one of the analog inputs, with an amplitude of at least 5 % of rated value („operational condition 1“).
If no suitable measured values are present, or if the frequency is below 11 Hz or above 70 Hz, the device op-
erates in „operational condition 0“.

Binary Inputs and Outputs

Binary inputs and outputs from and to the computer system are routed via the I/O modules (inputs and outputs).
The computer system obtains the information from the system (e.g remote resetting) or the external equipment
(e.g. blocking commands). Outputs are mainly commands that are issued to the switching devices and mes-
sages for remote signalling of events and states.

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Introduction
1.1 Overall Operation

Front Elements

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and a display (LCD) on the front panel provide information on the functional status
of the device and report events, states and measured values. The integrated control keys and numeric keys in
conjunction with the LCD enable local interaction with the device. They allow the user to retrieve any kind of
information from the device such as configuration and setting parameters, operational indications and fault
messages (see also SIPROTEC 4 System Description /1/) and to change setting parameters.

Serial Interfaces

A personal computer running the DIGSI software can be connected to the serial operator interface (PC port)
on the front panel to conveniently operate all device functions.

The serial service interface can equally be connected to a PC running DIGSI that communicates with the
device. This port is especially well suited to permanently connect the devices to the PC or for remote operation
via modem. The service interface can be also used for connecting a RTD box.

All data can be transferred to a central control or monitoring system via the serial system interface. Various
protocols and physical arrangements are available for this interface to suit the particular application.

A further interface is provided for time synchronization of the internal clock through external synchronization
sources.

Further communication protocols can be implemented via additional interface modules.

Analog Outputs / Temperature Input

Depending on the ordering variant and configuration, ports B and D can be equipped with analog output
modules for the output of selected measured values (0 to 20 mA). If these ports are equipped with input
modules (RS485 or optical) instead, temperatures can be fed in from an external temperature sensor.

Power Supply

The functional units described are supplied by a power supply PS with the necessary power in the different
voltage levels. Voltage dips may occur if the voltage supply system (substation battery) becomes short-circuit-
ed. Usually, they are bridged by a capacitor (see also Technical Data).

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Introduction
1.2 Application Scope

1.2 Application Scope

The SIPROTEC 4 7UM62 is a numerical machine protection unit from the „7UM6 Numerical Protection“ series.
It provides all functions necessary for protection of generators, motors and transformers. As the scope of func-
tions of the 7UM62 can be customized, it is suited for small, medium-sized and large generators.

The device fulfills the protection requirements for the two typical basic connections:
• Busbar connection
• Unit connection

Figure 1-2 Typical connections

The integrated differential protection function can be used for longitudinal or transverse generator differential
protection, for protection of the unit transformer or for overall differential protection.

The scalable software allows a wide range of applications, Corresponding function packages can be selected
for each particular application. For instance, alone with the 7UM62 device, it is possible to provide comprehen-
sive and reliable protection of generators from small to medium capacity (approx. 5 MW).

Additionally, the device forms the basis for the protection of medium to large size generators. Combined with
the 7UM61 (also from the 7UM6 series), all protection requirements encountered in practice can be met from
the smallest to the largest machines. This permits to implement a consistent concept for backup protection.

The 7UM62 device is usable for further applications such as


• Transformer protection, as the 7UM62 has in addition to differential and time-overcurrent protection a large
variety of protection functions that allow, for instance, monitoring of the voltage and frequency load.
• Protection of large synchronous and asynchronous motors.

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Introduction
1.2 Application Scope

Messages and Measured Values; Recording of Event and Fault Data

The operational indications provide information about conditions in the power system and the device itself.
Measurement quantities and resulting computed values can be displayed locally and communicated via the
serial interfaces.

Device messages can be assigned to a number of LEDs on the front panel (allocatable), can be externally pro-
cessed via output contacts (allocatable), linked with user-definable logic functions and/or issued via serial in-
terfaces (see Communication below).

During a generator or network fault (fault in the power system), important events and state changes are stored
in a fault annunciation buffer. The instantaneous or rms measured values during the fault are also stored in the
device and are subsequently available for fault analysis.

Communication

Serial interfaces are available for the communication with operating, control and memory systems.

Front Interface

A 9-pin DSUB socket on the front panel is used for local communication with a personal computer. By means
of the SIPROTEC 4 operating software DIGSI, all operational and evaluation tasks can be executed via this
operator interface, such as specifying and modifying configuration parameters and settings, configuring user-
specific logic functions, retrieving operational and fault messages and measured values, readout and display
of fault recordings, querying of device statuses and measured values.

Rear Interfaces

Depending on the individual ordering variant, additional interfaces are located at the rear side of the device.
They serve to establish an extensive communication with other digital operating, control and memory compo-
nents:

The service interface can be operated via electrical data lines and also allows communication via modem. For
this reason, remote operation is possible via personal computer and the DIGSI operating software, e.g. to
operate several devices via a central PC.

The system interface ensures the central communication between the device and the substation controller. It
can be operated via data lines or fibre optic cables. Several standard protocols are available for the data trans-
fer:
• IEC 61850
An EN 100 module allows to integrate the devices into 100 Mbit Ethernet communication networks used by
process control and automation systems and running IEC 61850 protocols. In parallel to the process control
integration of the device, this interface can also be used for communication with DIGSI and for inter-relay
communication via GOOSE.
• IEC 60870-5-103
This profile also integrates the devices into the substation automation systems SINAUT LSA and SICAM.
• Profibus DP
This protocol of automation technology allows transmission of indications and measured values.
• Modbus ASCII/RTU
This protocol of automation technology allows transmission of indications and measured values.
• DNP 3.0
This protocol of automation technology allows transmission of indications and measured values.
• It is also possible to provide an analog output (2 x 20 mA) for output of measured values.

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Introduction
1.3 Characteristics

1.3 Characteristics

General Features

• Powerful 32-bit microprocessor system.

• Complete digital processing of measured values and control, from sampling and digitalization of measured
quantities to tripping circuit breakers or other switchgear devices.

• Total galvanic and disturbance-immune separation between the internal processing stages of the device and
the measuring, control and supply circuits of the system using measurement transducers, binary input and
output modules and and the DC converters.

• Simple device operation using the integrated operator panel or by means of a connected personal computer
running DIGSI.

• Continuous computation and display of operating measurement values.

• Storage of fault messages and instantaneous or rms values for fault recording.

• Continuous monitoring of measured values as well as of the hardware and software of the device.

• Communication with central control and memory storage equipment via serial interfaces, optionally via data
cable, modem, or optic fibre lines.

• Battery-buffered clock that can be synchronized with an IRIG-B (via satellite) or DCF77 signal, binary input
signal, or system interface command.

• Statistics: Recording of the number of trip signals instigated by the device and logging of currents switched
off last by the device, as well as accumulated short-circuit currents of each pole of the circuit breaker.

• Operating Hours Counter: Tracking of operating hours of the equipment under load being protected.

• Commissioning aids such as connection check, field rotation check, status display of all binary inputs and
outputs, and test measurement recording.

Definite-Time Overcurrent Protection (I>) with Under-voltage Seal-In

• 2 instantaneous (definite-time) stages, I> and I>>, for the 3 phase currents (IL1, IL2, IL3) on side 1 or side 2.

• Seal-in of overcurrent pickup I> in case of undervoltage (e.g. for synchronous machines whose excitation
voltage is obtained from the machine terminals);

• Additional directional determination with the I>> high-current stage optionally available;
• Blocking capability e.g. for reverse-interlocking busbar protection with any stage.

Inverse Time Overcurrent Protection (voltage-controlled)

• Selection possible from various characteristics (IEC, ANSI).

• Optionally voltage-controlled or voltage-dependent alteration of current pick-up behaviour during undervolt-


age;

• Voltage influencing can be blocked by fuse failure monitor or via voltage transformer protective circuit break-
er.

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Introduction
1.3 Characteristics

Thermal Overload Protection 49

• Temperature image of current heat losses (overload protection with full memory capability, single body
thermal model).

• Additional adjustable warning levels based on temperature rise and current magnitude.

• Consideration of coolant and ambient temperatures possible.

Negative Sequence Protection 46-1, 46-2, 46-TOC

• Precise evaluation of negative sequence component of the three phase currents.


• Alarm stage when a set unbalanced load is exceeded.

• Thermal characteristic with adjustable negative sequence factor and adjustable cooldown time.

• High-speed trip stage for large unbalanced loads (can be used for short-circuit protection).

Startup Overcurrent Protection

• I> stage for lower speed ranges (e.g. startup of generators with startup converter).

Differential Protection

• Use for generator, motor or transformer differential protection

• Tripping characteristic with restraining current;

• High sensitivity.

• Insensitivity to DC components and current transformer saturation;

• High degree of stability even with different degrees of CT saturation.

• Restraint feature against high inrush currents with 2nd harmonic;

• Restraint feature against transient and steady-state fault currents with 3rd or 5th harmonics;

• High-speed tripping in case of high-current faults;

• Integrated matching of transformer vector group.

• Integrated matching of transformation ratio with consideration of different c.t. rated currents.

Ground Current Differential Protection

• Tripping characteristic with restraining current;

• Variable selection of measured quantities for all normal system conditions.

• High sensitivity.

• Additional stabilisation measures against overfunction with external faults.

Underexcitation Protection

• Conductance measurement from positive sequence components.

• Multi-step characteristic for steady-state and dynamic stability limits.

• Consideration of the excitation voltage.

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Introduction
1.3 Characteristics

Reverse Power Protection

• Calculation of power from positive sequence components.

• Highly sensitive and precise active power measurement (detection of small motoring powers even with low
power factor cos ϕ, angle error compensation).

• Insensitive to power fluctuations.

• Long-time stage and short-time stage (active with closed emergency tripping valve).

Forward Power Supervision


• Calculation of power from positive sequence components.

• Supervision the active power output for undershooting (P>) or overshooting (P<) the output specified with
individually adjustable power limits.

• Optional high-speed or high-accuracy measurement.

Impedance Protection

• Overcurrent pickup with undervoltage seal-in (for synchronous machines which take their excitation voltage
from the terminals).

• 2 impedance zones, 1 overreach zone (switchable via binary input), 4 time stages.

• Polygonal tripping characteristics;


• Power Swing Blocking (to be activated)

Out-of-step Protection

• Based on the well-proven impedance measurement method.

• Measurement enabling by positive sequence current component, and measurement blocking by negative
sequence component.

• Evaluation of the course of the complex impedance vector;

• Optimum matching to power system conditions by selectable slope of the square wave characteristic.

• Reliable distinction between power swing centre being in the power system network and in the generator
unit area.

Undervoltage Protection 27

• Two-stage undervoltage measurement of positive sequence component of voltages.

• Additional stage with settable, voltage-dependent time characteristic.

Overvoltage Protection 59

• Two-stage overvoltage measurement of the highest of the three voltages.

• Optionally with phase-to-phase voltages or phase-to-earth voltages.

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Introduction
1.3 Characteristics

Frequency Protection 81 O/U

• Monitoring on undershooting (f<) and/or overshooting (f>) with 4 frequency limits and delay times that are
independently adjustable.

• Insensitive to harmonics and abrupt phase angle changes.

• Settable undervoltage threshold.

Overexcitation Protection

• Calculation of the U/f ratio


• Adjustable warning and tripping stage.

• Standard characteristic or arbitrary trip characteristic selectable for calculation of the thermal stress.

Frequency Change Protection

• Monitors whether the frequency overshoots (df/dt>) and/or undershoots (df/dt<) a set limit value, with 4 in-
dividually settable limit values or delay times.

• Variable measuring windows


• Coupling to frequency protection pickup.

• Settable undervoltage threshold.

Vector Jump

• Sensitive phase jump detection to be used for network disconnection.

90 % Stator Earth Fault Protection

• Suitable for generators in unit connection and directly connected to busbars.

• Measurement of displacement voltage via the neutral or earthing transformer or by calculation from phase-
to-earth voltages.

• Sensitive earth current detection, optionally with or without directional determination with zero sequence
components (I0, U0).

• Directional characteristic adjustable.

• Determination of the earth-faulted phase.

Sensitive Earth Fault Protection

• Two-stage earth fault current measurement: IEE>> and IEE>.

• High sensitivity (adjustable on the secondary side from 2 mA).

• Can be used for stator earth fault or rotor earth fault detection.

• Measurement circuit monitoring for minimum current flow when used for rotor earth fault protection.

100 % Stator Earth Fault Protection with 3rd Harmonic

• Detection of the 3rd harmonic of the voltage at the starpoint or open delta winding of an earthing transformer.

• Combined with the 90 % stator earth fault protection there is a protection of the entire stator winding (pro-
tective range 100 %).

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Introduction
1.3 Characteristics

100 % Stator Earth Fault Protection with 20 Hz Bias Voltage

• Evaluation of the 20 Hz measurement (7XT33 and 7XT34).

• Warning and trip stage R< and R<<.

• Trip stage with earth current.

• High sensitivity also with large stator earth capacitances.

Earth Current Protection B

• For various applications such as stator current supervision, any kind of earth current supervision and shaft
current protection for detecting faults in bearings .

• Selection of different measurement methods possible (fundamental harmonic, 3rd harmonics and 1st and
3rd harmonics)

• High sensitivity (above 0.5 mA) by selected FIR filter

Interturn Fault Protection

• Detection of interturn faults in generators by measuring the displacement voltage opposite the generator
starpoint

• High sensitivity (above 0.3 V)

• Suppression of disturbances by selected FIR filter

Rotor Earth Fault Protection (R, fn)

• 100 % protection for the entire excitation circuit.

• Symmetrical capacitive coupling of a system-frequency AC voltage into the excitation circuit

• with consideration of operational earth impedances and brush resistances

• Calculation of the fault resistance from the total impedance

• Alarm stage and tripping stage directly adjustable in Ohms (rotor-earth resistance)

• Measuring circuit supervision with alarm output.

Sensitive Rotor Earth Fault Protection with 1 to 3 Hz Square Wave Voltage Injection

• Evaluation of the 1 to 3 Hz square-wave voltage injected into the rotor circuit (7XT71).

• Warning and trip stage R< and R<<.

• High sensitivity (max. 80 KΩ).

• Integrated test function.

Motor Starting Time Supervision

• Inverse-time tripping based on an evaluation of the motor starting current

• Definite time delay with blocked rotor.

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Introduction
1.3 Characteristics

Restart Inhibit for Motors 66

• Approximate computation of rotor overtemperature.

• Startup is permitted only if the rotor has sufficient thermal reserves for a complete startup

• Calculation of waiting time until restarting is enabled.

• Different prolongation of cooldown time constants for standstill/operation period is taken into consideration.

• Disabling the restart inhibit is possible if an emergency startup is required.

Circuit Breaker Failure Protection 50BF

• By checking the current or evaluation of the breaker auxiliary contacts.

• Initiation of each integrated protection function allocated to the circuit breaker.

• Initiation possible through a binary input from an external protective device.

Inadvertent Energizing Protection

• Damage limitation for inadvertent switching-on of a stationary generator by fast opening of the generator
switch.

• Instantaneous value acquisition of the phase currents.

• Operational state and voltage supervision as well as fuse failure monitor are the enable criteria.

DC Voltage / DC Current Protection

• DC voltage acquisition via integrated isolating amplifier.

• Suited for measurement of small DC currents.

• Can be switched for increase or decrease.

• Suitable also for AC voltage measurement (rms values).

Analog Outputs

• Output of up to four analog operational measured values (depending on the variant ordered).

Threshold Supervision

• 10 freely assignable indications for threshold supervision.

• Implementation of fast supervision tasks with CFC.

Temperature Measurement via Thermoboxes

• Acquisition of any ambient temperatures or coolant temperatures using RTD boxes and external tempera-
ture sensors.

IPhase Rotation

• Selectable phase sequence L1, L2, L3 or L1, L3, L2 via setting (static) or binary input (dynamic).

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Introduction
1.3 Characteristics

User-defined Functions

• Internal and external signals can be logically combined to establish user-defined logic functions.

• All common logic functions (AND, OR, NOT, Exclusive OR, etc.).

• Time delays and limit value interrogations.

• Processing of measured values, including zero suppression, adding a knee characteristic for a transducer
input, and live-zero monitoring.

Breaker Control
• Circuit breakers can be opened and closed manually via programmable function keys, via the system inter-
face (e.g. by SICAM or LSA), or via the operating interface (using a PC with DIGSI).

• Feedback information on circuit breakers states via the breaker auxiliary contacts.

• Plausibility monitoring of the circuit breaker position and monitoring of interlocking conditions for switching
operations.

Measuring Transducer

• If the 3 measuring transducers present in the unit are not needed by the protection functions, they can be
used to connect any type of analog signals (± 10 V, ± 20 mA).

• Threshold processing and logical linking of measurement signals possible.

Measurement Monitoring

• Increased reliability thanks to monitoring of internal measuring circuits, auxiliary power supply, hardware and
software.

• Current transformer and voltage transformer secondary circuits are monitored using symmetry checks.

• Trip circuit monitoring possible via external circuitry.

• Phase sequence check.

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1.3 Characteristics

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Functions 2
This chapter describes the individual functions of the SIPROTEC 4 device 7UM62. It shows the setting possi-
bilities for each function in maximum configuration. Guidelines for establishing setting values and, where re-
quired, formulae are given.

Based on the following information, it can also be determined which of the provided functions should be used.

2.1 Introduction, Reference Power System 37

2.2 Device 39

2.3 Ethernet EN100 Modul 42

2.4 Functional Scope 43

2.5 Power System Data 1 53

2.6 Change Group 62

2.7 Power System Data 2 63

2.8 Definite-Time Overcurrent Protection (I>, ANSI 50/51) with Undervoltage Seal-In 65

2.9 Definite-Time Overcurrent Protection (I>>, ANSI 50, 51, 67) with Direction Detection 69

2.10 Inverse-Time Overcurrent Protection (ANSI 51V) 75

2.11 Thermal Overload Protection (ANSI 49) 81

2.12 Unbalanced Load (Negative Sequence) Protection (ANSI 46) 91

2.13 Startup Overcurrent Protection (ANSI 51) 98

2.14 Differential Protection and Its Protected Objects 102

2.15 Earth Current Differential Protection (ANSI 87GN,TN) 128

2.16 Underexcitation (Loss-of-Field) Protection (ANSI 40) 136

2.17 Reverse Power Protection (ANSI 32R) 145

2.18 Forward Active Power Supervision (ANSI 32F) 149

2.19 Impedance Protection (ANSI 21) 152

2.20 Out-of-Step Protection (ANSI 78) 165

2.21 Undervoltage Protection (ANSI 27) 175

2.22 Overvoltage Protection (ANSI 59) 178

2.23 Frequency Protection (ANSI 81) 181

2.24 Overexcitation (Volt/Hertz) Protection (ANSI 24) 185

2.25 Inverse-Time Undervoltage Protection (ANSI 27) 190

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Functions
2

2.26 Rate-of-Frequency-Change Protection df/dt (ANSI 81R) 193

2.27 Jump of Voltage Vector 199

2.28 90-%-Stator Earth Fault Protection (ANSI 59N, 64G, 67G) 203

2.29 Sensitive Earth Fault Protection (ANSI 51GN, 64R) 211

2.30 100-%-Stator Earth Fault Protection with 3rd Harmonics (ANSI 27/59TN 3rd Harm.) 215

2.31 100-%-Stator Earth Fault Protection with 20 Hz Voltage Injection (ANSI 64G - 100%) 223

2.32 Sensitive Earth Fault Protection B (ANSI 51GN) 231

2.33 Interturn Protection (ANSI 59N (IT)) 236

2.34 Rotor Earth Fault Protection R, fn (ANSI 64R) 240

2.35 Sensitive Rotor Earth Fault Protection with 1 to 3 Hz Square Wave Voltage Injection
(ANSI 64R - 1 to 3 Hz) 245

2.36 Motor Starting Time Supervision (ANSI 48) 251

2.37 Restart Inhibit for Motors (ANSI 66, 49Rotor) 255

2.38 Breaker Failure Protection (ANSI 50BF) 263

2.39 Inadvertent Energization (ANSI 50, 27) 268

2.40 DC Voltage/Current Protection (ANSI 59NDC/51NDC) 271

2.41 Analog Outputs 275

2.42 Monitoring Functions 282

2.43 Trip Circuit Supervision 295

2.44 Threshold supervision 302

2.45 External Trip Functions 313

2.46 Temperature Detection by Thermoboxes 316

2.47 Phase Rotation 325

2.48 Protection Function Control 327

2.49 Auxiliary Functions 329

2.50 Command Processing 349

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2.1 Introduction, Reference Power System

2.1 Introduction, Reference Power System

The following section will explain the individual protection and additional functions and provide information
about the setting values.

2.1.1 Functional Description

Generator

The calculation examples are based on two reference power systems with the two typical basic configurations
busbar connection and unit connection. All default settings of the device are adapted accordingly. The fol-
lowing illustration shows how the measured quantities are assigned to side one or side two.

Figure 2-1 Reference Systems

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2.1 Introduction, Reference Power System

Technical Data of the Reference Power Systems

Generator SN, G = 5.27 MVA


UN, G = 6.3 kV
IN, G = 483 A
cos ϕ = 0.8
Current transformer: IN,prim = 500 A; IN, sec = 1 A
Toroidal c.t.: IN,prim = 60 A; IN, sec = 1 A
Voltage transformer: UN, prim = (6.3/√3) kV UN, sec = (100/√3) V
Uen/3 = (100/3) V

Transformer

Transformer: SN, T = 5.3 MVA


Uprim = 20 kV
U = 6.3 kV
uSC = 7 %
Zero point transformer:
ü=

Resistor divider: 5:1

Motor

Motor UN, M = 6600 V


IN, M= 126 A
ISTART = 624 A (Starting current)
Imax = 135 A (Permissible continuous stator current)
TSTART = 8.5 s (Starting time time at ISTART)
Current transformer: IN,prim = 200 A; IN, sec = 1 A

Further technical data is provided within the framework of the functional setting specifications of the individual
protective functions.

The calculated setting values are secondary setting values related to the device and can be modified immedi-
ately by way of local operation.

The use of the DIGSI operating program is recommended for a complete reparameterization. In this way, the
user can specify primary values in addition to secondary settings. Within the framework of the 7UM62 the spec-
ification of primary values is performed as a setting related to the nominal quantities of the object to be protect-
ed (IN, G; UN, G; SN, G). This procedure has the advantage that system-independent, typical settings of the pro-
tective functions can be pre-specified. The data of the individual power system are updated in the Power
System Data 1 or Power System Data 2 and the conversion to secondary values is executed via a mouse
click. All necessary conversion formulas of the individual functions are stored in the operating program.

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2.2 Device

2.2 Device

The device can issue a serie of general annunciations about itself and the substation. These annunciations are
listed in the following information list. Most annunciations are self-explanatory. The special cases are described
below:

Reset: Device is reset on each Power ON.

Initial Start: Initial start occurs after initialization of the device by DIGSI.

Restart: Restart occurs after loading a parameter set or after reset.

The indication of messages masked to LEDs, and the maintenance of spontaneous messages, can be made
dependent on whether the device has issued a trip command. In this situation, messages are not reported, if
one or more protective functions have picked up on a fault, but a trip signal has not been issued yet by the
7UM62, because the fault was cleared by another device (for example, outside the own protection range).
These messages are then limited to faults in the line to be protected.

2.2.1 Setting Notes

Spontaneous Fault Display

After a fault has occurred, the device display spontaneously shows the most important fault data. In address
610 FltDisp.LED/LCD you can select whether the spontaneous fault display is updated for each fault
(Target on PU) or only for faults that included a trip (Target on TRIP).

For devices with graphical display use parameter 611 Spont. FltDisp. to specify whether a spontaneous
fault display will be shown automatically (YES) or not (NO). For devices featuring a text display such displays
will always appear a power system fault.

Figure 2-2 Generation of spontaneous fault indications on the display

Resetting stored LEDs / relays

A new pickup will generally erase any stored LEDs/relays so that only the latest fault information is displayed
at any time. A time can be set in address 615 T MIN LED HOLD during which the stored LEDs and relays will
not be deleted. Any information occurring during that period of time will be linked via OR.

The option Target on TRIP in address 610 FltDisp.LED/LCD allows you to delete the information of the
most recent fault stored on LEDs and relays provided that this fault has not resulted in a trip command of the
device.

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2.2 Device

Note

Setting address 610 FltDisp.LED/LCD to (Target on TRIP) is only reasonable if address 615 T MIN
LED HOLD is set to 0.

Figure 2-3 Creation of the resetting command for stored LEDs / relays

Default display of a 4-line display

After startup of the device featuring a 4-line display, measured values are displayed by default. The arrow keys
on the device front allow different displays of the measured values to be selected for the so-called default dis-
play. The start image of the default display, which is displayed by default after startup of the device, can be
selected via parameter 640 Start image DD. The available representation types for the measured value are
listed in the Appendix.

2.2.2 Settings

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


610 FltDisp.LED/LCD Target on PU Target on PU Fault Display on LED / LCD
Target on TRIP
611 Spont. FltDisp. YES NO Spontaneous display of flt.annun-
NO ciations
615 T MIN LED HOLD 0 .. 60 min 5 min Minimum hold time of lachted
LEDs
640 Start image DD image 1 image 1 Start image Default Display
image 2
image 3
image 4

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2.2 Device

2.2.3 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
- Reset LED IntSP Reset LED
- Test mode IntSP Test mode
- DataStop IntSP Stop data transmission
- UnlockDT IntSP Unlock data transmission via BI
- >Light on SP >Back Light on
- SynchClock IntSP_Ev Clock Synchronization
- HWTestMod IntSP Hardware Test Mode
- Distur.CFC OUT Disturbance CFC
1 Not configured SP No Function configured
2 Non Existent SP Function Not Available
3 >Time Synch SP_Ev >Synchronize Internal Real Time Clock
5 >Reset LED SP >Reset LED
15 >Test mode SP >Test mode
16 >DataStop SP >Stop data transmission
51 Device OK OUT Device is Operational and Protecting
52 ProtActive IntSP At Least 1 Protection Funct. is Active
55 Reset Device OUT Reset Device
56 Initial Start OUT Initial Start of Device
67 Resume OUT Resume
69 DayLightSavTime OUT Daylight Saving Time
70 Settings Calc. OUT Setting calculation is running
71 Settings Check OUT Settings Check
72 Level-2 change OUT Level-2 change
73 Local change OUT Local setting change
125 Chatter ON OUT Chatter ON
301 Pow.Sys.Flt. OUT Power System fault
302 Fault Event OUT Fault Event
320 Warn Mem. Data OUT Warn: Limit of Memory Data exceeded
321 Warn Mem. Para. OUT Warn: Limit of Memory Parameter exceeded
322 Warn Mem. Oper. OUT Warn: Limit of Memory Operation exceeded
323 Warn Mem. New OUT Warn: Limit of Memory New exceeded
545 PU Time VI Time from Pickup to drop out
546 TRIP Time VI Time from Pickup to TRIP

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2.3 Ethernet EN100 Modul

2.3 Ethernet EN100 Modul

2.3.1 Functional Description

An Ethernet EN100 Modul allows to integrate the 7UM62 into 100 Mbit Ethernet communication networks
used by process control and automation systems and running IEC 61850 protocols. This standard provides
consistent inter-relay communication without gateways or protocol converters. This allows open and interoper-
able use of SIPROTEC 4 devices even in heterogeneous environments. In parallel to the process control inte-
gration of the device, this interface can also be used for communication with DIGSI and for inter-relay commu-
nication via GOOSE.

2.3.2 Setting Notes

Interface Selection

No settings are required for operation of the Ethernet system interface module (IEC 61850 Ethernet EN100
Modul). If the device is equipped with such a module (see MLFB), the module is automatically configured to
the interface available for it, namely Port B.

2.3.3 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
009.0100 Failure Modul IntSP Failure EN100 Modul
009.0101 Fail Ch1 IntSP Failure EN100 Link Channel 1 (Ch1)
009.0102 Fail Ch2 IntSP Failure EN100 Link Channel 2 (Ch2)

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2.4 Functional Scope

2.4 Functional Scope

The 7UM62 device incorporates numerous protection and supplementary functions. The hardware and firm-
ware provided is designed for this scope of functions. Nevertheless a few restrictions apply to the use of the
earth fault current and earth fault voltage inputs IEE and UE respectively. The same input cannot be simulta-
neously fed with different measured values, e.g. for rotor earth fault protection and stator earth fault protection.
Chapter 2.4.2 gives on overview of the particular inputs accessed by the various protection functions.

In addition the command functions can be matched to the system conditions. Also individual functions can be
enabled or disabled during configuration. Functions not needed can be thus be deactivated.

The available protection and supplementary functions can be configured as Enabled or Disabled. For some
functions a choice between several alternatives is possible, as described below.

Functions that are configured as Disabled are not processed by the 7UM62: There are no indications, and
corresponding settings (functions, limit values) are not displayed during setting.

2.4.1 Functional Description

Configuration of the Functional Scope

Configuration settings can be entered using a PC and the software program DIGSI and transferred via the front
operator interface or the rear service interface. The procedure is described in detail in the SIPROTEC 4 System
Description /1/.

Entry of password No. 7 (for parameter set) is required to modify configuration settings. Without the password,
the settings may be read, but may not be modified and transmitted to the device.

The functional scope with the available alternatives is set in the Device Configuration dialog box to match
equipment requirements.

Note

Available functions and default settings depend on the device variant ordered (see Appendix A.1 for details).
Also, not all combinations of protective functions are possible because of certain restrictions imposed by the
hardware (see Section 2.4.2).

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2.4 Functional Scope

2.4.2 Setting Notes

Peculiarities

Most settings are self-explanatory. The special cases are described below.

If the setting group change function has to be used, address 103 Grp Chge OPTION must be set to enabled.
In this case, it is possible to apply two groups of settings for function parameters (refer also to Section 2.6) al-
lowing convenient and fast switch-over between these setting groups. The setting Disabled implies that only
one function parameter setting group can be applied and used.

Parameter 104 FAULT VALUE is used to specify whether the oscillographic fault recording should record
Instant. values or RMS values. If RMS values is stored, the available recording time increases by the
factor 16.

For some protection functions you can also choose the measuring inputs of the device to which they will be
allocated (side 1 or side 2); for other functions the allocation is fixed (see table 2-1).

For example, address 112 O/C PROT. I> allows such a choice for the I> stage of the time-overcurrent pro-
tection (= Side 1, Side 2 or Disabled).

For the high-current stage I>> of the overcurrent protection, address 113 O/C PROT. I>> determines whether
stage NonDirec. SIDE1 or NonDirec.SIDE 2 or Direc. SIDE1 or Direc. SIDE2 is to be operative.
By selecting Disabled, this overcurrent stage can be excluded altogether. For the inverse time overcurrent
protection 114 O/C PROT. Ip, different sets of dependent characteristics are available, depending on the
version ordered; they are either according to IEC or according to ANSI. This function, too, can be allocated to
either side 1 or side 2 (= IEC SIDE 1, ANSI SIDE 1, IEC SIDE 2, ANSI SIDE 2). Inverse time overcurrent
protection can be excluded altogether by selecting Disabled.

The following table shows the allocation of device inputs to the protection functions. The interdependencies
shown here must be kept in mind when configuring the power system. This concerns the UE input, the two sen-
sitive current inputs Iee1 and Iee2 as well as the 3 measuring transducer inputs (TD). Where the UE input is used
e.g. by the stator earth fault protection functions, it is no longer available for rotor earth fault protection (R, fn).
The same interdependencies apply for measured value transformer inputs. They can be used only by one pro-
tection function in each case. Where the TDs are not used by any protection function, they are available for
general processing by the measured value blocks in CFC.

Table 2-1 Allocation of Device Inputs to Protection Functions

Protection function Side 1 Side 2


UL1; UL2; UL3 IL1S1; IL2S1; Iee1 UE IL1S2; IL2S2; Iee2 TD
IL3S1 IL3S2
Definite-time I>; I>> /non-directional Fixed Selectable – – Selectable – –
Definite-time I>>/directional Fixed Selectable – – Selectable – –
Inverse-time overcurrent protection Fixed Selectable – – Selectable – –
Thermal Overload Protection – – – – Fixed – TD2
Unbalanced load protection – – – – Fixed – –
Startup Overcurrent Protection – Selectable – – Selectable – –
Differential Protection (ANSI – Fixed – – Fixed – –
87G/87M/87T)
Earth Fault Differential Protection U0 (calculat- Selectable – – Selectable Fixed –
ed)
Underexcitation (Loss-of-Field) Protec- Fixed – – – Fixed – TD3
tion (ANSI 40)
Reverse Power Protection (ANSI 32R) Fixed – – – Fixed – –
Forward power supervision Fixed – – – Fixed – –
Impedance protection Fixed – – – Fixed – –

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2.4 Functional Scope

Protection function Side 1 Side 2


UL1; UL2; UL3 IL1S1; IL2S1; Iee1 UE IL1S2; IL2S2; Iee2 TD
IL3S1 IL3S2
Out-of-Step Protection (ANSI 78) Fixed – – – Fixed – –
Undervoltage Protection Fixed – – – – – –
Overvoltage Protection Fixed – – – – – –
Frequency Protection Fixed – – – Fixed – –
Overexcitation protection U/f Fixed – – – – – –
Inverse undervoltage protection Fixed – – – – – –
Rate-of-frequency-change protection Fixed – – – – – –
Jump of Voltage Vector Fixed – – – – – –
90 % Stator Earth Fault Protection U0 calculated – – Se- – Fixed –
if REFP is lect-
used able
Sensitive Earth Fault Protection (ANSI – – – – – Select- –
51GN, 64R) able
100 % Stator Earth Fault Protection with Fixed – – Fixed Fixed – –
3rd Harmonics
100 % Stator Earth Fault Protection with – – Fixed Fixed – – –
20 Hz Bias Voltage
Earth current protection B – – Select- – – Select- –
(IEE-B) able able
Interturn Fault Protection – – – Fixed – – –
Rotor Earth Fault Protection REFP – – Fixed Fixed – – –
Sensitive Rotor Earth Fault Protection – – – – – – TD1
with 1 to 3 Hz Square Wave Voltage In- TD2
jection
Motor starting time supervision – – – – Fixed – –
Restart inibit for motors – – – – Fixed – –
Breaker Failure Protection – Selectable – – Selectable – –
Inadvertent Energization (ANSI 50, 27) Fixed – – – Fixed – –
DC voltage protection – – – – – – TD1
Fuse Failure Monitor Fixed – – – Fixed – –
Trip Circuit Monitor (ANSI 74TC) – – – – – – –
Threshold Supervision Fixed – – – Fixed – –
External Trip Coupling – – – – – – –

For the differential protection, address 120 DIFF. PROT. allows to specify the type of protected object
(Generator/Motor or 3 phase transf.); the function can be excluded altogether by setting Disabled.

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2.4 Functional Scope

Figure 2-4 Use as Generator Differential Protection

Figure 2-5 Use as Block Differential Protection (Overall Protection)

For the following application, the settings of the generator data under P.System Data 1 must be same as
for the transformer data of side 2:

Figure 2-6 Use as Transformer Differential Protection

For the following application, the differential protection of device A must be set to Generator/Motor, in the
device B to 3 phase transf.. Also, the settings of the generator data under P.System Data 1 must be
same as for the transformer data of side 2:

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2.4 Functional Scope

Figure 2-7 Use as Redundant Overall Protection

For earth fault protection, Address 150 S/E/F PROT. presents the options non-dir. U0, non-dir. U0&I0
and directional, unless the whole function is Disabled. The first option evaluates only the displacement
voltage (to be used with unit connection). The second option evaluates, in addition to the displacement voltage,
the magnitude of the earth fault current (or the difference between the starpoint current and the total current of
a toroidal CT in busbar systems with low-ohmic switchable starpoint resistors). The third option considers as a
further criterion the direction of the earth fault current if with machines in busbar connection the magnitudes of
displacement voltage and earth fault current alone are not sufficient to distinguish between system earth faults
and machine earth faults.

Address 151 O/C PROT. IEE> is used to specify which input will be used for earth fault current measurement
(with IEE1 or with IEE2).

Address 170 BREAKER FAILURE specifies whether the circuit breaker failure protection will apply for Side 1
or Side 2.

If the 7UM62 is equipped with analog outputs and you want to use them, the addresses 173, 174, 175 and
176 allow to allocate the available measured values to the analog outputs. All parameters of the analog outputs
are accessed under the block address 7301 to 7308.

For trip circuit monitoring, address 182 Trip Cir. Sup. is used to specify whether two binary inputs (2
Binary Inputs) or only one (1 Binary Input) should be utilized, or whether the function is configured as
Disabled.

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2.4 Functional Scope

2.4.3 Settings

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


103 Grp Chge OPTION Disabled Disabled Setting Group Change Option
Enabled
104 FAULT VALUE Disabled Instant. values Fault values
Instant. values
RMS values
112 O/C PROT. I> Disabled Side 2 Overcurrent Protection I>
Side 1
Side 2
113 O/C PROT. I>> Disabled NonDirec.SIDE 2 Overcurrent Protection I>>
NonDirec. SIDE1
NonDirec.SIDE 2
Direc. SIDE1
Direc. SIDE2
114 O/C PROT. Ip Disabled Disabled Inverse O/C Time Protection
IEC SIDE 1
ANSI SIDE 1
IEC SIDE 2
ANSI SIDE 2
116 Therm.Overload Disabled Enabled Thermal Overload Protection
Enabled
117 UNBALANCE LOAD Disabled Enabled Unbalance Load (Negative Se-
Enabled quence)
118 O/C STARTUP Disabled Disabled Startup O/C protection
Side 1
Side 2
120 DIFF. PROT. Disabled Generator/Motor Differential Protection
Generator/Motor
3 phase transf.
121 REF PROT. Disabled Disabled Restricted earth fault protection
Gen. with IEE2
Gen. w. 3I0-S2
Transformer S1
Transformer S2
130 UNDEREXCIT. Disabled Enabled Underexcitation Protection
Enabled
131 REVERSE POWER Disabled Enabled Reverse Power Protection
Enabled
132 FORWARD POWER Disabled Enabled Forward Power Supervision
Enabled
133 IMPEDANCE PROT. Disabled Enabled Impedance Protection
Enabled
135 OUT-OF-STEP Disabled Enabled Out-of-Step Protection
Enabled
140 UNDERVOLTAGE Disabled Enabled Undervoltage Protection
Enabled
141 OVERVOLTAGE Disabled Enabled Overvoltage Protection
Enabled
142 FREQUENCY Prot. Disabled Enabled Over / Underfrequency Protection
Enabled
143 OVEREXC. PROT. Disabled Enabled Overexcitation Protection (U/f)
Enabled

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2.4 Functional Scope

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


144 INV.UNDERVOLT. Disabled Enabled Inverse Undervoltage Protection
Enabled Up<
145 df/dt Protect. Disabled 2 df/dt stages Rate-of-frequency-change protec-
2 df/dt stages tion
4 df/dt stages
146 VECTOR JUMP Disabled Enabled Jump of Voltage Vector
Enabled
150 S/E/F PROT. Disabled non-dir. U0&I0 Stator Earth Fault Protection
non-dir. U0
non-dir. U0&I0
directional
151 O/C PROT. IEE> Disabled with IEE2 Sensitive Earth Current Protection
with IEE1
with IEE2
152 SEF 3rd HARM. Disabled Enabled Stator Earth Fault Prot. 3rd Har-
Enabled monic
153 100% SEF-PROT. Disabled Enabled 100% Stator-Earth-Fault Protec-
Enabled tion
154 O/C PROT IEE-B Disabled with IEE2 Sensitive Earth Current Protection
with IEE1 B
with IEE2
155 INTERTURN PROT Disabled Enabled Interturn Protection
Enabled
160 ROTOR E/F Disabled Enabled Rotor Earth Fault Protection (R,
Enabled fn)
161 REF 1-3Hz Disabled Enabled Rotor Earth Fault Protection (1-
Enabled 3Hz)
165 STARTUP MOTOR Disabled Enabled Motor Starting Time Supervision
Enabled
166 RESTART INHIBIT Disabled Enabled Restart Inhibit for Motors
Enabled
170 BREAKER FAILURE Disabled Side 2 Breaker Failure Protection
Side 1
Side 2
171 INADVERT. EN. Disabled Enabled Inadvertent Energisation
Enabled
172 DC PROTECTION Disabled Enabled DC Voltage/Current Protection
Enabled

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2.4 Functional Scope

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


173 ANALOGOUTP B1/1 Disabled Disabled Analog Output B1/1 (Port B)
I1 [%]
I2 [%]
IEE1 [%]
IEE2 [%]
U1 [%]
U0 [%]
U03H [%]
|P| [%]
|Q| [%]
|S| [%]
f [%]
U/f [%]
PHI [%]
|PF| [%]
ΘR/ΘRmax [%]
Θ/Θtrip [%]
RE REF [%]
RE REF 1-3Hz[%]
RE SEF100 [%]
174 ANALOGOUTP B2/1 Disabled Disabled Analog Output B2/1 (Port B)
I1 [%]
I2 [%]
IEE1 [%]
IEE2 [%]
U1 [%]
U0 [%]
U03H [%]
|P| [%]
|Q| [%]
|S| [%]
f [%]
U/f [%]
PHI [%]
|PF| [%]
ΘR/ΘRmax [%]
Θ/Θtrip [%]
RE REF [%]
RE REF 1-3Hz[%]
RE SEF100 [%]

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2.4 Functional Scope

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


175 ANALOGOUTP D1/1 Disabled Disabled Analog Output D1/1 (Port D)
I1 [%]
I2 [%]
IEE1 [%]
IEE2 [%]
U1 [%]
U0 [%]
U03H [%]
|P| [%]
|Q| [%]
|S| [%]
f [%]
U/f [%]
PHI [%]
|PF| [%]
ΘR/ΘRmax [%]
Θ/Θtrip [%]
RE REF [%]
RE REF 1-3Hz[%]
RE SEF100 [%]
176 ANALOGOUTP D2/1 Disabled Disabled Analog Output D2/1 (Port D)
I1 [%]
I2 [%]
IEE1 [%]
IEE2 [%]
U1 [%]
U0 [%]
U03H [%]
|P| [%]
|Q| [%]
|S| [%]
f [%]
U/f [%]
PHI [%]
|PF| [%]
ΘR/ΘRmax [%]
Θ/Θtrip [%]
RE REF [%]
RE REF 1-3Hz[%]
RE SEF100 [%]
180 FUSE FAIL MON. Disabled Enabled Fuse Failure Monitor
Enabled
181 M.V. SUPERV Disabled Enabled Measured Values Supervision
Enabled
182 Trip Cir. Sup. Disabled Disabled Trip Circuit Supervision
2 Binary Inputs
1 Binary Input
185 THRESHOLD Disabled Enabled Threshold Supervision
Enabled
186 EXT. TRIP 1 Disabled Enabled External Trip Function 1
Enabled
187 EXT. TRIP 2 Disabled Enabled External Trip Function 2
Enabled
188 EXT. TRIP 3 Disabled Enabled External Trip Function 3
Enabled
189 EXT. TRIP 4 Disabled Enabled External Trip Function 4
Enabled

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2.4 Functional Scope

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


190 RTD-BOX INPUT Disabled Disabled External Temperature Input
Port C
Port D
191 RTD CONNECTION 6 RTD simplex 6 RTD simplex Ext. Temperature Input Connec-
6 RTD HDX tion Type
12 RTD HDX
200 ANALOGOUTP B1/2 Disabled Disabled Analog Output B1/2 (Port B)
P [%]
Q [%]
S [%]
f [%]
PF [%]
PHI [%]
U1 [%]
I2 [%]
I1 [%]
201 ANALOGOUTP B2/2 Disabled Disabled Analog Output B2/2 (Port B)
P [%]
Q [%]
S [%]
f [%]
PF [%]
PHI [%]
U1 [%]
I2 [%]
I1 [%]
202 ANALOGOUTP D1/2 Disabled Disabled Analog Output D1/2 (Port D)
P [%]
Q [%]
S [%]
f [%]
PF [%]
PHI [%]
U1 [%]
I2 [%]
I1 [%]
203 ANALOGOUTP D2/2 Disabled Disabled Analog Output D2/2 (Port D)
P [%]
Q [%]
S [%]
f [%]
PF [%]
PHI [%]
U1 [%]
I2 [%]
I1 [%]

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2.5 Power System Data 1

2.5 Power System Data 1

The device requires some plant and power system data to adapt its functions to the actual application. These
include, for instance, rated power system and transformer data, measured quantity polarities and connection,
breaker properties etc. There are also certain parameters common to all functions, i.e. not associated with a
specific protection, control or monitoring function. Section P.System Data 1 describes these data.

2.5.1 Setting Notes

General

The Power System Data 1 can be changed from the operator or service interface with a personal computer
using DIGSI.

In DIGSI double-click on Settings to display the relevant selection.

Connection of the Current Transformer Sets

Under address 201 STRPNT->OBJ S1 the polarity of the current transformers of side 1 of the system needs
to be specified, i.e. according to the position of the wye-connected current transformer with reference to the
object to be protected. Address 210 STRPNT->OBJ S2 describes the polarity of the current transformers of
side 2. This setting determines the measuring direction of the device (STRPNT->OBJ S2 = YES = forward =
line direction). The following figure shows the definition even in cases where there are no starpoint CTs.

Figure 2-8 Location of starpoints for CTs of S1 and S2 - addresses 201 and 210 -

If the device is applied as transverse differential protection for generators or motors, special considerations
must be observed for the CT connections: In a healthy operational state all currents flow into the protected
object, i.e. in contrast to the other applications. Therefore you have to set a „wrong“ polarity for one of the
current transformer sets. The part windings of the machine windings correspond to the „sides“.

The following figure shows an example. Although the starpoints of both CT sets are turned towards the protect-
ed object, „side 2“ is set to the opposite: STRPNT->OBJ S2 = NO.

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Figure 2-9 Current transformer starpoints in transverse differential protection - Example

Nominal Values of the Transformers on Side 1

At addresses 202 IN-PRI I-SIDE1 and 203 IN-SEC I-SIDE1 information is entered regarding the primary
and secondary nominal currents of the CTs of side 1. It is important to ensure that the rated secondary current
of the current transformer matches the rated current of the device, otherwise the device will calculate incorrectly
primary data.

Nominal Values of the Transformers on Side 2

At addresses 211 IN-PRI I-SIDE2 and 212 IN-SEC I-SIDE2 information is entered regarding the primary
and secondary nominal currents of the CTs of side 2. It is important to ensure that the rated secondary current
of the current transformer matches the rated current of the device, otherwise the device will calculate incorrectly
primarydata.

W0 Correction Angle

A correction of the angle faults of the current and voltage transformers is particularly important with regard to
reverse power protection, as in this case a very low active power is computed from a very high apparent power
(for small cos ϕ).

At address 204 CT ANGLE W0 a constant correction angle can be entered for the CTs of side 2.

The angle fault difference Δϕ between the current and voltage transformers is particularly important in this con-
text. As a correction, the sum of the mean angle errors of the current and voltage transformers is set. The cor-
rection value can be determined during machine commissioning (see Section Installation and Commissioning).

Transformation Ratios IEE

For the conversion of the ground currents Iee in primary quantities, the device requires the primary/secondary
transformation ratio of the earth CTs. The transformation ratio for input 1 is set at the address 205 FACTOR
IEE1, the ratio for input 2 at 213 FACTOR IEE2 .

Nominal Values of Voltage Transformers

At addresses 221 Unom PRIMARY and 222 Unom SECONDARY, information is entered regarding the primary
nominal voltage and secondary nominal voltages (phase-to-phase) of the connected voltage transformers.

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2.5 Power System Data 1

UE Connection

At address 223 UE CONNECTION, the user specifies to the device which type of voltage is connected to the
UE input. The device establishes from this information the type of processing involved. The UE input is used for
either the various stator earth fault protection functions or for rotor earth fault protection using the rated frequen-
cy measurement method (see Section 2.34). The following table shows the interdependencies for each protec-
tion function.

Table 2-2 Setting Options for the UE Input and their Impact on the Protection Functions
Setting of 90% Stator Earth Stator Earth Fault 100% Stator Earth Rotor Earth Fault Interturn Fault
Fault Protection Protection with Fault Protection Protection (R, fn) Protection
Unom
3rd Harmonics with Bias Voltage
SECONDARY
(20 Hz)
(Addr. 223) (Section 2.28) (Section 2.30) (Section 2.31) (Section 2.34) (Section 2.33)
Not connected Computed U0 mea- Determination of
sured value is being 3rd harmonics
processed from calculated U0
– – –
(precisely: √3 U0) voltage
(only U0 3rd harm
> stage usable).
Load. resistor Computed U0 mea- UE input is being
sured value is being processed
– – –
processed
(precisely: √3 U0)
any VT UE input is being
processed
(e.g. earth fault pro- – – – –
tection on trans-
former side)
broken delta Processing of UE Processing of UE UE input is being
– –
input input processed
Rotor Computed U0 mea- Processing of UE
sured value is being input
– – –
processed
(precisely: √3 U0)
neutr. transf. Processing of UE Processing of UE UE input is being
– –
input input processed
Uen-winding Computed U0 mea- Determination of Processing of UE
sured value is being 3rd harmonics input
processed from calculated U0
– –
(precisely: √3U0) voltage
(only U0 3rd harm
> stage usable).

Transformation Ratio UE

For the conversion of the displacement voltage UE in primary quantities, the device requires the primary/sec-
ondary transformation ratio of the transformer delivering the UE voltage. With the exception of the rotor earth
fault protection, the 224 FACTOR UE has an impact on those protection functions which process the UE input
directly, in accordance with Table 2-2. For this ratio 224 FACTOR UE the following generally applies:

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In this context, UVT, prim is the primary voltage (generally phase-ground voltage) and UE, sec is the secondary
displacement voltage applied to the device. If a voltage divider is used, its division ratio also influences this
factor. The following equation results for the example in Section 2.1 Figure 2-1 „Unit connection“, with the power
system data selected there and an 1:5 voltage divider ratio

Adjustment Factor Uph/Udelta

The address 225 serves to communicate the adaptation factor between the phase voltage and the displace-
ment voltage to the device. This information is relevant for measured quantity monitoring.

If the voltage transformer set has open delta windings and if these windings are connected to the device (UE
input), this must be specified accordingly in address 223 (see above). Since the transformation between
voltage transformers usually is as follows:

the factor Uph/Udelta (secondary voltage, address 225 Uph / Udelta) in relation to 3/√3 = √3 = 1.73 must
be used if the Udelta voltage is connected. For other transformation ratios, i.e. the formation of the displace-
ment voltage via an interconnected transformer set, the factor must be corrected accordingly.

Protected Object: Transformer

If a transformer was specified as the protected object during differential protection configuration, the parameter
241 UN-PRI SIDE 1 appears in the Power System Data 1. It specifies the nominal primary voltage of side 1
of the protected object (transformer).

At address 242 STARPNT SIDE 1 you specify how the starpoint (Solid Earthed; Isolated) of side 1 is
treated. This setting has an influence on the measured value monitoring (summation current monitoring); in
transformer differential protection it is also important for vector group correction and the treatment of the zero
sequence current.

The setting Isolated can be chosen if the starpoint has no earthing. If the transformer starpoint is connected
to a Petersen coil or a surge voltage arrester, choose the setting Solid Earthed. The same applies to low-
ohmic or solid starpoint earthing.

The parameters 243 UN-PRI SIDE 2 and 244 STARPNT SIDE 2 determine respectively the rated primary
voltage and the starpoint of side 2 of the transformer.

Parameter 246 VECTOR GRP S2 is used to specify the vector group numeral referred to side 1 of the trans-
former. It is not necessary to specify whether the connection is delta, wye or zigzag.

At address 249 SN TRANSFORMER the rated apparent power is entered. From this the rated currents for sides
1 and 2 are calculated as follows:

These nominal currents are only considered for differential protection and can differ from the generator nominal
ratings.

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2.5 Power System Data 1

For the overcurrent protection functions (Sections 2.8, 2.9, and 2.10) and for the breaker failure protection,
sides 1 and 2 can be allocated freely. If the differential protection is set to 120 3 phase transf., the following
normalizing factors apply for the primary side protection settings in DIGSI.

Setting parameters:

SN, Transf 249 SN TRANSFORMER

UN, S1 241 UN-PRI SIDE 1

SN, Generator 252 SN GEN/MOTOR

UN, Generator 251 UN GEN/MOTOR

These normalizing factors apply for transformer protection and overall protection (see Section2.4.2, Figure 2-
5 „Block Differential Protection“ and Figure 2-6 „Transformer Differential Protection“).

Protected Object: Generator/Motor


Regardless of the configuration and intended use of the differential protection, the generator/motor ratings must
be specified. Parameter 251 UN GEN/MOTOR specifies the primary rated voltage of the protected generator or
motor. At parameter 252 SN GEN/MOTOR the rated apparent power is entered. From these values the nominal
generator/motor current for plant side 2 is calculated:

Setting parameters:

SN, Generator 252 SN GEN/MOTOR

UN, Generator 251 UN GEN/MOTOR

The above formula is also used by the DIGSI program to establish the normalizing factors for the primary side
protection settings of the overcurrent protection functions (Sections 2.8, 2.9, and 2.10) and of the breaker
failure protection, where the sides 1 and 2 can be freely allocated. Normalization is active if the differential pro-
tection in the scope of functions is set to 120 Disabled or Generator/Motor. It applies for both side 1 and
side 2.

At addresses 242 STARPNT SIDE 1 and 244 STARPNT SIDE 2 you specify the starpoints. For generator
protection applications, set Isolated. This is even valid if a loading resistor is connected to the generator star-
point. An exception from this are low-voltage machines with solid starpoint earthing.

Rated System Frequency

The nominal frequency of the system is set in Address 270 Rated Frequency. The factory setting of the
model variant must only be changed if the device is to be used for a purpose other than intended when ordering.

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Phase Rotation

Address 271 PHASE SEQ. is used to change the default phase sequence (L1 L2 L3 for clockwise rotation),
if your power system permanently has an anti-clockwise phase sequence (L1 L3 L2). A temporary reversal
of rotation is also possible using binary inputs (see Section 2.47).

Figure 2-10 Phase sequences

Operating Mode

The 272 SCHEME setting specifies whether the generator to be protected is operated in Unit transf. or in
Busbar mode. This specification is important for stator earth fault connection and for the inverse O/C time pro-
tection with undervoltage consideration, as different voltages are used here, depending on the corresponding
operating mode (see „Undervoltage Consideration“ in Section 2.10).

ATEX100

Parameter 274 ATEX100 allows compliance with PTB requirements (special requirements in Germany) for
thermal replicas. If this parameter is set to YES, all thermal replicas of the 7UM62 are stored on auxiliary power
supply failure. As soon as the supply voltage returns, the thermal replicas continue operating with the stored
values. If the parameter is set to NO, the calculated overtemperature values of all thermal replicas are reset to
zero on auxiliary power supply failure.

Command Duration
In address 280 the minimum trip command duration TMin TRIP CMD is set. This duration is valid for all pro-
tection functions which can issue a trip command.

Current-flow Monitoring

Address 281 BkrClosed I MIN corresponds to the threshold value of the integrated current flow monitoring
system. This parameter is used for the elapsed-time meter, the restart inhibit and the overload protection. If the
set threshold current is exceeded, the circuit breaker is considered closed and the power system is considered
to be in operation. In the case of overload protection, this criterion distinguishes between standstill and motion
of the machine to be protected.

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Measuring Transducer 1

Measuring transducer 1 is provided for DC voltage/DC current protection or the rotor earth fault protection with
1 to 3 Hz (UControl). Depending on the application, select at address 295 TRANSDUCER 1 one of the alternatives
10 V, 4-20 mA or 20 mA. In the first case, the measuring range is between –10 V and +10 V. The 4-20 mA
interface is designed for operation with sign, i.e. a current of 12 mA corresponds to an input value of 0. Currents
below 2 mA indicate wire break. The disturbance indication drops out at currents above 3 mA. If the alternative
20 mA is selected, the measuring range is between –20 mA and + 20 mA.

Figure 2-11 Relationship between measured quantity and represented input value at measuring transducer
TD 1 with setting 4-20 mA

Measuring Transducer 2

Measuring transducer 2 is provided for overload protection or the rotor earth fault protection at 1 to 3 Hz (UMeas).
In combination with an (external) temperature sensor and measuring transducer, it allows input of an ambient
or coolant temperature. It is matched to the upstream measuring transducer by selecting at address 296
TRANSDUCER 2 one of the standard alternatives 10 V, 4-20 mA or 20 mA.

Measuring Transducer 3

Measuring transducer 3 is provided for underexcitation protection and is therefore designed for voltage input
(10 V). The excitation voltage is fed to the measuring transducer via a voltage divider. Where the excitation DC
voltage may contain excessive harmonics (e.g. owing to thyristor control), the integrated digital filter should be
used; it is selected at the address 297 TRANSDUCER 3 by setting with filter.

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2.5 Power System Data 1

2.5.2 Settings

Addresses which have an appended "A" can only be changed with DIGSI, under Additional Settings.

The table indicates region-specific presettings. Column C (configuration) indicates the corresponding second-
ary nominal current of the current transformer.

Addr. Parameter C Setting Options Default Setting Comments


201 STRPNT->OBJ S1 YES YES CT-Strpnt. Side1 in Direct.
NO of Object
202 IN-PRI I-SIDE1 1 .. 100000 A 500 A CT Rated Primary Current
Side 1
203 IN-SEC I-SIDE1 1A 1A CT Rated Secondary
5A Current Side 1
204 CT ANGLE W0 -5.00 .. 5.00 ° 0.00 ° Correction Angle CT W0
205 FACTOR IEE1 1.0 .. 100000.0 60.0 CT Ratio Prim./Sec. Iee1
210 STRPNT->OBJ S2 YES YES CT-Strpnt. Side2 in Direct.
NO of Object
211 IN-PRI I-SIDE2 1 .. 100000 A 500 A CT Rated Primary Current
Side 2
212 IN-SEC I-SIDE2 1A 1A CT Rated Secondary
5A Current Side 2
213 FACTOR IEE2 1.0 .. 100000.0 60.0 CT Ratio Prim./Sec. Iee2
214 GRD TERM. IEE2 Terminal Q7 Terminal Q7 Grounded Terminal CT
Terminal Q8 Iee2
221 Unom PRIMARY 0.10 .. 800.00 kV 6.30 kV Rated Primary Voltage
222 Unom SECONDARY 100 .. 125 V 100 V Rated Secondary Voltage
(Ph-Ph)
223 UE CONNECTION neutr. transf. neutr. transf. UE Connection
broken delta
Not connected
any VT
Rotor
Load. resistor
Uen-winding
224 FACTOR UE 1.0 .. 2500.0 36.4 VT Ratio Prim./Sec. Ue
225A Uph / Udelta 1.00 .. 3.00 1.73 Matching Ratio Ph.-VT to
Broken-Delta-VT
241 UN-PRI SIDE 1 0.40 .. 800.00 kV 20.00 kV Rated Primary Voltage
Side 1
242 STARPNT SIDE 1 Isolated Isolated Starpoint of Side 1 is
Solid Earthed
243 UN-PRI SIDE 2 0.40 .. 800.00 kV 6.30 kV Rated Primary Voltage
side 2
244 STARPNT SIDE 2 Isolated Isolated Starpoint of side 2 is
Solid Earthed
246 VECTOR GRP S2 0 .. 11 *30° 0 *30° Vector Group Numeral of
Side 2

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Addr. Parameter C Setting Options Default Setting Comments


249 SN TRANSFORMER 0.20 .. 5000.00 MVA 5.30 MVA Rated Apparent Power of
the Transformer
251 UN GEN/MOTOR 0.40 .. 800.00 kV 6.30 kV Rated Primary Voltage
Generator/Motor
252 SN GEN/MOTOR 0.20 .. 5000.00 MVA 5.27 MVA Rated Apparent Power of
the Generator
270 Rated Frequency 50 Hz 50 Hz Rated Frequency
60 Hz
271 PHASE SEQ. L1 L2 L3 L1 L2 L3 Phase Sequence
L1 L3 L2
272 SCHEME Busbar Busbar Scheme Configuration
Unit transf.
274A ATEX100 YES NO Storage of th. Replicas w/o
NO Power Supply
275 FACTOR R SEF 1.0 .. 200.0 37.0 Ratio Prim./Sec. R SEF
276 TEMP. UNIT Celsius Celsius Unit of temperature mea-
Fahrenheit surement
280 TMin TRIP CMD 0.01 .. 32.00 sec 0.15 sec Minimum TRIP Command
Duration
281 BkrClosed I MIN 5A 0.20 .. 5.00 A 0.20 A Closed Breaker Min.
Current Threshold
1A 0.04 .. 1.00 A 0.04 A
295 TRANSDUCER 1 10 V 10 V Transducer 1
4-20 mA
20 mA
296 TRANSDUCER 2 10 V 10 V Transducer 2
4-20 mA
20 mA
297 TRANSDUCER 3 with filter with filter Transducer 3
without filter

2.5.3 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
361 >FAIL:Feeder VT SP >Failure: Feeder VT (MCB tripped)
5002 Operat. Cond. OUT Suitable measured quantities present
5145 >Reverse Rot. SP >Reverse Phase Rotation
5147 Rotation L1L2L3 OUT Phase Rotation L1L2L3
5148 Rotation L1L3L2 OUT Phase Rotation L1L3L2

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2.6 Change Group

2.6 Change Group

Two independent groups of parameters can be set for the device functions. During operation, the user can
switch between setting groups locally using the operator panel, binary inputs (if so configured), the operator
and service interface from a personal computer or via the system interface.

A setting group comprises the setting values for all functions that have been configured as Enabled (see
Section 2.4). In the 7UM62 two independent setting groups (A and B) are available. The two setting groups
have identical functions but their setting values can be different.

Where different settings are required for operational reasons, e.g. in pumped storage power stations with a
machine operating alternately as a generator and a motor, these settings are made in the setting groups and
stored in the device. Depending on the operating mode, the applicable setting group is activated, usually via a
binary input.

If multiple setting groups are not required, Group A is the default selection. The rest of this section is then not
relevant.

2.6.1 Setting Notes

General

If the changeover option is desired, on function extent configuration the group changeover must be set to Grp
Chge OPTION = Enabled (address 103). When setting the function parameters, you configure first setting
group A, then setting group B. To find out how to proceed for this, how to copy and to reset setting groups, and
how to switch between setting groups during operation, please refer to the SIPROTEC 4 System Description
/1/.

How to switch between setting groups externally using binary inputs is described in the „Mounting and Connec-
tions“ section in Chapter 3.

2.6.2 Settings

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


302 CHANGE Group A Group A Change to Another Setting Group
Group B
Binary Input
Protocol

2.6.3 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
- GroupA act IntSP Setting Group A is active
- GroupB act IntSP Setting Group B is active
7 >Set Group Bit0 SP >Setting Group Select Bit 0

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2.7 Power System Data 2

2.7 Power System Data 2

The general protection data (P.System Data 2) include settings associated with all functions rather than a
specific protection or monitoring function. Parameter settings P.System Data 2 can be switched using the
setting group.

2.7.1 Functional Description

Setting Groups

In the 7UM62 relay, two independent setting groups (A and B) are possible. Whereas setting values may vary,
the selected functions of each setting group remain the same.

2.7.2 Setting Notes

General

To enter these group-specific general protection data (P.System Data 2), select in the SETTINGS menu the
Group A (Parameter group A), and in it P.System Data 2. The other setting group is accessible under
Group B.

Active Power Direction

Address 1108 ACTIVE POWER is used to specify the active power direction in the normal mode (Generator
= output or Motor = input) or to adapt it to the power system conditions without device recabling.

2.7.3 Settings

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


1108 ACTIVE POWER Generator Generator Measurement of Active Power for
Motor

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2.7.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
501 Relay PICKUP OUT Relay PICKUP
511 Relay TRIP OUT Relay GENERAL TRIP command
576 IL1 S1: VI Primary fault current IL1 Side1
577 IL2 S1: VI Primary fault current IL2 Side1
578 IL3 S1: VI Primary fault current IL3 Side1
579 IL1 S2: VI Primary fault current IL1 Side2
580 IL2 S2: VI Primary fault current IL2 Side2
581 IL3 S2: VI Primary fault current IL3 Side2
5012 UL1E: VI Voltage UL1E at trip
5013 UL2E: VI Voltage UL2E at trip
5014 UL3E: VI Voltage UL3E at trip
5015 P: VI Active power at trip
5016 Q: VI Reactive power at trip
5017 f: VI Frequency at trip

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2.8 Definite-Time Overcurrent Protection (I>, ANSI 50/51) with Undervoltage Seal-In

2.8 Definite-Time Overcurrent Protection (I>, ANSI 50/51) with


Undervoltage Seal-In

The time-overcurrent protection is used as backup protection for the short-circuit protection of the protected
object. It also provides backup protection for downstream network components if faults there are not discon-
nected in time thus endangering the protected object.

The 7UM62 relay allows to choose between the input transformers of side 1 and side 2 for allocation of the
time-overcurrent protection function. This choice is made during configuration (see Section 2.4).

Initially the currents are numerically filtered so that only the fundamental frequency currents are used for the
measurement. This makes the measurement insensitive to transient conditions at the inception of a short-
circuit and to asymmetrical short-circuit currents (d.c. component).

In generators where the excitation voltage is taken from the machine terminals, the short-circuit current sub-
sides quickly in the event of adjacent faults (i.e. in the generator or unit transformer region) due to the absence
of excitation voltage. Within a few seconds it sinks below the pick-up value of the overcurrent time protection.
To avoid that the relay drops out again, the I> stage monitors the positive-sequence component of the voltages
and uses it as an additional criterion for detecting a short-circuit. The undervoltage influencing can be disabled
and made ineffective via binary input.

2.8.1 Functional Description

I> Stage

Each phase current of side 1 or 2 (depending on configuration) is compared individually with the common
setting value I> and on overshoot signaled individually. A trip signal is transmitted to the matrix as soon as the
corresponding T I> time delay has expired. On delivery, the dropout value is set to ± 95 % below the pickup
value. For special applications, it is also possible to set a higher value.

Undervoltage Seal-In

The I> stage has a (disconnectable) undervoltage stage. This stage maintains the pick-up signal for a select-
able seal-in time if the value falls below a selectable threshold of the positive-sequence component of the volt-
ages after an overcurrent pickup - even if the value again falls below the overcurrent value. In this way, the
expiration of the trip time delay and the tripping of the related breakers is also ensured in these cases. If the
voltage recovers before the seal-in time has elapsed or if the undervoltage seal-in is blocked via a binary input,
e.g. in case of a tripping of the voltage transformer protective breaker or in case of a machine stopping, the
protective relay drops out immediately.

The seal-in logic operates separate for each phase. The first pickup starts the timer T-SEAL-IN.

The following figure shows the logic diagram of the overcurrent time protection I> with undervoltage seal-in.

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2.8 Definite-Time Overcurrent Protection (I>, ANSI 50/51) with Undervoltage Seal-In

Figure 2-12 Logic Diagram of the Overcurrent Stage I> with Undervoltage Seal-In

2.8.2 Setting Notes

General

Overcurrent protection is only effective and available if address 112 O/C PROT. I> is set to Side 1 or Side
2 during configuration. If the function is not needed it is set to Disabled.

Time Overcurrent Stage I>

Address 1201 O/C I> is used to switch the definite time-overcurrent stage I> ON and OFF, or to block only the
trip command (Block relay). The setting of the I> stage is mainly determined by the maximum operating
current. Pickup due to overload should never occur since the protection may trip if short command times are
set. For this reason, a setting between 20 % and 30 % over the expected peak load is recommended for gen-
erators, and a setting of about 40 % for transformers and motors.

The trip time delay (parameter 1203 T I>) must be coordinated with the time grading of the network in order
to ensure that the protective equipment closest to the corresponding fault location trips first (selectivity).

The selected time is only an additional time delay and does not include the operating time (measuring time,
dropout time). The delay can be set to ∞. If set to infinity, the pickup of this function will be indicated but the
stage will not trip after pickup. If the I> stage is not required at all, 1201 O/C I> = OFF is set. This setting
prevents tripping and the generation of a pickup message.

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2.8 Definite-Time Overcurrent Protection (I>, ANSI 50/51) with Undervoltage Seal-In

Undervoltage Seal-In

The 1205 U< undervoltage stage (positive-sequence voltage) is set to a value below the lowest phase-to-phase
voltage admissible during operation, e.g. 80 V.

The seal-in time 1206 T-SEAL-IN limits the pickup seal-in introduced by the overcurrent/undervoltage. It must
be set to a value higher than the T I> time delay.

The dropout ratio r = IDO/IPU of the overcurrent pickup I> is specified at the address 1207 I> DOUT RATIO.
The recommended value is r = 0.95. For special applications, e.g. overload warning, it can be set to a higher
value (0.98).

Example:

Pick-up threshold 1,4 · IN Gen


Trip Time Delay 3 sec
Undervoltage Seal-In 0,8 · UN Gen
Holding time of U< 4 sec
Dropout Ratio 0.95
Nominal current IN Gen 483 A Nominal voltage UN, Gen 6.3 kV
Nominal current IN, CT, prim 500 A Nominal voltage UN, VT, prim 6.3 kV
Nominal current IN, sec 1A Nominal voltage UN, sec 100 V

The following secondary setting values result from this specification:

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2.8.3 Settings

Addresses which have an appended "A" can only be changed with DIGSI, under Additional Settings.

The table indicates region-specific presettings. Column C (configuration) indicates the corresponding second-
ary nominal current of the current transformer.

Addr. Parameter C Setting Options Default Setting Comments


1201 O/C I> OFF OFF Overcurrent Time Protec-
ON tion I>
Block relay
1202 I> 5A 0.25 .. 100.00 A 6.75 A I> Pickup
1A 0.05 .. 20.00 A 1.35 A
1203 T I> 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 3.00 sec T I> Time Delay
1204 U< SEAL-IN ON OFF State of Undervoltage
OFF Seal-in
1205 U< 10.0 .. 125.0 V 80.0 V Undervoltage Seal-in
Pickup
1206 T-SEAL-IN 0.10 .. 60.00 sec 4.00 sec Duration of Undervoltage
Seal-in
1207A I> DOUT RATIO 0.90 .. 0.99 0.95 I> Drop Out Ratio

2.8.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
1722 >BLOCK I> SP >BLOCK I>
1811 I> Fault L1 OUT O/C fault detection stage I> phase L1
1812 I> Fault L2 OUT O/C fault detection stage I> phase L2
1813 I> Fault L3 OUT O/C fault detection stage I> phase L3
1815 I> TRIP OUT O/C I> TRIP
1950 >Useal-inBLK SP >O/C prot. : BLOCK undervoltage seal-in
1965 I> OFF OUT O/C prot. stage I> is switched OFF
1966 I> BLOCKED OUT O/C prot. stage I> is BLOCKED
1967 I> ACTIVE OUT O/C prot. stage I> is ACTIVE
1970 U< seal in OUT O/C prot. undervoltage seal-in

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2.9 Definite-Time Overcurrent Protection (I>>, ANSI 50, 51, 67) with Direction Detection

2.9 Definite-Time Overcurrent Protection (I>>, ANSI 50, 51, 67) with
Direction Detection

The time-overcurrent protection is used as backup protection for the short-circuit protection of the protected
object. It also provides backup protection for downstream network components if faults there are not discon-
nected in time thus endangering the protected object.

The 7UM62 relay allows to choose between the input transformers of side 1 and side 2 for allocation of the
time-overcurrent protection function. This choice is made during configuration (see Section 2.4).

In order to ensure that pick-up always occurs even with internal faults, the protection - for generators - is usually
connected to the current transformer set in the neutral leads of the machine. If this is not the case for an indi-
vidual power system, the I>> stage can be combined with a short-circuit direction determination and switch off
a generator short circuit instantaneously ; the selectivity is not affected by this.

Initially, the currents are numerically filtered so that only the fundamental frequency currents are used for the
measurement. This makes the measurement insensitive to transient conditions at the inception of a short-
circuit and to asymmetrical short-circuit currents (d.c. component).

2.9.1 Functional Description

I>> Stage

Each phase-current of side 1 or 2 (depending on the configuration) is compared individually with the common
pickup value I>>, and indicated on overshoot. A trip signal is transmitted to the matrix as soon as the corre-
sponding T I>> time delays have expired. The dropout value is ± 95 % below the pick-up value.

Direction Detection

If this protection function has been assigned to the input transformers of side 1, the I>> stage is equipped with
a (disconnectable) direction element permitting a tripping only for faults in backward (i.e. machine) direction.

For this reason, this stage can be used particularly in applications where no current transformers exist in the
generator starpoint and undelayed tripping is nevertheless required on generator faults.

The definition of the current direction in Figure 2-13 applies for the CT of side 1. If the CT of side 2 is used,
Forward must be set to determine the current direction.

Figure 2-13 Selectivity via Short-Circuit Direction Detection

The direction is detected phase-selectively by means of a cross-polarized voltage. The phase-to-phase voltage
normally perpendicular to the fault current vector is used as unfaulted voltage (Figure 2-14). This is considered
during the calculation of the direction vector in the clockwise rotating phase sequence by a +90° rotation, and
in the anti-clockwise rotating phase by a -90° rotation. For phase-to-phase faults, the position of the direction
straight line may change in relation to the collapse of the short-circuit voltage.

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Figure 2-14 Cross-Polarized Voltages for Direction Determination

The phase carrying the highest current is selected for the direction decision. With equal current levels, the
phase with the smaller number is chosen (IL1 before IL2 before IL3). The following table shows the allocation of
measured values for various types of short-circuit faults.

Table 2-3 Allocation of Measured Values for the Determination Direction


Pickup Selected Current Associated Voltage
L1 IL1 UL2 - UL3
L2 IL2 UL3 - UL1
L3 IL3 UL1 - UL2
L1, L2 with IL1>IL2 IL1 UL2 - UL3
L1, L2 with IL1=IL2 IL1 UL2 - UL3
L1, L2 with IL1<IL2 IL2 UL3 - UL1
L2, L3 with IL2>IL3 IL2 UL3 - UL1
L2, L3 with IL2=IL3 IL2 UL3 - UL1
L2, L3 with IL2<IL3 IL3 UL1 - UL2
L3, L1 with IL3>IL1 IL3 UL1 - UL2
L3, L1 with IL3=IL1 IL1 UL2 - UL3
L3, L1 with IL3<IL1 IL1 UL2 - UL3
L1, L2, L3 with IL1>(IL2, IL3) IL1 UL2 - UL3
L1, L2, L3 with IL2>(IL1, IL3) IL2 UL3 - UL1

If the phase-to-phase voltage used for the direction decision is below the minimum value of approx. 7 V, the
voltage is taken from a voltage memory. This voltage also allows unambiguous direction determination if the
short-circuit voltage has collapsed (short circuit close to generator terminals). After the expiration of the storage
time period (2 cycles), the detected direction is saved, as long as no sufficient measuring voltage is available.
If a short circuit already exists at generator startup (or for motors or transformers on connection), so that no
voltage is present in the memory and no direction can be determined, a trip is issued.

The direction detection can be disabled via binary input.

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Figure 2-15 Logic Diagram of I>> Stage with Direction Element

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2.9.2 Setting Notes

General

The high-current stage I>> of the overcurrent protection is only effective and accessible if it has been assigned
within the framework of configuration at address 113 O/C PROT. I>> to either side 1 or side 2, i.e. if either
set = NonDirec. SIDE1, NonDirec.SIDE 2, Direc. SIDE1 or Direc. SIDE2. If the function is not
needed it is set to Disabled.

If direction acquisition is used, make sure that the CT and VT sets are consistent.

High-set Current Stage I>>

Address 1301 O/C I>> is used to switch the definite time I>> high-current stage for phase currents ON and
OFF, or to block only the trip command (Block relay). The high-current stage I>> (Parameter 1302 and its
associated delay time T I>>, 1303) is used for current grading with large impedances existing for example
with transformers, motors or generators. It is specified in a way ensuring that it picks up for faults up to this
impedance.

Current Trans-former in the Starpoint (without direction detection)

Example: Unit Connection

Rated apparent power - generator SN, Gen = 5.27 MVA


Rated voltage - generator UN Gen = 6.3 kV
Direct-axis transient reactance xd’ = 29 %
Transient synchronous generated voltage UP’ = 1,2 · UN,Gen
(Salient-pole generator)
Rated apparent power - transformer SN, T = 5.3 MVA
Rated voltage, on the generator side UN, VTprim = 6.3 kV
Short-circuit voltage uSC = 7%
Current transformer IN, CT, prim = 500 A
IN, sec = 1A

a) Short-circuit calculation
Three-pole short circuit

b) Setting value:

The setting value is achieved by means of a conversion on the secondary side. In order to exclude an unwanted
operation caused by overvoltages or transient phenomena, an additional safety factor of about 1.2 to 1.3 is rec-
ommended.

A value of T I>> = 0.1 s is recommended as tripping time delay in order to enable preferred tripping of the
differential protection.

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Current Trans-former on the Output Side (with direction detection)

If at address 113 O/C PROT. I>> was configured as directional, the addresses 1304 Phase Direction
and 1305 LINE ANGLE are accessible. The inclination of the direction straight line (see figure 2-16) represent-
ing the separating line between the tripping and the blocking zone can be adapted to the network conditions by
way of the LINE ANGLE parameter. To do this, the line angle of the network is set. The direction straight line
is perpendicular to the set direction angle. Together with the parameter 1304 Phase Direction = Forward
or Reverse, this parameter covers the entire impedance level. This is thereverse direction, provided that the
protective relay has been connected according to Figure 2-13. Between forward and reverse, a small zone is
located in which, due to phase displacement angles of the transformers, a safe direction decision is not possi-
ble. There is no tripping in the configured preferential direction in this zone.

Figure 2-16 Definition of Parameters 1304 Phase Direction and 1305 LINE ANGLE

The setting value of the direction straight line results from the short-circuit angle of the feeding network. As a
rule, it will be more than 60°. The current pickup value results from the short-circuit current calculation. Work-
able pickup values are situated at about (1.5 to 2) · IN, G. A tripping time delay of (TI>> ≈ 0.05 s to 0.1 s). is
required to ensure that the effect of the transient phenomena is eliminated.

The corrective value can be determined during machine commissioning (see Section Installation and Commis-
sioning under „Tests with the Network“).

Application Example: Motor Protection

For motors that have no separate current transformers in the starpoint, the following figure shows how to use
the I>> stage as „differential protection“. The configuration of the protection function depends on the transform-
ers. Since this application is most likely to be used for replacements in an existing system, the settings of that
system should be used for orientation.

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Figure 2-17 I>> Stage as 'Differential Protection'

2.9.3 Settings

The table indicates region-specific presettings. Column C (configuration) indicates the corresponding second-
ary nominal current of the current transformer.

Addr. Parameter C Setting Options Default Setting Comments


1301 O/C I>> OFF OFF Overcurrent Time Protec-
ON tion I>>
Block relay
1302 I>> 5A 0.25 .. 100.00 A 21.50 A I>> Pickup
1A 0.05 .. 20.00 A 4.30 A
1303 T I>> 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 0.10 sec T I>> Time Delay
1304 Phase Direction Forward Reverse Phase Direction
Reverse
1305 LINE ANGLE -90 .. 90 ° 60 ° Line Angle

2.9.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
1720 >BLOCK dir. SP >BLOCK direction I>> stage
1721 >BLOCK I>> SP >BLOCK I>>
1801 I>> Fault L1 OUT O/C fault detection stage I>> phase L1
1802 I>> Fault L2 OUT O/C fault detection stage I>> phase L2
1803 I>> Fault L3 OUT O/C fault detection stage I>> phase L3
1806 I>> forward OUT O/C I>> direction forward
1807 I>> backward OUT O/C I>> direction backward
1808 I>> picked up OUT O/C prot. I>> picked up
1809 I>> TRIP OUT O/C I>> TRIP
1955 I>> OFF OUT O/C prot. stage I>> is switched OFF
1956 I>> BLOCKED OUT O/C prot. stage I>> is BLOCKED
1957 I>> ACTIVE OUT O/C prot. stage I>> is ACTIVE

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2.10 Inverse-Time Overcurrent Protection (ANSI 51V)

2.10 Inverse-Time Overcurrent Protection (ANSI 51V)

The inverse-time overcurrent protection protects extra-low voltage and low-voltage machines against short cir-
cuits. For larger machines it is used as back-up protection for the machine short-circuit protection (differential
protection and/or impedance protection). It provides back-up protection for network faults that can not be
cleared immediately and thus endanger the machine.

The 7UM62 relay allows to choose between the input transformers of side 1 and side 2 for allocation of the
inverse-time overcurrent protection function. This choice is made during configuration (see Section 2.4).

In generators where the excitation voltage is taken from the machine terminals, the short-circuit current sub-
sides quickly in the event of adjacent faults (i.e. in the generator or unit transformer region) due to the absence
of excitation voltage. Within a few seconds it sinks below the pick-up value of the overcurrent time protection.
In order to avoid a dropout of the pickup, the positive-sequence component is monitored additionally. This com-
ponent can influence the overcurrent detection in accordance with two different methods. The undervoltage in-
fluencing can be switched off.

The protective function operates, depending on the ordering variant, with an inverse current-tripping character-
istic according to the IEC or ANSI standards. The characteristic curves and the corresponding formulas are
represented in Technical Data. If one of the inverse characteristics (IEC or ANSI) is configured, the definite-
time stages I>> and I> can be additionally effective (see Section 2.8).

2.10.1 Functional Description

Pickup and Tripping

Each phase current is compared individually with the common Ip setting value. If a current exceeds 1.1 times
the set value, the stage picks up and is signalled on a per phase basis. The r.m.s. values of the fundamental
component are used for the pickup. During the pickup of an Ip stage, the tripping time is calculated from the
flowing fault current by means of an integrating measuring procedure, depending on the selected tripping char-
acteristic. After the expiration of this period, a trip command is transmitted.

Dropout

The dropout of a picked up stage is performed as soon as the value falls below approximately 95 % of the
pickup value (i.e. 0.95 to 1.1 = 1.045 to setting value). The timer will start again for all new pickups.

Undervoltage Detection

The inverse overcurrent time protection is provided with a undervoltage detection that can be disabled. This
function can influence overcurrent detection in two different ways:
• Voltage controlled:If the value falls below a settable voltage threshold, an overcurrent stage is enabled.
• Voltage restraint:The pickup threshold of the overcurrent stage depends on the voltage level. A lower
voltage reduces the current pickup value (see Figure 2-18). A linear, directly proportional dependency is re-
alized in the zone between U/UNom = 1.00 to 0.25. Consequently, the following rule applies:

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Figure 2-18 Pick-up Value Voltage Dependency

The Ip reference value is decreased proportional to the voltage decrease. Consequently, for a constant current
I, the I/Ip ratio is increased and the trip time is reduced. Compared with the standard characteristics represent-
ed in the „Technical Data“ chapter, the tripping characteristic shifts to the left side in relation to decreasing volt-
age.

The changeover to the lower pick-up value or the reduction of the pickup threshold are performed on a per
phase basis. Allocations of voltages to the current-carrying phases represented in the following table apply. As
the protection used in the generator range is incorporated in the network grading plan, the conversion of the
voltages by the clock transformer must also be considered. Therefore, in principle, a distinction must be made
between a unit connection and a busbar connection which must be communicated to the device by the param-
eter 272 SCHEME. As phase-to-phase voltages are referred to in any case, faulty measurements during earth
faults are avoided.

Table 2-4 Controlling voltages in relation to the fault currents


Current Voltage
Busbar connection Unit connection
IL1 UL1 – UL2 ((UL1 – UL2) – (UL3 – UL1)) / √3
IL2 UL2 – UL3 ((UL2 – UL3) – (UL1 – UL2)) / √3
IL3 UL3 – UL1 ((UL3 – UL1) – (UL2 – UL3)) / √3

In order to avoid unwanted operation during a voltage transformer fault, a function blocking is implemented via
a binary input controlled by the voltage transformer protective breaker as well as via the device-internal mea-
suring voltages failure detection ("Fuse-Failure-Monitor", also refer to Section 2.42.1).

The following figure shows the logic diagram of the inverse overcurrent time protection without undervoltage
influencing, whereas Figures 2-20 and 2-21 illustrate the logic diagrams with undervoltage influencing.

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Figure 2-19 Logic Diagram of the Inverse Time Overcurrent Protection without Undervoltage Influencing

Figure 2-20 Logic Diagram of the Voltage Controlled Inverse Time Overcurrent Protection

The changeover to the lower current pickup value on decreasing voltage (loop release) is performed on a phase
by phase basis in accordance with Table 2-4.

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Figure 2-21 Logic Diagram of the Voltage Restraint Inverse Time Overcurrent Protection

The reduction of the current pick-up threshold in case of a decreasing voltage (control voltage assignment) is
performed phase by phase according to table 2-4.

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2.10.2 Setting Notes

General

The inverse overcurrent time protection is only effective and available if this function was allocated to the input
CTs of either side 1 or side 2 during configuration (see Section 2.4), i.e. if address 114 O/C PROT. Ip was
set to IEC SIDE 1, ANSI SIDE 1, IEC SIDE 2 or ANSI SIDE 2. If the function is not needed it is set to .

Overcurrent Stage Ip

The address 1401 O/C Ip serves to switch the function ON or OFF or to block only the trip command (Block
relay). In this context, it must be considered that, for the inverse O/C time protection, a safety factor of about
1.1 has already been included between the pick-up value and the setting value. This means that a pickup is
only performed if a current of about 1.1 times the setting value is present. The function will reset as soon as the
value falls below 95 % of the pickup value.

The current value is set at address 1402 Ip. The maximum operating current is of primary importance for the
setting. A pickup caused by an overload must be excluded, as the device operates in this mode as fault pro-
tection with correspondingly short tripping times and not as overload protection.

The corresponding time multiplier for configuration of IEC characteristics (address 114 O/C PROT. Ip = IEC
Page n) is accessible under address 1403 T Ip. At address 1405 IEC CURVE, 3 IEC characteristics can be
selected.

The time multiplier for configuring ANSI characteristics (address 114 O/C PROT. Ip= ANSI Page) can be
found at address 1404 TIME DIAL: TD; parameter 1406 ANSI CURVE offers a choice between 5 ANSI char-
acteristics.

The time multipliers must be coordinated with the network grading plan.

The time multipliers can also be set to ∞. If set to infinity, the pickup of this function will be indicated but the
stage will not trip after pickup. If the Ip stage is not required, on configuration of the protection function (Section
2.4) address 114 O/C PROT. Ip is set to Disabled or this function switched under 1401 O/C Ip = OFF.

The address 1408 serves to predefine the U< pick-up value for the undervoltage trip of the Ip pickup value for
voltage-controlled inverse overcurrent time protection/AMZ (parameter 1407 VOLT. INFLUENCE = Volt.
controll.). The parameter is set to a value just below the lowest phase-to-phase voltage admissible during
operation, e.g. from 75 to 80 V. In this context, the same rules apply as for the undervoltage seal-in of the def-
inite overcurrent time protection (see also Subsection 2.8.2).

If at address 1407 VOLT. INFLUENCE is set to without or Volt. restraint, the parameter 1408 has no
function.

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2.10.3 Settings

The table indicates region-specific presettings. Column C (configuration) indicates the corresponding second-
ary nominal current of the current transformer.

Addr. Parameter C Setting Options Default Setting Comments


1401 O/C Ip OFF OFF Inverse O/C Time Protec-
ON tion Ip
Block relay
1402 Ip 5A 0.50 .. 20.00 A 5.00 A Ip Pickup
1A 0.10 .. 4.00 A 1.00 A
1403 T Ip 0.05 .. 3.20 sec; ∞ 0.50 sec T Ip Time Dial
1404 TIME DIAL: TD 0.50 .. 15.00 ; ∞ 5.00 TIME DIAL: TD
1405 IEC CURVE Normal Inverse Normal Inverse IEC Curve
Very Inverse
Extremely Inv.
1406 ANSI CURVE Very Inverse Very Inverse ANSI Curve
Inverse
Moderately Inv.
Extremely Inv.
Definite Inv.
1407 VOLT. INFLUENCE without without Voltage Influence
Volt. controll.
Volt. restraint
1408 U< 10.0 .. 125.0 V 75.0 V U< Threshold for Release
Ip

2.10.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
1883 >BLOCK O/C Ip SP >BLOCK inverse O/C time protection
1891 O/C Ip OFF OUT O/C protection Ip is switched OFF
1892 O/C Ip BLOCKED OUT O/C protection Ip is BLOCKED
1893 O/C Ip ACTIVE OUT O/C protection Ip is ACTIVE
1896 O/C Ip Fault L1 OUT O/C fault detection Ip phase L1
1897 O/C Ip Fault L2 OUT O/C fault detection Ip phase L2
1898 O/C Ip Fault L3 OUT O/C fault detection Ip phase L3
1899 O/C Ip pick.up OUT O/C Ip picked up
1900 O/C Ip TRIP OUT O/C Ip TRIP

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2.11 Thermal Overload Protection (ANSI 49)

2.11 Thermal Overload Protection (ANSI 49)

The thermal overload protection prevents thermal overloading of the stator windings of the machine being pro-
tected.

2.11.1 Functional Description

Thermal Profile

The device calculates the overtemperature in accordance with a single-body thermal model, based on the fol-
lowing differential equation:

with

Θ Actual operating temperature expressed in percent of the operating temperature correspond-


ing to the maximum permissible operating current k·IN

ΘK Coolant temperature or ambient temperature as a difference to the 40 °C reference temper-


ature

τ Thermal time constant for the heating of the equipment being protected

I Operating current expressed in percent of the maximum permissible operating current Imax =
k · IN

The protection function models a thermal profile of the equipment being protected (overload protection with
memory capability). Both the previous history of an overload and the heat loss to the environment are taken
into account.

The solution of this equation in steady-state operation is an e-function whose asymptote represents the final
temperature ΘEnd. After an initial settable overtemperature threshold is reached, an alarm is issued, e.g. for
timely prompting of load reduction. If the second overtemperature threshold, i.e. final overtemperature = trip
temperature, is reached, the protected equipment is disconnected from the network. The overload protection
can, however, also be set to Alarm Only. In this case only an alarm is issued even if the final temperature is
reached.

The overtemperature is calculated from the largest of the three phase currents. Since the calculation is based
on rms values of currents, harmonics which contribute to a temperature rise of the stator winding are also con-
sidered.

The maximum thermally permissible continuous current Imax is described as a multiple of the nominal current
IN of the protected object:

Imax = k·IN

In addition to the k factor (parameter K-FACTOR), the TIME CONSTANT τ and the alarm temperature Θ ALARM
(in percent of the trip temperature Θ TRIP) must be specified.

Overload protection also has a current alarm feature (I ALARM) in addition to the temperature alarm stage.
The current warning element may report an overload current prematurely (when Imax is exceeded), even if the
calculated operating temperature has not yet attained the warning or tripping levels.

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2.11 Thermal Overload Protection (ANSI 49)

Coolant Temperature (Ambient Temperature)

With 7UM62, the thermal model considers an external temperature value. Depending on the application, this
temperature can be the coolant or ambient temperature or, in the case of gas turbines, the entry temperature
of the cold gas.

The temperature to be considered can be input in one of the following ways:


• Via measuring transducer (TD 2)
• via Profibus DP interface/Modbus
• Via temperature detection unit (Thermobox, RTD 1)

An external temperature sensor measures e.g. the coolant temperature and converts it to a temperature-pro-
portional current or voltage. This output quantity can be fed into the 7UM62 via the integrated measuring
transducer TD 2. If a signal level between 4 mA and 20 mA is used, the measuring circuit for temperature input
can additionally be monitored for interruptions. If the measured current of the external amplifier drops below 2
mA, the relay outputs a disturbance indication, and switches at the same time to a fictional coolant temperature
of 40 °C (the temperature assumed if there is no coolant temperature detection).

The ambient or coolant temperature can also be detected by an external temperature sensor, digitized and fed
to the 7UM62 via the Profibus-DP Interface / Modbus .

If a temperature supervision feature is implemented using a thermobox (see Section 2.46) the RTD1 input can
be used for temperature inclusion in the overload protection.

With coolant temperature detection in accordance with one of the three methods described, the maximum per-
missible current Imax is influenced by the temperature difference of the coolant. If the ambient or coolant tem-
perature is lower, the machine can support a higher current than when the temperatures are high.

Current Limiting

In order to prevent overload protection on occurrence of high short-circuit currents (and with small time con-
stants) from causing extremely short trip times and thereby perhaps affecting the time grading of the short-
circuit protection, it is possible to implement current limiting for the overload protection. Currents exceeding the
value specified at parameter 1615 I MAX THERM. are limited to this value and thus do they do not further
reduce trip time in the thermal memory.

Standstill Time Constant

The above differential equation assumes a constant cooling that is reflected by the time constant τ = Rth · Cth
(thermal resistance and thermal capacitance). In a self-ventilated machine, however, the thermal time constant
at standstill can differ considerably from the time constant of a continually running machine, since then the ven-
tilation provides for cooling whereas at standstill only natural convection takes place.

Therefore, two time constants must be considered for the setting in such cases.

In this context, machine standstill is detected when the current undershoots the threshold value BkrClosed
I MIN (see margin heading "Current Flow Monitoring" in Subsection 2.5).

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2.11 Thermal Overload Protection (ANSI 49)

Blocking

The thermal memory may be reset via a binary input („>RM th.rep. O/L“). The current-induced excessive
temperature value is reset to zero. The same is achieved by entering a blocking („>BLK ThOverload“); in
that case the overload protection is blocked completely, including the current alarm stage.

When machines must be started for emergency reasons, operating temperatures above the maximum permis-
sible operating temperatures are allowed (emergency start). Then exclusively the tripping signal can be blocked
via a binary input („>Emer.Start O/L“). Since the thermal profile may have exceeded the tripping temper-
ature after startup and dropout of the binary input has taken place, the protection function features a program-
mable run-on time interval (T EMERGENCY) which is started when the binary input drops out and continues sup-
pressing a trip signal. Tripping by the overload protection will be defeated until this time interval elapses. This
binary input affects only the tripping signal. It has no effect on the fault condition logging nor does it reset the
thermal profile.

Behaviour on Power Supply Failure

For overload protection, together with all other thermal protection functions of the 7UM62 in the Power System
Data 1 (parameter 274 ATEX100, see Section 2.5), it is possible to choose whether the calculated overtem-
perature will be stored throughout a power supply failure, or reset to zero. This latter option is the default set-
ting.
The following figure shows the logic diagram for overload protection.

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Figure 2-22 Logic of the Overload Protection Function

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2.11.2 Setting Notes

General

Overload protection is only effective and accessible if address 116 Therm.Overload is set to Enabled
during configuration. If the function is not required, it is set to Disabled.

Transformers and generators are especially prone to damage by extended overloads. These overloads cannot
and should not be detected by short-circuit protection. Time overcurrent protection should be set so high that
it only detects faults, since short-circuit protection only permits short time delays. Short time delays, however,
do not allow measures for unburdening the overloaded equipment nor do they permit advantage to be taken of
its (limited) overload capacity.

The 7UM62 protective relay features an overload protective function with thermal tripping characteristic adapt-
able to the overload capability of the equipment being protected.

At address 1601 Ther. OVER LOAD the thermal overload protection ON or OFF can be set, the trip command
blocked (Block relay) or the protection function set to Alarm Only. In the latter case no fault record is
created should an overload occur. If overload protection is switched ON, tripping is also possible.

K-Factor

The overload protection is set with quantities per unit. The nominal current IN, Mach of the object to be protected
(generator, motor, transformer) is typically used as base current for overload detection. The thermally permis-
sible continuous current Imax prim can be used to calculate a factor kprim:

The thermally admissible continuous current for the equipment being protected is generally obtainable from
manufacturer's specifications. If no specifications are available, a value of 1.1 times the nominal current rating
is assumed.

The K-FACTOR to be set at the 7UM62 (address 1602) refers to the secondary nominal current (= device cur-
rent). The following applies for the conversion:

with

Imax prim thermally continuously permissible primary current of the machine

IN Mach Nominal Current of the Machine

INCT prim Nominal primary CT current

Example: Generator and current transformer with the following data:

Permissible Continuous Current Imax prim= 1.15 · IN, Mach

Generator Nominal Current IN Mach = 483 A

Current Transformer 500 A / 1 A

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2.11 Thermal Overload Protection (ANSI 49)

Time Constant

The overload protection tracks overtemperature progression, employing a thermal differential equation whose
steady state solution is an exponential function. The TIME CONSTANT τ (address 1603) is used in the calcu-
lation to determine the threshold of excess temperature and thus the tripping temperature.

If the overload characteristic of the generator to be protected is pre-determined, the user must select the pro-
tection trip characteristic so that it largely corresponds the overload characteristic, at least for small overloads.

This is also the case if the admissible power-up time corresponding to a certain overload value is indicated.

Alarm Stages

By setting the thermal warning level Θ ALARM (address 1604), a warning message can be issued before the
tripping temperature is reached, thus avoiding tripping by promptly reducing load. This warning level simulta-
neously represents the dropout level for the tripping signal. The tripping signal is interrupted only when this
threshold value is again undershot.

The thermal alarm level is given in % of the tripping overtemperature level.

Note: With the typical value of K-FACTOR = 1.1, on application of nominal machine current and adapted
primary transformer current, the following final tripping overtemperature results

of the tripping temperature. Consequently, the warning stage should be set between the final overtemperature
with the nominal current (in this case 83 %) and the tripping overtemperature (100 %).

In the present example, the thermal memory reaches the following value if the nominal current is applied:

A current warning level (parameter 1610 I ALARM) is also available. The level is set in secondary amperes
and should be set equal to, or slightly less than, the permissible continuous current K-FACTOR · IN sec . It may
be used instead of the thermal warning level by setting the thermal warning level to 100 % and is then practi-
cally inactive.

Extension of Time Constants at Machine Standstill

The time constant programmed at address 1603 is valid for the running machine. On slowing down or standstill,
the machine may cool down much more slowly. This behaviour can be modeled by prolonging the time constant
by the Kτ-FACTOR (address 1612) on machine standstill. In this context, machine standstill is detected when
the current undershoots the threshold value BkrClosed I MIN (see margin heading "Current Flow Monitor-
ing" in Section P.System Data 1).

If no distinction between time constants is necessary, the prolongation factor Kτ-FACTOR can be left as 1.0
(default).

Current Limiting

The parameter 1615 I MAX THERM. specifies up to which current value the trip times are calculated in accor-
dance with the prescribed formula. In the trip characteristics of Section „Technical Data“, Subsection „Overload
Protection“, this limit value determines the transition to the horizontal part of the characteristics, where there is
no further trip time reduction despite increasing current values. The limit value must ensure that even for the
highest possible short-circuit current, the trip times of the overload protection definitely exceed the trip times of
the short-circuit protection devices (differential protection, impedance protection, time overcurrent protection).
As a rule, a limitation to a secondary current corresponding to roughly three times the nominal machine current
will be sufficient.

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2.11 Thermal Overload Protection (ANSI 49)

Emergency Start

The run-on time to be entered at address 1616 T EMERGENCY must be sufficient to ensure that after an emer-
gency startup and dropout of binary input „>Emer.Start O/L“ the trip command is blocked until the thermal
replica is again below the dropout threshold.

Ambient or Coolant Temperature

The specifications given up to now are sufficient for modeling the overtemperature. In addition to this, machine
protection can also process the ambient or coolant temperature. This must then be signaled to the device either
via the measuring transducer TD2 provided as a temperature-proportional DC current from a measuring trans-
ducer with a live zero signal between 4 and 20 mA, linked via the thermobox, or as a digitalized measured value
via the fieldbus (e.g. Profibus DP). Address 1607 TEMP. INPUT serves to select the temperature input pro-
cedure. If there is no coolant temperature detection, address 1607 is set to Disabled. The allocation between
the input signal and the temperature can be set at address 1608 (in °C) or 1609 (in °F) TEMP. SCAL.. The
temperature value set there is equivalent to 100 % of the Profibus DP/Modbus value, or full-scale deflection
(20 mA) of the measuring transducer. In the default setting, 100 % (field bus) or 20 mA (measuring transducer
TD2) corresponds to 100 °C.

If under address 1607 TEMP. INPUT the temperature setting of RTD 1 is selected, the scaling under ad-
dress1608 or 1609 is ineffective. The works setting can be left as it is.

If the ambient temperature detection is used, the user must be aware that the K-FACTOR to be set refers to an
ambient temperature of 40 °C, i.e. it corresponds to the maximum permissible current at a temperature of 40 °C.

As all calculations are performed with standardized quantities, the ambient temperature must be standardized,
too. The temperature at nominal machine current is used as standardization value. If the nominal machine
current deviates from the nominal CT current, the temperature must be adapted according to the following for-
mula. At address 1605 or 1606 TEMP. RISE I the temperature adapted to the nominal transformer current
is set. This setting value is used as standardization quantity of the ambient temperature input.

with

ΘNsec Machine Temperature with Secondary Nominal Current = Setting at the 7UM62 (address
1605 or 1606)

ΘNMach Machine Temperature with Nominal Machine Current

INprim Primary nominal current of the current transformer

INMach Nominal current of the machine

If the temperature input is not used, the address 1607 TEMP. INPUT must be set to Disabled. In this case,
the settings of the addresses1605 or 1606 and 1608 or 1609 are not considered.

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2.11 Thermal Overload Protection (ANSI 49)

If the temperature input is used, the trip times change if the coolant temperature deviates from the internal ref-
erence temperature of 40 °C. The following formula can be used to calculate the trip time:

with

τ TIME CONSTANT (address 1603)

k K-FACTOR (address 1602)

IN Nominal Device Current

I Actually Flowing Secondary Current

IPre Previous Load Current

ΘN Temperature with Nominal Current IN (address 1605 TEMP. RISE I)

ΘK Coolant Temperature Input (Scaling with Address 1608 or 1609)

Example:

Machine:

INMach = 483 A

ImaxMach = 1,15 IN at ΘK = 40 °C

ΘNMach = 93 °C

τth = 600 s (thermal time constant of the machine)

Current transformer: 500 A/1 A

With a supposed load current of I = 1.5 · IN, Device and a preload IPre = 0, the following trip times result for different
ambient temperatures ΘK

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2.11 Thermal Overload Protection (ANSI 49)

2.11.3 Settings

Addresses which have an appended "A" can only be changed with DIGSI, under Additional Settings.

The table indicates region-specific presettings. Column C (configuration) indicates the corresponding second-
ary nominal current of the current transformer.

Addr. Parameter C Setting Options Default Setting Comments


1601 Ther. OVER LOAD OFF OFF Thermal Overload Protec-
ON tion
Block relay
Alarm Only
1602 K-FACTOR 0.10 .. 4.00 1.11 K-Factor
1603 TIME CONSTANT 30 .. 32000 sec 600 sec Thermal Time Constant
1604 Θ ALARM 70 .. 100 % 90 % Thermal Alarm Stage
1605 TEMP. RISE I 40 .. 200 °C 100 °C Temperature Rise at
Rated Sec. Curr.
1606 TEMP. RISE I 104 .. 392 °F 212 °F Temperature Rise at
Rated Sec. Curr.
1607 TEMP. INPUT Disabled Disabled Temperature Input
4-20 mA
Fieldbus
RTD 1
1608 TEMP. SCAL. 40 .. 300 °C 100 °C Temperature for Scaling
1609 TEMP. SCAL. 104 .. 572 °F 212 °F Temperature for Scaling
1610A I ALARM 5A 0.50 .. 20.00 A 5.00 A Current Overload Alarm
Setpoint
1A 0.10 .. 4.00 A 1.00 A
1612A Kτ-FACTOR 1.0 .. 10.0 1.0 Kt-Factor when Motor
Stops
1615A I MAX THERM. 5A 2.50 .. 40.00 A 16.50 A Maximum Current for
Thermal Replica
1A 0.50 .. 8.00 A 3.30 A
1616A T EMERGENCY 10 .. 15000 sec 100 sec Emergency Time

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2.11.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
1503 >BLK ThOverload SP >BLOCK thermal overload protection
1506 >RM th.rep. O/L SP >Reset memory for thermal replica O/L
1507 >Emer.Start O/L SP >Emergency start O/L
1508 >Fail.Temp.inp SP >Failure temperature input
1511 Th.Overload OFF OUT Thermal Overload Protection OFF
1512 Th.Overload BLK OUT Thermal Overload Protection BLOCKED
1513 Overload ACT OUT Overload Protection ACTIVE
1514 Fail.Temp.inp OUT Failure temperature input
1515 O/L I Alarm OUT Overload Current Alarm (I alarm)
1516 O/L Θ Alarm OUT Thermal Overload Alarm
1517 O/L Th. pick.up OUT Thermal Overload picked up
1519 RM th.rep. O/L OUT Reset memory for thermal replica O/L
1521 ThOverload TRIP OUT Thermal Overload TRIP

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2.12 Unbalanced Load (Negative Sequence) Protection (ANSI 46)

2.12 Unbalanced Load (Negative Sequence) Protection (ANSI 46)

The unbalanced load protection detects asymmetrical loads of three-phase induction machines. Unbalanced
loads create a counter-rotating field which acts on the rotor at double frequency. Eddy currents are induced on
the rotor surface, leading to local overheating at the transition between the slot wedges and the winding bun-
dles. Another effect of unbalanced loads is overheating of the damper winding. In addition, this protection func-
tion may be used to detect interruptions, faults, and polarity problems with current transformers. It is also useful
for detecting 1-pole and 2-pole faults with magnitudes lower than the load currents.

2.12.1 Functional Description

Determining the Unbalanced Load

The unbalanced load protection of 7UM62 filters the fundamental harmonic components from the phase cur-
rents into their symmetrical components. These are used to evaluate the negative-phase sequence system, i.e.
the negative phase-sequence current I2. If the negative phase-sequence current exceeds a parameterized
threshold value, the trip time starts. A trip command is transmitted as soon as this trip time has expired.

Warning Stage

If the value of the continuously permissible, negative phase-sequence current I2> is exceeded, after expiry of
a set time T WARN a warning message „I2> Warn“ is issued (see Figure 2-23).

Thermal Characteristic

The machine manufacturers indicate the permissible unbalanced load by means of the following formula:

The asymmetry factor depends on the machine and represents the time in seconds during which the generator
can be loaded with a 100 % unbalanced load. This factor is typically in a range between 5 s and 30 s.

The heating up of the object to be protected is calculated in the device as soon as the permissible unbalanced
load I2> is exceeded. In this context, the current-time-area is calculated constantly to ensure a correct consid-
eration of various load cases. As soon as the current-time-area ((I2/IN)2 · t) has reached the K asymmetry factor,
the thermal characteristic is tripped.

Limitation

To avoid overfunctioning of the thermal tripping stage during asymmetrical short circuits, the input current I2 is
restricted. This limit is either 10 · I2adm. or the setting value of the I2>> stage (addr. 1706), whichever is smaller.
Above this current value the tripping time of the thermal function is constant. In addition the thermal memory is
limited to 200% of the tripping temperature. This avoids prolonged cooling after a delayed short circuit tripping.

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2.12 Unbalanced Load (Negative Sequence) Protection (ANSI 46)

Cool Down

A cool-down time with adjustable parmeters starts as soon as the constantly permissible unbalanced load I2>
is undershot. The tripping drops out on dropout of the pickup. However, the counter content is reset to zero with
the cooling time parameterized at address 1705 T COOL DOWN. In this context, this parameter is defined as
the time required by the thermal replica to cool down from 100 % to 0 %. The cool-down time depends on the
construction type of the generator, and especially of the damper winding. Preloading is taken into consideration
when unbalanced loading occurs again during the cool-down period. The protective relay will thus trip in a
shorter time.

Tripping Stages

Figure 2-23 Tripping Zone of the Unbalanced Load Protection

Definite Time Tripping Stage

High negative phase sequence currents can only be caused by a two-pole power system short circuit which
must be covered in accordance with the network grading plan. For this reason, the thermal characteristic is cut
by a selectable, independent negative phase-sequence current stage (parameters 1706 I2>> and 1707 T
I2>>).

Please also observe the instructions regarding phase sequence changeover in Sections 2.5 and 2.47.

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2.12 Unbalanced Load (Negative Sequence) Protection (ANSI 46)

Logic

The following figure shows the logic diagram of the unbalanced load protection. The protection may be blocked
via a binary input („>BLOCK I2“). Pickups and time stages are reset and the metered values in the thermal
replica are cleared. The binary input „>RM th.rep. I2“ only serves to clear metered values of the thermal
characteristic.

Figure 2-24 Logic diagram of the unbalanced load protection

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2.12 Unbalanced Load (Negative Sequence) Protection (ANSI 46)

2.12.2 Setting Notes

General

Unbalanced load protection is only in effect and accessible if address 117 UNBALANCE LOAD is set to
Enabled during configuration. If the function is not required, it is set to Disabled.

The address 1701 UNBALANCE LOAD serves to switch the unbalanced load protection ON or OFF or to block
only the trip command (Block relay).

The maximum permissible, permanent negative phase-sequence current is important for the thermal model.
For machines of up to 100 MVA with non-salient pole rotors, this typically amounts to at least 6 % to 8 % of the
nominal machine current, and with salient-pole rotors at least 12 %. For larger machines and in cases of doubt,
please refer to the instructions of the machine manufacturer.

It is important to note that the manufacturer's data relate to the primary values of the machine, for example, the
maximum permissible permanent inverse current referring to the nominal machine current is indicated. For set-
tings on the protective relay, this data is converted to the secondary inverse current. The following applies

with

I2 max prim Permissible long-term thermal inverse current of the machine

IN Mach Nominal current of the machine

IN CT prim Primary nominal current of the current transformer

Pickup Threshold / Warning Stage

The value for I2> is set at address 1702. It is at the same time the pickup value for a current warning stage
whose delay time T WARN is set at address 1703.

Example:

Machine IN Mach = 483 A


I2 max prim / IN Mach = 11 % permanent (salient-pole machine, see
Figure 2-25)
Current transformer IN CT prim = 500 A
Setting value I2 perm. = 11 % · (483 A/500 A) = 10.6 %

Asymmetry factor K

If the machine manufacturer has indicated the loadability duration due to an unbalanced load by means of the
constant K = (I2/IN)2 ·t, it is set immediately at the address 1704 FACTOR K. The constant K is proportional to
the admissible energy loss.

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2.12 Unbalanced Load (Negative Sequence) Protection (ANSI 46)

Conversion to Secondary Values

The factor K can be derived from the unbalanced load characteristic according to the figure below by reading
the time corresponding to the FACTOR K at the point I2/IN = 1.

Example:

tperm = 20 s for I2/IN = 1

The constant Kprimary = 20 s determined in this way is valid for the machine side (primary side).

The factor Kprimary can be converted to the secondary side by means of the following formula:

The calculated asymmetry factor Ksec is set as FACTOR K at address 1704.


Example:

IN Mach = 483 A

IN CT prim = 500 A

Factor Kprimary = 20 s

Setting value at address1704:

Figure 2-25 Example of an Unbalanced Load Characteristic Specified by the Machine Manufacturer

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2.12 Unbalanced Load (Negative Sequence) Protection (ANSI 46)

Cool-down Time

The parameter 1705 T COOL DOWN establishes the time required by the protection object to cool down under
admissible unbalanced load I2> to the initial value. If the machine manufacturer does not provide this informa-
tion, the setting value can be calculated by assuming an equal value for cool-down time and heatup time of the
object to be protected. The formula below shows the relation between the K asymmetry factor and the cool-
down time:

Example:

With an asymmetry factor of K = 20 s and an admissible continual unbalanced load I2/IN = 11 %, the following
cool-down time results.

This value T COOL DOWN is set at address 1705.

Definite-Time Tripping Characteristic


Asymmetrical faults also cause high negative phase-sequence currents. A definite-time negative phase-se-
quence current stage characteristic 1706 I2>> can thus detect asymmetrical power system short circuits. A
setting between 60 % and 65 % ensures that tripping always occurs in accordance with the thermal character-
istic in case of a phase failure (unbalanced load continually below 100/√3 %, i.e. I2 < 58 %). On the other hand,
a two-pole short circuit can be assumed for an unbalanced load of between 60 % and 65 %. The delay time T
I2>> (address 1707) must be coordinated with the system grading of phase-to-phase short circuits.

Contrary to time-overcurrent protection, the I2>> stage is able to detect fault currents at nominal current. The
following conditions apply:

a two-phase fault with fault current I produces a negative sequence current

a single-phase fault with fault current I produces a negative sequence current

With an isolated starpoint, the I current value is particularly low and can be neglected. With a low-resistance
earthing, however, it is determined by the ground resistance.

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2.12 Unbalanced Load (Negative Sequence) Protection (ANSI 46)

2.12.3 Settings

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


1701 UNBALANCE LOAD OFF OFF Unbalance Load Protection
ON
Block relay
1702 I2> 3.0 .. 30.0 % 10.6 % Continously Permissible Current
I2
1703 T WARN 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 20.00 sec Warning Stage Time Delay
1704 FACTOR K 1.0 .. 100.0 sec; ∞ 18.7 sec Negativ Sequence Factor K
1705 T COOL DOWN 0 .. 50000 sec 1650 sec Time for Cooling Down
1706 I2>> 10 .. 200 % 60 % I2>> Pickup
1707 T I2>> 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 3.00 sec T I2>> Time Delay

2.12.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
5143 >BLOCK I2 SP >BLOCK I2 (Unbalance Load)
5146 >RM th.rep. I2 SP >Reset memory for thermal replica I2
5151 I2 OFF OUT I2 is switched OFF
5152 I2 BLOCKED OUT I2 is BLOCKED
5153 I2 ACTIVE OUT I2 is ACTIVE
5156 I2> Warn OUT Unbalanced load: Current warning stage
5158 RM th.rep. I2 OUT Reset memory of thermal replica I2
5159 I2>> picked up OUT I2>> picked up
5160 I2>> TRIP OUT Unbalanced load: TRIP of current stage
5161 I2 Θ TRIP OUT Unbalanced load: TRIP of thermal stage
5165 I2> picked up OUT I2> picked up

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2.13 Startup Overcurrent Protection (ANSI 51)

2.13 Startup Overcurrent Protection (ANSI 51)

Gas turbines can be started by means of a startup converter. A controlled converter feeds a current into the
generator creating a rotating field of gradually increasing frequency. This causes the rotor to turn and thus drive
the turbine. At approx. 70 % of rated speed, the turbine is ignited and further accelerated until it attains rated
speed. The startup converter is thereby switched off.

2.13.1 Functional Description

Startup procedure

The following figure shows the characteristic quantities during startup. Please note that all quantities are scaled
to rated values.

Figure 2-26 Characteristic quantities during startup of a gas turbine (SN = 150 MVA; UN = 10.5 kV; PStartup
Converter = 2.9 MW)

Assuming that a short-circuit can occur in the generator during startup, a short-circuit protection is necessary
over the entire frequency range.

The automatic adaptation of sampling frequency to current generator frequency implemented in the 7UM62
offers great advantages for this purpose since sensitivity remains the same over the entire frequency range.
This adaptation starts on transition from 10 Hz to 11 Hz. As a result, all short-circuit protection functions, such
as time-overcurrent protection, impedance protection and differential protection are active with the same sen-
sitivity as with nominal frequency.

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2.13 Startup Overcurrent Protection (ANSI 51)

The startup overcurrent protection is a short-circuit protection function that operates below 10 Hz. Its operating
range is designed for 2 Hz to approx. 10 Hz (change to operational condition 1). Beyond this range the above
short-circuit protection functions are active.

The function is also active above 70 Hz with reduced sensitivity, because at that frequency the protection is
again in operational condition 0.

Measuring Principle

At frequencies below 10 Hz, the protection works in operating condition 0, with the sampling frequency auto-
matically set to nominal conditions (fA = 800 Hz for 50 Hz networks and 960 Hz for 60 Hz networks). From the
sampled phase currents, a special algorithm determines the peak values. These are converted into values pro-
portional to the rms values, and compared with the set threshold value.

The logic is shown in the following picture.

Figure 2-27 Logic diagram of the startup overcurrent protection

2.13.2 Setting Notes

General

Startup overcurrent protection is only effective and available if address 118 O/C STARTUP is allocated to Side
1 or Side 2 during configuration. If the function is not needed it is set to Disabled.

Address 1801 serves to switch the function ON or OFF or to block only the trip command (Block relay).

Pick-up threshold

The characteristic of the startup procedure shows that the currents during startup amount to approx. 20 % of
the nominal currents. This allows the protection in principle to be set below nominal current. As shown in the
logic diagram, the function is blocked on change from operational state 0 to 1. Also blockage is to be provided
for via the binary input.

The figure below shows an example of the estimated short-circuit currents at different frequencies. Short-circuit
currents can be a multiple of the rated current. This permits the nominal current to be used for a setting which
could be between 1.2 and 1.4 I/ING.

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2.13 Startup Overcurrent Protection (ANSI 51)

Figure 2-28 Short-circuit currents in the generator during startup (generator: 300 MVA, 15.75 kV, 50 Hz)

Delay
Since the generator circuit breaker is open during startup, there is no need to coordinate the delay time with
the network. Wherever possible, no delay time should be effective at all since the operating time of the protec-
tion function is extended proportionally to the lower frequency (see Chapter Technical Data).

If a sensitive setting is selected, a delay time may be useful to avoid overfunctioning. This delay time should
be based on the lowest detectable frequency of 2 Hz, and set to 0.5 s.

Short-Circuit Protection Coordination

The figure below shows the interaction between the short-circuit protection functions, such as:
• Startup overcurrent protection
• Differential Protection
• I>> stage as back-up stage for 10 Hz and higher

The pickup thresholds here are orientation values.


The differential protection Idiff and the overcurrent protection I>> are effective from approx. 10 - 11 Hz. Addi-
tionally the startup overcurrent protection I-ANF operates. It provides protection in the lower frequency range.

The result is a short-circuit protection concept where the functions complement one another.

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2.13 Startup Overcurrent Protection (ANSI 51)

Figure 2-29 Operating range and possible pickup threshold of short-circuit protection functions

2.13.3 Settings

The table indicates region-specific presettings. Column C (configuration) indicates the corresponding second-
ary nominal current of the current transformer.

Addr. Parameter C Setting Options Default Setting Comments


1801 O/C STARTUP OFF OFF Startup O/C protection
ON
Block relay
1802 STARTUP I> 5A 0.50 .. 100.00 A 6.50 A I> Pickup
1A 0.10 .. 20.00 A 1.30 A
1803 STARTUP T I> 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 0.50 sec T I> Time Delay

2.13.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
5571 >BLOCK O/C St SP >BLOCK startup O/C protection
5572 O/C Start OFF OUT Startup O/C protection is switched OFF
5573 O/C Start BLK OUT Startup O/C protection is BLOCKED
5574 O/C Start ACT OUT Startup O/C protection is ACTIVE
5575 O/C Start L1 PU OUT Startup O/C phase L1 picked up
5576 O/C Start L2 PU OUT Startup O/C phase L2 picked up
5577 O/C Start L3 PU OUT Startup O/C phase L3 picked up
5578 O/C Start TRIP OUT Startup O/C protection TRIP

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2.14 Differential Protection and Its Protected Objects

2.14 Differential Protection and Its Protected Objects

The numerical current differential protection of the 7UM62 is a high speed selective short-circuit protection for
generators, motors and transformers. The individual application can be configured, which ensures optimum
matching to the protected object.

The protected zone is selectively limited by the CTs at its ends.

2.14.1 Differential Protection (ANSI 87G/87M/87T)

The processing of the measured values depends on the way the differential protection is used. This section
discusses first the differential protection function in general, regardless of the type of protected object. A single-
phase system is referred to. Then particularities of individual protected objects are treated.

2.14.1.1 Functional Description

Basic Principle

Differential protection systems operate according to the principle of current comparison and are therefore also
known as current balance protection systems. They utilize the fact that in a healthy protected object the current
leaving the protected object is the same as that which entered it (current Ip, dotted in the following figure).

The secondary windings of current transformers CT1 and CT2, which have the same transformation ratio, may
be so connected that a closed circuit is formed. If now a measuring element M is connected at the electrical
balance point, it reveals the current difference. Under undisturbed conditions (e.g. on-load operation) no current
flows in the measuring element. In the event of a fault in the protected object, the summation current
Ip1+Ip2flows on the primary side. The currents on the secondary side I1 and I2 flow as a summation current I1+I2
through the measuring element M. As a result, the simple circuit shown in the following figure ensures a reliable
tripping of the protection if the fault current flowing into the protected zone (limited by the current transformer)
during a fault is high enough for the measuring element M to respond.

Figure 2-30 Basic Principle of Differential Protection (Single-Phase Representation)


(Ipx = primary current, Ix = secondary current)

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2.14 Differential Protection and Its Protected Objects

Current Stabilization

When an external fault causes heavy currents to flow through the protected zone, differences in the magnetic
characteristics of the current transformers CT1 and CT2 under conditions of saturation may cause a significant
current to flow through the element M, which can cause a tripping. To prevent the protection from such over-
functioning, a stabilizing current is imposed.

The stabilizing quantity is derived from the arithmetical sum of the absolute values of |I1| + |I2|. The following
definitions apply:

a tripping or differential current

Idiff = |I1 + I2|

and the stabilizing or restraint current

Istab = |I1| + |I2|

Idiff is derived from the fundamental frequency current and produces the tripping effect, Istab counteracts this
effect.

To further illustrate the effect, let´s look at three important operating conditions with ideal and adepted mea-
surement quantities:

Figure 2-31 Definitions of Currents

1. Through-flowing current under undisturbed conditions or external fault: I2 reverts its direction, i.e. changes
sign, i.e. I2 = –I1; also |I2| = |I1|
Idiff = |I1 + I2| = |I1 – I1| = 0
Istab = |I1|+ |I2| = |I1| + |I1| = 2 · |I1|
No tripping value (Idiff); stabilisation (Istab) corresponds to twice the through-flowing current.
2. Internal short-circuit, e.g. fed with equal currents each side:
The following then holds: I2 = I1; also: |I2| = |I1|
Idiff = |I1+ I2| = |I1 + I1| = 2 · |I1|
Istab = |I1|+ |I2| = |I1| + |I1| = 2 · |I1|
Tripping value (Idiff) and stabilising value (Istab) are equal and correspond to the total fault current.
3. Internal short-circuit, fed from one side only:
In this case, I2 = 0
Idiff = |I1 + I2| = |I1 – 0| = |I1|
Istab = |I1|+ |I2| = |I1| + 0 = |I1|
Tripping value (Idiff) and stabilising value (Istab) are equal and correspond to the one-sided fault current.
This result shows that for the internal fault under ideal conditions Idiff = Istab. Consequently, the characteristic of
internal faults is a straight line with a upward slope of 45° (dot-and-dash line in the following figure).

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Figure 2-32 Tripping Characteristic of the Differential Protection with Fault Characteristic

Quantitative Matching of Measured values

The rated CT currents are matched to the rated current of the protected object, regardless of what that object
is. As a result, all currents are referred to the protected object. To match the currents, the characteristic values
of the protected object (apparent power, rated voltage) and the rated primary currents of the CTs are entered
in the protective device for each side of the protected object.

Evaluation of Measured Values

The measured values are calculated at each sampling instant and from them the instantaneous values of dif-
ferential and stabilizing current established. From the differential current, the fundamental frequency compo-
nent is determined using a Fourier filter, which effectively attenuates interference and aperiodic DC compo-
nents.

The stabilizing quantity is calculated from the arithmetic average of a rectified value, so that the filter effect is
less in this case. As a result, with interference quantities, compared with the differential current, the stabilization
component predominates, especially with aperiodic DC components.

Tripping Characteristic

This result shows that for internal fault Idiff = Istab. Thus the characteristic of internal faults in the tripping diagram
(see following figure) is a straight line with a slope of 45°. The following figure illustrates the complete stabili-
zation characteristic of the 7UM62. The characteristic branch a represents the sensitivity threshold of the dif-
ferential protection (setting I-DIFF>) and considers constant error currents such as magnetizing currents.

Branch b considers current-proportional errors which may result from transformation errors of the main CTs
and the input CTs of the device, or which for example may be caused by mismatchings or by the influence of
tap changers in transformers with voltage control.

For high currents which may give rise to current transformer saturation, characteristic branch c provides for
additional stabilization.

In the presence of differential currents above branch d a trip command is issued regardless of stabilizing current
and harmonic stabilization. This is the operating range of the „High Speed Trip StageIDiff >>“.

The area of add-on stabilization is determined by the saturation indicator (see margin title "Add-on Stabiliza-
tion with CT saturation").

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The currents IIdiff and Istab are compared by the differential protection with the operating characteristic according
to the following figure. If these values result result in a point within the tripping area, a trip signal is issued. If
the current conditions Idiff /Istab appear near the fault characteristic (≥ 9 0 % of the slope of the fault character-
istic), tripping occurs even when the trip characteristic has been excessively increased due to add-on stabiliza-
tion, startup or DC current detection.

Figure 2-33 Operating Characteristic of the Differential Protection

High-Speed Tripping Stage Idiff>>

The high-speed trip stage IDiff >> clears high-current internal faults instantaneously. As soon as the differential
current rises above the threshold IDiff>> (branch d), a trip signal is issued regardless of the magnitude of the
stabilizing current.

This stage can operate even when, for example, a considerable second harmonic is present in the differential
current caused by current transformer saturation by a DC component in the short-circuit current, and which
could be interpreted by the inrush stabilization function as an inrush current.

Fast tripping uses both the fundamental component of the differential current as well as instantaneous values.
Instantaneous value processing ensures fast tripping even if the current fundamental component was strongly
attenuated by current transformer saturation.

High-current internal faults in the protected transformer can be cleared instantaneously without regard to the
stabilizing currents whenever the current amplitude excludes an external fault. This is always the case when
the short-circuit current is higher than 1/uSC · IN Transf.

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Add-On Stabilization During Current Transformer Saturation

During an external fault which produces a high through-flowing short-circuit current causing current transformer
saturation, a considerable differential current can be simulated, especially when the degree of saturation is dif-
ferent at the two measuring points. If the quantities Idiff/Istab result in an operating point which lies in the trip area
of the operating characteristic, a trip signal would be the consequence if no special measures were taken.

Figure 2-34 Operation Characteristic of the Differential Protection with Fault Characteristic

The 7UM62 provides a saturation indicator which detects such phenomena and initiates add-on stabilization
measures. The saturation indicator evaluates the dynamic behaviour of the differential and stabilizing current.

The dotted line in Figure 2-34 shows the instantaneous development of currents in case of a external fault with
transformer saturation on one side.

Immediately after the fault (A), the short-circuit currents rise strongly, causing a correspondingly high stabilizing
current (2 x through-flowing current). Saturation occurring on one side (B) now causes a differential current and
reduces the stabilizing current, so that the operating point Idiff/Istab may move into the tripping area (C).

In contrast, the operating point moves immediately along the fault characteristic (D) when an internal fault
occurs since the stabilization current will barely be higher than the differential current. Therefore, an internal
fault is assumed as soon as the ratio Idiff/Istab has exceeded an internal threshold for a fixed minimum time.

Current transformer saturation in case of an external fault is thus characterized by a high stabilizing current
flowing at the beginning, i.e. by the operating point (diagram see Figure 2-34) moving into an area that is typical
for a high-current external fault ("add-on stabilization"). The add-on stabilization area is limited by the parame-
ter I-ADD ON STAB. and the first straight line of the characteristic (with BASE POINT 1 and SLOPE 1) (see
following figure). The saturation detector makes its decision within the first quarter of a cycle. When an external
fault is detected, the differential protection is blocked for a selectable time. The blocking is cancelled as soon
as the operating point Idiff/Istab moves steadily (i.e. over 2 cycles) within the tripping area. This allows conse-
quential faults in the protected area to be quickly recognized even after an external fault involving current trans-
former saturation.

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Figure 2-35 Add-on Stabilization During Current Transformer Saturation

Identification of DC Components

A further stabilization (restraint) comes into effect when differential secondary currents are simulated by differ-
ent transient behaviour of the current transformer sets. This differential current is caused by different DC time
constants in the secondary circuits during through-current conditions, i.e. the equal primary DC components
are transformed into unequal secondary DC components due to different time constants of the secondary cir-
cuits. This produces a DC component in the differential current which increases the pickup values of the differ-
ential stage for a short period.

Harmonic Stabilization

In transformers in particular, high short-time magnetizing currents may be present during power-up (inrush cur-
rents). These currents enter the protected zone but do not exit it again, so that they produce differential quan-
tities as they seem like single-end fed fault currents. Unwanted differential currents may also be caused by par-
allel connection of transformers or by transformer overexcitation due to excessive voltage.

The inrush current can amount to a multiple of the rated current and is characterized by a considerable 2nd
harmonic content (double rated frequency) which is practically absent during a short-circuit. If the second har-
monic content in the differential current exceeds a selectable threshold, tripping is blocked.

Figure 2-36 Inrush current - Recording Example of the Three Higher-Voltage Currents

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Besides the second harmonic, another harmonic can be selected in the 7UM62 to cause stabilization. A choice
can be made between the third and fifth harmonic for harmonic stabilization.

Steady-state overexcitation is characterized by odd harmonics. The 3rd or 5th harmonic is suitable to detect
overexcitation. Because the third harmonic is often eliminated in power transformers (e.g. in a delta winding),
the use of the fifth is more common.

Converter transformers also produce odd harmonics which are practically absent in the case of an internal
short-circuit.

The differential currents are analysed for harmonic content. For frequency analysis digital filters are used which
perform a Fourier analysis of the differential currents. As soon as the harmonics content exceeds the set thresh-
olds, a stabilization of the respective phase evaluation is started. The filter algorithms are optimized for tran-
sient behaviour such that additional measures for stabilization during dynamic conditions are not necessary.

Harmonic stabilization is maintained for two cycles after decrease of the differential current. This prevents un-
wanted under-stabilization when external faults are cleared and higher-order harmonics disappear.

Since inrush restraint operates individually for each phase, the protection is fully operative even when the trans-
former is switched onto a single-phase fault, in which case it is possible for an inrush current to flow through
one of the undisturbed phases.

In "modern type" transformers in particular, the 2nd harmonics content may not exceed the threshold value in
all three phases on switch-on. To avoid spurious tripping, the so-called "crossblock" function must be activated.
As soon as an inrush current is detected in one phase, the other phases of the differential protection stage I-
DIFF> are blocked.

The "crossblock" function can be limited to a selectable duration. After this cross-block time has elapsed, no
further cross-block is possible for as long as a current fault condition lasts, i.e. cross-blocking is possible only
once after a fault has occurred, and only for the set cross-block time period.

The other harmonic stabilizations also operate individually for each phase. However, it is also possible —as it
is for inrush stabilization— to set protection such that on overshooting of the admissible harmonic content in
the current of only one phase, the other phases of the differential stage I-DIFF> are blocked. This cross-block
feature with 3rd or 5th harmonic works in the same way as with the 2nd harmonic.

Pickup Value Increase on Startup

An increase of the pickup value on startup provides additional security against overfunctioning when a non-
energized protection object is switched in. As soon as the stabilizing current of one phase has undershot a set-
table value I-REST. STARTUP, the increase of the pickup value is activated for the I-DIFF> stage. As the
stabilizing current is twice the through-flowing current in normal operation, its undershooting of that threshold
is a criterion for detecting that the protected object is not energized. The pickup value I-DIFF is now increased
by a settable factor (see following figure); the other branches of the Idiff> stage are displaced proportionally.

This is done by dividing the DIFF current of the respective phase by the factor START-FACTOR before the char-
acteristic monitoring. The differential current for fault recording, tripping current etc. is not affected by this.

The return of the stabilizing current indicates the startup. After a settable time T START MAX the increase of
the characteristic is retracted.

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Figure 2-37 Increase of pickup value for stage IDIFF> on startup

Fault Detection, Dropout

The differential protection does not normally use a "pickup", since the detection of a fault is identical with the
tripping condition. Like all SIPROTEC 4 devices, however, the differential protection feature of the 7UM62 has
a pickup that is the starting point for a number of subsequent activities. The pickup marks the beginning of a
fault. This is necessary e.g. for creating fault logs and fault records. The pickup also controls internal function
sequences for both internal and external faults (such as necessary actions of the saturation detector).

A pickup is detected as soon as the fundamental wave of the differential current has attained 85 % of the setting
value or more than 85 % of the stabilizing current are in the add-on stabilization area (see following figure). A
pickup signal is also issued when the high-speed trip stage for high-current faults picks up.

Figure 2-38 Pickup of the Differential Protection

If stabilization by higher-order harmonics is activated, the system first performs a harmonic analysis (approx. 1
cycle) to check the stabilization conditions if necessary. Otherwise, the trip command is issued as soon as the
tripping conditions are fulfilled (hatched area in Figure 2-33).

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For special cases, the trip command can be delayed.

The following figure shows a simplified diagram of the tripping logic.

A dropout is detected when, during 2 cycles, pick-up is no longer recognized in the differential value, i.e. the
differential current has fallen below 70 % of the set value, and the other pickup conditions are no longer fulfilled
either.

If a trip command was never initiated, the fault is considered ended on dropout.

If a trip command was initiated, it is maintained for the minimum command duration set in the general device
data for all protection functions (see also Section P.System Data 1).

Note

The special features of the differential protection for individual protected objects are described in separate
chapters.

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Figure 2-39 Logic Diagram of the Tripping Logic in Differential Protection

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2.14.1.2 Setting Notes

General

Differential protection is only effective and available if the type of protected object for this function was set
during protective function configuration (Section 2.4, address 120, DIFF. PROT. = Generator/Motor or 3
phase transf.). Only the relevant parameters for that object are presented, all others are hidden. If the func-
tion is not required Disabled is set. The address 2001 DIFF. PROT. serves to enable the function ON and
OFF or to block only the trip command (Block relay).

Note

When the device is delivered, the differential protection function is switched OFF. The reason is that the pro-
tection must not be in operation unless at least the connection group (of a transformer) and the matching factors
have been set beforehand. Without these settings the device may react unpredictably (e.g. tripping)!

The primary rated current IN CTprim of the used CTs should normally be higher than the rated current IN, Obj. of
the object to be protected. However, at least the following condition should be observed with regard to the upper
limit of the linear zone of the 7UM62, which is 20 · IN:

IN CTprim > 0.75 · IN, Obj.

Additional Settings

Note

Additional parameter settings are given in separate subsections for the respective protected objects.

2.14.1.3 Settings

Addresses which have an appended "A" can only be changed with DIGSI, under Additional Settings.

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


2001 DIFF. PROT. OFF OFF Differential Protection
ON
Block relay
2005 INC.CHAR.START OFF OFF Increase of Trip Char. During Start
ON
2006 INRUSH 2.HARM. OFF ON Inrush with 2. Harmonic Restraint
ON
2007 RESTR. n.HARM. OFF OFF n-th Harmonic Restraint
3. Harmonic
5. Harmonic
2021 I-DIFF> 0.05 .. 2.00 I/InO 0.20 I/InO Pickup Value of Differential Curr.
2026A T I-DIFF> 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 0.00 sec T I-DIFF> Time Delay
2031 I-DIFF>> 0.5 .. 12.0 I/InO; ∞ 7.5 I/InO Pickup Value of High Set Trip
2036A T I-DIFF>> 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 0.00 sec T I-DIFF>> Time Delay
2041A SLOPE 1 0.10 .. 0.50 0.25 Slope 1 of Tripping Characteristic

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Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


2042A BASE POINT 1 0.00 .. 2.00 I/InO 0.00 I/InO Base Point for Slope 1 of Charac.
2043A SLOPE 2 0.25 .. 0.95 0.50 Slope 2 of Tripping Characteristic
2044A BASE POINT 2 0.00 .. 10.00 I/InO 2.50 I/InO Base Point for Slope 2 of Charac.
2051A I-REST. STARTUP 0.00 .. 2.00 I/InO 0.10 I/InO I-RESTRAINT for Start Detection
2052A START-FACTOR 1.0 .. 2.0 1.0 Factor for Increasing of Char. at
Start
2053 T START MAX 0.0 .. 180.0 sec 5.0 sec Maximum Permissible Starting
Time
2061A I-ADD ON STAB. 2.00 .. 15.00 I/InO 4.00 I/InO Pickup for Add-on Stabilization
2062A T ADD ON-STAB. 2 .. 250 Cycle; ∞ 15 Cycle Duration of Add-on Stabilization
2063A CROSSB. ADD ON 2 .. 1000 Cycle; 0; ∞ 15 Cycle Time for Cross-blocking Add-on
Stabiliz.
2071 2. HARMONIC 10 .. 80 % 15 % 2nd Harmonic Content in I-DIFF
2072A CROSSB. 2. HARM 2 .. 1000 Cycle; 0; ∞ 3 Cycle Time for Cross-blocking 2nd
Harm.
2076 n. HARMONIC 10 .. 80 % 30 % n-th Harmonic Content in I-DIFF
2077A CROSSB. n.HARM 2 .. 1000 Cycle; 0; ∞ 0 Cycle Time for Cross-blocking n-th
Harm.
2078A IDIFFmax n.HM 0.5 .. 12.0 I/InO 1.5 I/InO Limit IDIFFmax of n-th Harm.Re-
straint

2.14.1.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
5603 >Diff BLOCK SP >BLOCK differential protection
5615 Diff OFF OUT Differential protection is switched OFF
5616 Diff BLOCKED OUT Differential protection is BLOCKED
5617 Diff ACTIVE OUT Differential protection is ACTIVE
5620 Diff Adap.fact. OUT Diff: adverse Adaption factor CT
5631 Diff picked up OUT Differential protection picked up
5644 Diff 2.Harm L1 OUT Diff: Blocked by 2.Harmon. L1
5645 Diff 2.Harm L2 OUT Diff: Blocked by 2.Harmon. L2
5646 Diff 2.Harm L3 OUT Diff: Blocked by 2.Harmon. L3
5647 Diff n.Harm L1 OUT Diff: Blocked by n.Harmon. L1
5648 Diff n.Harm L2 OUT Diff: Blocked by n.Harmon. L2
5649 Diff n.Harm L3 OUT Diff: Blocked by n.Harmon. L3
5651 Diff Bl. exF.L1 OUT Diff. prot.: Blocked by ext. fault L1
5652 Diff Bl. exF.L2 OUT Diff. prot.: Blocked by ext. fault L2
5653 Diff Bl. exF.L3 OUT Diff. prot.: Blocked by ext. fault.L3
5657 DiffCrosBlk2HM OUT Diff: Crossblock by 2.Harmonic
5658 DiffCrosBlknHM OUT Diff: Crossblock by n.Harmonic
5660 DiffCrosBlk exF OUT Diff: Crossblock by ext. fault
5662 Block Iflt.L1 OUT Diff. prot.: Blocked by CT fault L1

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No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
5663 Block Iflt.L2 OUT Diff. prot.: Blocked by CT fault L2
5664 Block Iflt.L3 OUT Diff. prot.: Blocked by CT fault L3
5666 Diff in.char.L1 OUT Diff: Increase of char. phase L1
5667 Diff in.char.L2 OUT Diff: Increase of char. phase L2
5668 Diff in.char.L3 OUT Diff: Increase of char. phase L3
5671 Diff TRIP OUT Differential protection TRIP
5672 Diff TRIP L1 OUT Differential protection: TRIP L1
5673 Diff TRIP L2 OUT Differential protection: TRIP L2
5674 Diff TRIP L3 OUT Differential protection: TRIP L3
5681 Diff> L1 OUT Diff. prot.: IDIFF> L1 (without Tdelay)
5682 Diff> L2 OUT Diff. prot.: IDIFF> L2 (without Tdelay)
5683 Diff> L3 OUT Diff. prot.: IDIFF> L3 (without Tdelay)
5684 Diff>> L1 OUT Diff. prot: IDIFF>> L1 (without Tdelay)
5685 Diff>> L2 OUT Diff. prot: IDIFF>> L2 (without Tdelay)
5686 Diff>> L3 OUT Diff. prot: IDIFF>> L3 (without Tdelay)
5691 Diff> TRIP OUT Differential prot.: TRIP by IDIFF>
5692 Diff>> TRIP OUT Differential prot.: TRIP by IDIFF>>
5701 Diff L1: VI Diff. current in phase L1 at trip
5702 Diff L2: VI Diff. current in phase L2 at trip
5703 Diff L3: VI Diff. current in phase L3 at trip
5704 Res L1: VI Restr. current in phase L1 at trip
5705 Res L2: VI Restr. current in phase L2 at trip
5706 Res L3: VI Restr. current in phase L3 at trip
5713 Diff CT-S1: VI Diff. prot: Adaptation factor CT side 1
5714 Diff CT-S2: VI Diff. prot: Adaptation factor CT side 2
5742 Diff DC L1 OUT Diff: DC L1
5743 Diff DC L2 OUT Diff: DC L2
5744 Diff DC L3 OUT Diff: DC L3
5745 Diff DC InCha OUT Diff: Increase of char. phase (DC)

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2.14.2 Protected Object Generator or Motor

The following section describes the special features of the generator and motor as the protection objects.

2.14.2.1 Functional Description

Definition and Matching of Measured Quantities

The differential protection function of the 7UM62 can be used as longitudinal or as transverse differential pro-
tection. The operation modes differ from each other only by the definition of the measured currents and the
limits of the protected zone.

Since the current direction is normally defined as positive in the direction of the protected object, the definitions
as illustrated in the following figure result. The protected zone is limited by the CTs in the neutral point of gen-
erator and the CTs at the terminal side. The differential protection feature of the 7UM62 refers all currents to
the rated current of the protected object. The characteristic values of the protected object (apparent power,
rated voltage) and the primary rated currents of the CTs are entered in the protective device. Measured value
matching is therefore limited to current quantity factors.

Due to their predominantly inductive component, faults in the proximity of the generator have relatively high DC
current time constants that cause magnetisation of the current transformers. The CTs should be designed ac-
cordingly (see section 2.14.4).

Figure 2-40 Definition of current direction with longitudinal differential protection

Use as transverse differential protection involves a peculiarity. The definition of the measured currents for this
application is shown in the figure below.

For transverse differential protection, the phases connected in parallel constitute the border between the pro-
tected zone and the network. A differential current appears in this case only, but always, if there is a current
difference within the particular parallel phases, so that a fault current in one phase can be assumed.

Since in this case, for normal operation, all currents flow into the protected object, i.e. the opposite of all other
applications, the polarity must be reversed for one current transformer set, as described in Section 2.5.1 under
"Connection of the Current Transformer Sets".

Figure 2-41 Definition of current direction with transverse differential protection

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The CTs also determine the limits of sensitivity in the case of motors. In asynchronous motors, the startup op-
eration may be modelled in different ways by the CTs, so that major differential currents occur (see also side
title "Increase of Pickup Value on Startup").

2.14.2.2 Setting Notes

Requirement

A precondition for generator or motor differential protection function is that on configuration address 120 DIFF.
PROT. was set to Generator/Motor.

One important setting is the location of the CT starpoints on both sides of the protected object (addresses 201
STRPNT->OBJ S1 for side 1 and 210 STRPNT->OBJ S2 for side 2, see Section P.System Data 1).

Also, the nominal values (SN GEN/MOTOR, UN GEN/MOTOR) of the machine to be protected, and the primary and sec-
ondary nominal currents of the main CTs on both sides must be entered. The settings are referred to these
values. They are also used e.g. for determining the primary measured values.

Information as to the treatment of the starpoint on both sides is required for the measured value monitoring; it
has already been entered during configuration at the addresses 242 STARPNT SIDE 1 and 244 STARPNT
SIDE 2 (see Section 2.5.1).

Pickup Value Increase on Startup

For additional security against overfunctioning when a non-energized protection object is switched in, the in-
crease of the pickup value on startup can be set at address 2005 INC.CHAR.START. On delivery of the device,
this function is switched .

The associated parameters can be found at addresses 2051, 2052 and 2053. Address 2051 I-REST.
STARTUP is used to set the pickup value for detecting a startup. The function is disabled by setting I/IN Obj. = 0.
The START-FACTOR specifies the increase factor of the pickup values on startup. For generator and motor pro-
tection, a setting of 2052 START-FACTOR = 2.0 is recommended.

Tripping characteristic

The parameters of the tripping characteristic are set at addresses 2021 to 2044. Figure 2-42 illustrates the
meaning of the different parameters. The numerical values at the characteristic branches are the parameter
addresses.

Address 2021 I-DIFF> is the pickup value for the differential current. The pickup value is referred to the
nominal current of the generator or motor. For generators and motors, a setting between 0.1 and 0.2 is rec-
ommended.

In addition to the pickup threshold I-DIFF>, a second pickup threshold is considered. If this threshold (2031
I-DIFF>>) is exceeded, tripping is initiated regardless of the magnitude of the restraint current (unstabilized
high-speed trip stage). This stage must be set higher than the I-DIFF> stage. Recommendation: Set a value
above the steady-state value of the transient short-circuit current, i.e.:

With values for xd’ between 0.15 and 0.35, the resulting setting values for I-DIFF>> are approx. (3 to 7) IN,
Mach.

The tripping characteristic comprises two further branches. Address 2041 SLOPE 1 determines the slope of
the first branch, whose starting point is specified in the parameter 2042 BASE POINT 1. This branch considers
current-proportional error currents. These are mainly transformation errors of the main CTs and of the input
CTs. If the CTs are identical, the default setting of 0.25 can be reduced to 0.15.

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The second branch produces a higher stabilization in the range of high currents which may lead to current
transformer saturation. Its base point is set at address 2044 BASE POINT 2. The gradient is set at address
2043 SLOPE 2. The stability during current transformer saturation can be influenced by this parameter branch.
A higher gradient results in a higher stability. The default setting of 0.5 has proven to be a good value.

Figure 2-42 Parameters Determining the Shape of the Tripping Characteristic

Add-On Stabilization During Current Transformer Saturation

Where very high currents flow during an external short-circuit, an add-on stabilization takes effect that is set at
address 2061 I-ADD ON STAB. (saturation stabilization). Please note that the stabilizing current is the arith-
metical sum of the currents entering and leaving the protected zone, i.e. that it is twice the actually flowing cur-
rent. The default setting of 4.00 I/InO should therefore be kept. The maximum duration of the additional stabi-
lization is set at address 2062 T ADD ON-STAB. in multiples of one cycle. This time is the maximum duration
of blocking after leaving the additional stabilization area during heavy current external faults. The setting
depends under certain circumstances on the disconnecting time of the upstream contact. The default setting
20 Cycle is a practical value.

Delay Times

In special cases it may be advantageous to delay the trip signal of the differential protection. For this, an addi-
tional delay can be set. The timer 2026 T I-DIFF> is started when an internal fault in the generator or the
motor has been detected. 2036 T I-DIFF>> is the time delay of tripping stage I-DIFF>>. A separate time
stage is provided for each differential protection stage and for each phase. The dropout delay is linked to the
minimum trip command duration that is valid for all protection functions.

All setting times are additional time delays which do not include the operating times (measuring time, dropout
time) of the protective function.

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2.14.3 Protected Object Transformer

Transformers are subject to a number of influences that induce differential currents even during normal opera-
tion:

2.14.3.1 Functional Description

Mismatching of CTs

Differences in the matching of CTs to the transformer rated current are not uncommon. These differences result
in an error that leads to a differential current.

Voltage Control by Tap Changers

Voltage control tap changers (usually in-phase regulators) change the transformation ratio and the rated current
of the transformer. They cause mismatching of the CTs and thus a differential current.

Inrush Current

Transformers may absorb on power-up considerable magnetising currents (inrush currents) that enter the pro-
tected zone but do not exit it. They act therefore like fault currents entering on one side.

The inrush current can amount to a multiple of the rated current and is characterized by a considerable 2nd
harmonic content (double rated frequency) which is practically absent during a short-circuit.

Overexcitation

Where a transformer is operated with an excessive voltage, the non-linear magnetising curve leads to in-
creased magnetising currents, which cause in turn an additional differential current.

Vector Group

Depending on their application, transformers have different vector groups, which cause a shift of the phase
angles between the primary and the secondary side. Without adequate correction, this phase shift would cause
a differential current.

The following paragraphs describe the main functional blocks of the differential protection for managing these
influences.

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Quantitative matching of Measured values

The input currents are converted in relation to the power transformer rated current. The nominal values of the
transformer, i.e. rated apparent power, rated voltages and primary rated CT currents, are entered in the protec-
tive device, and a correction factor kCT is calculated according to the following formula:

with

IN CTprim Primary CT rated current

IN,Obj. Nominal primary current of the protected object

SN Nominal apparent power of protected object

UN Rated voltage

kCT Correction factor

This correction is performed for each side of the protected object.

Once the vector group has been entered, the protective device is capable of performing the current comparison
according to fixed formulae.

Matching of Vector Group

Unit transformers often have a wye-delta connection, with the delta connection being on the generator side. To
allow a maximum of versatility in the use of the 7UM62, all imaginable vector group combinations have been
provided for in the software. The basic principle of numerical vector group correction is now explained by way
of example for a Y(N)d5 transformer.

The higher voltage side has a wye connection and the lower voltage side a delta connection. The phase rotation
is n · 30° (i.e. 5 · 30° = 150°). Side 1 (higher voltage side) is the reference system. The vector group correction
feature transforms the currents flowing from side 2 to side 1.

Isolated Starpoint

The following figure shows the vector group, the vector diagram for symmetrically flowing currents and the
transformation rules for a system with an isolated starpoint.

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Figure 2-43 Vector group matching for a Yd5 transformer (isolated starpoint)

Deducting on side 2 the currents IL3 – IL1, results in the current IA, which has the same direction as IA on side
1. Multiplying with 1/√3 matches the quantitative values. The matrix describes the conversion for all three
phases.

Earthed Transformer Starpoint

The following figure shows an example of a YNd5 vector group with earthed starpoint on the Y-side.

The zero sequence currents are eliminated in this case. In the following figure on the right side, the zero se-
quence currents are automatically eliminated by the current difference formation, just as in the transformer
there can be no zero sequence currents outside the delta winding. On the left-hand side, the elimination of the
zero sequence current results from the matrix equation, e.g.
1
/3 · (2 IL1 – 1 IL2 – 1 IL3) = 1/3 · (3 IL1 – IL1 – IL2 – IL3) = 1/3 · (3 IL1 – 3 I0) = (IL1 – I0).

Because of the zero sequence current elimination, fault currents which flow through the CTs during earth faults
in the network if there is an earthing point in the protected zone (transformer starpoint or starpoint earthing
transformer) are neutralised without any special measures from outside.

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Figure 2-44 Vector group matching for Y(N) d5 (with earthed starpoint)

In the following figure on the left-hand side, a zero sequence current will occur in case of e.g. an external fault;
on the right-hand side, it will not. If the currents were compared without first eliminating the zero sequence cur-
rent, the result would be wrong (differential current despite external fault). Therefore, the zero sequence current
must be eliminated on side 1. The zero sequence current is subtracted from the phase currents. The rule for
calculation is shown in the left-hand matrix in Figure 2-44.

Figure 2-45 Example of an earth fault outside the transformer with distribution of currents

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2.14.3.2 Setting Notes

Requirement

A precondition for the transformer differential protection function is that on configuration address 120 DIFF.
PROT. was set to 3 phase transf..

To ensure the correct polarity for the formation of the differential current, the polarity of the sets of CTs must be
specified. This was done during configuration by entering the location of the starpoints of the sets of CTs on
both sides of the transformer (addresses 201 STRPNT->OBJ S1 for side 1 and 210 STRPNT->OBJ S2 for
side 2, see Subsection P.System Data 1).

Also the nominal data (SN TRANSF, UUN WIND S1, UN WIND S2) of both sides of the transformer, as well as the primary
and secondary rated currents of the main CTs on both sides were queried. The settings are referred to these
values. They are also used e.g. for determining the primary measured values.

Information on starpoint handling on both sides is required for elimination of zero sequence current and for
measured value monitoring (summation current monitoring); it has already been entered during configuration
at addresses 242 STARPNT SIDE 1 and 244 STARPNT SIDE 2 (see Subsection 2.5.1).

Matching of Absolute Values and Vector Groups


When used as transformer protection, the 7UM62 automatically computes from the rated data of the protected
transformer the current-matching formulae which are required to match the vector group and the different rated
winding currents. The currents are converted such that the sensitivity of the protection always refers to the
rated apparent power of the transformer. No circuitry is required in general for vector group matching or for
manual conversions for rated currents.

The unit requires the following data for each winding


• Rated apparent power SN in MVA (see above),
• Rated voltage UN in kV (see above)
• Vector group numeral,
• Rated current of the current transformer set in A (see above).

Winding 1 is defined as the reference winding and therefore needs no numeral; the other windings are referred
to winding 1.

The reference winding is normally that of the higher voltage. If a reference winding other than the higher voltage
one is used, it must be noted that this changes the vector group numeral: E.g. a Dy5 transformer is regarded
from the Y side as Yd7.

If a transformer winding is regulated, then the actual rated voltage of the winding is not used as UN, but rather
the voltage which corresponds to the average current of the regulated range.

If the setting of the protection should be performed with secondary values only (e.g. because external matching
transformers are present), the factory-set parameters of the transformer data can remain unchanged. With the
default setting of transformer data, the device effects a current matching of 1: 1 without phase displacement

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Zero Sequence Current Treatment

The treatment of the winding starpoints is of no concern if the zero sequence current is eliminated from the
phase currents. By this means fault currents which flow through the CTs during earth faults in the network if
there is an earthing point in the protected zone (transformer starpoint or starpoint earthing transformer) are neu-
tralized without any special external measures. Elimination is done by setting STARPOINT S* = earthed (see
Figure „Vector Group Adaptation with Earthed Starpoint“in the Functional Description of this subsection).

In resonant-earthed systems or isolated networks, elimination of zero sequence current may be dispensed with
provided that the starpoint of the protected transformer winding has no connection to earth, not even via a Pe-
tersen coil or a surge arrester! In this case, each double earth fault with one base point in the protected zone
will be cleared by the relay, regardless of any double earth fault priority (see side title „Ungrounded Starpoint“
and Figure „Vector Group Matching for Y(N) d5 (isolated starpoint)“).

Pickup Value Increase on Startup

For additional security against overfunctioning when a non-energized protection object is switched in, the in-
crease of the pickup value on startup can be set at address 2005 INC.CHAR.START. As this option is mainly
provided for generator and motor protection, the default setting is initially OFF if a 2-winding transformer is
selected as protected object.

The associated parameters can be found at addresses 2051, 2052 and 2053. Address 2051 I-REST.
STARTUP is used to set the pickup value for detecting a startup. The function is disabled by setting I/IN Obj. = 0.
The START-FACTOR specifies the increase factor of the pickup values on startup. For transformer protection,
we recommend to retain the default setting 2052 START-FACTOR = 1.0. For switching external loads such as
motors or transformers, it should be increased to 2.0. Due to the high time constants, branch b of the charac-
teristic may well be exceeded for a short time with nonmatched CTs.

Harmonic Restraint

The inrush restraint of the device can be enabled and disabled at address 2006 INRUSH 2.HARM.. It is based
on evaluation of the 2nd harmonic present in the switchon inrush current. When the device is delivered from
the factory, a ratio I2fN/IfN of 15 % is set and can normally be taken over unchanged. However the component
required for restraint can be parameterized. To provide for more restraint in exceptional cases, where switch-
on conditions are particularly unfavourable, a smaller value can be set at address 2071 2. HARMONIC.

Cross Blocking
The inrush restraint can be extended by the so-called "crossblock" function. This means that on harmonic
content overshoot in only one phase all three phases of the differential stage IDIFF> stage are blocked. The
duration for which the cross-block function is to remain operative after differential current overshoot, is set at
address 2072 CROSSB. 2. HARM. Setting is in multiples of an AC-cycle. Setting to 0 means that the protection
can initiate a tripping when the transformer is switched onto a single-phase fault, even if an inrush current is
flowing in another phase. When set to ∞, the cross-block function is always effective. The duration of the block-
ing is specified during commissioning. The default setting of 3 cycles has proven to be a practical value.

Besides the second harmonic, the 7UM62 can provide restraint with a further harmonic, the nth harmonic.
Address 2007 RESTR. n.HARM. is used to disable this harmonics restraint, or to select the harmonic for it.
The 3rd or the 5th harmonic are selectable.

Steady-state overexcitation is characterized by odd harmonics. Here the third or fifth harmonic are suitable for
restraint purposes. As the third harmonic is often eliminated in transformers (e.g. in a delta winding), the fifth
harmonic is more commonly used.

Converter transformers also produce odd harmonics which are practically absent in the case of an internal
short-circuit.

The harmonic content which blocks the differential protection is set at address 2076 n. HARMONIC. If the 5th
harmonic is used as overexcitation stabilization, e.g. 30 % (default setting) is common.

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The harmonic restraint operates individually per phase. However, it is also possible – as it is for the inrush re-
straint – to set the protection such that not only the phase with harmonics content in excess of the permissible
value is stabilized but also the other phases of the differential stage IDIFF> are blocked ("cross-block" function).
The duration for which the cross-block function is to remain operative after differential current overshoot, is set
at address 2077 CROSSB. n.HARM. The setting is in multiples of an cycle. When set to 0 Cycle (default set-
ting), the protection can initiate a trip when the transformer is switched onto a single-phase fault, even if a high
harmonic content is present in another phase. When set to ∞, the cross-block function is always effective.

If the differential current exceeds a multiple of the rated transformer current specified at address 2078
IDIFFmax n.HM, no nth-harmonic restraint takes place.

Tripping Characteristic

The parameters of the tripping characteristic are set in addresses 2021 to 2044. The meaning of the parame-
ters can be seen in the following figure. The numerical values at the characteristic branches are the parameter
addresses.

Address 2021 I-DIFF> is the pickup value for the differential current. This is the total fault current flowing in
the protection area, regardless of the way it is distributed between the windings of the protected transformer.
The pickup value is referred to the rated current corresponding to the rated apparent power of the transformer.
For transformers, the setting should be between 0.2 and 0.4. It should be checked during commissioning that
the selected pickup value is at least twice the maximum differential current present in steady-state operation.

In addition to the pickup threshold I-DIFF>, a second pickup threshold is introduced. If this threshold (2031
I-DIFF>>) is exceeded, tripping is initiated regardless of the magnitude of the restraint current (unstabilized
high-speed trip stage). This stage must be set higher than the I-DIFF> stage. As a guide: greater than the
reciprocal value of the transformer´s relative short-circuit value 1/uk times the rated transformer current.

The tripping characteristic forms two more branches (see the following figure). Address 2041 SLOPE 1 deter-
mines the slope of the first branch, whose starting point is specified in the parameter 2042 BASE POINT 1.
This branch covers current-proportional error currents. These are mainly transformation errors of the main CTs
and, especially, the differential currents which may occur in the final tap changer positions due to a possible
transformer regulation range. This branch of the characteristic limits the stabilization area. The preset slope of
0.25 should be sufficient for regulating ranges up to 20 %. If the transformer has a larger regulated range, the
slope must be increased accordingly.

Figure 2-46 Parameters Determining the Shape of the Tripping Characteristic

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The second branch produces a higher restraint in the range of high currents which may lead to current trans-
former saturation. Its base point is set at address 2044 BASE POINT 2 and is referred to the rated power
transformer current. The slope is set at address 2043 SLOPE 2. The restraint during current transformer sat-
uration can be influenced by this parameter branch. A higher gradient results in a higher restraint.

Additional Stabilization During Current Transformer Saturation

Where very high currents flow during an external short-circuit, an add-on stabilization takes effect that is set at
address 2061 I-ADD ON STAB. (saturation stabilization). Please note that the stabilizing current is the arith-
metical sum of the currents through the windings, i.e. it is twice the actually flowing current. The default setting
of should be maintained. The maximum duration of the additional stabilization is set at address 2062 T ADD
ON-STAB. in multiples of one cycle. This time is the maximum duration of blocking after leaving the additional
stabilization area during heavy current external faults. The setting depends under certain circumstances on the
disconnecting time of the upstream contact. The default setting 15 Cycle is a practical value.

Delay Times

In special cases it may be advantageous to delay the trip signal of the differential protection. For this, an addi-
tional delay can be set. The delay timer 2026 T I-DIFF> is started when an internal fault is detected in the
transformer. 2036 T I-DIFF>> is the delay time for the tripping stage 2031 I-DIFF>>. A separate time stage
is provided for each differential protection level and for each phase. The dropout delay is linked to the minimum
trip command duration that is valid for all protection functions. All setting times are additional time delays which
do not include the operating times (measuring time, dropout time) of the protective function.

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2.14.4 Current Transformer Requirements

The differential protection is of decisive importance for the requirements that the current transformers must
meet. The high-speed trip stage (IDiff >>) uses instantaneous values and can therefore reliably trip high-current
internal short-circuits. For determination of the primary CT rated current, in practice the general usual proce-
dures are used. It must be selected equal to or greater than the rated current of the protected object.

2.14.4.1 Functional Description

Design recommendations

The external short circuit determines the requirements that the current transformers must meet because of the
possible DC current component. In case of a short-circuit flowing through the power transformers, a minimum
of 5 ms should elapse before current transformer saturation occurs. The two following tables show the design
specifications. The IEC 60044-1 and IEC 60044-6 standards were used in these tables. The equations for cal-
culating the requirements as knee-point voltages are listed in table 2-7.

Table 2-5 Overcurrent Factors

Required operational overcurrent factor Resulting rated overcurrent factor

with

Ktd Transient dimensioning factor

IpSSC Primary symmetric short circuit current

IpN Primary CT rated current

RBC Connected load

RBN Rated load

RCt Internal load

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Table 2-6 Transformer Requirements

Transformer Generator
Transient dimensioning factor Ktd ≥4 > (4 to 5), with τN > 100 ms
with τN ≤ 100 ms
Symmetrical short circuit current IpSSC

Example uSC = 0.1 xd’’ = 0.12


n’ > 40 n’ > (34 to 42)
Note: Power ≥ 10 or 15 VA Note internal load!
Always use identical transformers
Example of network transform- Example:
er: IN, Gapprox. 1000 to 2000 A
10P10 10 or 15 VA 5P15 15 VA
(IsN = 1 A or 5 A) (IsN = 1 A or 5 A)
IN, G > 5000 A
5P20 30 VA
(IsN = 1 A or 5 A)

with
uSC Transformer impedance

xd” Direct-axis transient reactance

IsN Secondary CT rated current

τN Power system time constant

Table 2-7 Knee-Point Voltages


IEC British Standard ANSI

with

U Knee-point voltages

KALF Rated overcurrent factor

IsN Secondary CT rated current

RBN Rated load

RCt Internal load

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2.15 Earth Current Differential Protection (ANSI 87GN,TN)

The earth current differential protection detects earth faults in generators and transformers with a low-ohmic or
solid starpoint earthing. It is selective, and more sensitive than the classical differential protection (see Section
2.14.1).

A typical application of this protection function are configurations where multiple generators are connected to
one busbar and one generator has a low-ohmic earthing. Another application would be transformer windings
in wye connection.

For applications such as auto-transformers, starpoint earthing transformers and shunt reactors, Siemens rec-
ommends that the 7UT612 protective device be used instead.

For high-ohmic earthing of generators, the earth fault protection function (Section 2.28) is used.

2.15.1 Functional Description

Connection Variants

The following figure shows two typical implementations. In connection scheme 1, the zero sequence current is
calculated from the measured phase currents, and the starpoint current is measured directly. This application
is the version for transformers and for the generator with direct (low-ohmic) earthing.

In connection scheme 2, both zero sequence currents are calculated from the measured phase currents. The
protected object is located between the current transformers. This measuring method should be used for gen-
erators in busbar connection, where multiple generators feed the busbar and any one of the generators is
earthed.

Figure 2-47 Connection schemes of the earth current differential protection

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Measuring Principle

The 2 possible implementations of the earth fault differential protection differ only in their method of determining
the zero sequence current. This is shown in the following picture. This figure also shows the definition of the
current direction. The general definition is: Reference arrows run in positive direction to the protected object.

Figure 2-48 Connection scheme and definition of current vectors

In both measuring principles, there is a vector addition of the phase currents on the line side (always side 1 in
the 7UM62), which yields the zero sequence current. The rule of calculation for side 1 is:

3I01 = IL1S1 + IL2S1 + IL3S1

For the second zero sequence current, two methods of determination are possible:

On the one hand it is measured directly as the starpoint current at input IEE2 (ISt = IEE2). Method 2 is to calculate
the zero sequence current from the CTs on the starpoint side (always side 2 in the 7UM62). The pertinent for-
mulas are:

3I02 = ISt = IEE2

or

3I02 = IL1S2 + IL2S2 + IL3S2

When an earth fault occurs in the protected zone, there is always a starpoint current ISt or zero sequence
current flowing through the CTs of side 2 (3I02). Depending on the network earthing conditions, there may also
be an earthing current (3I01) flowing through the CTs of side 1 to the fault location (dashed arrow). Due to the
definition of the current direction, however, the zero sequence current 3I01 is more or less in phase with the
starpoint current.

When an earth fault occurs outside the protected zone (see next picture, fault location 2), there is also a star-
point current ISt or zero sequence current flowing through the CTs of side 2 (3I02) and a zero sequence current
flowing through the CTs of side 1 (3I01). The zero sequence current must be the same at all three possible mea-
surement locations. As the current direction flowing into the protected object is defined as positive, the zero
sequence current flowing on side 1 (3I01) is in phase opposition to the starpoint current ISt or to the computed
zero phase current of side 2 (3I02).

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Figure 2-49 Example of an external fault

When an external non-earthed fault causes heavy currents to flow through the protected zone, differences in
the magnetic characteristics of the phase current transformers under conditions of saturation may cause a sig-
nificant summation current which resembles an earth current flowing into the protected zone. Measures must
be taken to prevent this current from causing a trip. The same may happen if, for example, significant loads
with a high inductive component (and thus large time constants), such as motors or transformers, are switched
in.

For these reasons the earth current differential protection provides a number of restraining features which differ
significantly from conventional restraining methods (see margin heading "Restraining Measures").

Evaluation of Measured Values

The earth current differential protection compares the fundamental wave of the zero currents on both sides (3I01
and 3I02) and calculates from them the differential and the restraint (stabilizing) current.

I0-Diff = | 3I01 + 3I02 |

I0-Stab = | 3I01 3I02 |

Depending on the application, current 3I02 may be the calculated zero sequence current of side 2 or the directly
measured starpoint current ISt.

Under no-fault conditions, and with ideal CTs, the zero sequence currents would be zero, and consequently the
differential and the restraint current zero also. To eliminate the influence of CT errors, the restraint is determined
by the characteristic (see following figure).
In case of an external earth fault, the differential current is zero or minimal, and the restraint current is twice the
fault current. The measured quantities are within the restraint zone. An internal earth fault, on the other hand,
causes a fairly equal differential and restraint current. This is now in the trip zone (along the dashed line).

The pickup threshold is set with the I-REF> stage.

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Figure 2-50 Tripping and restraint characteristic

In applications with direct measurement of the starpoint current (e.g. earth current differential protection for
transformers), the starpoint current is queried in addition to evaluation of the characteristic. This provides ad-
ditional restraint against CT problems such as wrong zero sequence current modeling of the phase current
transformers on side 1. The starpoint current must have exceeded the pickup current I-REF>, too.

In order to compensate differences in the primary CT current ratings, the currents are matched to the current
ratings of the protected object.

Restraining Measures

The purpose of the earth current differential protection is the detection of low-current faults. This involves a sen-
sitive setting. A significant source of errors of the protection function are differences in the transient transfor-
mation characteristics of the phase CTs. Factors to be considered here are different DC transformation char-
acteristics and saturation conditions.

Spurious tripping of the protection in the presence of external earth faults must be avoided.

An basic rule for this is the use of matched phase current transformers, so that their CT error current (resulting
zero sequence current) under steady-state conditions is minimal.

Further restraining measures include:


• Additional evaluation of the starpoint current (see above)
Only in the presence of an earth fault can a current flow through the starpoint CTs. This helps to avoid spu-
rious tripping under no-fault conditions caused by transmission errors of the phase current transformers.
This measure is also effective for faults without earth involvement. A prerequisite for using this measure is
the presence of a starpoint CT in the application. It usually cannot be used for generators in busbar connec-
tion.
• Evaluation of the zero sequence current direction
This monitoring functions aims at preventing spurious tripping in the presence of external earth faults. It does
so by evaluation of the zero sequence current direction. Under ideal conditions, the currents must be in
phase during an internal earth fault, and in phase opposition during an external earth fault. The threshold
angle is 90°. The next picture shows that monitoring is divided into 2 zones. Where fault conditions are def-
inite, tripping is immediately activated (zone I) or blocked (zone III). In zone II, an additional measurement
is performed before a decision is made. Where the zero phase currents are too small (zone IV), the direction
criterion is ineffective, and 0° is assumed.

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Figure 2-51 Operating ranges of the direction criterion

• Phase current monitoring


To exclude spurious tripping due to CT saturation in the presence of external faults, the protection function
is blocked as soon as a maximum phase current is reached. For this purpose, the phase currents of side 1
are monitored. As soon as one phase current exceeds the threshold, blocking takes effect. This blocking is
not a drawback, since high-current faults are sufficiently managed by other protection functions such as dif-
ferential protection, impedance protection and overcurrent protection.
• Zero sequence voltage monitoring
Where the phase current transformers model zero sequence currents on the secondary side after load ad-
dition, and where there is no direct evaluation of the starpoint current, zero sequence voltage monitoring
should be used. It also provides additional restraint in the presence of external faults without earth involve-
ment. The zero sequence voltage is calculated from the phase-to-earth voltages. On detection of a zero se-
quence voltage, an enable signal is issued.

Logic

The logic interconnection of all signals and the most important settings, as well as the indications output, are
shown in the following logic diagram (Figure ). The function can be blocked with the input „>BLOCK REF“.
Using the CFC, this input also allows blocking of other features such as if the measured zero sequence voltage
is to be injected via the UE input. This is necessary if the voltage inputs are connected to a voltage transformer
in V connection (open delta connection).

The following figure shows the blocking of the phase currents and their release on the basis of the calculated
zero voltage. This is followed by the monitoring of the operating characteristic with possibly an additional query
of the starpoint current, and the angle enabling. When all conditions are met, the earth current differential pro-
tection picks up. The subsequent timer T I-REF> is usually set to zero.

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Figure 2-52 Logic Diagram of the Earth Current Differential Protection


with
1) Use of generator: ILxSm always side 1
Use of transformer: ILxSm according to allocation of sides

2.15.2 Setting Notes

General

A precondition for the operation of the earth current differential protection is that during the configuration of the
scope of functions (Section 2.4) the correct selection for the application in hand was made at address 121 REF
PROT.. If the protected object is a generator, the user can select either direct measurement of the starpoint
current via IEE2 (Gen. with IEE2), or computed current (Gen. w. 3I0-S2). For the transformer the directly
measured zero sequence current is always used. It is however possible to select for the side allocation
(Transformer S1 or Transformer S2).

In power system data 1 the required settings must have been made. These are also necessary for normaliza-
tion and direction definition (see also Section 2.5 or 2.14.1). If the IEE2 input is used, the protection device must
be notified of the neutral point transformer transformation ratio (prim./sec.) and the terminal of the earthing-side
CT to which the IEE2 input is connected (see comments in Section 2.5).

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Note

When using the IEE2 input, it must be kept in mind that this is a sensitive current input. The current amplitude
is limited to approx. √2 1.6 A. A secondary rated current of 1 A is to be used for the starpoint CT. If a 5-A trans-
former is used, the appropriate transformation ratio has to be set. When checking the stabilisation during an
external single-pole fault, a difference current will occur in the operational measured values at input IEE2 due to
the current limitation. This fault will not initiate a trip because the current direction is evaluated as well.

Address 2101 REF PROT. serves to switch the function ON or OFF or to block only the trip command (Block
relay).

Note

When the device is delivered, the earth current differential protection is set to OFF. The reason is that the pro-
tection must not be in operation unless at least the assigned side and CT polarity have been properly set
before. Without proper settings, the device may show unexpected reactions (incl. tripping)!

Pickup Values

The sensitivity of the protection is determined by I-REF> setting (address 2110). This is the earth fault current
flowing in from the starpoint of the protected object (transformer, generator), and in some cases also from the
network. This value should be chosen on the basis of the most unfavourable case, i.e. fault currents entering
from one side only. The current set refers to the nominal current of the protected object or the protected side.
The sensitivity limit is as a rule set by the CTs. A setting between 0.1 and 0.15 I/InO is quite practical.

For the operating characteristic, the default settings can be used. If necessary, these settings can be changed
with the DIGSI communication software. The advanced parameters define the slope (2113 SLOPE) and the
base point (2114 BASE POINT) of the characteristic.

To stabilize the protection function, address 2102 can be set to blocking by the phase current (REF I> BLOCK).
As a rule of thumb, the pickup value should never be more than twice the nominal current. With low-ohmic star-
point earthing, the general formula is: nominal current + earth current resulting from the starpoint resistance.

The zero voltage enabling depends on the operating range of the protection function. 95 % of a generator stator
winding is a good value. Therefore, the secondary-side value has been set to 5.0 V (2103 REF U0>RELEASE).
Where the zero voltage enabling is not used, it must be set to 0.0 V.

Note

For the protection function, the zero voltage calculated from the phase-to-earth voltages has been multiplied
with √3, which corresponds to the voltage present in a broken delta winding.

No settings need to be made for the angle enabling and the additional evaluation of the directly measured star-
point current (where used).

For special applications, it may be advantageous to delay the trip command of the protection. This can be done
by setting an additional delay time (address 2112 T I-REF>). Normally, this delay time is set to 0. A minimum
command duration was set in common for all protection functions (see Section 2.5.1 under „Command Dura-
tion“).

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2.15.3 Settings

Addresses which have an appended "A" can only be changed with DIGSI, under Additional Settings.

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


2101 REF PROT. OFF OFF Restricted Earth Fault Protection
ON
Block relay
2102 REF I> BLOCK 1.0 .. 2.5 I/InO 1.5 I/InO REF Pickup of Phase Current
Blocking
2103 REF U0>RELEASE 1.0 .. 100.0 V; 0 5.0 V REF Pickup of U0> Release
2110 I-REF> 0.05 .. 2.00 I/InO 0.10 I/InO I-REF> Pickup
2112 T I-REF> 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 0.00 sec T I-REF> Time Delay
2113A SLOPE 0.00 .. 0.95 0.25 Slope of Charac. I-REF> = f(I0-
Rest)
2114A BASE POINT 0.00 .. 2.00 I/InO 0.00 I/InO Base Point for Slope of Charac-
teristic

2.15.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
5803 >BLOCK REF SP >BLOCK restricted earth fault prot.
5811 REF OFF OUT Restricted earth fault is switched OFF
5812 REF BLOCKED OUT Restricted earth fault is BLOCKED
5813 REF ACTIVE OUT Restricted earth fault is ACTIVE
5817 REF picked up OUT REF protection picked up
5821 REF TRIP OUT REF protection TRIP
5833 REF CTstar: VI REF adaptation factor CT starpnt. wind.
5836 REF Adap.fact. OUT REF adverse Adaption factor CT
5837 REF CT-S1: VI REF adaptation factor CT side 1
5838 REF CT-S2: VI REF adaptation factor CT side 2
5840 REF I> blocked OUT REF is blocked by phase current
5841 REF U0> releas. OUT REF release by U0>
5845 I-REF> pickup OUT REF pickup of I-REF>
5846 REF char.pickup OUT REF characteristic picked up
5847 I0-Diff: VI I0-Diff at REF-Trip
5848 I0-Res: VI I0-Restraint at REF-Trip

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2.16 Underexcitation (Loss-of-Field) Protection (ANSI 40)

2.16 Underexcitation (Loss-of-Field) Protection (ANSI 40)

The underexcitation protection protects a synchronous machine from asynchronous operation in the event of
faulty excitation or regulation and from local overheating of the rotor. Furthermore, it prevents that the network
stability is endangered by underexcitation of large synchronous machines.

2.16.1 Functional Description

Underexcitation Determination

To assess underexcitation the device processes all three terminal phase currents and all three terminal voltag-
es for the stator circuit criterion. It also processes the excitation voltage made available by the measuring trans-
ducer TD3, for the rotor circuit criterion.

For the stator circuit criterion the admittance is calculated from the positive sequence currents and voltages.
The admittance measurement always produces the physically appropriate stability limit, independently of
voltage deviations from rated voltage. Even in such circumstances the protection characteristic can be thus op-
timally matched to the stability characteristic of the machine. By virtue of the positive sequence system eval-
uation, protection operates reliably even during asymmetrical current or voltage conditions.

Characteristic Curves

The following figure shows the loading diagram of the synchronous machine in the admittance plane (P/U2; –
Q/U2) with the static stability limit which crosses the reactive axis near 1/xd (reciprocal value of the synchronous
direct reactance).

Figure 2-53 Admittance Diagram of Turbo Generators

The underexcitation protection in the 7UM62 makes available three independent, freely combinable character-
istics. As illustrated in the following figure, it is possible for example to model static machine stability by means
of two partial characteristics with the same time delays (T CHAR. 1 = T CHAR 2). The partial characteristics
are distinguished by the corresponding distance from the zero point (1/xd CHAR. 1) and (1/xd CHAR. 2) as well
as the corresponding inclination angle α1 and α2.

If the resulting characteristic (1/xd CHAR.1)/α1; (1/xd CHAR.2)/α2 is exceeded (in the following figure on the
left), a delayed warning (e.g. by 10 s) or a trip signal is transmitted. The delay is necessary to ensure that the
voltage regulator is given enough time to increase the excitation voltage.

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Figure 2-54 Stator circuit criterion: Pick–Up Characteristic in Admittance Diagram

A further characteristic (1/xd CHAR.3 /α3 can be matched to the dynamic stability characteristic of the synchro-
nous machine. Since stable operation is impossible if this characteristic is exceeded, immediate tripping is then
required (time stage T CHAR 3).

Excitation voltage query

With a faulty voltage regulator or excitation voltage failure, it is possible to switch off with a short delay (time
stage T SHRT Uex<, e.g. 1.5 s). To do so, the device must either be notified of the excitation voltage failure
via binary input, or the excitation voltage must be fed in via measuring transducer TD3 and a voltage divider,
provided that at address 3012 EXCIT. VOLT. the excitation voltage query via measuring transducer has been
switched ON.

As soon as the excitation voltage undershoots a settable minimum 3013 Uexcit. <, short-time tripping is
initiated.

Instead of the excitation voltage acquisition, or also in addition to it, the signal of an external excitation voltage
monitoring can be fed in via a binary input. Here also, short-time tripping is initiated as soon as excitation
voltage failure is signalled.

Lowpass Filter

As the excitation DC voltage may contain significant AC harmonics (e.g. because of thyristor control), an analog
lowpass filter is provided on the C-I/O-6 board for connection of excitation voltage, in addition to the integrated
digital filter. This particularly attenuates multiples of the scanning frequency, which cannot be adequately sup-
pressed by the digital filter. The jumper settings for activating this filter are described in the Mounting and Com-
missioning section. On delivery from the factory, the filter is enabled. The jumper setting must match the setting
of the parameter 297 TRANSDUCER 3 (see Power System Data, Section 2.5.1). If jumper settings and param-
eters do not match, an alarm is issued and the device is reported faulty and not operative.

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Undervoltage Blocking

The admittance calculation requires a minimum measurement voltage. During a severe collapse (short-circuit)
or failure of stator voltages, the protection is blocked by an integrated AC voltage monitor whose pickup thresh-
old 3014 Umin is set on delivery to 25 V. The parameter value is based on phase-to-phase voltages.

The following figure shows the logic diagram for underexcitation protection.

Figure 2-55 Logic diagram of the Underexcitation Protection

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2.16.2 Setting Notes

General

The underexcitation protection is only effective and available if this function was set during protective function
configuration (Section 2.4), address 130, UNDEREXCIT. is set to Enabled. If the function is not required
Disabled is set. The address 3001 UNDEREXCIT. serves to enable the function ON and OFF or to block only
the trip command (Block relay).

The correct power system data input according to Section 2.5 is another prerequisite for the parameterization
of the underexcitation protection.

The trip characteristics of the underexcitation protection in the admittance value diagram are composed of
straight segments which are respectively defined by their admittance 1/xd (=coordinate distance) and their in-
clination angle α. The straight segments (1/xd CHAR.1)/α1 (characteristic 1) and (1/xd CHAR.2)/α2 (character-
istic 2) form the static underexcitation limit (see the following figure). (1/xd CHAR.1) corresponds to the recip-
rocal value of the related synchronous direct reactance.

If the voltage regulator of the synchronous machine has underexcitation limiting, the static characteristics are
set in such a way that the underexcitation limiting of the voltage regulator will intervene before characteristic 1
is reached (see figure 2-58).

Figure 2-56 Underexcitation Protection Characteristics in the Admittance Plane

Characteristic Curve Values

If the generator capability diagram (see the following figure) in its preferred representation (abscissa = positive
reactive power; ordinate = positive active power) is transformed to the admittance plane (division by U2), the
tripping characteristic can be matched directly to the stability characteristic of the machine. If the axis sizes are
divided by the nominal apparent power, the generator diagram is indicated per unit (the latter diagram corre-
sponds to a per unit representation of the admittance diagram).

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Figure 2-57 Capability Curve of a Salient-Pole Generator, Indicated per Unit

Example:

U= UN = 6300 V

I= IN

SN = 5270 kVA

fN = 50.0 Hz

nN = 1500 RPM

cos ϕ = 0,800

xd = 2,470

xq = 1,400

The primary setting values can be read out directly from the diagram. The related values must be converted for
the protection setting. The same conversion formula can be used if the protection setting is performed with the
predefined synchronous direct reactance.

with

xdsec related synchronous direct reactance, secondary,

xd Mach related synchronous direct reactance of the machine,

IN Mach Nominal current of the machine

UN Mach Nominal Voltage of the Machine

UN, VTprim Primary Nominal Voltage of the voltage transformers

IN, CT prim Nominal primary CT current

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Instead of 1/xd Mach the approximate value IK0/IN can be used (with IK0= short-circuit current at no-load excita-
tion).

Setting example:

Machine UN Mach = 6.3 kV


IN Mach = SN/√3 UN = 5270 kVA/√3 · 6.3 kV = 483 A
xd Mach = 2.47
(read from machine manufacturer's specifications in Figure 2-
57)
Current Trans- IN CT prim = 500 A
former
Voltage transform- UN, VTprim = 6.3 kV
er

Multiplied by a safety factor of about 1.05, the setting value 1/xd CHAR. 1 results under address 3002.

For α1, the angle of the underexcitation limiting of the voltage regulator is selected or the inclination angle of
the machine stability characteristic is used. The setting value ANGLE 1 is typically situated between 60° and
80°.

In most cases, the machine manufacturer prescribes a minimum excitation value for small active powers. For
this purpose, characteristic 1 is cut from characteristic 2 for low active-power load. Consequently, 1/xd CHAR.
2 is set to about 0.9· (1/xd CHAR. 1), the ANGLE 2 to 90°. The kinked tripping limit according to Figure 2-56
(CHAR. 1, CHAR. 2) results in this way, if the corresponding time delays T CHAR. 1 and T CHAR. 2 of both
characteristics are set equally.

Characteristic 3 serves to adapt the protection to the dynamic machine stability limits. If there are no precise
indications, the user must select a value1/xd CHAR. 3 situated approximately between the synchronous
direct reactance xd and the transient reactance xd'. However, it should be greater than 1.

A value between 80° and 110° is usually selected for the corresponding ANGLE 3, which ensures that only a
dynamic instability can lead to a pickup with characteristic 3. The associated time delay is set at address 3010
T CHAR 3 to the value suggested in Table 2-8.

Figure 2-58 Admittance diagram of a turbogenerator

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2.16 Underexcitation (Loss-of-Field) Protection (ANSI 40)

Delay Times

If the static limit curve consisting of the characteristics 1 and 2 is exceeded, the voltage regulator must first have
the opportunity of increasing the excitation. For this reason, a warning message due to this criterion is "long-
time" delayed (at least 10 s for 3004 T CHAR. 1 and 3007 T CHAR. 2).

If the excitation voltage is missing or too low, the rotor criterion picks up as well, provided that the excitation
voltage request feature has been enabled at address 3012 EXCIT. VOLT. ON and under address 3013 the
parametrized threshold Uexcit. < is undershot or the absence of the excitation voltage has been signalled
to the device by binary input. In all these cases tripping is possible with a short delay. This feature is set via
parameter 3011 T SHRT Uex<. The following messages and trip commands are typically assigned:

Table 2-8 Setting the Underexcitation Protection

Characteristic 1 and 2 static stability undelayed Annunciation:


Exc < Anr
Characteristic 1 and 2 static stability long-time delayed Trippings
T CHAR. 1 = T CHAR. 2 ≈ 10 s Err<1 TRIP / Err<2 TRIP
Characteristic 1 and 2 Excitation Voltage short–time delayed Tripping
Failure T SHRT Uex< ≈ 1.5 s Err< UPU < TRIP
Characteristic 3 dynamic stability short–time delayed Tripping
T CHAR 3 ≈ 0.5 s Exc<3 TRIP

Note

If very short time delays are selected, dynamic balancing procedures may cause unwanted operations. For this
reason, it is recommended to set time values of 0.05 s or higher.

Excitation Voltage Query

The excitation voltage monitoring feature is set to approx. 50 % of the no-load excitation voltage. If the gener-
ator is used for phase-shifting, an even lower pickup value must be chosen, depending on the application in
hand. It should also be noted that normally a voltage divider is connected between the device and the excitation
voltage.

with

UExc 0 No-load excitation voltage,

VDRatio Voltage divider transformation ratio

Example:

UExc N = 110 V

UExc 0 = 40 V

VDRatio = 10 : 1

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2.16 Underexcitation (Loss-of-Field) Protection (ANSI 40)

2.16.3 Settings

Addresses which have an appended "A" can only be changed with DIGSI, under Additional Settings.

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


3001 UNDEREXCIT. OFF OFF Underexcitation Protection
ON
Block relay
3002 1/xd CHAR. 1 0.20 .. 3.00 0.41 Susceptance Intersect Character-
istic 1
3003 ANGLE 1 50 .. 120 ° 80 ° Inclination Angle of Characteristic
1
3004 T CHAR. 1 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 10.00 sec Characteristic 1 Time Delay
3005 1/xd CHAR. 2 0.20 .. 3.00 0.36 Susceptance Intersect Character-
istic 2
3006 ANGLE 2 50 .. 120 ° 90 ° Inclination Angle of Characteristic
2
3007 T CHAR. 2 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 10.00 sec Characteristic 2 Time Delay
3008 1/xd CHAR. 3 0.20 .. 3.00 1.10 Susceptance Intersect Character-
istic 3
3009 ANGLE 3 50 .. 120 ° 90 ° Inclination Angle of Characteristic
3
3010 T CHAR 3 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 0.30 sec Characteristic 3 Time Delay
3011 T SHRT Uex< 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 0.50 sec T-Short Time Delay (Char. &
Uexc<)
3012 EXCIT. VOLT. ON OFF State of Excitation Volt. Supervi-
OFF sion
3013 Uexcit. < 0.50 .. 8.00 V 2.00 V Excitation Voltage Superv. Pickup
3014A Umin 10.0 .. 125.0 V 25.0 V Undervoltage blocking Pickup

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2.16 Underexcitation (Loss-of-Field) Protection (ANSI 40)

2.16.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
5323 >Exc. BLOCK SP >BLOCK underexcitation protection
5327 >Char. 3 BLK. SP >BLOCK underexc. prot. char. 3
5328 >Uexc fail. SP >Exc. voltage failure recognized
5329 >Char. 1 BLK. SP >BLOCK underexc. prot. char. 1
5330 >Char. 2 BLK. SP >BLOCK underexc. prot. char. 2
5331 Excit. OFF OUT Underexc. prot. is switched OFF
5332 Excit.BLOCKED OUT Underexc. prot. is BLOCKED
5333 Excit.ACTIVE OUT Underexc. prot. is ACTIVE
5334 Exc. U< blk OUT Underexc. prot. blocked by U<
5336 Uexc failure OUT Exc. voltage failure recognized
5337 Exc< picked up OUT Underexc. prot. picked up
5343 Exc<3 TRIP OUT Underexc. prot. char. 3 TRIP
5344 Exc<1 TRIP OUT Underexc. prot. char. 1 TRIP
5345 Exc<2 TRIP OUT Underexc. prot. char. 2 TRIP
5346 Exc<U<TRIP OUT Underexc. prot. char.+Uexc< TRIP

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2.17 Reverse Power Protection (ANSI 32R)

2.17 Reverse Power Protection (ANSI 32R)

Reverse power protection is used to protect a turbo-generator unit on failure of energy to the prime mover when
the synchronous generator runs as a motor and drives the turbine taking motoring energy from the network.
This condition leads to overheating of the turbine blades and must be interrupted within a short time by tripping
the network circuit-breaker. For the generator, there is the additional risk that, in case of a malfunctioning re-
sidual steam pass (defective stop valves) after the switching off of the circuit breakers, the turbine-generator-
unit is speeded up, thus reaching an overspeed. For this reason, the system should only be disconnected after
active power input into the machine has been detected.

2.17.1 Functional Description

Reverse Power Determination

The reverse power protection of the 7UM62 precisely calculates the active power from the symmetrical com-
ponents of the fundamental waves of voltages and currents by averaging the values of the last 16 cycles. The
evaluation of only the positive phase-sequence systems makes the reverse power determination independent
of current and voltage asymmetries and corresponds to actual loading of the drive end. The calculated active
power value corresponds to the overall active power. By taking the error angles of the instrument transformers
into account, the active power component is exactly calculated even with very high apparent powers and low
power factor cos ϕ. The correction is performed by a W0 constant correction angle determined during commis-
sioning of the protection device in the system. The correction angle is set under Power System Data 1 (see
Section 2.5).

Pickup Seal-In Time

To ensure that frequently occurring short pickups can cause tripping, it is possible to perform a selectable pro-
longation of these pickup pulses at parameter 3105 T-HOLD. Each positive edge of the pickup pulses triggers
this time stage again. For a sufficient number of pulses, the pickup signals add up and become longer than the
time delay.

Trip Signal

For bridging a perhaps short power input during synchronization or during power swings caused by system
faults, the trip command is delayed by a selectable time T-SV-OPEN. In case of a closed emergency tripping
valve, a short delay is, however, sufficient. By means of entering the emergency tripping valve position via a
binary input, the short time delay T-SV-CLOSED becomes effective under an emergency tripping condition.
The time T-SV-OPEN is still effective as back-up stage.

It is also possible to block tripping via an external signal.

The following figure shows the logic diagram for the reverse power protection.

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2.17 Reverse Power Protection (ANSI 32R)

Figure 2-59 Logic Diagram of the Reverse Power Protection

2.17.2 Setting Notes

General

Reverse power protection is only effective and available if this function was set during protective function con-
figuration (Section 2.4), address 131, REVERSE POWER is set to Enabled. If the function is not required
Disabled is set. The address 3101 REVERSE POWER serves to switch the function ON or OFF or to block only
the trip command (Block relay).

In case of a reverse power, the turbine set must be disconnected from the system as the turbine operation is
not permissible without a certain minimum steam throughput (cooling effect) or, in case of a gas turbine set, the
motor load would be too heavy for the network.

Pickup Values

The level of the active power input is determined by the friction losses to be overcome and is in the following
ranges, depending on the individual system:
• Steam turbines: PReverse/SN ≈ 1 % to 3 %
• Gas turbines: PReverse/SN ≈ 3 % to 5 %
• Diesel drives: PReverse/SN > 5 %
For the primary test, the reverse power should be measured with the actual protection. The user should select
a setting of 0.5 times the value of the measured motoring energy. This value can be found under the percentage
operational measured values. The feature to correct angle faults of the current and voltage transformers should
be used especially for very large machines with a particularly low motoring energy (see Sections 2.5 and 3.3).

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2.17 Reverse Power Protection (ANSI 32R)

The pickup value 3102 P> REVERSE is set in percent of the secondary apparent power rating SNsek = √3 · UNsec
· INsec . If the primary motoring energy is known, it must be converted to secondary quantities using the following
formula:

with

Psec Secondary power corresponding to setting value

SNsec secondary rated power = √3 · UNsec · INsec

PMach Machine power corresponding to setting value

SN, Mach Nominal apparent power of the machine

UN Mach Nominal Voltage of the Machine

IN Mach Nominal current of the machine

UN prim Primary Nominal Voltage of the voltage transformers

IN prim Primary nominal current of the current transformer

Pickup Seal-In Time

The 3105 T-HOLD pickup seal-in time serves to extend pulsed pickups to the parameterized minimum duration.

Delay Times

If reverse power without emergency tripping is used, a corresponding time delay must be implemented to
bridge any short reverse power states after synchronization or power swings subsequent to system faults (e.g.
3-pole short circuit). Usually, a delay time 3103 T-SV-OPEN = approx. 10 s is set.

Under emergency tripping conditions, the reverse power protection performs a short-time delayed trip subse-
quent to the emergency tripping via an oil-pressure switch or a position switch at the emergency trip valve.
Before tripping, it must be ensured that the reverse power is only caused by the missing drive power at the
turbine side. A time delay is necessary to bridge the active power swing in case of sudden valve closing, until
a steady state active power value is achieved. A 3104 T-SV-CLOSED time delay of about 1 to 3 s is sufficient
for this purpose, whereas a time delay of about 0.5 s is recommended for gas turbine sets. The set times are
additional delay times not including the operating times (measuring time, dropout time) of the protective func-
tion.

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2.17 Reverse Power Protection (ANSI 32R)

2.17.3 Settings

Addresses which have an appended "A" can only be changed with DIGSI, under Additional Settings.

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


3101 REVERSE POWER OFF OFF Reverse Power Protection
ON
Block relay
3102 P> REVERSE -30.00 .. -0.50 % -1.93 % P> Reverse Pickup
3103 T-SV-OPEN 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 10.00 sec Time Delay Long (without Stop
Valve)
3104 T-SV-CLOSED 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 1.00 sec Time Delay Short (with Stop
Valve)
3105A T-HOLD 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 0.00 sec Pickup Holding Time

2.17.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
5083 >Pr BLOCK SP >BLOCK reverse power protection
5086 >SV tripped SP >Stop valve tripped
5091 Pr OFF OUT Reverse power prot. is switched OFF
5092 Pr BLOCKED OUT Reverse power protection is BLOCKED
5093 Pr ACTIVE OUT Reverse power protection is ACTIVE
5096 Pr picked up OUT Reverse power: picked up
5097 Pr TRIP OUT Reverse power: TRIP
5098 Pr+SV TRIP OUT Reverse power: TRIP with stop valve

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2.18 Forward Active Power Supervision (ANSI 32F)

2.18 Forward Active Power Supervision (ANSI 32F)

The machine protection 7UM62 includes an active power supervision which monitors whether the active power
falls below one settable value as well as whether a separate second settable value is exceeded. Each of these
functions can initiate different control functions.

When, for example, with generators operating in parallel, the active power output of one machine becomes so
small that other generators could take over this power, then it is often appropriate to shut down the lightly loaded
machine. The criterion in this case is that the "forwards" power supplied into the network falls below a certain
value.

In many applications it can be desirable to issue a control signal if the active power output rises above a certain
value.

When a fault in a utility network is not cleared within a critical time, the utility network should be split or for ex-
ample, an industrial network decoupled from it. Criteria for decoupling, in addition to power flow direction, are
undervoltage, overcurrent and frequency. As a result, the 7UM62 can also be used for network decoupling.

2.18.1 Functional Description

Active Power Measuring

Depending on the application either slow high-precision measurement (averaging 16 cycles) or high-speed
measurement (without averaging) may be selected. High-speed measurement is particularly suitable for
network decoupling.

The device calculates the active power from the positive sequence systems of the generator currents and volt-
ages. The computed value is compared with the set values. Each of the forward active power stages can be
blocked individually via binary inputs. In addition the entire active power monitoring can be blocked per binary
input.

The following figure shows the logic diagram for the forward active power supervision.

Figure 2-60 Logic Diagram of the Forward Active Power Supervision

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2.18 Forward Active Power Supervision (ANSI 32F)

2.18.2 Setting Notes

General

Forward active power protection is only effective and available if this function was set during protective function
configuration (Section 2.4, address 132, FORWARD POWER is set to Enabled). If the function is not required
Disabled is set. The address 3201 FORWARD POWER serves to switch the function ON or OFF or to block only
the trip command (Block relay).

Pickup Values, Time Delays

The setting of the forward power protection depends strongly on the intended purpose. General setting guide-
lines are not possible. The pickup values are set in percent of the secondary apparent power rating SNsec = √3
· UNsec · INsec. Consequently, the machine power must be converted to secondary quantities:

with

Psec Secondary power corresponding to setting value

SNsec secondary nominal power = √3 · UNsec · INsec

PMach Machine power corresponding to setting value

SN, Mach Nominal apparent power of the machine

UN Mach Nominal voltage of the machine

IN Mach Nominal current of the machine

UN prim Primary Nominal Voltage of the voltage transformers

IN prim Primary nominal current of the current transformer

Address 3202 serves to set the threshold of the forward power to an undershoot (Pf<) and address 3203 (Pf>)
serves to set it to overshoot. Addresses 3204 T-Pf< and 3205 T-Pf> serve to set the associated time delays.

In address 3206 MEAS. METHOD the user can select whether a fast or a precise measuring procedure is to be
used for the forward power calculation. In most cases, the precise measuring procedure is preferred in the
power station sector (as a rule), whereas the fast procedure is applied for use as mains decoupling.

The set times are additional delay times not including the operating times (measuring time, dropout time) of the
protective function.

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2.18 Forward Active Power Supervision (ANSI 32F)

2.18.3 Settings

Addresses which have an appended "A" can only be changed with DIGSI, under Additional Settings.

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


3201 FORWARD POWER OFF OFF Forward Power Supervision
ON
Block relay
3202 Pf< 0.5 .. 120.0 % 9.7 % P-forw.< Supervision Pickup
3203 Pf> 1.0 .. 120.0 % 96.6 % P-forw.> Supervision Pickup
3204 T-Pf< 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 10.00 sec T-P-forw.< Time Delay
3205 T-Pf> 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 10.00 sec T-P-forw.> Time Delay
3206A MEAS. METHOD accurate accurate Method of Operation
fast

2.18.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
5113 >Pf BLOCK SP >BLOCK forward power supervision
5116 >Pf< BLOCK SP >BLOCK forw. power superv. Pf< stage
5117 >Pf> BLOCK SP >BLOCK forw. power superv. Pf> stage
5121 Pf OFF OUT Forward power supervis. is switched OFF
5122 Pf BLOCKED OUT Forward power supervision is BLOCKED
5123 Pf ACTIVE OUT Forward power supervision is ACTIVE
5126 Pf< picked up OUT Forward power: Pf< stage picked up
5127 Pf> picked up OUT Forward power: Pf> stage picked up
5128 Pf< TRIP OUT Forward power: Pf< stage TRIP
5129 Pf> TRIP OUT Forward power: Pf> stage TRIP

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2.19 Impedance Protection (ANSI 21)

Machine impedance protection is used as a selective time graded protection to provide the shortest possible
tripping times for short-circuits in the synchronous machine, on the terminal leads as well as in the unit trans-
former. It thus also provides backup protection functions to the main protection of a power plant or protection
equipment connected in series like generator, transformer differential and system protection devices.

The impedance protection function of 7UM62 always operates with the currents of side 2 (IL1, 2 ,3; S2).

2.19.1 Functional Description

PICKUP

Pickup is required to detect a faulty condition in the power system and to initiate all the necessary procedures
for selective clarification of the fault:
• Start the time delays for the final stage t3,
• Determination of the faulty measuring loop,
• Enabling of impedance calculation,
• Enabling of tripping command,
• Indication/output of the faulty conductor(s).

Pickup is implemented as overcurrent pickup and can be optionally supplemented by an undervoltage seal-in
circuit. After numeric filtering, the currents are monitored for over-shooting of a set value. A signal is output for
each phase where the set threshold has been exceeded. These pickup signals are considered for choosing the
measured values. The pickup is reset when 95% of the pick-up threshold is undershot, unless maintained by
the undervoltage seal-in feature.

Undervoltage Seal-In

With excitation systems powered from the network, excitation voltage can drop during a local short circuit, re-
sulting in decreasing short-circuit current which, in spite of the remaining fault, can undershoot the pickup value.
In such cases the impedance protection pick-up is maintained for a sufficiently long period by means of an un-
dervoltage controlled seal-in circuit using the positive sequence voltage U1. Pickup drops off when this holding
time has expired or when the restored voltage reaches 105% of the set undervoltage seal-in value.

The seal-in logic operates separate for each phase. The first pickup starts the timer T-SEAL-IN.

Figure 2-61 shows the logic diagram of the pickup stage of the impedance protection.

Determination of the Short–Circuit Impedance

For calculating impedance only the currents and voltages of the faulty (shorted) phase loop are decisive. Ac-
cordingly the protection, controlled by the pickup, evaluates these measurement values (see also Table 2-9).

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Loop Selection

- The corresponding phase-earth loop is used for a 1-pole pickup


- With a 2-pole pickup, the phase-phase loop with the corresponding phase-to-phase voltage is used for
impedance calculation.
- With a 3-pole pickup, the phase-earth loop with the highest current value is used and with equal current
amplitudes, the procedure described in the last row of the following table is applied.

Table 2-9 Measuring Loop Selection


Pickup Measuring Loop
1-pole L1 Phase-earth L1-E
L2 L2-E
L3 L3-E
2-pole L1, L2 Phase-phase, L1-L2
L2, L3 Calculation of ULL and ILL L2-L3
L3, L1 L3-L1
3-pole, L1,2*L2,L3 Phase-earth, selection of loop with the highest L2-E
for dissimilar L2,2*L3,L1 current L3-E
amplitudes L3,2*L1,L2 UL (Imax) and IL (Imax) L1-E
3-pole, L1, L2, L3 Phase-earth (any, maximum current amount) IL1=IL2=IL3 then IL1
for identical IL1=IL2 > IL3 then IL1
amplitudes IL2=IL3 > IL1 then IL2
IL3=IL1 > IL2 then IL1

This loop selection type ensures that the fault impedance of system faults is measured correctly via the unit
transformer. A measuring error occurs with a 1-pole system short-circuit, since the zero phase-sequence
system is not transmitted via the machine transformer (switching group e.g. Yd5). The following table describes
the fault modeling and the measuring errors.

Table 2-10 Fault Modeling and Measuring Errors on the Generator Side on System Faults

System Faults Fault Model on the Loop Selection Measuring Errors


Generator Side
3-pole short- 3-pole short-circuit Phase-earth Always correct measurement
circuit
2-pole short- 3-pole short-circuit Phase-earth, selection Always correct measurement
circuit of loop with the highest
current
1-pole short- 2-pole short-circuit Phase-phase loop Impedance measured too high by the zero
circuit impedance

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Figure 2-61 Logic Diagram of the Pickup Stage of the Impedance Protection

Tripping Characteristic

The tripping characteristic of the impedance protection is a polygon (see also Figure 2-62). It is symmetrical
even though a fault in reverse direction (negative R and/or X values) is physically impossible provided the usual
connection to the current transformers at the star-point side of the generator is used. The polygon is fully iden-
tified by one parameter (impedance Z).

As long as the pickup criteria are met, impedance calculation is done continuously using the current and voltage
vectors derived from the loop selection measured values. If the calculated impedance is within the tripping char-
acteristic, the protection sends a tripping command according to the specified delay time.
Since the impedance protection is multi-stage, the protected zones can be chosen such that the first stage
(ZONE Z1, T-Z1) covers faults in the generator and the lower voltage side of the unit transformer, whereas the
second stage (ZONE Z2, ZONE2 T2) covers the entire power station block. It should be noted, however, that
high voltage side 1-pole earth faults cause impedance measurement errors due to the star-delta connection of
the unit transformer on the lower voltage side. An unwanted operation of the stage can be excluded since the
fault impedances of power system faults are modeled too high.

Faults outside this range are switched off by the T END final time stage.

Depending on the switching status of the system, it may be useful to extend the ZONE Z1, T-Z1 undelayed
tripping zone. If, for example, the high-voltage side circuit breaker is open, the pickup can only be caused by a
fault in the power station block. If consideration of the circuit breaker auxiliary contact is possible, a so-called
overreach zone ZONE Z1B can be made effective (see also Section 2.19.3, Figure „Grading of the machine
impedance protection“).

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Figure 2-62 Tripping Characteristics of the Impedance Protection

Tripping Logic

The T END time delay is started subsequent to the protection pickup, establishing the fault loop. The loop im-
pedance components are compared with the limit values of the zones previously set. The tripping is executed
if the impedance is within its zone during the course of the corresponding time stage.

For the first Z1 zone and also for the Z1B overreach zone, the time delay will in most cases be zero or at least
very short. i.e. tripping occurs as soon as it is established that the fault is within this zone.

The Z1B overreach stage can be enabled from outside, via a binary input.

For the Z2 zone which may extend into the network, a time delay is selected overreaching the first stage of the
power system protection.

A drop-out can only be caused by a drop-out of the overcurrent pickup and not by exiting the tripping polygon.

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Figure 2-63 Logic Diagram of the Impedance Protection

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2.19.2 Power Swing Blocking

General

Dynamic occurrences such as sudden load changes, short circuits, automatic reclosure or switching operations
within the power system may cause power swings. Therefore impedance protection is complemented by a
power swing blocking function to avoid spurious tripping.

Power swings are three-phase symmetrical occurrences. The first prerequisite is therefore effective symmetry
of the three phase currents, which is verified by evaluation of the negative sequence current. This means that
asymmetrical (all single-phase and two-phase) short circuits cannot cause the power swing blocking to pick up.
Even if a power swing has been detected, the asymmetrical short-circuits following it quickly deactivate the
power swing blocking and make tripping by impedance protection possible. Since a power swing happens
much more slowly than a short-circuit, the rate of change of the impedance is a reliable criterion for its identifi-
cation. Because of its symmetrical nature, the positive sequence impedance obtained from the positive se-
quence components of the currents and voltages is evaluated.

Logic

The figure below shows the logic diagram for the power swing block. The upper section shows the current sym-
metry monitoring. An enable signal is given if there is a three-pole pickup with no negative sequence system
current. For detection of power swings, a power swing polygon (P/SPOL) is used which is greater than the trip
polygon (TPOL). The distance between the two polygons can be set (common setting for R and X direction).
The user can choose for each setting parameter whether the trip polygon refers only to characteristic Z1 or to
characteristics Z1 & Z2. In the latter case, the trip polygon is the maximum impedance value.

Measuring Principle

The criterion for power swing blocking is composed of the power swing polygon, its distance to the trip polygon,
the trip polygon itself and the rate of change of the impedance. The first impedance value after entering the
power swing polygon (instant Tent) is compared with the last value outside the polygon (instant Tent-Δt). The
time Δt is determined by the measuring interval which is one cycle. If the impedance vector rate of change thus
determined is less than a set value ΔZ/Δt, a power swing is detected. The impedance stage is not blocked, how-
ever, until the impedance vector enters the trip polygon TPOL.

If the first impedance value is both inside the P/SPOL and the TPOL, the protection detects immediately a
short-circuit, because there must be at least one impedance value between the P/SPOL and the TPOL. The
distance between the power swing polygon P/SPOL and the trip polygon TPOL, and the rate of change ΔZ/Δt
are matched to one another in such a way that power swings are reliably detected and the desired impedance
zone (Z1 or Z1 & Z2) of the impedance protection is blocked. The blocking remains effective until the measured
impedance vector has exited the trip polygon or power swing polygon, the change rate is exceeded, or asym-
metrical power conditions rule out the possibility of a power swing. The power swing blocking time is also limited
by a parameter setting (T-ACTION P/S).

Blocking of the Impedance Stages

Power swing blocking is mostly used for impedance stage Z1, because the delay time T1 for this stage is set
low. Accordingly, a high delay time T2 must be set high for zone Z2. In the overreach zone Z1B no power swings
can occur by definition, since the network breaker is open and there is thus no second machine for power
swings. Likewise, the power swing blocking does not block the non-directional overcurrent stage (T3).

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Figure 2-64 Logic Diagram for the Power Swing Blocking of the Impedance Protection
Z(Tent) First value inside the power swing polygon (at the moment of Tent)
Z(Tent-Δt) Last value outside the power swing polygon
P/SPOL Power swing polygon
TPOL Trip polygon
ΔZ/Δt Rate of change of the impedance phasor

2.19.3 Setting Notes

General

Machine impedance protection is only effective and available if enabled during configuration (Section 2.4,
address 133, IMPEDANCE PROT. = Enabled. If the function is not required Disabled is set. Address 3301
IMPEDANCE PROT. serves to switch the function ON or OFF or to block only the trip command (Block relay).

Pickup

The maximum load current during operation is the most important criterion for setting overcurrent pickup. A
pickup by an overload must be excluded! For this reason, the 3302 IMP I> pickup value must be set above
the maximum (over) load current to be expected. Recommended setting: 1.2 to 1.5 times the nominal machine
current. The pickup logic corresponds to the logic of the UMZ I> definite time-overcurrent protection.

If the excitation is derived from the generator terminals with the short circuit current possibly falling below the
pickup value (address 3302) due to the collapsing voltage, the undervoltage seal-in feature of the pickup is
used, i.e. address 3303 U< SEAL-IN is switched to ON.

The undervoltage seal-in setting U< (address 3304) is set to a value just below the lowest phase-to-phase
voltage occurring during operation, e.g. to U< = 75 % to 80 % of the nominal voltage. The seal-in time (address
3305 T-SEAL-IN) must exceed the maximum fault clearance time in a back-up case (recommended setting:
address 3312 T END + 1 s).

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Impedance Stages

The protection has the following characteristics which may be set independently:

1. Zone (fast tripping zone Z1 ) with parameters

ZONE Z1 Reactance = reach,

T-Z1 = 0 or short delay, if required.

Overreach zone Z1B, externally controlled via binary input, with parameters

ZONE Z1B Reactance = reach,

T-Z1B T1B = 0 or short delay, if required.

2. Zone (zone Z2) with parameters

ZONE Z2 Reactance = reach,

ZONE2 T2 The user must select a value for T2 above the grading time of the network
protection.

Non-directional final stage with parameter

T END The user must select T END so that the 2nd or 3rd stage of the series-con-
nected power system distance protection is overreached.

As the user may assume that impedance protection measurement extends into the unit transformer, parame-
trization must be selected to sufficiently consider the transformer control range.

Therefore ZONE Z1 is normally set to a reach of approx. 70 % of the protected zone (i.e. about 70 % of the
transformer reactance), with no or only a small delay (i.e. T-Z1 = 0.00 s to 0.50 s). Protection then switches off
faults on this distance after its operating time or with a slight time delay (high speed tripping). A time delay of
0.1 s is preferred.

For ZONE Z2 the reach could be set to about 100 % of the transformer reactance, or in addition to a network
impedance. The corresponding ZONE2 T2 time stage is to be set so that it overreaches the power system pro-
tective equipment of the following lines. The T END time is the last back-up time.

The following formula is generally valid for the primary impedance (with limiting to the unit transformer):

with

kR Protection zone reach [%]

uSC relative transformer short-circuit voltage [%]

SN Rated transformer power [MVA]

UN Machine-side rated transformer voltage [kV]

The derived primary impedances must be converted for the secondary side of the current and voltage trans-
formers. In general:

The nominal current of the protection device (= secondary nominal current of the current transformer) is auto-
matically considered by the device. You have already communicated the transformation ratios of the current
and voltage transformers to the device by entering the nominal transformer values (see section 2.5).

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Example:

Transformer data:

uSC =7%

SN = 5.3 MVA

UN = 6.3 kV

Transformation ratios:

Current transformer ratio = 500 A / 1 A

This results for a 70 % reach for zone 1 in:

The following secondary side setting value of zone 1 results at address 3306 ZONE Z1:

Note: The following ratio would result from the connection of a 5 A device to a 5 A transformer:

Likewise the following primary reactance results for a 100 % reach for zone 2:

The following secondary side setting value of zone 2 results at address 3310 ZONE Z2:

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Figure 2-65 Time Grading for Machine Impedance Protection – Example

Z1B Overreach Zone

The Z1B overreach zone (address 3308 ZONE Z1B) is an externally controlled stage. It does not influence the
Z1 zone normal stage. Consequently there is no changeover, but the overreach zone is enabled or disabled
depending on the position of the high-voltage side circuit breaker.

The Z1B zone is usually enabled by an opened high-voltage circuit breaker. In this case every impedance pro-
tection pickup can only be due to a fault in the protection zone of the block, since the power system is discon-
nected from the block. Consequently the fast tripping zone can be extended to between 100 % and 120 % of
the protection zone without any loss of selectivity.

The Z1B zone is activated via a binary input controlled by the circuit breaker auxiliary contact (see Figure 2-
65). An individual 3309 T-Z1B time delay is allocated to the overreach zone.

Final Stage

For short circuits outside the Z1 and Z2 zones, the device functions as a time-delayed overcurrent protection.
Its nondirectional final time T END is selected so that its time value overreaches the second or third stage of
the series-connected network distance protection.

Power Swing Blocking

The power swing blocking is only effective if address 3313 POWER SWING has been set to ON.

For the distance between the power swing polygon and trip polygon (parameters: P/SPOL-TPOL (address
3314)) and rate of change (parameter: dZ/dt (address 3315)) an appropriate compromise must be found. It
must be taken into account that the rate of change is not constant. The closer to the coordinates origin, the
smaller it becomes. Furthermore the power system conditions such as impedance between swinging systems
and the swinging frequency, determine the rate of change (see also Section 2.20 Out-of-Step Protection).

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The following relation allows estimation of the rate of change:

Definitions:

X Reactance between the sources of the power swing

fp Swing frequency

δ Swing angle

Figure 2-66 shows an example of how the rate of change evolves as a function of the power swing angle. For
an angle of 180° the rate of change is smallest. The further into the power system network (i.e. larger or smaller
angle), the greater the acceleration.

Figure 2-66 Course of the rate of change (fp = 1 Hz; X = 10 Ω)

For this reason, the setting value dZ/dt must also be coordinated with the impedance jump occurring at the start
of a short-circuit.

To do so, you determine the minimum operating impedance (ZL, min), form the difference to the setting of the
impedance zone (e.g. Z1) and calculate the impedance gradient, taking into account the one-cycle measuring
interval.

Example:

Umin = 0,9 UN, Imax = 1,1 IN, uSC = 10 %, Δ t = 20 ms

UN = 100 V, IN = 1 A

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If safety factor 4 is chosen, dZ/dt should never be set higher than 500 Ω/s (or 100 Ω/s for 5 A transformers).

The default setting for dZ/dt is 300 Ω/s, which should be adequate for most applications. This is also the basis
for the minimum distance P/SPOL - TPOL, assuming that for detection of a power swing there must be one
impedance value between P/SPOL and TPOL.

PPOL - APOL > dZ/dt · Δt = 300 Ω/s · 0.02 s = 6 Ω (setting selected: 8 Ω)

All other settable parameters are advanced parameters which need not normally be modified.

Address Parameters Comments


3316 BLOCKING OF The setting is , as there is little or no delay for this stage. The delay
time of Z2 is determined by the power system protection, and is
longer. (see also the guidelines below)
3317 T-ACTION P/S The default setting is 3.00 sec. This time depends on the minimum
possible power swing frequency.

Whether a power swing can cause an overfunctioning of the impedance protection depends mainly on the time
the impedance vector remains inside the trip polygon. This time can only be reliably determined by transient
calculations.

If the rate of change in the proximity of 180° is known, it can be the basis for a rough estimation of the time.

T = 2 · Zcharacteristic /dZ/dt (180°)

The above data yield the following value:

Zcharacteristic = Z1 = 4 Ω

dZ/dt (180°) = 20 Ω/s

T = 2 · 4 Ω/20 Ω/s = 0.4 s

This means that for delay times of more than 0.4 s no power swing blocking is needed.

2.19.4 Settings

Addresses which have an appended "A" can only be changed with DIGSI, under Additional Settings.

The table indicates region-specific presettings. Column C (configuration) indicates the corresponding second-
ary nominal current of the current transformer.

Addr. Parameter C Setting Options Default Setting Comments


3301 IMPEDANCE PROT. OFF OFF Impedance Protection
ON
Block relay
3302 IMP I> 5A 0.50 .. 100.00 A 6.75 A Fault Detection I> Pickup
1A 0.10 .. 20.00 A 1.35 A
3303 U< SEAL-IN ON OFF State of Undervoltage
OFF Seal-in
3304 U< 10.0 .. 125.0 V 80.0 V Undervoltage Seal-in
Pickup
3305 T-SEAL-IN 0.10 .. 60.00 sec 4.00 sec Duration of Undervoltage
Seal-in
3306 ZONE Z1 5A 0.01 .. 26.00 Ω 0.58 Ω Impedance Zone Z1
1A 0.05 .. 130.00 Ω 2.90 Ω

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Addr. Parameter C Setting Options Default Setting Comments


3307 T-Z1 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 0.10 sec Impedance Zone Z1 Time
Delay
3308 ZONE Z1B 5A 0.01 .. 13.00 Ω 0.99 Ω Impedance Zone Z1B
1A 0.05 .. 65.00 Ω 4.95 Ω
3309 T-Z1B 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 0.10 sec Impedance Zone Z1B
Time Delay
3310 ZONE Z2 5A 0.01 .. 13.00 Ω 0.83 Ω Impedanz Zone Z2
1A 0.05 .. 65.00 Ω 4.15 Ω
3311 ZONE2 T2 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 0.50 sec Impedance Zone Z2 Time
Delay
3312 T END 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 3.00 sec T END: Final Time Delay
3313 POWER SWING ON OFF Power Swing Blocking
OFF
3314 P/SPOL-TPOL 5A 0.02 .. 6.00 Ω 1.60 Ω Distance betw. Power
Swing - Trip-Pol.
1A 0.10 .. 30.00 Ω 8.00 Ω
3315 dZ/dt 5A 0.2 .. 120.0 Ω/s 60.0 Ω/s Rate of Change of dZ/dt
1A 1.0 .. 600.0 Ω/s 300.0 Ω/s
3316A BLOCKING OF Z1 Z1 Power Swing Blocking
Z2 locks out
3317A T-ACTION P/S 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 3.00 sec Power Swing Action Time

2.19.5 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
3953 >Imp. BLOCK SP >BLOCK impedance protection
3956 >Extens. Z1B SP >Zone 1B extension for impedance prot.
3958 >ImpUseal-inBLK SP >Imp. prot. : BLOCK undervoltage seal-in
3961 Imp. OFF OUT Impedance protection is switched OFF
3962 Imp. BLOCKED OUT Impedance protection is BLOCKED
3963 Imp. ACTIVE OUT Impedance protection is ACTIVE
3966 Imp. picked up OUT Impedance protection picked up
3967 Imp. Fault L1 OUT Imp.: Fault detection , phase L1
3968 Imp. Fault L2 OUT Imp.: Fault detection , phase L2
3969 Imp. Fault L3 OUT Imp.: Fault detection , phase L3
3970 Imp. I> & U< OUT Imp.: O/C with undervoltage seal in
3976 Power Swing OUT Power swing detection
3977 Imp.Z1< TRIP OUT Imp.: Z1< TRIP
3978 Imp.Z1B< TRIP OUT Imp.: Z1B< TRIP
3979 Imp.Z2< TRIP OUT Imp.: Z2< TRIP
3980 Imp.T3> TRIP OUT Imp.: T3> TRIP

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2.20 Out-of-Step Protection (ANSI 78)

Depending on power network conditions and feeding generators, dynamic occurrences such as load jumps,
short-circuits not disconnected quickly enough, auto-reclosure or switching actions, may cause system swings.
Such power swings endanger power network stability. Stability problems often result from active power swings
which can lead to pole-slipping and generator overloading.

2.20.1 Measuring Principle

General

The out-of-step protection is based on the well-proven impedance measurement and evaluation of the complex
impedance vector trajectory. The impedance is calculated from the positive sequence fundamental frequency
components of the three voltages and currents. The decision wether or not to separate the generator from the
network is made dependent on the course of the impedance vector and the location of the electrical centre of
the power swing.

The out-of-step case is illustrated using a simple model. The following figure shows the generator voltage UG
and the network equivalent voltage UN. The generator, transformer and network impedances lie between these
two voltages and constitute a total impedance Ztot.

Figure 2-67 Equivalent Model of a Power Swing

The measurement location divides the total impedance into impedances m Ztot and (1-m) · Ztot. The following
applies for the impedance at measurement location m:

The current I is independent of the location of the measurement:

The voltage U at measurement location m is:

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Thus, this results in:

where δ is the phase shift angle between the generator voltage and the network equivalent voltage. Under
normal conditions, this angle depends on the load situation and is largely constant. In the event of an out-of-
step condition, however the angle fluctuates continually and can vary between 0° and 360°. The following figure
shows the impedance vector trajectory at measurement location m in accordance with the above formula. The
coordinate system origin corresponds to the measurement location (voltage transformer set). When the ratio
of the voltage magnitudes UN/UG is kept constant and the load angle δ varies, then circular trajectories result.
The centre and the radius of the circle are determined by the ratio UN/UG. The centre points of the circles are
all on an axis line which is determined by the direction of Ztot. Minimum and maximum of the measured imped-
ance magnitude are at δ = 0° and δ = 180°. If the measurement location is at the electrical system centre, mea-
sured voltage and thus measured impedance become zero when δ = 180°.

Power Swing Polygon

The measurement characteristic is a power swing polygon adjustable in all four directions and in its inclination
angle ϕP. This ensures optimum matching to the conditions in the power system.

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Figure 2-68 Impedance Trajectory at Measurement Location m

2.20.2 Out-of-Step Protection Logic

The following figure shows the power swing polygon in greater detail. For transparency purposes the inclination
angle ϕP is assumed to be 90°. The setting parameters of impedances Za, Zb, Zc and (Zd–Zc) determine the
power swing polygon. The polygon is symmetrical about its vertical axis. Zb is measured in reverse direction
into the generator, in the forward direction (Zc) into the unit transformer, and the second stage (Zd) into the
power network. The power swing polygon is divided into two parts. Characteristic 1 (i.e. the non-hatched area)
represents the lower section of the rectangle. Characteristic 2 covers the upper hatched area. Depending on
the electrical centre of the power swing, or in the vicinity of the power station, the impedance vector progresses
through the range of characteristic 1 or that of characteristic 2. The point of crossing of the symmetry (imagi-
nary) axis is decisive for the characteristic assignment.

Power swings are three-phase symmetrical occurrences. The first prerequisite is therefore the symmetry of the
measured currents. A condition for power swing detection is that the positive sequence component of the
current exceeds an adjustable limit I2 while the negative sequence current remains below an adjustable value
I1.

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Figure 2-69 Polygonal Out-of-Step Characteristic with Typical Power Swings

Detection of an out-of-step condition requires, additionally, that the impedance vector enters a power swing
characteristic at one side, passes through the imaginary axis or characteristic dividing line, and exits the
polygon at the opposite side (loss of synchronism, cases (1) and (2)). This is characterized in that the real com-
ponents of the complex impedances (referred to the coordinate system possibly rotated about ϕP) have
changed sign crossing the characteristic.

On the other hand it is also possible for a power swing vector to enter and exit the power swing polygon on the
same side. In this case, the power swing tends to stabilize (cases (3) and (4)).

When an out-of-step condition is recognized, i.e. when the impedance vector has passed through a power
swing characteristic, an annunciation is issued which also identifies the crossed characteristic. Additionally, a
counter n1 (for characteristic 1) or n2 (for characteristic 2) is incremented.

Out-of-step protection pickup is activated when a counter reaches the value 1. A further out-of-step indication
is set for an adjustable indication time period, each time a counter is incremented. After a likewise adjustable
holding time pick-up resets to zero. The holding time is started anew each time a counter is incremented.

A trip command is issued when the number of power swing polygon crossings has reached a selectable
number. This command is maintained for at least the set time T-HOLDING. The minimum trip command dura-
tion T TRIPCOM MIN. does not start until the pickup has reset.

Next comes the logic diagram of the out-of-step protection. The feature has two stages and can be blocked by
a binary input.

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Figure 2-70 Logic Diagram of the Out-of-Step Protection

2.20.3 Setting Notes

General

Out-of-step protection is only effective and available if this function was set during protective function configu-
ration (Section 2.4, address 135, OUT-OF-STEP is set to Enabled. If the function is not required Disabled
is set. Address 3501 OUT-OF-STEP serves to switch the function ON or OFF or to block only the trip command
(Block relay).

Pickup

Measurement is enabled only if the positive sequence component of the currents has exceeded a minimum
threshold 3502 I1> RELEASE (overcurrent pickup). Also because of the symmetry condition, a maximum
value of negative sequence current 3503 I2< RELEASE must not be exceeded.

Generally the setting value I1> RELEASE should be set over rated current i.e. about 120 % IN to avoid pickup
on overload. Depending on network conditions, smaller pickup values are admissible so that the measurement
(see logic diagram ) may be released all the time. As out-of-step conditions are symmetrical occurrences, the
pickup threshold of the negative sequence component of the current I2< RELEASE should be set to approx.
20 % IN.

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Impedance Values

The measured impedances perceived by the protection device are decisive for the settings. For the direction
to the machine (as viewed from the location of the voltage transformers), the power swing reactance of the
machine must be considered, which is approximately the transient reactance Xd' of the machine. Consequently,
you will calculate the secondary transient reactance and use it for Zb ≈ Xd' (see the figure below).

Figure 2-71 Power swing polygon

Xd' can be calculated from the per unit reactance xd' as follows:

with

Xd Transient reactance of the generator

Xd Transient per unit reactance

UN, Gen Primary rated voltage - generator

IN, Gen Primary rated current - generator

NCTR Current transformer ratio

NVTR Voltage transf. transform. ratio

Dependent on the type of generator and on the secondary current, a secondary voltage UN = 100 V or 120 V
leads to approximately the reactance ranges listed in the table below.

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Table 2-11 Transient Machine Reactances (Referred to Secondary Side)

Generator Type xd' Xd ' Xd ' Xd ' Xd '


UN = 100 V/ IN = 1 A UN = 120 V/ IN = 1 A UN = 100 V/ IN = 5 A UN = 120 V/ IN = 5 A
Non-salient pole 0,13...0,35 7.5 Ω...20.2 Ω 9.4 Ω...24.3 Ω 1.5 Ω...4.0 Ω 1.9 Ω...4.9 Ω
rotor
Salient-pole rotor 0,20...0,45 11.5 Ω...26.0 Ω 13.9 Ω...31.2 Ω 2.3 Ω...5.2 Ω 2.8 Ω...6.2 Ω

As it may be assumed that the generator is connected with the network via a unit transformer, the setting in the
network direction is chosen such that the out-of-step protection measures with characteristic 1 approximately
70 % to 90 % of the transformer impedance, and with characteristic 2 right into the network. Parametrization of
Zc in address 3506 is set between 70 % and 90 % of the short circuit impedance XK of the transformer. For
characteristic 2, in address 3507 Zd - Zc the remaining portion of the transformer short circuit impedance is
set and if necessary complemented by the impedance of the additional line section to be monitored.

The table below shows typical values of the secondary per unit short circuit impedances XK of transformers with
secondary rated currents of IN = 1 A and IN = 5 A, the following formula shows the calculation of the short circuit
impedance from the short circuit voltage.

Table 2-12 Secondary Per Unit Short Circuit Impedances of Transformers

Transformer type uSC XSC XSC XSC XSC


UN = 100 V/ IN = 1 A UN = 120 V/ IN = 1 A UN = 100 V/ IN = 5 A UN = 120 V/ IN = 5 A
Unit transformer 8 %...13 % 4.6 Ω...7.5 Ω 5.5 Ω...9.0 Ω 0.9 Ω...1.5 Ω 1.1 Ω...1.8 Ω
General 3 %...16 % 1.7 Ω...9.2 Ω 2.1 Ω...11.1 Ω 0.3 Ω...1.8 Ω 0.4 Ω...2.2 Ω

The setting Za effects the width of the power swing polygon. This setting value 3504 Za is determined by the
total impedance Ztot and can be derived from the equation in the figure below. With this for Ztot alternately the
sum of the values Zb and Zd can be used (power swing angle between generator and network) or the sum of
Zb and Zc (power swing angle between generator and power station unit transformer). The default setting of
address 3504 Za corresponds to the latter case. For simplification, it isassumed that a power swing angle δ =
120° is strived for and since the generator voltage UG and the system voltage UN are quantatively the same:

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Figure 2-72 Power swing polygon and impedance vectors with angle δ

Maximum power swing frequency

The polygon width Za determines also the maximum detectable power swing frequency. Considering that even
with rapid power swings, at least two impedance values must have been established within the power swing
polygon (which in a limit case differ by the width of the polygon), the following approximative formula can be
used for the maximum detectable power swing frequency fP:

At a rated frequency of 50 Hz (i.e. T = 20 ms) the above formula gives:

Za ≈ 0.289 · Ztot
fP ≈ 10 Hz

as the maximum power swing frequency.

The inclination angle ϕ of the power swing polygon can be set at address 3508 PHI POLYGON and thereby
optimally matched to the particular power system conditions.

Example:

Generator data:

xd' = 0,20

UN = 6.3 kV

IN = 483 A

Transformer data:

uSC =7%

SN = 5.3 MVA

UN = 6.3 kV

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Transformation ratios:

Current Transformer CTRatio = 500 A/1 A

This gives the secondary transient reactance of the generator:

Zb ≈ Xd' thus determines the setting of address 3505 Zb.

The secondary short circuit reactance of the unit transformer is derived by considering the transformation
ratios:

If characteristic 1 covers 85 % of the transformer reactance, this results in the setting of Zc ≈ 0.85 · 4.2 Ω ≈ 3.6
Ω.

Assuming that the impedance of the additional line section to be monitored together with the transformer short-
circuit impedance amounts to about 10 Ω (for .../1 A transformers), the resulting setting value is 3507 Zd -
Zc = 6.4 Ω.

The width Za of the polygon is determined by the total impedance Ztot . In this calculation example, the total
impedance Ztot is that of characteristic 1 (the sum of generator reactance and one portion of the unit transformer
reactance; that is the sum of the setting values for Zb and Zc = 12 Ω + 3.6 Ω = 15.6 Ω):

Za ≈ 0.289 · 15.6 Ω ≈ 4.5 Ω.

Number of Power Swings

Address 3509 REP. CHAR. 1 determines the number of out-of-step cycles which after transgression of char-
acteristic 1 lead to tripping. If no special calculations are available, setting 1 (or 2) is recommended, since
power swings within the power station area should not be tolerated too long because the power swing frequen-
cy tends to increase causing greater machine stress. On the other hand, for power swings with the electrical
centre being in the network itself a higher number of crossings can be tolerated, so that address 3510 REP.
CHAR. 2 can usually be set to 4.

Each time characteristic 1 or 2 is passed through, a holding time set at address 3511T-HOLDING) is started.
After expiry of the hold time a pickup retracted by resetting counter n1 or n2 to zero, i.e. a power swing is again
"forgotten". This time should be set higher than the longest expected out-of-step cycle period (i.e. for lowest
power swing frequency). Settings between 20 s and 30 s are usual.

Each time one of the counters n1 or n2 is incremented, the holding time is restarted, and an annunciation "Out-
of-step characteristic 1" or "Out-of-step characteristic 2" is issued. These annunciations disappear after the
time set at address 3512 T-SIGNAL. If this time is set higher that the time between two power swings, the
annunciation "Out-of-step characteristic 1(2)" begins on the first out-of-step detection and ends after the last
out-of-step detection, after the set time T-SIGNAL.

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2.20.4 Settings

The table indicates region-specific presettings. Column C (configuration) indicates the corresponding second-
ary nominal current of the current transformer.

Addr. Parameter C Setting Options Default Setting Comments


3501 OUT-OF-STEP OFF OFF Out-of-Step Protection
ON
Block relay
3502 I1> RELEASE 20.0 .. 400.0 % 120.0 % Pickup Current for Mea-
suring Release I1>
3503 I2< RELEASE 5.0 .. 100.0 % 20.0 % Pickup Current for Mea-
suring Release I2<
3504 Za 5A 0.04 .. 26.00 Ω 0.90 Ω Resistance Za of the
Polygon (width)
1A 0.20 .. 130.00 Ω 4.50 Ω
3505 Zb 5A 0.02 .. 26.00 Ω 2.40 Ω Reactance Zb of the
Polygon (reverse)
1A 0.10 .. 130.00 Ω 12.00 Ω
3506 Zc 5A 0.02 .. 26.00 Ω 0.72 Ω Reactance Zc of Polygon
(forward char.1)
1A 0.10 .. 130.00 Ω 3.60 Ω
3507 Zd - Zc 5A 0.00 .. 26.00 Ω 1.28 Ω Reactance Dif. Char.1 -
Char.2 (forward)
1A 0.00 .. 130.00 Ω 6.40 Ω
3508 PHI POLYGON 60.0 .. 90.0 ° 90.0 ° Angle of Inclination of the
Polygon
3509 REP. CHAR. 1 1 .. 10 1 Number of Power Swing:
Characteristic 1
3510 REP. CHAR. 2 1 .. 20 4 Number of Power Swing:
Characteristic 2
3511 T-HOLDING 0.20 .. 60.00 sec 20.00 sec Holding Time of Fault De-
tection
3512 T-SIGNAL 0.02 .. 0.15 sec 0.05 sec Min. Signal Time for
Annun. Char. 1/2

2.20.5 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
5053 >BLOCK O/S SP >BLOCK out-of-step protection
5061 O/S OFF OUT Out-of-step protection is switched OFF
5062 O/S BLOCKED OUT Out-of-step protection is BLOCKED
5063 O/S ACTIVE OUT Out-of-step protection is ACTIVE
5067 O/S char. 1 OUT Out-of-step pulse of characteristic 1
5068 O/S char. 2 OUT Out-of-step pulse of characteristic 2
5069 O/S det. char.1 OUT Out-of-step characteristic 1 picked up
5070 O/S det. char.2 OUT Out-of-step characteristic 2 picked up
5071 O/S TRIP char.1 OUT Out-of-step TRIP characteristic 1
5072 O/S TRIP char.2 OUT Out-of-step TRIP characteristic 2

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2.21 Undervoltage Protection (ANSI 27)

2.21 Undervoltage Protection (ANSI 27)

The undervoltage protection function detects voltage dips on electrical machines and prevents inadmissible op-
erating states and a possible loss of stability. Two-pole short circuits or ground faults cause a dip in asymmet-
rical voltages. Compared to three single-phase measuring systems, the detection of the positive phase-se-
quence system is not influenced by these procedures and is particularly advantageous for assessing stability
problems.

2.21.1 Functional Description

Mode of Operation

For the above reasons, the positive sequence system is calculated from the fundamental waves of the three
phase-earth voltages, and fed to the protection function.

Undervoltage protection consists of two stages. A pickup is signalled as soon as selectable voltage thresholds
are undershot. A trip signal is transmitted if a voltage pickup exists for a selectable time.

In order to ensure that the protection does not accidentally pick up due to a secondary voltage failure, each
stage can be blocked individually or both stages together, via binary input(s), e.g. using a voltage transformer
mcb. Also the integrated Fuse-Failure Monitor will block the two stages (see Section 2.42.1).

If a pickup occurs as the device changes to operational condition 0 - i.e. no usable measured quantities are
present or the admissible frequency range has been exited - this pickup is maintained. This ensures tripping
even under such conditions. This seal-in can be retracted only after the measured value has reverted to a value
above the drop-off value or by activation of the blocking input.

If no pickup exists before the device is in operating status 0 (thus e.g. on switchon of the device without avail-
able measured values), no pickup and no tripping will occur. An immediate tripping may ensue on transition to
operating status 1 (i.e. by application of measured values). For this reason it is recommended that the blocking
input of the undervoltage protection is activated via the circuit breaker auxiliary contact, thus, for example,
blocking the protection function after a protective tripping.

The following figure shows the logic diagram for undervoltage protection.

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2.21 Undervoltage Protection (ANSI 27)

Figure 2-73 Logic diagram of the undervoltage protection

2.21.2 Setting Notes

General

The undervoltage protection is only effective and available if this function was set during protective function
configuration (Section 2.4, address 140, UNDERVOLTAGE is set to Enabled). If the function is not required
Disabled is set. Address 4001 UNDERVOLTAGE serves to switch the function ON or OFF or to block only the
trip command (Block relay).

Settings

It must be noted that the positive phase-sequence voltages and thus also the pickup thresholds are evaluated
as phase-to-phase quantities (terminal voltage ·√3). The first undervoltage protection stage is typically set to
about 75% of the nominal machine voltage, i.e. address 4002 U< is set to 75 V. The user must select a value
for the 4003 T U< time setting that ensures that voltage dips which would affect operating stability are discon-
nected. On the other hand, the time delay must be large enough to avoid disconnections during admissible
short-time voltage dips.

For the second stage, a lower pickup threshold 4004 U<< e.g. = 65 V should be combined with a shorter trip
time 4005 T U<< e.g. = 0.5 s to achieve an approximate adaptation to the stability behaviour of the consumers.

All setting times are additional time delays which do not include the operating times (measuring time, dropout
time) of the protective function.

The drop-out ratio can be adapted in small steps to the operating conditions at address 4006 DOUT RATIO.

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2.21.3 Settings

Addresses which have an appended "A" can only be changed with DIGSI, under Additional Settings.

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


4001 UNDERVOLTAGE OFF OFF Undervoltage Protection
ON
Block relay
4002 U< 10.0 .. 125.0 V 75.0 V U< Pickup
4003 T U< 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 3.00 sec T U< Time Delay
4004 U<< 10.0 .. 125.0 V 65.0 V U<< Pickup
4005 T U<< 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 0.50 sec T U<< Time Delay
4006A DOUT RATIO 1.01 .. 1.20 1.05 U<, U<< Drop Out Ratio

2.21.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
6503 >BLOCK U/V SP >BLOCK undervoltage protection
6506 >BLOCK U< SP >BLOCK undervoltage protection U<
6508 >BLOCK U<< SP >BLOCK undervoltage protection U<<
6530 Undervolt. OFF OUT Undervoltage protection switched OFF
6531 Undervolt. BLK OUT Undervoltage protection is BLOCKED
6532 Undervolt. ACT OUT Undervoltage protection is ACTIVE
6533 U< picked up OUT Undervoltage U< picked up
6537 U<< picked up OUT Undervoltage U<< picked up
6539 U< TRIP OUT Undervoltage U< TRIP
6540 U<< TRIP OUT Undervoltage U<< TRIP

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2.22 Overvoltage Protection (ANSI 59)

2.22 Overvoltage Protection (ANSI 59)

Overvoltage protection serves to protect the electrical machine and connected electrical plant components
from the effects of inadmissible voltage increases. Overvoltages can be caused by incorrect manual operation
of the excitation system, faulty operation of the automatic voltage regulator, (full) load shedding of a generator,
separation of the generator from the system or during island operation.

2.22.1 Functional Description

Mode of Operation

The overvoltage protection provides the option to either select whether the phase-to-phase voltages or the
phase-to-ground voltages will be monitored. In case of a high overvoltage, tripping switchoff is performed with
a short-time delay, whereas in case of less severe overvoltages, the switchoff is performed with a longer time
delay. Voltage thresholds and time delays can be set individually for both elements.

Each stage can be blocked individually, both stages together, via binary input(s).

The following figure shows the logic diagram for the overvoltage protection function.

Figure 2-74 Logic Diagram of the Overvoltage Protection

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2.22 Overvoltage Protection (ANSI 59)

2.22.2 Setting Notes

General

Overvoltage protection is only effective and available if this function was set during protective function config-
uration (Section 2.4, address 141, OVERVOLTAGE is set to Enabled. If the function is not required Disabled
is set. Address 4101 OVERVOLTAGE serves to switch the function ON or OFF or to block only the trip command
(Block relay).

Settings

Address 4107 VALUES serves to specify the measured quantities used by the protection feature. The default
setting (normal case) is specified for phase-to-phase voltages (= U-ph-ph). The phase-earth voltages should
be selected for low-voltage machines with grounded neutral conductor (= U-ph-e). It should be noted that even
if phase-earth voltages are selected as measured quantities, the setting values of the protection functions refer
to phase-to-phase voltages.

The setting of limit values and time delays of the overvoltage protection depends on the speed with which the
voltage regulator can regulate voltage variations. The protection must not intervene in the regulation process
of the faultlessly functioning voltage regulator. For this reason, the two-stage characteristic must always be
above the voltage time characteristic of the regulation procedure.

The long-time stage 4102 U> and 4103 T U> must intervene in case of steady-state overvoltages. It is set to
approximately 110 % to 115 % UN and, depending on the regulator speed, to a range between 1.5 s and 5 s.

In case of a full-load rejection of the generator, the voltage increases first in relation to the transient voltage.
Only then does the voltage regulator reduce it again to its nominal value. The U>> stage is set generally as a
short-time stage in a way that the transient procedure for a full-load rejection does not lead to a tripping. For
example, for 4104 U>> about 130% UN with a delay 4105 T U>> of zero to 0.5 s are typical values.

All setting times are additional time delays which do not include the operating times (measuring time, dropout
time) of the protective function.

The dropout ratio can be adapted at the address 4106 DOUT RATIO in small stages to the operating conditions
and used for highly precise signalizations (e.g. network infeed of wind power stations).

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2.22 Overvoltage Protection (ANSI 59)

2.22.3 Settings

Addresses which have an appended "A" can only be changed with DIGSI, under Additional Settings.

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


4101 OVERVOLTAGE OFF OFF Overvoltage Protection
ON
Block relay
4102 U> 30.0 .. 170.0 V 115.0 V U> Pickup
4103 T U> 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 3.00 sec T U> Time Delay
4104 U>> 30.0 .. 170.0 V 130.0 V U>> Pickup
4105 T U>> 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 0.50 sec T U>> Time Delay
4106A DOUT RATIO 0.90 .. 0.99 0.95 U>, U>> Drop Out Ratio
4107A VALUES U-ph-ph U-ph-ph Measurement Values
U-ph-e

2.22.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
6513 >BLOCK O/V SP >BLOCK overvoltage protection
6516 >BLOCK U> SP >BLOCK overvoltage protection U>
6517 >BLOCK U>> SP >BLOCK overvoltage protection U>>
6565 Overvolt. OFF OUT Overvoltage protection switched OFF
6566 Overvolt. BLK OUT Overvoltage protection is BLOCKED
6567 Overvolt. ACT OUT Overvoltage protection is ACTIVE
6568 U> picked up OUT Overvoltage U> picked up
6570 U> TRIP OUT Overvoltage U> TRIP
6571 U>> picked up OUT Overvoltage U>> picked up
6573 U>> TRIP OUT Overvoltage U>> TRIP

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2.23 Frequency Protection (ANSI 81)

2.23 Frequency Protection (ANSI 81)

The frequency protection function detects abnormally high and low frequencies in the generator. If the frequen-
cy lies outside the permissible range, appropriate switching actions are initiated, e.g. separating the generator
from the system.

A decrease in system frequency occurs when the system experiences an increase in real power demand, or
when a malfunction occurs with a generator governor or automatic generation control (AGC) system. The fre-
quency protection function is also used for generators which (for a certain time) operator to an island network.
This is due to the fact that the reverse power protection cannot operate in case of drive power failure. The gen-
erator can be disconnected from the power system by means of the frequency decrease protection.

An increase in system frequency occurs e.g. when large loads (island network) are removed from the
system, or on frequency control malfunction. This entails risk of self-excitation for generators feeding long lines
under no-load conditions.

Due to the use of filter functions, the frequency evaluation is free from harmonic influences and very accurate.

2.23.1 Functional Description

Frequency Increase and Decrease

Frequency protection consists of the four frequency elements f1 to f4. To make protection flexible for different
power system conditions, theses stages can be used alternatively for frequency decrease or increase sepa-
rately, and can be independently set to perform different control functions. The setting decides on the purpose
of the individual frequency stage. For the f4 frequency stage, the user can specify independently of the param-
eterized limit value if this stage shall function as decrease or increase stage. For this reason, it can also be
used for special applications, if, for example, frequency undershoot below the nominal frequency is to be sig-
naled.

Operating Ranges

The frequency can be determined as long as at least one of the phase–to–phase voltages is present and of
sufficient magnitude. If the measurement voltage drops below a settable value Umin, frequency protection is
disabled because precise frequency values can no longer be calculated from the signal.
With overfrequency protection, seal-in of the overfrequency pickup occurs during the transition to the 0 mode,
if the last measured frequency was above 66 Hz. The switch-off command drops out by a function blocking or
on transition to operational condition 1. A pickup drops out if the frequency measured last before the transition
into operational condition 0 is below 66 Hz.

With underfrequency protection, there is no precise frequency calculation on transition to the 0 mode due to a
too-low frequency. Consequently, the pickup or tripping drop out.

Time Delays/Logic

Trippings can be delayed each using an added time stage. When the time delay expires, a trip signal is gener-
ated. After pickup dropout the tripping command is immediately reset, but not before the minimum command
duration has expired.

Each of the four frequency stages can be blocked individually by binary inputs.

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2.23 Frequency Protection (ANSI 81)

Figure 2-75 Logic diagram of the frequency protection

2.23.2 Setting Notes

General

Frequency protection is only in effect and accessible if address 142 FREQUENCY Prot. is set to Enabled
during configuration of protective functions. If the function is not required Disabled is set. Address 4201 O/U
FREQUENCY serves to switch the function ON or OFF or to block only the trip command (Block relay).

Pickup Values

By configuring the rated frequency of the power system and the frequency threshold for each of the stages f1
PICKUP to f4 PICKUP in each case the function is established as either overvoltage or undervoltage protec-
tion. Set the pickup threshold lower than nominal frequency if the element is to be used for underfrequency
protection. Set the pickup threshold higher than nominal frequency if the element is to be used for overfrequen-
cy protection.

Note

If the threshold is set equal to the nominal frequency, the element is inactive.

For the f4 frequency stage, the former applies only if the parameter 4214 THRESHOLD f4 is set to automatic
(default setting). If desired, this parameter can also be set to f> or f<, in which case the evaluation direction
(increase or decrease detection) can be specified independent of the parametrized f4 PICKUP threshold.

If frequency protection is used for network decoupling and load shedding purposes, settings depend on the
actual network conditions. Normally a graded load shedding is strived for that takes into account priorities of
consumers or consumer groups.

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2.23 Frequency Protection (ANSI 81)

Further application examples are covered under power stations. The frequency values to be set mainly depend,
also in these cases, on power system/power station operator specifications. In this context, frequency decrease
protection ensures the power station's own demand by disconnecting it from the power system on time. The
turbo regulator regulates the machine set to the nominal speed. Consequently, the station's own demands can
be continuously supplied at nominal frequency.

Under the assumption that apparent power is reduced to the same degree, turbine-driven generators can, as
a rule, be continuously operated down to 95 % of nominal frequency. However, for inductive consumers, the
frequency reduction not only means greater current consumption but also endangers stable operation. For this
reason, only a short-time frequency reduction down to about 48 Hz (for fN = 50 Hz) or 58 Hz (for fN = 60 Hz) is
permissible.

A frequency increase can, for example, occur due to a load shedding or malfunction of the speed regulation
(e.g. in a stand-alone system). In this way, the frequency increase protection can, for example, be used as over-
speed protection.

Setting example:

Stage Cause Settings


for fN = 50 Hz for fN = 60 Hz Delay
f1 Disconnection from the 48.00 Hz 58.00 Hz 1.00 sec
network
f2 Shutdown 47.00 Hz 57.00 Hz 6.00 sec
f3 Warning 49.50 Hz 59.50 Hz 20.00 sec
f4 Alarm or tripping 52.00 Hz 62.00 Hz 10.00 sec

Time Delays

The delay times T f1 to T f4 entered at addresses 4204, 4207, 4210 and 4213) allow the frequency stages
to be graded. The set times are additional delay times not including the operating times (measuring time,
dropout time) of the protective function.

Minimum Voltage

Address 4215 Umin is used to set the minimum voltage which, if undershot, blocks frequency protection. A
value of approx. 65 % UN is recommended. The parameter value is based on phase-to-phase voltages. The
minimum voltage threshold can be deactivated by setting this address to 0.

2.23.3 Settings

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


4201 O/U FREQUENCY OFF OFF Over / Under Frequency Protec-
ON tion
Block relay
4202 f1 PICKUP 40.00 .. 66.00 Hz 48.00 Hz f1 Pickup
4203 f1 PICKUP 40.00 .. 66.00 Hz 58.00 Hz f1 Pickup
4204 T f1 0.00 .. 600.00 sec 1.00 sec T f1 Time Delay
4205 f2 PICKUP 40.00 .. 66.00 Hz 47.00 Hz f2 Pickup
4206 f2 PICKUP 40.00 .. 66.00 Hz 57.00 Hz f2 Pickup
4207 T f2 0.00 .. 100.00 sec 6.00 sec T f2 Time Delay
4208 f3 PICKUP 40.00 .. 66.00 Hz 49.50 Hz f3 Pickup

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2.23 Frequency Protection (ANSI 81)

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


4209 f3 PICKUP 40.00 .. 66.00 Hz 59.50 Hz f3 Pickup
4210 T f3 0.00 .. 100.00 sec 20.00 sec T f3 Time Delay
4211 f4 PICKUP 40.00 .. 66.00 Hz 52.00 Hz f4 Pickup
4212 f4 PICKUP 40.00 .. 66.00 Hz 62.00 Hz f4 Pickup
4213 T f4 0.00 .. 100.00 sec 10.00 sec T f4 Time Delay
4214 THRESHOLD f4 automatic automatic Handling of Threshold Stage f4
f>
f<
4215 Umin 10.0 .. 125.0 V; 0 65.0 V Minimum Required Voltage for
Operation

2.23.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
5203 >BLOCK Freq. SP >BLOCK frequency protection
5206 >BLOCK f1 SP >BLOCK stage f1
5207 >BLOCK f2 SP >BLOCK stage f2
5208 >BLOCK f3 SP >BLOCK stage f3
5209 >BLOCK f4 SP >BLOCK stage f4
5211 Freq. OFF OUT Frequency protection is OFF
5212 Freq. BLOCKED OUT Frequency protection is BLOCKED
5213 Freq. ACTIVE OUT Frequency protection is ACTIVE
5214 Freq UnderV Blk OUT Frequency protection undervoltage Blk
5232 f1 picked up OUT f1 picked up
5233 f2 picked up OUT f2 picked up
5234 f3 picked up OUT f3 picked up
5235 f4 picked up OUT f4 picked up
5236 f1 TRIP OUT f1 TRIP
5237 f2 TRIP OUT f2 TRIP
5238 f3 TRIP OUT f3 TRIP
5239 f4 TRIP OUT f4 TRIP

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2.24 Overexcitation (Volt/Hertz) Protection (ANSI 24)

2.24 Overexcitation (Volt/Hertz) Protection (ANSI 24)

Overexcitation protection is used to detect inadmissibly high induction in generators and transformers, espe-
cially in power station unit transformers. The protection must intervene when the limit value for the protected
object (e.g. unit transformer) is exceeded. The transformer is endangered, for example, if the power station
block is disconnected from the system from full-load, and if the voltage regulator either does not operate or
does not operate sufficiently fast to control the associated voltage rise. Similarly a decrease in frequency
(speed), e.g. in island systems, can lead to an inadmissible increase in induction.

An increase in induction above the rated value quickly saturates the iron core and causes large eddy current
losses.

2.24.1 Functional Description

Measurement Method

The overexcitation protection feature servers to measure the voltageU/frequency ratio f, which is proportional
to the B induction and puts it in relation to the BN nominal induction. In this context, both voltage and frequency
are related to nominal values of the object to be protected (generator, transformer).

The calculation is based on the maximum voltage of the three phase-to-phase voltages. The frequency range
monitored extends from 10 Hz to 70 Hz.

Voltage Transformer Adaptation

Any deviation between primary nominal voltage of the voltage transformers and of the object to be protected is
compensated by an internal correction factor (UN prim/UN Mach). For this reason pickup values and characteristic
do not need to be converted to secondary values. However the system primary nominal transformer voltage
and the nominal voltage of the object to be protected must be entered correctly (see Sections 2.5 and 2.7).

Characteristic Curves

Overexcitation protection includes two staged characteristics and one thermal characteristic for approximate
modeling of the heating of the protection object due to overexcitation. As soon as a first pickup threshold (warn-
ing stage 4302 U/f >) has been exceeded, a 4303 T U/f > time stage is started. On its expiry a warning
message is transmitted. At the same time a counter switching is activated when the pickup threshold is exceed-
ed. This weighted counter is incremented in accordance with the current U/f value resulting in the trip time for
the parametrized characteristic. A trip signal is transmitted as soon as the trip counter state has been reached.

The trip signal is retracted as soon as the value falls below the pickup threshold and the counter is decremented
in accordance with a parametrizable cool-down time.

The thermal characteristic is specified by 8 value pairs for overexcitation U/f (related to nominal values) and
trip time t. In most cases, the specified characteristic for standard transformers provides sufficient protection.
If this characteristic does not correspond to the actual thermal behavior of the object to be protected, any
desired characteristic can be implemented by entering customer-specific trip times for the specified U/f over-
excitation values. Intermediate values are determined by a linear interpolation within the device.

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2.24 Overexcitation (Volt/Hertz) Protection (ANSI 24)

Figure 2-76 Tripping Range of the Overexcitation Protection

The characteristic resulting from the device default settings is shown in the Technical Data Section Overexci-
tation Protection. Figure 2-76 illustrates the behaviour of the protection on the assumption that within the frame-
work of configuration the setting for the pickup threshold (parameter4302 U/f >) was chosen higher or lower
than the first setting value of the thermal characteristic.

The following figure shows the logic diagram for overexcitation protection. The counter can be reset to zero by
means of a blocking input or a reset input.

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2.24 Overexcitation (Volt/Hertz) Protection (ANSI 24)

Figure 2-77 Logic Diagram of the Overexcitation Protection

2.24.2 Setting Notes

General

Overexcitation protection is only effective and available if address 143 OVEREXC. PROT. is set to Enabled
during configuration. If the function is not required, it is set to Disabled. Address 4301 OVEREXC. PROT.
serves to switch the function ON or OFF or to block only the trip command (Block relay).

Overexcitation protection measures the voltage/frequency quotient which is proportional to the induction B. The
protection must intervene when the limit value for the protected object (e.g. unit transformer) is exceeded. The
transformer is for example endangered if the power station block is switched off at full-load operation and the
voltage regulator does not respond fast enough or not at all to avoid related voltage increase.

Similarly a decrease in frequency (speed), e.g. in island systems, can lead to an inadmissible increase in in-
duction.

In this way the U/f protection monitors the correct functioning both of the voltage regulator and of the speed
regulation, in all operating states.

Independent Stages

The limit-value setting at address 4302 U/f > is based on the induction limit value relation to the nominal in-
duction (B/BN) as specified by the manufacturer of the object to be protected.

A pickup message is transmitted as soon as the induction limit value U/f set at address 4302 is exceeded. A
warning message is transmitted after expiry of the corresponding 4303 T U/f > time delay.

The 4304 U/f >>, 4305 T U/f >> trip stage characteristic serves to rapidly switch off particularly strong
overexcitations.

The time set for this purpose is an additional time delay which does not include the operating time (measuring
time, drop-out time).

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2.24 Overexcitation (Volt/Hertz) Protection (ANSI 24)

Thermal Characteristic

A thermal characteristic is superimposed on the trip stage characteristic. For this purpose, the temperature rise
created by the overexcitation is approximately modeled. Not only the already mentioned pickup signal is gen-
erated on transgression of the U/f induction limit set at address 4302, but in addition a counter is activated ad-
ditionally which causes the tripping after a length of time corresponding to the set characteristic.

Figure 2-78 Thermal tripping time characteristic (with default settings)

The characteristic of a Siemens standard transformer was selected as a default setting for the parameters
4306 to 4313. If the protection object manufacturer did not provide any information, the preset standard char-
acteristic should be used. Otherwise, any trip characteristic can be specified entering parameters point-bypoint
over a maximum of 7 straight lengths. To do this, the trip times t of the overexcitation values U/f = 1.05; 1.10;
1.15; 1.20; 1.25; 1.30; 1.35 and 1.40 are read out from the predefined characteristic and entered at the address-
es4306 t(U/f=1.05) to 4313 t(U/f=1.40). The protection device interpolates linearly between the points.

Limitation

The heating model of the object to be protected is limited to a 150 % overshoot of the trip temperature.

Cooling Time

Tripping by the thermal image drops out by the time of the pickup threshold dropout. However, the counter
content is counted down to zero with the cooldown time parametrized at address 4314 T COOL DOWN. In this
context this parameter is defined as the time required by the thermal image to cool down from 100 % to 0 %.

Voltage Transformer Adaptation

Any deviation between the primary nominal voltage of the voltage transformers and of the protected object is
compensated by an internal correction factor (UN prim/UN Mach). For this it is necessary that the relevant param-
eters 221 Unom PRIMARY and 251 UN GEN/MOTOR were properly entered in accordance with Section 2.5.

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2.24 Overexcitation (Volt/Hertz) Protection (ANSI 24)

2.24.3 Settings

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


4301 OVEREXC. PROT. OFF OFF Overexcitation Protection (U/f)
ON
Block relay
4302 U/f > 1.00 .. 1.20 1.10 U/f > Pickup
4303 T U/f > 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 10.00 sec T U/f > Time Delay
4304 U/f >> 1.00 .. 1.40 1.40 U/f >> Pickup
4305 T U/f >> 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 1.00 sec T U/f >> Time Delay
4306 t(U/f=1.05) 0 .. 20000 sec 20000 sec U/f = 1.05 Time Delay
4307 t(U/f=1.10) 0 .. 20000 sec 6000 sec U/f = 1.10 Time Delay
4308 t(U/f=1.15) 0 .. 20000 sec 240 sec U/f = 1.15 Time Delay
4309 t(U/f=1.20) 0 .. 20000 sec 60 sec U/f = 1.20 Time Delay
4310 t(U/f=1.25) 0 .. 20000 sec 30 sec U/f = 1.25 Time Delay
4311 t(U/f=1.30) 0 .. 20000 sec 19 sec U/f = 1.30 Time Delay
4312 t(U/f=1.35) 0 .. 20000 sec 13 sec U/f = 1.35 Time Delay
4313 t(U/f=1.40) 0 .. 20000 sec 10 sec U/f = 1.40 Time Delay
4314 T COOL DOWN 0 .. 20000 sec 3600 sec Time for Cooling Down

2.24.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
5353 >U/f BLOCK SP >BLOCK overexcitation protection
5357 >RM th.rep. U/f SP >Reset memory of thermal replica U/f
5361 U/f> OFF OUT Overexcitation prot. is swiched OFF
5362 U/f> BLOCKED OUT Overexcitation prot. is BLOCKED
5363 U/f> ACTIVE OUT Overexcitation prot. is ACTIVE
5367 U/f> warn OUT Overexc. prot.: U/f warning stage
5369 RM th.rep. U/f OUT Reset memory of thermal replica U/f
5370 U/f> picked up OUT Overexc. prot.: U/f> picked up
5371 U/f>> TRIP OUT Overexc. prot.: TRIP of U/f>> stage
5372 U/f> th.TRIP OUT Overexc. prot.: TRIP of th. stage
5373 U/f>> pick.up OUT Overexc. prot.: U/f>> picked up

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2.25 Inverse-Time Undervoltage Protection (ANSI 27)

2.25 Inverse-Time Undervoltage Protection (ANSI 27)

The inverse undervoltage protection mainly protects consumers (induction machines) from the consequences
of dangerous voltage drops in island networks thus avoiding inadmissible operating conditions and possible
loss of stability. It can also be used as a criterion for load shedding in interconnected networks. Two-pole short
circuits or earth faults cause asymmetrical voltage collapse. Compared with single phase measuring systems,
the detection of the positive phase-sequence system is not influenced by these procedures and is therefore
especially useful for assessing stability problems.

2.25.1 Functional Description

Measured Quantity

For the above reasons, the positive sequence system is calculated from the fundamental waves of the three
phase-earth voltages, and fed to the protection function. After numerical filtering only the fundamental wave is
evaluated.

If voltage transformers in open delta connection (V connection) are available on the plant side, protection is
applied to the phase-to-phase voltages and the internal starpoint is left empty. A virtual starpoint is thus formed
so that the (virtual) phase-to-earth voltages can still be detected (see connection example in Appendix A.3).

Tripping characteristic

By means of a voltage-time dependent tripping characteristic protection can be matched exactly to the stability
characteristic of motors. If the motor falls below the stability characteristic, it will stall or run at substantially
reduced speed, even if full voltage is restored after a short time. Only squirrel-cage machines for which the
torque characteristic of the driven machine lies below the motor characteristic at all speeds will regain their
rated speed. All other machines will be thermally and perhaps mechanically overstressed on running down,
after return of voltage.

Undervoltage protection consists of one inverse time element. In order to avoid malfunction of the protection in
the event of secondary voltage failure, it can be blocked via a binary input, e.g. by a voltage transformer min-
iature circuit breaker or th auxilary contact of main circuit breaker when the machine is at stand-still. Also the
integrated Fuse-Failure Monitor will block the two stage (see section 2.42.2).

If no measured values are available at the device (operation condition 0), no trip signal is issued if there was
no pickup. This ensures that the undervoltage protection does not pick up immediately when it is switched on
if no measured value is available. Once the protection has been activated, it can only be deactivated again only
by blocking.

If a pickup signal is present when the device enters operating condition 0 (i.e. no measured values, or frequen-
cy outside the permissible range), it is maintained. The delay time until tripping is calculated in the same way
as for a drop to 0V. The sealed-in pickup or tripping signal can only be reset on voltage restoration, or if the
blocking input is activated.

The pickup/dropout ratio is 101 % or 0.5 V absolute of the threshold set at address 4402 Up< PICKUP. The
integral action of the tripping time determination is „frozen“ between the pickup and the dropout value.

The following figure shows the logic diagram of the inverse undervoltage protection.

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2.25 Inverse-Time Undervoltage Protection (ANSI 27)

Figure 2-79 Logic Diagram of the Inverse-Time Undervoltage Protection

2.25.2 Setting Notes

General

The inverse-time undervoltage protection is only effective and available if this function was set during protective
function configuration (Section 2.4, address 144, INV.UNDERVOLT. is set to Enabled. If the function is not
required Disabled is set. Address 4401 INV. UNDERVOLT. serves to switch the function ON or OFF or to
block only the trip command (Block relay).

Settings

It must be considered that the positive phase-sequence voltages and thus also the pickup thresholds are eval-
uated as phase-to-phase quantities (terminal voltage · √3).

There are no clear cut procedures on how to set the pickup values. But since the protection is used mainly to
protect consumers (induction machines) from the consequences of voltage drops, and to prevent loss of sta-
bility, the value is normally set to approx. 75 % of the nominal machine voltage, i.e. address 4402 Up< PICKUP
is set to 75 V. In exceptional cases, where the voltage drop during startup is too large, it may be necessary to
set the protection to lower values. The time multiplier 4403 T MUL must be selected such that voltage drops
which would cause unstable operation are reliably disconnected. On the other hand, the time delay must be
large enough to avoid disconnections during permissible short-time voltage dips.

If required, the tripping time can also be extended by an additional time stage 4404 T Up<.

All setting times are additional time delays which do not include the operating times (measuring time, drop-out
time) of the protective function.

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2.25 Inverse-Time Undervoltage Protection (ANSI 27)

2.25.3 Settings

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


4401 INV. UNDERVOLT. OFF OFF Inverse Undervoltage Protection
ON Up<
Block relay
4402 Up< PICKUP 10.0 .. 125.0 V 75.0 V Up< Pickup
4403 T MUL 0.10 .. 5.00 sec; 0 1.00 sec Time Multiplier for Characteristic
4404 T Up< 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 0.00 sec T Up< Time Delay

2.25.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
6520 >BLOCK Up< SP >BLOCK inverse undervoltage protection
6522 Up< OFF OUT Inv. Undervoltage prot. is switched OFF
6523 Up< BLOCK OUT Inv. Undervoltage protection is BLOCKED
6524 Up< ACTIVE OUT Inv. Undervoltage protection is ACTIVE
6525 Up< picked up OUT Inverse Undervoltage Up< picked up
6526 Up< ch. pick.up OUT Inv. Undervoltage Up<-char. picked up
6527 Up< AUS OUT Inverse Undervoltage Up< TRIP

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2.26 Rate-of-Frequency-Change Protection df/dt (ANSI 81R)

2.26 Rate-of-Frequency-Change Protection df/dt (ANSI 81R)

With the rate-of-frequency-change protection, frequency changes can be quickly detected. This allows a
prompt response to frequency dips or frequency rises. A trip command can be issued even before the pickup
threshold of the frequency protection (see Section 2.23) is reached.

Frequency changes occur for instance when there is an imbalance between the generated and the required
active power. They call for control measures on the one hand and for switching actions on the other hand.
These can be unburdening measures, such as network decoupling, or disconnection of loads (load shedding).
The sooner these measures are taken after malfunctioning, the more effective they will be.

The two main applications for this protection function are thus network decoupling and load shedding.

2.26.1 Functional Description

Measuring Principle

From the positive-sequence voltage, the frequency is determined once per cycle over a measuring window of
3 cycles, and a mean value of two consecutive frequency measurements is formed. The frequency difference
is then determined over a settable time interval (default setting 5 cycles). The ratio between frequency differ-
ence and time difference corresponds to the frequency change; it can be positive or negative. The measure-
ment is performed continuously (per cycle). Monitoring functions such as undervoltage monitoring, checks for
phase angle jumps etc. help to avoid overfunctioning.

Frequency Increase/ Decrease

The rate-of-frequency-change protection has four stages, from df1/dt to df4/dt. This allows the function to be
adapted variably to all power system conditions. The stages can be set to detect either frequency decreases
(-df/dt) or frequency increases (+df/dt). The -df/dt stage is only active for frequencies below the rated frequency,
or less if the underfrequency enabling is activated. Likewise, the df/dt stage is active for frequencies above the
rated frequency, or higher, if the overfrequency enabling is activated. The parameter setting decides for what
purpose the particular stage will be used.

To avoid a proliferation of setting parameters, the settable measuring window for the frequency difference for-
mation and the dropout difference are each valid for two stages.

Operating Ranges

The frequency can be determined as long as there is a sufficiently strong positive sequence system of voltages.
If the measurement voltage drops below a settable value U MIN, frequency protection is disabled because
precise frequency values can no longer be calculated from the signal.

Time Delays/Logic

Tripping can be delayed by a set time delay associated with each applied time stage. This is recommended for
monitoring small gradients. When the time delay expires, a trip signal is generated. After pickup dropout the
tripping command is immediately reset, but not before the minimum command duration has expired.

Each of the four frequency change stages can be blocked individually by binary input. The undervoltage block-
ing acts on all stages simultaneously.

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2.26 Rate-of-Frequency-Change Protection df/dt (ANSI 81R)

Figure 2-80 Logic Diagram of the Rate-of-Frequency-Change Protection

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2.26 Rate-of-Frequency-Change Protection df/dt (ANSI 81R)

2.26.2 Setting Notes

General

The rate-of-frequency-change protection is only effective and accessible if during the configuration address
145 df/dt Protect. has been set accordingly. The user can select between 2 or 4 stages. The default
setting is 2 df/dt stages.

Address 4501 df/dt Protect. serves to switch the function ON or OFF or to block only the trip command
(Block relay).

Pickup Values

The setting procedure is the same for all stages. In a first step, it must be determined whether the stage is to
monitor a frequency rise at f>fN or a frequency drop at f<fN. For stage 1, for instance, this setting is made at
address 4502 df1/dt >/<. The pickup value is set as an absolute value at address 4503 STAGE df1/dt.
The setting of address 4502 informs the protection function of the applicable sign.

The pickup value depends on the application and is determined by power system conditions. In most cases, a
network analysis will be necessary. A sudden disconnection of loads leads to a surplus of active power. The
frequency rises and causes a positive frequency change. A failure of generators, on the other hand, leads to a
deficit of active power. The frequency drops and leads to a negative frequency change.

The following relations can be used as an example for estimation. They apply for the change rate at the begin-
ning of a frequency change (approx. 1 second).

Definitions:

fN Nominal Frequency

ΔP Active power change

ΔP = PConsumption – PGeneration

SN Nominal apparent power of the machines

H Inertia constant

Typical values for H are:

for hydro-electric generators (salient-pole machines) H = 1.5 s to 6 s


for turbine-driven generators (cylindrical-rotor machines) H = 2 s to 10 s
for industrial turbine-generators H = 3 s to 4 s

Example:

fN = 50 Hz

H=3s

Case 1: ΔP/SN = 0.12

Case 2: ΔP/SN = 0.48

Case 1: df/dt = -1 Hz/s

Case 2: df/dt = -4 Hz/s

The default settings are based on the above example. The four stages have been set symmetrically.

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2.26 Rate-of-Frequency-Change Protection df/dt (ANSI 81R)

Time Delays

The delay time should be set to zero wherever the protection function is supposed to respond very quickly. This
will be the case with high setting values. For the monitoring of small changes (< 1Hz/s), on the other hand, a
small delay time can be useful to avoid overfunctioning. The delay time for stage 1 is set at address 4504 T
df1/dt, and the time set there is added to the protection operating time.

Release by the Frequency Protection

The parameter df1/dt & f1 (Address 4505) is used to set the release of the stage from a certain frequency
threshold on. For this the pertinent frequency stage of the frequency protection is queried. In the setting
example this is stage f1. To exclude coupling of the two functions, the parameter can be set to OFF (default
setting).

Advanced Parameters

The advanced parameters allow setting each for two stages (e.g. df1/dt and df2/dt) the dropout difference and
the measuring window. This setting can only be done with the DIGSI communication software.

Setting changes are necessary e.g. to obtain a large dropout difference. For the detection of very small fre-
quency changes (< 0.5 Hz/s), the default setting of the measuring window should be extended. This is to
improve the measuring accuracy.

Setting value df/dt HYSTERES. dfx/dt M-WINDOW


Stage dfn/dt (Addr. 4519, 4521) (Addr. 4520, 4522)
0.1...0.5 Hz/s ≈ 0.05 25...10
0.5...1 Hz/s ≈ 0.1 10...5
1...5 Hz/s ≈ 0.2 10...5
5...10 Hz/s ≈ 0.5 5...1

Minimum Voltage

Address 4518 U MIN is used to set the minimum voltage below which the frequency change protection will be
blocked. A value of approx. 65 % UN is recommended. The minimum voltage threshold can be deactivated by
setting this address to „0“.

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2.26 Rate-of-Frequency-Change Protection df/dt (ANSI 81R)

2.26.3 Settings

Addresses which have an appended "A" can only be changed with DIGSI, under Additional Settings.

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


4501 df/dt Protect. OFF OFF Rate-of-frequency-change pro-
ON tection
Block relay
4502 df1/dt >/< -df/dt< -df/dt< Mode of Threshold (df1/dt >/<)
+df/dt>
4503 STAGE df1/dt 0.1 .. 10.0 Hz/s; ∞ 1.0 Hz/s Pickup Value of df1/dt Stage
4504 T df1/dt 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 0.50 sec Time Delay of df1/dt Stage
4505 df1/dt & f1 OFF OFF AND logic with pickup of stage f1
ON
4506 df2/dt >/< -df/dt< -df/dt< Mode of Threshold (df2/dt >/<)
+df/dt>
4507 STAGE df2/dt 0.1 .. 10.0 Hz/s; ∞ 1.0 Hz/s Pickup Value of df2/dt Stage
4508 T df2/dt 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 0.50 sec Time Delay of df2/dt Stage
4509 df2/dt & f2 OFF OFF AND logic with pickup of stage f2
ON
4510 df3/dt >/< -df/dt< -df/dt< Mode of Threshold (df3/dt >/<)
+df/dt>
4511 STAGE df3/dt 0.1 .. 10.0 Hz/s; ∞ 4.0 Hz/s Pickup Value of df3/dt Stage
4512 T df3/dt 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 0.00 sec Time Delay of df3/dt Stage
4513 df3/dt & f3 OFF OFF AND logic with pickup of stage f3
ON
4514 df4/dt >/< -df/dt< -df/dt< Mode of Threshold (df4/dt >/<)
+df/dt>
4515 STAGE df4/dt 0.1 .. 10.0 Hz/s; ∞ 4.0 Hz/s Pickup Value of df4/dt Stage
4516 T df4/dt 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 0.00 sec Time Delay of df4/dt Stage
4517 df4/dt & f4 OFF OFF AND logic with pickup of stage f4
ON
4518 U MIN 10.0 .. 125.0 V; 0 65.0 V Minimum Operating Voltage Umin
4519A df1/2 HYSTERES. 0.02 .. 0.99 Hz/s 0.10 Hz/s Reset Hysteresis for df1/dt &
df2/dt
4520A df1/2 M-WINDOW 1 .. 25 Cycle 5 Cycle Measuring Window for df1/dt &
df2/dt
4521A df3/4 HYSTERES. 0.02 .. 0.99 Hz/s 0.40 Hz/s Reset Hysteresis for df3/dt &
df4/dt
4522A df3/4 M-WINDOW 1 .. 25 Cycle 5 Cycle Measuring Window for df3/dt &
df4/dt

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2.26 Rate-of-Frequency-Change Protection df/dt (ANSI 81R)

2.26.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
5503 >df/dt block SP >BLOCK Rate-of-frequency-change prot.
5504 >df1/dt block SP >BLOCK df1/dt stage
5505 >df2/dt block SP >BLOCK df2/dt stage
5506 >df3/dt block SP >BLOCK df3/dt stage
5507 >df4/dt block SP >BLOCK df4/dt stage
5511 df/dt OFF OUT df/dt is switched OFF
5512 df/dt BLOCKED OUT df/dt is BLOCKED
5513 df/dt ACTIVE OUT df/dt is ACTIVE
5514 df/dt U< block OUT df/dt is blocked by undervoltage
5516 df1/dt pickup OUT Stage df1/dt picked up
5517 df2/dt pickup OUT Stage df2/dt picked up
5518 df3/dt pickup OUT Stage df3/dt picked up
5519 df4/dt pickup OUT Stage df4/dt picked up
5520 df1/dt TRIP OUT Stage df1/dt TRIP
5521 df2/dt TRIP OUT Stage df2/dt TRIP
5522 df3/dt TRIP OUT Stage df3/dt TRIP
5523 df4/dt TRIP OUT Stage df4/dt TRIP

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2.27 Jump of Voltage Vector

2.27 Jump of Voltage Vector

Consumers with their own generating plant, for example, feed power directly into a network. The incoming
feeder line is usually the technical and legal ownership boundary between the network operator and these con-
sumers/producers. A failure of the input feeder line, for example, due to a three-pole automatic reclosure, can
result in a deviation of the voltage or frequency at the feeding generator which is a function of the overall power
balance. When the incoming feeder line is switched on again after the dead time, asynchronous conditions may
prevail that cause damage to the generator or the gear train between generator and drive.

One way to identify an interruption of the incoming feeder is to monitor the phase angle in the voltage. If the
incoming feeder fails, the abrupt current interruption causes a phase angle jump in the voltage. This jump is
detected by means of a delta process. As soon as a preset threshold is exceeded, an opening command for
the generator or bus-tie coupler circuit-breaker is issued.

This means that the vector jump function is mainly used for network decoupling.

2.27.1 Functional Description

Frequency Behaviour on Load Shedding

The following figure shows the evolution of the frequency when a load is disconnected from a generator.
Opening of the generator circuit breaker causes a phase angle jump that can be observed in the frequency
measurement as a frequency jump. The generator is accelerated in accordance with the power system condi-
tions (see also Section 2.26 „Rate-of-Frequency-Change Protection“).

Figure 2-81 Change of the Frequency after Disconnection of a Load (Fault recording with the SIPROTEC 4 device-
the figure shows the deviation from the nominal frequency)

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2.27 Jump of Voltage Vector

Measuring Principle

The vector of the positive sequence system voltage is calculated from the phase-to-earth voltages, and the
phase angle change of the voltage vector is determined over a delta interval of 2 cycles. The presence of a
phase angle jump indicates an abrupt change of current flow. The basic principle is shown in Figure 2-82. The
diagram on the left shows the steady state, and the diagram on the right the vector change following a load
shedding. The vector jump is clearly visible.

Figure 2-82 Voltage Vector Following Load Shedding

The function features a number of additional measures to avoid spurious tripping, such as:
• Correction of steady-state deviations from rated frequency
• Frequency operating range limited to fN ± 3 Hz
• Detection of internal scanning frequency changeover (Scanning frequency adjustment)
• Minimum voltage for enabling
• Blocking on voltage connection or disconnection

Logic

The logic is shown in Figure 2-83. The phase angle comparison determines the angle difference, and compares
it with the set value. If this value is exceeded, the vector jump is stored in a RS flip-flop. Trippings can be
delayed by the associated time delay.

The stored pickup can be reset via a binary input, or automatically by a timer (address 4604 T RESET).

The vector jump function becomes ineffective on exiting the admissible frequency band. The same applies for
the voltage. In such a case the limiting parameters are U MIN and U MAX.

If the frequency or voltage range is not maintained, the logic generates a logical 1, and the reset input is con-
tinuously active. The result of the vector jump measurement is suppressed. If, for instance, the voltage is con-
nected, and the frequency range is correct, the logical 1 changes to 0. The timer T BLOCK with reset delay
keeps the reset input active for a certain time, thus preventing a pickup caused by the vector jump function.

If a short-circuit causes the voltage to drop abruptly to a low value, the reset input is immediately activated to
block the function. The vector jump function is thus prevented from causing a trip.

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Figure 2-83 Logic diagram of the vector jump detection

2.27.2 Setting Notes

General

The vector jump protection is only effective and available if address 146 VECTOR JUMP is set to Enabled
during configuration.

Address 4601 VECTOR JUMP serves to switch the function ON or OFF or to block only the trip command (Block
relay).

Pickup Values

The value to be set for the vector jump (address 4602 DELTA PHI) depends on the feed and load conditions.
Abrupt active power changes cause a jump of the voltage vector. The value to be set must be established in
accordance with the particular power system. This can be done on the basis of the simplified equivalent circuit
of the diagram „Voltage Vector Following Load Shedding“ in the Functional Description section, or using
network calculation software.

If a setting is too sensitive, the protection function is likely to perform a network decoupling every time loads
are connected or disconnected. Therefore the default setting is 10°.

The admissible voltage operating range can be set at addresses 4605 for U MIN and 4606 for U MAX. Setting
range limits are to some extent a matter of the utility's policy. The value for U MIN should be below the admis-
sible level of short voltage dips for which network decoupling is desired. The default setting is 80 % of the
nominal voltage. For U MAX the maximum admissible voltage must be selected. This will be in most cases
130 % of the nominal voltage

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Time Delays

The time delay T DELTA PHI (address 4603) should be left at zero, unless you wish to transmit the trip indi-
cation with a delay to a logic (CFC), or to leave enough time for an external blocking to take effect.

After expiry of the timer T RESET (address 4604), the protection function is automatically reset. The reset time
depends on the decoupling policy. It must have expired before the circuit breaker is reclosed. Where the auto-
matic reset function is not used, the timer is set to ∞. The reset signal must come in this case from the binary
input (circuit breaker auxiliary contact).

The timer T BLOCK with reset delay (address 4607) helps to avoid overfunctioning when voltages are connect-
ed or disconnected. Normally the default setting need not be changed. Any change can be performed with the
DIGSI communication software (advanced parameters). It must be kept in mind that T BLOCK should always
be set to more than the measuring window for vector jump measurement (2 cycles).

2.27.3 Settings

Addresses which have an appended "A" can only be changed with DIGSI, under Additional Settings.

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


4601 VECTOR JUMP OFF OFF Jump of Voltage Vector
ON
Block relay
4602 DELTA PHI 2 .. 30 ° 10 ° Jump of Phasor DELTA PHI
4603 T DELTA PHI 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 0.00 sec T DELTA PHI Time Delay
4604 T RESET 0.10 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 5.00 sec Reset Time after Trip
4605A U MIN 10.0 .. 125.0 V 80.0 V Minimal Operation Voltage U MIN
4606A U MAX 10.0 .. 170.0 V 130.0 V Maximal Operation Voltage U
MAX
4607A T BLOCK 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 0.10 sec Time Delay of Blocking

2.27.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
5581 >VEC JUMP block SP >BLOCK Vector Jump
5582 VEC JUMP OFF OUT Vector Jump is switched OFF
5583 VEC JMP BLOCKED OUT Vector Jump is BLOCKED
5584 VEC JUMP ACTIVE OUT Vector Jump is ACTIVE
5585 VEC JUMP Range OUT Vector Jump not in measurement range
5586 VEC JUMP pickup OUT Vector Jump picked up
5587 VEC JUMP TRIP OUT Vector Jump TRIP

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2.28 90-%-Stator Earth Fault Protection (ANSI 59N, 64G, 67G)

2.28 90-%-Stator Earth Fault Protection (ANSI 59N, 64G, 67G)

The stator earth fault protection detects earth faults in the stator windings of three-phase machines. The
machine can be operated in busbar connection (directly connected to the network) or in unit connection (via
unit transformer). The criterion for the occurrence of an earth fault is mainly the emergence of a displacement
voltage, or additionally with busbar connection, of an earth current. This principle makes possible a protected
zone of 90 % to 95 % of the stator winding.

2.28.1 Functional Description

Displacement Voltage

The displacement voltage UE can be measured either at the machine starpoint via voltage transformers or
neutral earthing transformers (Figure 2-84) or via the e-n winding (broken delta winding) of a voltage transform-
er set or the measurement winding of a line connected earthing transformer (Figure 2-85). Since the neutral
earthing transformer or the line connected earthing transformer usually supply a displacement voltage of 500
V (with full displacement), a voltage divider 500 V/100 V is to be connected in series in such cases.

If the displacement voltage can not be directly applied to the device as a measured value, the device can cal-
culate the displacement voltage from the phase-to-earth voltages.

Address 223 UE CONNECTION serves for notifying the device of the way the displacement voltage is to be
measured or calculated.

In all kinds of displacement voltage formation, the components of the third harmonic in each phase are summed
since they are in phase in the three-phase system. In order to obtain reliable measured quantities, only the fun-
damental harmonic of the displacement voltage is evaluated in the stator earth fault protection. Higher harmon-
ics are filtered out by numerical filter algorithms.

For machines in unit connection the evaluation of the displacement voltage is sufficient. The possible sensitivity
of the protection is only limited by power frequency interference voltages during earth faults in the network.
These interference voltages are transferred to the machine side via the coupling capacitance of the unit trans-
former. If necessary, a loading resistance can be provided to reduce these interference voltages. The protection
initiates disconnection of the machine when an earth fault in the machine zone has been present for a set time.

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Figure 2-84 Unit Connection with Neutral Transformer


RB Loading resistance
RT Voltage divider
UE Displacement Voltage
CG Generator earth capacitance
CL Line earth capacitance
CTr Unit transformer earth capacitance
Ccoup Unit transformer coupling capacitance

Figure 2-85 Unit Connection with Earthing Transformer


RB Loading resistance
RT Voltage divider
UE Displacement voltage
CG Generator earth capacitance
CL Line earth capacitance
CTr Unit transformer earth capacitance
Ccoup Unit transformer coupling capacitance

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2.28 90-%-Stator Earth Fault Protection (ANSI 59N, 64G, 67G)

Earth Current Direction Detection

For machines in busbar connection, it is not possible to differentiate between network earth faults and machine
earth faults using the displacement voltage alone. In this case the earth fault current is used as a further crite-
rion, and the displacement voltage as a necessary enabling condition.

The earth fault current can be measured using a toroidal current transformer or a set of CTs in Holmgreen con-
nection. During a network earth fault, the machine supplies only a negligible earth fault current across the mea-
surement location, which must be situated between the machine and the network. During a machine earth fault,
the earth fault current of the network is available. However, since the network conditions generally vary accord-
ing to the switching status of the network, a loading resistor, which supplies an increased earth fault current on
the occurrence of a displacement voltage, is used in order to obtain definite measurement conditions indepen-
dent of the switching status of the network. The earth fault current produced by the loading resistor must always
flow across the measurement location.

Figure 2-86 Earth Fault Direction Detection with Busbar Connection

Consequently, the loading resistor must be situated on the other side of the measurement location (current
transformer, toroidal current transformer) when viewed from the machine. The earthing transformer is prefera-
bly connected to the busbar. Apart from the magnitude of the earth fault current, knowledge of the direction of
this current in relation to the displacement voltage is necessary for the secure detection of a machine earth fault
with busbar connection. The directional border between „machine direction“ and "network direction" can be
altered in the 7UM62 (see the following figure).

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The protection then detects a machine earth fault if the following three criteria are fulfilled:
• Displacement voltage larger than set value U0>,
• Earth fault current across the measurement location larger than set value 3I0>,
• Earth fault current is flowing in the direction of the protected machine.

Figure 2-87 Characteristic of the Stator Earth Fault Protection for Busbar Connection

On the occurrence of an earth fault in the machine zone, the disconnection of the machine is initiated after a
set delay time.

If the earth fault current fails to provide an unambiguous criterion for detecting an earth fault when the circuit
breaker is open, the earth current detection can be switched off for a certain time via a binary input. By this
means it is possible to switch to sole evaluation of the displacement voltage e.g. during run-up of the generator.

Figure 2-89 shows the logic diagram of the stator earth fault protection.

If the stator earth fault protection is used as directional or non-directional busbar connection protection, the sen-
sitive current measuring input of the 7UM62 device is thus occupied. The user must be aware that the sensitive
earth fault detection can use the same measuring input (if Iee2 configured) and thus the same measured value.
Thus two additional, independent pickup thresholds Iee> and Iee>> could be formed for this measured value
by means of the sensitive earth fault detection (see Section 2.29). If the user does not desire this, he should
remove the sensitive earth fault configuration at address 151, or use it with Iee1.

If the rotor earth fault protection (see Section 2.34) is used, it occupies the additional voltage input; the dis-
placement voltage U0 for the stator earth fault protection is therefore calculated from the phase-earth voltages
in that case.

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2.28 90-%-Stator Earth Fault Protection (ANSI 59N, 64G, 67G)

Earth Current Detection (Earth Differential Protection with Displacment Voltage as the Pickup Criterion)

In the industrial sector, busbar systems are designed with high or low resistance, switchable starpoint resis-
tances. For earth-fault detection, the starpoint current and the total current are detected via toroidal current
transformers and transmitted to the protective device as current difference. In this way, the earth current por-
tions derived both from the starpoint resistance and from the power system contribute to the total earth current.
In order to exclude an unwanted operation due to transformer faults, the displacement voltage is used for trip-
ping (see the following figure).

The protection feature detects a machine earth fault if the following two criteria are fulfilled:
• Displacement voltage greater than set value U0>,
• Earth fault current difference ΔIE larger than setting value 3I0>,

Figure 2-88 Earth Current Differential Protection with Busbar Connection

Determination of the Faulty Phase

In addition to this, a supplementary function serves to determine the faulty phase. As the phase-earth-voltage
in the faulty phase is less than in the two remaining phases and as the voltage even increases in the latter ones,
the faulty phase can be determined by determining the smallest phase-earth voltage in order to generate a cor-
responding result as fault message.

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2.28 90-%-Stator Earth Fault Protection (ANSI 59N, 64G, 67G)

Figure 2-89 Logic Diagram of 90 % Stator Earth Fault Protection

2.28.2 Setting Notes

General

90 % stator earth fault protection is only effective and available if address 150 S/E/F PROT. is set to
directional; non-dir. U0 or non-dir. U0&I0 during configuration. If non-dir. U0 was selected, the
parameters affecting the earth current are not displayed. If one of the options directional or non-dir.
U0&I0 was selected, the parameters affecting the earth current are accessible. For machines in busbar con-
nection, one of the latter options must enabled since differentiation between a power system earth fault and a
machine earth fault is only possible by way of the earth current. If used as „earth differential protection“, address
150 S/E/F PROT. = non-dir. U0&I0 is set. If the function is not required Disabled is set. Address 5001
S/E/F PROT. serves to switch the function ON or OFF or to block only the trip command (Block relay).

Displacement Voltage

The criterion for the occurrence of an earth fault in the stator circuit is the emergence of a neutral displacement
voltage. Exceeding the set value 5002 U0> therefore causes pickup for stator earth protection.

The setting must be chosen such that the protection does not pick up because of operational asymmetries. This
is particularly important for machines in busbar connection since all voltage asymmetries of the network affect
the voltage starpoint of the machine. The pickup value should be at least twice the value of operational asym-
metry. A value between 5% and 10% of the full displacement value is normal.

For machines in unit connection, the pickup value has to be chosen such that displacements during network
earth faults which affect the stator circuit via the coupling capacitances of the unit transformer do not lead to
pickup. The damping effect of the loading resistor must also be considered here. Instructions for dimensioning
the loading resistor are contained in the publication "Planning Machine Protection Systems" /5/. The setting
value is twice the displacement voltage which is coupled in at full network displacement. The final setting value
is determined during commissioning using primary values.

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2.28 90-%-Stator Earth Fault Protection (ANSI 59N, 64G, 67G)

Delay

The stator earth fault trip is delayed by the time set under address 5005 T S/E/F. For the delay time, the
overload capacity of the load equipment must be considered. All set times are additional delay times and do
not include operating times (measurement time, reset time) of the protection function itself.

Earth Current

Addresses 5003 and 5004 are only of importance for machines in busbar connection, where 150 S/E/F
PROT. = directional or non-dir. U0&I0 has been set. The following considerations are not applicable
for unit connection.
The pick-up value 5003 3I0> is set so that for an earth fault in the protected zone, the earth current safely
exceeds the setting.

Since the residual earth current in a resonant-earthed network is very small, also to be independent of network
conditions in general, an earthing transformer with an ohmic loading resistor is normally provided to increase
the residual wattmetric current in the event of an earth fault. Instructions for dimensioning the earth current
transformer and loading resistor are contained in the publication „Planning Machine Protection Systems“, /5/.

Since the magnitude of earth fault current in this case is determined mainly by the loading resistor, a small angle
is set for 5004 DIR. ANGLE, e.g. 15°. If the network capacitances in an isolated network are also to be con-
sidered, then a larger angle (approx. 45°) can be set which corresponds to the superimposition of the capac-
itance network current onto the load current.
The directional angle 5004 DIR. ANGLE indicates the phase displacement between the neutral displacement
voltage and the perpendicular to the directional characteristic, i.e. it is equal to the inclination of the directional
characteristic to the reactive axis.

If, in an isolated network, the capacitances to earth of the network are sufficiently large for earth current cre-
ation, it is also possible to operate without an earthing transformer. In this case an angle of approximately 90°
is set (corresponding to sin ϕ connection).

Example busbar connection:

Loading resistance 10 Ω
10 A continuous
50 A for 20s
Voltage divider 500 V / 100 V
Toroidal c.t. 60 A / 1 A
Protected zone 90 %

With full neutral displacement voltage, the load resistor supplies

Referred to the 6.3 kV side, this results in

The secondary current of the toroidal transformer supplies to the input of the device

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2.28 90-%-Stator Earth Fault Protection (ANSI 59N, 64G, 67G)

For a protected zone of 90 %, the protection should already operate at 1/10 of the full displacement voltage,
whereby only 1/10 of the earth fault current is generated:

In this example 3I0> is set to 11 mA. For the displacement voltage setting, 1/10 of the full displacement voltage
is used (because of the 90% protected zone). Considering a 500 V/100 V voltage divider, this results in:

Setting value U0> = 10 V

The time delay must lie below the 50 A capacity time of the loading resistor, i.e. below 20 s. The overload ca-
pacity of the earthing transformer must also be considered if it lies below that of the loading resistor.

2.28.3 Settings

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


5001 S/E/F PROT. OFF OFF Stator Earth Fault Protection
ON
Block relay
5002 U0> 2.0 .. 125.0 V 10.0 V U0> Pickup
5003 3I0> 2 .. 1000 mA 5 mA 3I0> Pickup
5004 DIR. ANGLE 0 .. 360 ° 15 ° Angle for Direction Determination
5005 T S/E/F 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 0.30 sec T S/E/F Time Delay

2.28.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
5173 >S/E/F BLOCK SP >BLOCK stator earth fault protection
5176 >S/E/F IEE off SP >Switch off earth current detec.(S/E/F)
5181 S/E/F OFF OUT Stator earth fault prot. is switch OFF
5182 S/E/F BLOCKED OUT Stator earth fault protection is BLOCK.
5183 S/E/F ACTIVE OUT Stator earth fault protection is ACTIVE
5186 U0> picked up OUT Stator earth fault: U0 picked up
5187 U0> TRIP OUT Stator earth fault: U0 stage TRIP
5188 3I0> picked up OUT Stator earth fault: I0 picked up
5189 Uearth L1 OUT Earth fault in phase L1
5190 Uearth L2 OUT Earth fault in phase L2
5191 Uearth L3 OUT Earth fault in phase L3
5193 S/E/F TRIP OUT Stator earth fault protection TRIP
5194 SEF Dir Forward OUT Stator earth fault: direction forward

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2.29 Sensitive Earth Fault Protection (ANSI 51GN, 64R)

2.29 Sensitive Earth Fault Protection (ANSI 51GN, 64R)

The sensitive earth current protection detects earth faults in systems with isolated or high-impedance earthed
starpoint. This stage operates with the magnitudes of the earth current. It is therefore useful in applications
where the magnitude of the earth current is an indicator of the earth fault. This may be the case e.g. in electrical
machines in a busbar configuration in an isolated power system where during a machine earth fault of the stator
winding, the entire network capacity supplies the earth fault current, but during a network earth fault, the earth
fault current is negligible due to the low machine capacitance. The current can be measured using torroidal
current transformers or Holmgreen connection.

In the 7UM62, the sensitive earth fault detection feature can be allocated to either input Iee1 or Iee2. This choice
is made during configuration (see Section 2.4).

Because of the high sensitivity this protection is not suited for detection of high earth fault currents (above
approx. 1 A at the terminals for sensitive earth current connection). If this protection feature nevertheless is to
be used for earth fault protection, an additional, external current transformer is required as intermediate trans-
former.

Note: The sensitive earth current protection may use the same current measuring input (Iee2) used for the di-
rectional or non–directional stator earth fault protection with busbar-connection. This means that the sensitive
earth fault protection thereby uses the same measured values if address 150 S/E/F PROT. is set to
directional or non-dir. U0&I0.

2.29.1 Functional Description

Application as Rotor Earth Fault Protection

Also, the highly sensitive earth fault protection can be used for rotor earth fault detection when a system fre-
quency bias voltage is applied to the rotor circuit (see Figure 2-90). In this case, the maximum earth current is
determined by the magnitude of the bias voltage UV and the capacitative coupling to the rotor circuit.

A measured value supervision is provided for this application as rotor earth fault protection. The measurement
circuit is assumed closed as long as the earth current, even with intact insulation, exceeds a parametrizable
minimum value IEE< due to the rotor-earth capacitance. If the value is undershot an alarm is issued after a
short delay time of 2 s.

Measurement Method

Initially, the residual current is numerically filtered so that only the fundamental wave of the current is used for
the measurement. This makes the measurement insensitive to short-circuit transients and harmonics.

The protection consists of two stages. A pickup is detected as soon as the first parametrized threshold value
IEE> is exceeded. The trip command is transmitted subsequent to the T IEE> delay time. A pickup is detected
as soon as the second parametrized threshold value IEE>> is exceeded. The trip command is transmitted sub-
sequent to the T IEE>> delay time.

Both stages can be blocked via a binary input.

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2.29 Sensitive Earth Fault Protection (ANSI 51GN, 64R)

Figure 2-90 Application example as rotor earth fault protection


Note 3PP13 is only necessary if more than 0.2 Aeff are flowing permanently; (rule: Uerr load > 150 V).
In this case the internal resistors Rpre inside the 7XR61 must be shorted.

Figure 2-91 Logic Diagram of the Sensitive Earth Fault Detection


1) Parameters and indications are only visible if Rotor Earth Fault Protection R, fn
(ANSI 64R) address 160 is set to Disabled.

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2.29 Sensitive Earth Fault Protection (ANSI 51GN, 64R)

2.29.2 Setting Notes

General

The sensitive earth fault protection is only effective and available if address 151 O/C PROT. IEE> = with
IEE1 or with IEE2 is assigned. If when configuring the 90 % stator earth fault protection (150 S/E/F PROT.,
see subsection 2.4) one of the options with current value is chosen, the sensitive current measuring inpu of
the device 7UM62 is thus occupied. The user must be aware that the sensitive earth fault detection may use
the same measuring input (IEE2) and thus the same measuring quantity. If sensitive earth fault detection is not
required, Disabled is set. Address 5101 O/C PROT. IEE serves to switch the function ON or OFF or to
block only the trip command (Block relay).

Use as Rotor Earth Fault Protection

The sensitive earth current protection can be used to detect earth faults either in the stator or in the rotor
winding of the generato, provided that the magnitude of the earth current alone is sufficient as a criterion. In
very high-ohmic circuits or those isolated from earth, sufficiently large earth currents must be ensured.

When, for example, used as rotor earth fault protection, a system frequency bias voltage (UV ≈ 42 V) must be
applied to the rotor circuit by means of the 7XR61series device in Figure „ The application case as rotor earth
fault protection“ in Section 2.29). Because of this bias voltage, a current flows through the earth capacitance
even with proper earth isolation, which can be used as a criterion for a closed measuring circuit (address 5106
IEE<). Approximately 2mA is a typical pickup value. The monitoring stage is ineffective is this value is set to 0.
This can become necessary if the earth capacitances are too small.

The earth current pick-up value 5102 IEE> is chosen such that isolation resistances RE between 3 kΩ to 5
kΩ can be detected:

Where the setting value should be at least twice the interference current caused by the earth capacitances of
the rotor circuit.

The 5104 IEE>> trip stage should be dimensioned for a fault resistance of about 1.5 kΩ.

with ZCoup = Impedance of the series device at nominal frequency.

The 5103 T IEE> and 5105 T IEE>> tripping time delay do not include the operating times.

Use as Stator Earth Fault Protection

Please see also Section 2.28. For use as stator earth fault protection, the earth current may have to be in-
creased by an ohmic load resistor at the earthing transformer. Instructions for dimensioning the earth current
transformer and loading resistor are given in the publication "Planning Machine Protection Systems" /5/.

Use as Earth Fault Protection

For low-voltage machines with incorporated neutral conductor or machines with low-impedance earthed star-
point, the time-overcurrent protection of the phase branches already is an earth short-circuit protection, since
the earth fault current also flows through the faulty phase . If the sensitive earth current detection nevertheless
shall be used as short-circuit to earth protection, an external intermediate transformer must be used to ensure
that the short-circuit current does not exceed the thermal limit values (15 A continuous, 100 A for < 10 s, 300
A for < 1 s) of this measuring input..

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2.29 Sensitive Earth Fault Protection (ANSI 51GN, 64R)

2.29.3 Settings

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


5101 O/C PROT. IEE OFF OFF Sensitive Earth Current Protec-
ON tion
Block relay
5102 IEE> 2 .. 1000 mA 10 mA IEE> Pickup
5103 T IEE> 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 5.00 sec T IEE> Time delay
5104 IEE>> 2 .. 1000 mA 23 mA IEE>> Pickup
5105 T IEE>> 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 1.00 sec T IEE>> Time Delay
5106 IEE< 1.5 .. 50.0 mA; 0 0.0 mA IEE< Pickup (Interrupted Circuit)

2.29.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
1202 >BLOCK IEE>> SP >BLOCK IEE>>
1203 >BLOCK IEE> SP >BLOCK IEE>
1221 IEE>> picked up OUT IEE>> picked up
1223 IEE>> TRIP OUT IEE>> TRIP
1224 IEE> picked up OUT IEE> picked up
1226 IEE> TRIP OUT IEE> TRIP
1231 >BLOCK Sens. E SP >BLOCK sensitive earth current prot.
1232 IEE OFF OUT Earth current prot. is swiched OFF
1233 IEE BLOCKED OUT Earth current prot. is BLOCKED
1234 IEE ACTIVE OUT Earth current prot. is ACTIVE
5396 Fail. REF IEE< OUT Failure R/E/F protection IEE<

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2.30 100-%-Stator Earth Fault Protection with 3rd Harmonics (ANSI 27/59TN 3rd Harm.)

2.30 100-%-Stator Earth Fault Protection with 3rd Harmonics


(ANSI 27/59TN 3rd Harm.)

The measurement method described in section 2.28 is based on the fundamental wave of the displacement
voltage and allows protecting up to 90 % to 95 % of the stator winding. A non-line-frequency voltage must be
used to achieve 100 % protection. In the 7UM62, the 3rd harmonic is used for this purpose.

2.30.1 Functional Description

Mode of Operation

The 3rd harmonic emerges in each machine in a more or less significant way. It is caused by the shape of the
poles. If an earth fault occurs in the generator stator winding, the division ratio of the parasitic capacitances
changes, since one of the capacitances is short-circuited by the earth fault. During this procedure, the 3rd har-
monic measured in the starpoint decreases, whereas the 3rd harmonic measured at the generator terminals
increases (see the following figure). The 3rd harmonic forms a zero phase-sequence system and can thus also
be determined by means of the voltage transformer switched in wye/delta or by calculating the zero phase-se-
quence system from the phase-earth-voltages.

Figure 2-92 Profile of the 3rd Harmonic along the Stator Winding

Moreover, the extent of the 3rd harmonic depends on the operating point of the generator, i.e. a function of
active power P and reactive power Q. For this reason, the working range of the stator earth fault protection is
restricted in order to increase security.

With busbar connection all machines contribute to the 3rd harmonic, which impedes separation of the individual
machines.

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Measuring Principle

The content of the 3rd harmonic in the measurement value is the pickup criterion. The 3rd harmonic is deter-
mined from the displacement voltage measured over two cycles by means of digital filtering.

Different measuring procedures are applied, depending on how the displacement voltage is detected (config-
uration parameter 223 UE CONNECTION):
1. neutr. transf.: Connection of the UE input to the voltage transformer at the machine starpoint
2. broken delta: Connection of the UE input to the broken delta winding
3. Not connected: Calculation of the displacement voltage from the three phase-earth-voltages, if the UE
input is not connected
4. any VT: Connection of any voltage; the 100% stator earth fault protection function is blocked.
5. Rotor: Connection of the bias voltage for rotor earth fault protection; the 100% stator earth fault protection
function is then blocked.
6. Load. resistor: Connection of UE for the 100 % stator earth fault protection with 20 Hz. The function
100% stator earth fault protection with 3rd harmonic is then blocked.
7. Uen-winding: Calculation of the displacement voltage from the three phase-earth-voltages, if the UE
input is not connected

Neutral Transformer

As an earth fault in the starpoint causes a reduction of the measured 3rd harmonic compared with the nonfault
case, the protective function is implemented as an undervoltage stage (5202 U0 3.HARM<). This arrangement
is the preferred application.

Broken Delta Winding

If no neutral transformer exists, the protection function is based on the zero component of the 3rd harmonic of
the terminal voltages. This voltage increases in a fault case. In this case, the protection function is an overvolt-
age stage (5203 U0 3.HARM>).

In order to achieve increased sensitivity, the pickup value can be lowered in proportion to the active power. This
feature is set at address 5207 U0 3.H.(V/100%). Internally, the current pickup value is calculated from the
formula:

U3H, corrected = U3H+ Ucorr · (100 % – Pmeas)

Where:

U3H, corrected Internally used pickup value

U3H Value set at address 5203 U0 3.HARM> with an active power of 100 %

Ucorr Correction factor in volt/percent, set at address 5207 U0 3.H.(V/100%) (Note : set nega-
tive values)

Pmeas Measured active power

Figure 2-93 shows the operating principle.

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Figure 2-93 Automatic Lowering of Pickup Value U0 3.HARM>

The trip characteristic is released as soon as the settable minimum active power is reached. As an additional
security feature, the following limitation is provided: If due to the power-dependent correction factor the correct-
ed pickup value U3H, corrected drops below the minimum possible setting value (0,2 V), the pickup value will be
kept at that setting value.

Not connected/Uen-winding; calculation of U0

Just as for the connection to the broken delta winding, an increase of the 3rd harmonic during a fault also results
for the calculated voltage. The 5203 U0 3.HARM> parameter is also relevant.

Connected to any transformer; Rotor

With these connection types, 100% stator earth fault protection is ineffective.

The following figure shows the logic diagram for the 100 % stator earth fault protection function.

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Figure 2-94 Logic diagram of the 100% stator earth fault protection

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2.30.2 Setting Notes

General

The 100 % stator earth fault protection is only effective and available if address 152 SEF 3rd HARM. =
Enabled is set during configuration. If the function is not required Disabled is set. Address 5201 SEF 3rd
HARM. serves to switch the function ON or OFF or to block only the trip command (Block relay).

Connection Type

Depending on the system conditions, at address 223 UE CONNECTION the user specified during the project
configuration if the displacement voltage Uen is tapped via a neutral transformer (neutr. transf.) or via the
broken delta winding of an earthing transformer (broken delta) and fed to the protection device. If it is not
possible to make the displacement voltage available to the protection device as a measured quantity, computed
quantities are used and Not connected or Uen-winding must be set. The option any VT is selected if the
voltage input of the 7UM62 is to be used for measuring any other voltage instead of for earth fault protection.
With this setting the 100% stator earth fault protection function is ineffective. The option Rotor is selected if
the displacement voltage for rotor earth fault connection shall be fed in at this input. In this case, too, the 100%
stator earth fault protection function is ineffective.

The option Load. resistor is selected for 100% stator earth fault protection with 20 Hz bias voltage. With
this setting the 100% stator earth fault protection function with 3rd harmonic is blocked.

Pickup Value for 3rd Harmonic

Depending on the selection of the connection type, only one of the two setting parameters 5202 or 5203 is
accessible.

The setting values can only be determined within the framework of a primary test. The following applies in gen-
eral:
• The undervoltage stage, address 5202 U0 3.HARM<, is relevant for a connection to a transformer in the
starpoint. The pickup value should be chosen as low as possible.
• The overvoltage stage, address 5203 U0 3.HARM>, is relevant for a connection via the broken delta winding
of an earthing transformer and for a not-connected, but internally calculated displacement voltage.

As mentioned in the Functional Description in Section 2.30, side title „Broken Delta Winding“, the sensitivity of
the U0 3.HARM> stage can be increased if a power-dependent correction of the pickup value is made. The
relevant parameter for this is set at address 5207 U0 3.H.(V/100%). The default setting of this parameter
is 0, which means that the correction is disabled.

The correction setting is made with the following method:


• Measurement of the 3rd harmonic for different active powers using the operational measured values. For
the settings secondary values are recommended.
• Please note that the percentages of the active power operational measured values relate to the protected
object (SN Gen). These measured power values must be converted into nominal device values (see below
example).
• Interpolation of the measured values by a straight line. Reading the 3rd harmonic voltage at 100 % SN device
(P1) and 50 % SN device (P2) of the active power. Calculation of the difference based on the following rela-
tionship:

Figure 2-95shows an example of the measurements made on a generator. The active power dependence of
the 3rd harmonic has been determined for operation both in underexcitation and in overexcitation conditions.

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Figure 2-95 3rd harmonic secondary voltage as a function of the active power (reactive power as parame-
ter)

As Figure 2-95 shows, the rise is almost equal in both cases. The most unfavourable case is operation in un-
derexcitation conditions.

In Figure 2-96 this curve is extrapolated to 100 % SN device


Using the data of the reference system in chapter 2.1, we obtain SN Gen = 5.27 MVA and SN device = √3 · UVT prim
· ICT prim = √3 · 6.3kV · 500A = 5.46 MVA.

The x-axis in Figure 2-95 must be multiplied with factor SN Gen/SN device = 5.27 MVA/5.46 MVA = 0.965 for res-
caling.

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Figure 2-96 3. harmonic secondary voltage as a function of the active power referred to SN device (extrapo-
lation of this voltage and final characteristic)

With 100 % active power the extrapolated value is (U3H1) 12.7 V.

With 50 % active power the value is (U3H2) 7.5 V.

The setting value is thus calculated as follows:

At address 5207 U0 3.H.(V/100%) – 10.4 is set. The pickup value in address 5203 U0 3.HARM> must like-
wise be extrapolated to 100 %. If you choose 14.0 V for it, we obtain a pickup value of 14.0 V – 5.2 V = 8.8 V
for 50 % active power (referring to SN device). The resulting active power dependent characteristic is shown in
Figure 2-96. It lies above the extrapolated measured values.

If cos ϕ = 0.8 and the generator is run at this nominal value, the active power PN Gen = SN Gen · cos ϕ = 5.27
MVA · 0.8 = 4.22 MW (80 % SN Gen) and PN Gen/ SN device = 4.22/5.46 = 77.3%.

The resulting pickup value is 14.0 V – 10.4V/100 % (100% -77.3 %) = 14.0 V – 2.36 V = 11.64 V.

As described under the side title „Operating Range“, the characteristic must be limited by defining the minimum
possible active power. Since the 3rd harmonic has been measured in Figure up to P = 20 %, and the behaviour
is still almost linear, a setting of parameter 5205 P min > = 30 % · PN Gen/ SN device = 0.3 · 4.22/5.46 = 23 % is
possible with a selected safety margin of 10 %.

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2.30 100-%-Stator Earth Fault Protection with 3rd Harmonics (ANSI 27/59TN 3rd Harm.)

Operating Range

Due to the strong dependency of the measurable 3rd harmonic from the corresponding working point of the
generator, the working area of the 100–%–stator earth fault protection is only tripped above the active-power
threshold set via 5205 P min > and on exceeding a minimum positive phase-sequence voltage 5206 U1 min
>.

Recommended setting:

Pmin> 40 % P/SN Gen

U1 min> 80 % UN

Time Delay

The tripping in case of an earth fault is delayed by the time set at address 5204 T SEF 3. HARM.. The set
time is an additional time delay not including the operating time of the protective function.

2.30.3 Settings

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


5201 SEF 3rd HARM. OFF OFF Stator Earth Fault Protection
ON 3rdHarm.
Block relay
5202 U0 3.HARM< 0.2 .. 40.0 V 1.0 V U0 3rd Harmonic< Pickup
5203 U0 3.HARM> 0.2 .. 40.0 V 2.0 V U0 3rd Harmonic> Pickup
5204 T SEF 3. HARM. 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 0.50 sec T SEF 3rd Harmonic Time Delay
5205 P min > 10 .. 100 %; 0 40 % Release Threshold Pmin>
5206 U1 min > 50.0 .. 125.0 V; 0 80.0 V Release Threshold U1min>
5207 U0 3.H.(V/100%) -40.0 .. 40.0 0.0 Correction Factor for Pickup
(V/100%)

2.30.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
5553 >SEF 3H BLOCK SP >BLOCK SEF with 3.Harmonic
5561 SEF 3H OFF OUT SEF with 3.Harm. is switched OFF
5562 SEF 3H BLOCK OUT SEF with 3.Harm. is BLOCKED
5563 SEF 3H ACTIVE OUT SEF with 3.Harm. is ACTIVE
5567 SEF 3H pick.up OUT SEF with 3.Harm. picked up
5568 SEF 3H TRIP OUT SEF with 3.Harm. TRIP

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2.31 100-%-Stator Earth Fault Protection with 20 Hz Voltage Injection (ANSI 64G - 100%)

2.31 100-%-Stator Earth Fault Protection with 20 Hz Voltage Injection


(ANSI 64G - 100%)

The 100 % stator earth fault protection detects earth faults in the stator windings of generators which are con-
nected with the network via a unit transformer. This protection function, which works with a 20 Hz injected volt-
age, is independent of the network frequency displacement voltage appearing in earth faults, and detects earth
faults in all windings including the machine starpoint. The measuring principle used is not influenced at all by
the generator operating mode and allows measurements even with the generator at standstill. The two mea-
suring principles – measurement of the displacement voltage and evaluation of the measured quantities at an
injected 20 Hz voltage – allow to implement reliable protection concepts that complement one another.

If an earth fault in the generator starpoint or close to the starpoint is not detected, the generator is operated as
"earthed". A subsequent fault (e.g. a second earth fault) causes a single-pole short-circuit that may have an
extremely high fault current because the generator zero impedance is very small.

The 100 % stator earth fault protection is for this reason a basic function for large generators.

2.31.1 Functional Description

Basic Principle

The basic principle is shown in the following figure. An external low frequency alternating voltage source (20
Hz) injects into the generator starpoint a voltage of max. 1 % of the rated generator voltage. If an earth fault
occurs in the generator starpoint, the 20 Hz voltage drives a current through the fault resistance. From the
driving voltage and the fault current, the protective relay determines the fault resistance. The protection princi-
ple described here also detects earth faults at the generator terminals, including connected components such
as voltage transformers.

Figure 2-97 Basic Principle of Voltage Injection into the Generator Starpoint

Circuit Design

To implement the above concept, some additional equipment is required. The following picture shows a 20 Hz
generator generates a square-wave voltage with an amplitude of approx. 25 V. This square-wave voltage is fed
via a bandpass into the loading resistor of the earthing or neutral transformer. The bandpass serves for round-
ing the square-wave voltage and for storing energy. The 20 Hz resistance of the bandpass is approx. 8 Ω. The
bandbass assumes also a protection function. If the load resistor carries the full displacement voltage during a
terminal-to-earth fault, the higher series resistance of the bandpass protects the 20 Hz generator from exces-
sive feedback currents.

The driving 20 Hz voltage is taken directly at the loading resistor using a voltage divider. In addition the flowing
20 Hz current is measured using a miniature CT. Both values (USEF and ISEF) are fed to the protection device.

The voltage to be injected into the generator starpoint depends on the driving 20 Hz voltage (voltage divider:
load resistor and bandpass), and on the transformation ratio of the neutral or earthing transformer.

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To prevent the secondary load resistance from becoming too small (it should be greater than 0.5 Ω where pos-
sible), a high secondary rated voltage should be chosen for the earthing or neutral transformer. 500 V has
proven to be a practical value.

Figure 2-98 Circuit Design of the 100-% Stator Earth Fault Protection with Earthing Transformer or Neutral Transformer
R Loading resistance
USEF Displacement voltage at the protective relay
ISEF Current measured at the protective relay

The same measuring principle can also be used with a primary loading resistor. The 20 Hz voltage is connected
in this case via a voltage transformer, and the starpoint current is directly measured. The setting notes (section
2.31.2) contain the connection scheme and information on the circuit design.

Measurement method

From the two measured quantities USEF and ISEF in the above picture, the 20 Hz current and voltage vectors
are calculated, and from the resulting complex impedance the ohmic fault resistance is determined. This
method eliminates disturbances caused by stator earth capacitance and ensures a high sensitivity. The mea-
suring accuracy is further increased by using mean current and voltage values obtained over several cycles for
calculating the resistance.

The model takes into account a transfer resistance RPS that may be present at the neutral, earthing or voltage
transformer. Other error factors are taken into account in the angle error.

In addition to determination of the earth resistance, an earth current stage is provided which processes the
current rms value and thus takes into account all frequency components. It is used as a backup stage and
covers approx. 80 to 90 % of the protection zone.

A monitoring circuit checks the coupled fed in 20 Hz voltage and the 20 Hz current and detects by evaluating
them any failure of the 20 Hz generator or of the 20 Hz connection. In such a case resistance determination is
blocked. The earth current stage remains active.

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Logic

The following figure shows the logic diagram. It comprises:


• Monitoring of the 20 Hz connection
• Resistance calculation and threshold value decision
• Independent current measurement stage

The protection function has an alarm stage and a tripping stage. Both stages can be delayed with a timer. The
earth current detection acts only on the tripping stage. Evaluation of the earth resistance measurement is
blocked between 10 Hz and 40 Hz, because in this frequency range a zero voltage can also be generated by
generators starting up or slowing down. This would then be superimposed on the connected 20 Hz voltage,
causing measurement errors and overfunctioning.

The resistance measurement function is active for frequencies below 10 Hz (i.e. at standstill) and above 40 Hz.
The earth current measurement is active over the entire range.

Figure 2-99 Logic Diagram of the 100 % Stator Earth Fault Protection

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2.31 100-%-Stator Earth Fault Protection with 20 Hz Voltage Injection (ANSI 64G - 100%)

2.31.2 Setting Notes

General

The 100 % stator earth fault protection is only effective and available if address 153 100% SEF-PROT. is set
to Enabled during configuration.

In addition, the function requires the following settings to be made in Power System Data 1:
• Address 275: FACTOR R SEF; Sets the resistance transformation ratio (see margin title "Fault Resistances")
• Address 223: UE CONNECTION should be set to Load. resistor for the application. The 20 Hz voltage
is in this case measured at the UE input, and the displacement voltage for the 90 % stator earth fault protec-
tion (SEF) is calculated from the phase-to-earth voltages. If the measured voltage is to be used for the
90 % SEF as well, set either neutr. transf. or broken delta.

Address 5301 100% SEF-PROT. serves to switch the function ON or OFF or to block only the trip command
(Block relay).

Fault Resistances

The final setting values are determined in the primary test as described in Section 3 Subsection „Commission-
ing“.
Please note that the protection calculates the earth resistance from the secondary values USEF and ISEF
which are present at the device terminals. Allocation between this calculated value and the actual (primary)
stator earth resistance is determined by the transformation ratio of the earthing and the neutral transformer. For
the overall transformation, the following formula applies:

Definitions:

REsec Earth resistance, converted to the device side


REprim Primary earth resistance of the stator winding (= fault resistance)
TrRatio Transformation ratio of the earthing or neutral transformer
Earthing transformer (leg transformation divided by 3):

Neutral transformer:

CTRatio Transformation ratio of the miniature CT


VDRatio Division Ratio of the Voltage Divider

The conversion factor of the earth resistance is set as FACTOR R SEF at address 275 in Power System Data
1. The general formula for calculation (REprim / REsec) is:

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This formula applies only for almost ideal earthing or neutral transformers. If necessary, the measuring result
from the primary tests must be set as FACTOR R SEF. For this the inserted fault resistance (trip stage) is related
to the measured secondary fault resistance.

The primary fault resistance should be set between 1 and 2 kΩ for the trip stage and to between approx. 3 and
8 kΩ for the alarm stage. The default delay times have proven to be practical.

Example:

Loading resistance RL 10 Ω
(10 A continuously, 50 A for 20 s)
Voltage divider VDRatio 500 V/200 V
Miniature CT CTRatio 200 A/5 A

The transformation ratio of the miniature CT 400 A:5 A has been halved to 200A:5 A by passing the primary
conductor twice through the transformer window.

For FACTOR R SEF the following value results:

If a generator-side fault resistance of 1000 Ω is selected for the trip stage R<<, a resistance value of R<< SEF
TRIP = 1000 Ω/8.33 = 120 Ω is set in address 5303. For the warning stage, a primary resistance of 3 kΩ yields
a setting value of R< SEF ALARM = 360 Ω.

Earth Current Stage

The earth current stage has a backup protection function. It is set to a protected zone of approx. 80 %. Refer-
enced to the maximum secondary fault current, the pickup threshold is at approx. 20 %, and the setting value
is calculated as follows:

The delay time T SEF TRIP (address 5305), which is also relevant for the earth current stage, must be less
than the tolerable time of the loading transformer (in this example 50 A for 20 s). The overload capability of the
earthing or neutral transformer must also be considered if it lies below that of the loading resistor.

Monitoring

At addresses 5307 and 5308 the monitoring thresholds are set with U20 MIN and I20 MIN. If the 20 Hz
voltage drops below the pickup value without the 20 Hz current rising, there must be a problem with the 20 Hz
connection. The default settings will be adequate for most applications. In applications where the loading re-
sistor is less than 1 Ω, the threshold U20 MIN must be reduced to 0.5 V. The current threshold I20 MIN may
be left at 10 mA.

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2.31 100-%-Stator Earth Fault Protection with 20 Hz Voltage Injection (ANSI 64G - 100%)

Correction Angle, Transfer Resistance

The parameter PHI I SEF (default setting 0 °) at address 5309 is used to compensate the angle errors of the
CTs and angle distortions caused by a nonideal earthing or neutral transformer. The correct setting for this pa-
rameter can only be determined with a primary test. The adjustment should be made for the tripping value.

The same is true for the transfer resistance of the earthing or neutral transformer. This advanced parameter
can be set with the DIGSI communication software (not possible in local operation). As a rule this resistance is
negligible. For this reason, the default setting SEF Rps = 0.0 Ω was selected at address 5310. However, the
transfer resistance of the voltage transformer is no longer negligible if the 20 Hz voltage is fed to a primary-side
loading resistor via a voltage transformer.

In large power units with generator circuit breaker, applications arise where there is some additional loading
equipment on the low-voltage side of the unit transformer to reduce the influence by the zero voltage when the
generator circuit breaker is open. The 20 Hz source is connected via the neutral transformer in the generator
starpoint. With the generator circuit breaker closed, the protection measures the loading resistance on the unit
transformer side, which can be mistaken for an earth resistance. The advanced parameter address 5311
allows this additional loading resistance to be set. The default setting for Rl-PARALLEL is ∞. No additional
loading resistance is assumed.

100 % Stator Earth Fault Protection with Primary Load Resistor

Some power systems with generators in unit connection have a load resistor installed directly in the generator
starpoint to reduce interference. The following figure shows the necessary connection of the 20 Hz generator
and the band pass in this application, and the integration of the protection device. The 20 Hz voltage is injected
into the generator starpoint via a powerful voltage transformer and drops off at the primary load resistor. In the
presence of an earth fault, an earth current flows through the CT in the starpoint. The protection function detects
and processes this current in addition to the 20 Hz voltage.

Figure 2-100 Connection: 100 % Stator Earth Fault Protection to a Primary Load Resistor
The connection designations for 7XT3300–0*A00/DD are given in Appendix A.3, Figure A-29.

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2.31 100-%-Stator Earth Fault Protection with 20 Hz Voltage Injection (ANSI 64G - 100%)

A two pole isolated voltage transformer must be used with low primary/secondary impedance. This applies
for the 20 Hz frequency.

Primary voltage: UN,Generator / √3


(non-saturated up to UN,Generator)
Secondary voltage: 500 V
Power for 20 s 3 kVA
(50 Hz or 60 Hz)
Primary-secondary impedance at 20 Hz Zps < RL
(but at least < 1000 Ω).
Potential manufacturer: Ritz Messwandlerbau
Salomon-Heine Weg 72
D-20251 Hamburg
(Phone +49 (0) 40511123 333)

As the transformation ratio is 1:1, a current transformer with a maximum number of ampere windings must be
chosen.

The CT is installed directly in the starpoint on the earth side, downstream of the load resistor.

Type: 5P10 or 5P15 (or 1FS10)

Rated secondary current: 1A

Transformation Ratio 1 (1A/1A)

During the primary test the correction angle (address 5309 PHI I SEF) and the ohmic transfer resistance of
the voltage transformer must be determined and set at address 5310 SEF Rps.

The conversion factor for the resistance (secondary – primary and vice-versa) is:

Example:

Primary Load Resistor: RL = 1250 Ω

Voltage transformer: 10.5 kV/ √3/500 V


Ohmic Divider: 1650 Ω/660 Ω (5:2)

Current transformer: 1 A/1 A

Note

Due to the transfer resistance Rps, an ideal transformation ratio of the voltage transformers is not to be expect-
ed. For this reason major deviations of FACTOR R SEF can occur. It is recommended to measure the transfor-
mation ratio with 20 Hz infeed and the machine standing still. This value should then be set.

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Trip stage: primary 2 kΩ, secondary 66 Ω

Alarm stage: primary 5 kΩ, secondary 165 Ω

2.31.3 Settings

Addresses which have an appended "A" can only be changed with DIGSI, under Additional Settings.

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


5301 100% SEF-PROT. OFF OFF 100% Stator-Earth-Fault Protec-
ON tion
Block relay
5302 R< SEF ALARM 20 .. 700 Ω 100 Ω Pickup Value of Alarm Stage
Rsef<
5303 R<< SEF TRIP 20 .. 700 Ω 20 Ω Pickup Value of Tripping Stage
Rsef<<
5304 T SEF ALARM 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 10.00 sec Time Delay of Alarm Stage Rsef<
5305 T SEF TRIP 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 1.00 sec Time Delay of Tripping Stage
Rsef<<
5306 SEF I>> 0.02 .. 1.50 A 0.40 A Pickup Value of I SEF>> Stage
5307 U20 MIN 0.3 .. 15.0 V 1.0 V Supervision Threshold of 20Hz
Voltage
5308 I20 MIN 5 .. 40 mA 10 mA Supervision Threshold of 20Hz
Current
5309 PHI I SEF -60 .. 60 ° 0° Correction Angle for I SEF 100%
5310A SEF Rps 0.0 .. 700.0 Ω 0.0 Ω Resistance Rps
5311A Rl-PARALLEL 20 .. 700 Ω; ∞ ∞Ω Parallel Load Resistance

2.31.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
5473 >SEF100 BLOCK SP >BLOCK Stator earth fault protection
5476 >U20 failure SP >Failure 20Hz bias voltage (S/E/F)
5481 SEF100 OFF OUT Stator earth flt. prot. 100% is swit.OFF
5482 SEF100 BLOCKED OUT Stator earth flt. prot. 100% is BLOCKED
5483 SEF100 ACTIVE OUT Stator earth flt. prot. 100% is ACTIVE
5486 SEF100 Failure OUT Stator earth flt. prot. 100% Failure
5487 SEF100 Alarm OUT Stator earth flt. prot.100% Alarm stage
5488 SEF100 pickup OUT Stator earth flt. prot.100% picked up
5489 SEF100 TRIP OUT Stator earth flt. prot.100% TRIP

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2.32 Sensitive Earth Fault Protection B (ANSI 51GN)

2.32 Sensitive Earth Fault Protection B (ANSI 51GN)

The IEE-B sensitive earth current protection feature of 7UM62 provides greater flexibility and can be used for
the following applications.

Applications
• Earth current monitoring to detect earth faults (generator stator, terminal lead, transformer).
• 3rd harmonics earth current measurement for detection of earth faults near the generator star point. The
connection is accomplished in the secondary circuit of the neutral transformer.
• Protection against load resistances by means of single-phase current monitoring.
• Shaft current protection in order to detect shaft currents of the generator shaft and prevent that bearings take
damage. The function is mainly used for hydro-electric generators.

2.32.1 Functional Description

General

The sensitive earth current protection IEE-B uses either the hardware input Iee1 or Iee2. These inputs are de-
signed in a way that allows them to cut off currents greater than 1.6 A (thermal limit, see technical data). This
has to be considered for the applications or for the selection of the current transformers.

Application as Shaft Current Protection (Bearing Current Protection)

As most of the applications mentioned above are rather simple, we will focus on the function's application as
shaft current protection. This function is of particular interest in conjunction with hydro-electric generators. Due
to their construction, the hydro-electric generators have relatively long shafts. The shaft is connected to earth
at one point via the turbine wheel and water. In cylindrical-rotor generators the shaft is earthed at one point via
the earthing brush. A number of factors such as friction, magnetic fields of the generators and others can build
up a voltage across the shaft which then acts as voltage source (electro-motive force - emf). This voltage also
contains harmonics with the 3rd harmonic being stronger. This induced voltage is still dependent on the load,
the system and the machine. The induced voltage can range between 0.5 and 2 V in cylindrical-rotor genera-
tors and between 10 and 30 V in hydro-electric generators. Detection is only possible during operation.

If the oil film covering a bearing is too thin, breakdown can occur. Since the bearing housing is earthed, the
electric circuit is now closed. Due to the low resistance (shaft, bearing and earthing), high currents may flow
that destroy the bearing. Past experience has shown that currents greater than 1 A are critical for the bearings.
As different bearings can be affected, the current is not measured at each bearing, but the current entering the
shaft is detected by means of a special transformer. It is a folding transformer that is mounted around the shaft.

The basic connection of the shaft current protection is shown in figure 2-101. The shaft current transformer is
then connected to the selected sensitive earth current input (Iee1 or Iee2). If the shaft current exceeds a certain
value, the generator should be shut down.

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2.32 Sensitive Earth Fault Protection B (ANSI 51GN)

Figure 2-101 Connection of the shaft current transformer (possible current flow in the event of a fault)

The shaft current transformer has to be purchased separately from a transformer manufacturer, or the existing
shaft current transformer can be used when replacing the protection. The diameter of the transformer depends
on the shaft diameter and can amount up to 2 m. The number of secondary winding turns vary slightly with the
diameter. These transformer are available with between 400 and 1000 turns. Transformers with less turns (e.g.
600 turns) should be used so as to provide a sufficiently high measurement current.

Shaft current transformers also have a test winding with usually 4 turns. It allows injecting a test current to check
the entire circuit. Figure 2-102 shows an example of the terminals S1-S2: measurement terminal (400 turns)
and A-B: test terminal (4 turns).

Figure 2-102 Terminals of the shaft current transformer

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2.32 Sensitive Earth Fault Protection B (ANSI 51GN)

Measurement Method

In order to preserve the flexibility of the application, there are different measurement methods available for pro-
cessing the sensitive earth current. The protection setting determines the measurement method to be used. In
algorithmic terms, this means that the FIR filter parameters have to be modified. In order to achieve high accu-
racy, a long filter window is used deliberately.

The following filter options are available:

Filtering Application
Fundamental component - Normal earth current protection applications
(50 Hz or 60 Hz)
- Shaft current protection,
if fundamental component is predominant
3rd harmonic - Earth current monitoring in the generator starpoint to detect faults
(150 Hz or 180 Hz) in the vicinity of the starpoint (supplementary logic via CFC if necessary).

- Shaft current protection,


if 3rd harmonic is predominant
Fumdamental component - Shaft current protection if both the fundamental component and the
and 3rd harmonic 3rd harmonic are predominant

Logic

Figure 2-103 shows the logic diagram. According to the selected measurement method, the measured value
is forwarded to the threshold decision logic. Depending on the application, it is possible to monitor a greater or
a smaller threshold. To prevent the pickup from „chattering“, a dropout time delay can be implemented. This
time is the holding time. A timer furthermore allows to delay the TRIP signal accordingly. Set to 0, the IEE-B<-
stage is disabled.

Figure 2-103 Logic diagram of the sensitive earth current protection IEE-B

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2.32 Sensitive Earth Fault Protection B (ANSI 51GN)

2.32.2 Setting Notes

General

The sensitive earth fault protection IEE-B is only effective and available if configured to with IEE1 or with
IEE2 at address 154.

If the sensitive earth fault detection IEE-B is not required, Disabled is set.

Address 5401serves to switch the function ON or OFF or to block only the trip command (Block relay).

In addition, you can set Alarm Only, i.e. these stages operate and send alarms but do not generate any trip
command

Use as Shaft Current Protection

The correct setting of the shaft current protection is only possible during the primary check. A fault record is
started with the generator running and the harmonic content is determined using the SIGRA graphic software.
Depending on which harmonic content is present, the appropriate measuring method is set in address 5406
MEAS. METHOD. You can select either Fundamental, 3. Harmonic or 1. and 3. Harm.. Once the setting
is complete, the respective fault current is read out of the operational measured values with the generator
running under load and a setting value is determined on their basis with a safety factor of 1.5 to 2 (see also
primary check).

A preliminary setting should be so that it causes the protective function to pick up on fault currents between
0.5 A and 1 A. In case of 600 turns, this yields a pickup value of 1 mA (equivalent to 0.6 A primary).

To ensure that the function also trips in case of intermittent faults, the pickup behaviour has to be set in address
5407 T-HOLD IEE-B> (only possible via the DIGSI software). A value of 0.5 s is quite practicable. The trip
time delay is usually set to 3 s in address 5403 T IEE-B>.

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2.32 Sensitive Earth Fault Protection B (ANSI 51GN)

2.32.3 Settings

Addresses which have an appended "A" can only be changed with DIGSI, under Additional Settings.

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


5401 O/C PROT IEE-B OFF OFF Sensitive O/C Protection B
ON
Block relay
Alarm Only
5402 IEE-B> 0.3 .. 1000.0 mA 5.0 mA IEE-B> Pickup
5403 T IEE-B> 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 3.00 sec Time Delay T IEE-B>
5404 IEE-B< 0.3 .. 500.0 mA; 0 0.0 mA IEE-B< Pickup
5405 T IEE-B< 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 1.00 sec Time Delay T IEE-B<
5406 MEAS. METHOD Fundamental Fundamental Measurement Method
3. Harmonic
1. and 3. Harm.
5407A T-HOLD IEE-B> 0.00 .. 60.00 sec 0.00 sec Pickup Holding Time IEE-B>
5408A T-HOLD IEE-B< 0.00 .. 60.00 sec 0.00 sec Pickup Holding Time IEE-B<

2.32.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
25071 >BLK Sens. E B SP >BLOCK sensitive earth current prot. B
25072 IEE-B OFF OUT Earth current prot. B is switched OFF
25073 IEE-B BLOCKED OUT Earth current prot. B is BLOCKED
25074 IEE-B ACTIVE OUT Earth current prot. B is ACTIVE
25077 IEE-B> pickup OUT IEE-B> picked up
25078 IEE-B< pickup OUT IEE-B< picked up
25079 IEE-B> TRIP OUT IEE-B> TRIP
25080 IEE-B< TRIP OUT IEE-B< TRIP

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2.33 Interturn Protection (ANSI 59N (IT))

2.33 Interturn Protection (ANSI 59N (IT))

The interturn fault protection detects faults between turns within a generator winding (phase). This situation
may involve relatively high circulating currents that flow in the short-circuited turns and damage the winding and
the stator. The protective function is characterized by a high sensitivity.

Given the way the generators are constructed, it is rather unlikely that an interturn fault will occur.

Generators with a separate stator winding (e.g. large-sized hydro-electric generators) are more likely to be af-
fected. In this configuration, the transverse differential protection or the zero sequence current protection are
used instead between the connected starpoints.

2.33.1 Functional Description

Basic Principle

Figure 2-104 shows the basic principle of measurement. The displacement voltage is measured at the open
delta winding by means of 3 two-phase isolated voltage transformers. So as to be insensitive towards earth
faults, the isolated voltage transformer starpoint has to be connected to the generator starpoint by means of a
high-voltage cable. The voltage transformer starpoint must not be earthed since this implies that the generator
starpoint, too, would be earthed with the consequence that each fault would lead to a single-pole earth fault.

In the event of an interturn fault, the voltage in the affected phase will be reduced ultimately causing a displace-
ment voltage that is detected at the broken delta winding. The sensitivity is limited rather by the winding asym-
metries than by the protection device.

Figure 2-104 Standard connection of the interturn fault protection

Figure 2-105 shows an alternative connection example with limited sensitivity. The loading resistor is located
at the generator starpoint and the displacement voltage is measured via the voltage transformer. This voltage
transformer is equally used for the stator earth fault protection. The voltage transformer on the outgoing side is
earthed and has additionally a broken delta winding. The connection example shown in figure 2-105 has the
effect that the displacement voltage becomes zero at the measurement input of the interturn fault protection in
the event of an earth fault. In the event of an interturn fault, the displacement voltage occurs only at the open-
delta winding that is open on the outgoing side.

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2.33 Interturn Protection (ANSI 59N (IT))

Figure 2-105 Alternative connection of the interturn fault protection

The wide setting range allows the protective function to be used also as single-stage, single-phase overvoltage
protection.

Measurement Method

The UE input of the protection is connected as shown in Figure 2-104 or 2-105. An FIR filter determines the
fundamental component of the voltage based on the scanned displacement voltage. Selecting an appropriate
window function has the effect that the sensitivity towards higher-frequency oscillations is decreased and the
disturbing influence of the third harmonic is eliminated while achieving the required measurement sensitivity.

Logic

Figure 2-106 shows the logic diagram. The measured value of the fundamental component is forwarded to the
threshold decision logic. Upon exceeding the threshold, the pickup indication is sent and the timer is started.
The trip command is generated after the time has elapsed.

Figure 2-106 Logic diagram of the interturn fault protection

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2.33 Interturn Protection (ANSI 59N (IT))

2.33.2 Setting Notes

General

The interturn fault protection is only in effect and accessible if address 155 INTERTURN PROT is set to during
configuration of protective functions.

Also it has to be specified in the Power System Data 1 that the input UE is used for the interturn fault protection.
The setting can be made at address 223 UE CONNECTION = Uen-winding. For factor UE (address 224) the
ratio of the phase-to-earth voltage to the voltage at the broken delta winding (UE input) is set according to
section 2.5.

The address 5501 INTERTURN PROT serves to switch the function ON or OFF or to block only the trip command
(Block relay).

Pickup Value

It is desired that the protection has a high sensitivity in order to already detect a fault when it has affected only
a few turns. On the other hand, an excessively sensitive setting should not cause overfunctioning. This is why
the default setting is 2 % which at a maximum secondary displacement voltage of 100 V corresponds to a
pickup value of 2 V.

The final pickup value has to be determined in primary tests. Pickup without an interturn fault being actually
present must be excluded! The protection function must not pick up erroneously on interference. Interference
is caused by winding asymmetries of the stator winding. Especially in case of a two-pole fault it becomes
obvious by the formation of a displacement voltage. Short-circuit tests should be conducted so as to determine
this interfering displacement voltage The protection range can thus be determined. The setting should be so
as to ensure that the function picks up on a interturn fault at no-load excitation. It should be able to detect a
fault already when it affects only one turn.

For the sensitive setting the dropout ratio may have to be reduced slightly. The default setting is 80 % (see
address 5504 RESET RATIO).

Delays
Delaying the protective function additionally reduces the risk of overfunctioning. But if the delay is too long,
there is a risk of the affected stator winding/core taking considerable damage. This is why the default value is
(see address 5503 T-U Interturn >).

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2.33 Interturn Protection (ANSI 59N (IT))

2.33.3 Settings

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


5501 INTERTURN PROT OFF OFF Interturn Protection
ON
Block relay
5502 U Interturn > 0.3 .. 130.0 V 2.0 V Pick up Value U Interturn>
5503 T-U Interturn > 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 0.50 sec Time Delay of Trip Command
5504 RESET RATIO 50 .. 95 % 80 % Reset Ratio of U Interturn>

2.33.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
5413 >I/T BLOCK SP >BLOCK interturn fault protection
5421 I/T OFF OUT Interturn fault prot. is switched OFF
5422 I/T BLOCKED OUT Interturn fault protection is BLOCKED
5423 I/T ACTIVE OUT Interturn fault protection is ACTIVE
5426 I/T picked up OUT Interturn fault protection picked up
5427 I/T TRIP OUT Interturn fault protection TRIP

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2.34 Rotor Earth Fault Protection R, fn (ANSI 64R)

2.34 Rotor Earth Fault Protection R, fn (ANSI 64R)

Rotor earth fault protection is used to detect earth faults in the excitation circuit of synchronous machines. An
earth fault in the rotor winding does not cause immediate damage; however, if a second earth fault occurs it
constitutes a winding short-circuit of the excitation circuit. The resulting magnetic imbalances can cause
extreme mechanical forces which may destroy the machine.

2.34.1 Functional Description

Measurement Method

The rotor earth fault protection in the 7UM62 uses an external system frequency auxiliary voltage of approxi-
mately 36 to 45 V AC, which can be taken e.g. from the voltage transformers via a coupling unit 7XR6100-
0*A00. This voltage is symmetrically coupled to the excitation circuit and simultaneously connected to the mea-
surement input UE of the device provided for this purpose. The capacitors Ccoup of the 7XR6100 coupling unit
are protected by series resistors Rpre and - in case high harmonics content is expected in the excitation circuit
(e.g. excitation by thyristor circuits) - by an additional filter choke (for a connection example with terminal as-
signment see Appendix A.3).
The coupled voltage drives a small charging current (normally a few mA) through the coupling unit, as the case
may be the brush resistance and the capacitance to earth of the excitation circuit. This current IRE is measured
by the device.

Figure 2-107 Determination of the rotor earth resistance RE


Note 3PP13 is only necessary if more than 0.2 Aeff are flowing permanently; (rule: Uerr load > 150 V).
In this case the internal resistors Rpre inside the 7XR61 must be shorted.

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2.34 Rotor Earth Fault Protection R, fn (ANSI 64R)

The rotor earth fault protection calculates the complex earth impedance from the auxiliary AC voltage URE and
the current IRE. The earth resistance RE of the excitation circuit is then calculated from the earth impedance.
The coupling capacitance of the coupling unit Ccoup, the series resistance Rpre including the brush resistance,
and the earth capacitance of the excitation circuit CE are also considered. This method ensures that even rel-
atively high-ohmic earth faults (up to 30 kΩ under ideal conditions) can be detected.

In order to eliminate the influence of harmonics - such as occur in semiconductor excitation equipment (thyris-
tors or rotating rectifiers) - the measured quantities are filtered prior to their evaluation.

The earth resistance supervision has two stages. Usually an alarm is issued if an initial stage (e.g. 5 kΩ to 10
kΩ) is undershot. If the value falls below the second low-resistance stage (e.g. 2 kΩ to 5 kΩ), tripping will be
initiated after a short time delay. The dropout threshold is defined for both stages as 125 % of the set value.

Note

The rotor earth fault protection uses the UE voltage input of the device for the detection of the voltage URE . In
this case, the displacement voltage for the 90 % stator earth fault protection U0 is therefore calculated from the
phase-to-earth voltages.

Supervision of the Measurement Circuit

Since a current flows even during normal operation, i.e. the charging current of the earth capacity CE, the pro-
tection can recognize and signal interruptions in the measurement circuit, provided the capacitance to earth is
at least 0.15 µF.

Stabilization of the Resistance Measurement

If the measuring current IRE exceeds an internal predetermined value (100 mA), a low-resistance earth fault (RE
≈ 0) is detected regardless of the calculated resistance. If this current drops below the internal fixed value of
0.3 mA, RE → ∞ is determined regardless of the calculated resistance.

Figure 2-108 Logic Diagram of the Rotor Earth Fault Protection

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2.34 Rotor Earth Fault Protection R, fn (ANSI 64R)

2.34.2 Setting Notes

General

Rotor earth fault protection protection is only effective and accessible if address 160 ROTOR E/F has been set
= to Enabled. If the function is not required Disabled is set. Address 6001 ROTOR E/F serves to switch the
function ON or OFF or to block only the trip command (Block relay).

Also, configuration parameter 223 UE CONNECTION must be set to Rotor. If this is not the case, a voltage
URE = 0 is displayed and evaluated, so that the protection remains blocked.

Pickup Values

Since the protection calculates the ohmic rotor-earth resistance from the values caused by the applied bias volt-
age, the thresholds for the warning stage (6002 RE< WARN) and for the trip stage (6003 RE<< TRIP) can be
set directly as resistance values. The default settings are sufficient for the majority of cases. These values can
be changed depending on the insulation resistance and the coolant. Care must be taken to allow a sufficient
margin between the setting value and the actual insulation resistance.

Time Delays

The time delay for the warning stage 6004 T-WARN-RE< is usually set to approximately 10 s, and the delay for
the trip stage 6005 T-TRIP-RE<< to approximately 0.5 s. The set times are additional delay times not includ-
ing the operating times (measuring time, dropout time) of the protective function.

Data for the Coupling to the Rotor Circuit

The setting of the coupling reactance 6006 X COUPLING and the series resistance 6007 R SERIES enable
the protection to calculate the earth resistance RE from the complex equivalent diagram of the coupling capac-
itance of the coupling unit, the series (e.g. measuring brush) resistance, the capacitance to earth of the excita-
tion circuit, and the earth resistance of the excitation circuit. The equivalent circuit according to the figure below
applies.

Figure 2-109 Equivalent Measuring Circuit for Rotor Earth Fault Protection
where:
U RE Rotor circuit bias voltage
I RE Earth current
XCoupling Total series reactance of the coupling circuit, consisting of coupling capacitance and induc-
tance (if applicable)
RS Total resistance of the coupling circuit, consisting of brush resistance, protection resistance
(if applicable) and damping resistance (if applicable)
CE Rotor earth capacitance
RE Rotor earth resistance

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2.34 Rotor Earth Fault Protection R, fn (ANSI 64R)

The series resistors RS for the protection of the coupling capacitors can be considered with the total series re-
sistance (address 6007) since the brush resistance and the series resistance are connected in series in the
measurement circuit. The resultant resistance applies for R SERIES, i.e. the parallel connection in each case
of the series resistors RS and for the resistance of the two brushes. Similarly, the coupling reactance is calcu-
lated from the parallel connection of the two coupling capacitors Ccoup.

In some cases, the inductor integrated in the 7XR6100 is included in the coupling circuit to reduce very high
harmonics content of the excitation voltage. This forms, together with the coupling capacitance, a band pass
for the system frequency. In these cases, it must be considered that the reactance must not become less than
–100 Ω (lower threshold of setting 6006 X COUPLING).

Angle Error Correction

Coupling reactance and series resistance can be measured by the protection itself during commissioning (see
Subsection 3.3 in the Section „Installation and Commissioning“). It may be advantageous to measure any angle
errors of the input CTs of the device and adjust them at address 6009 PHI I RE in order to increase accuracy.
Thus, if the warning stage in particular does not pick up during testing at the expected insulation resistance
level, you should check and correct the correction angle and the coupling reactance (see also Subsection 3.3
in the Section „Installation and Commissioning“).

The values calculated and displayed by the device may become negative due to CT angle errors, wrong set-
tings of the coupling impedance or malfunctions of the excitation equipment. In that case, it is checked whether
the current IRE is higher than 7 mA. And if it is, tripping will be initiated. If the current is < 7 mA, the measurement
is marked as invalid, and the rotor earth resistance RE = ∞ is displayed. This additional consistency check
ensures that even if the setting of the correction angle or the coupling impedance is wrong, tripping in case of
low-resistance earth faults is ensured although the warning stage may not pick up correctly.

Measuring Circuit Monitoring

If a sufficiently high rotor capacitance (CE ≥ 0.15 µF) is available, an interruption in the measurement circuit can
also be recognized. A measurement circuit interruption is assumed when the voltage drops below the threshold
set at address 6008 I RE<, and the voltage URE is at the same time above 25 V. The alarm is reset when the
current is 0.5 mA or 20 % above the setting value, or when the voltage falls below 20 V. If I RE< is set to 0.0
mA, there is no current monitoring and no alarm.

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2.34 Rotor Earth Fault Protection R, fn (ANSI 64R)

2.34.3 Settings

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


6001 ROTOR E/F OFF OFF Rotor Earth Fault Protection (R,
ON fn)
Block relay
6002 RE< WARN 3.0 .. 30.0 kΩ 10.0 kΩ Pickup Value of Warning Stage
Re<
6003 RE<< TRIP 1.0 .. 5.0 kΩ 2.0 kΩ Pickup Value of Tripping Stage
Re<<
6004 T-WARN-RE< 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 10.00 sec Time Delay of Warning Stage Re<
6005 T-TRIP-RE<< 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 0.50 sec Time Delay of Tripping Stage
Re<<
6006 X COUPLING -100 .. 800 Ω 398 Ω Coupling Reactance
6007 R SERIES 0 .. 999 Ω 50 Ω Series Resistance (e.g. Meas.
Brushes)
6008 I RE< 1.0 .. 50.0 mA; 0 2.0 mA Pickup Value of Failure Detection
Ire<
6009 PHI I RE -15.0 .. 15.0 ° 0.0 ° Correction Angle for Ire

2.34.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
5383 >BLOCK R/E/F SP >BLOCK rotor earth fault prot. (R,fn)
5391 R/E/F OFF OUT Rotor earth fault prot. (R,fn) swit. OFF
5392 R/E/F BLOCKED OUT Rotor earth fault prot. (R,fn) BLOCKED
5393 R/E/F AKTIVE OUT Rotor earth fault prot. (R,fn) is ACTIVE
5394 R/E/F U< block OUT Rot. earth flt. prot. (R,fn) block by U<
5397 R/E/F warning OUT Rot. earth flt.prot. (R,fn) Re< warning
5398 R/E/F picked up OUT Rot. earth flt.prot. (R,fn) Re<< pick.up
5399 R/E/F TRIP OUT Rotor earth fault prot. (R,fn) Re<< TRIP
5400 Failure R/E/F OUT Failure rotor earth fault prot. (R,fn)

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2.35 Sensitive Rotor Earth Fault Protection with 1 to 3 Hz Square Wave Voltage Injection (ANSI 64R - 1 to 3 Hz)

2.35 Sensitive Rotor Earth Fault Protection with 1 to 3 Hz Square Wave


Voltage Injection (ANSI 64R - 1 to 3 Hz)

The rotor earth fault protection detects high and low resistance earth faults in the excitation circuit of synchro-
nous generators. An earth fault in the excitation winding itself causes no direct damage. If however a second
earth fault occurs, this results in a winding short-circuit in the excitation circuit. The resulting magnetic imbal-
ances can cause extreme mechanical forces which may destroy the machine. The following protection function
differs from the function described in Section 2.34 in that it is far more sensitive; it is used for large generators.

2.35.1 Functional Description

Basic Principle

The rotor earth fault protection works with a direct voltage of approx. 50 V, the polarity of which is reversed
between 1 and 4 times per second, depending on the setting. This voltage Ug injected into the rotor circuit is
generated in the 7XT71 series device. The voltage passes through a resistor unit 7XR6004 (or 7XR6003) and
is symmetrically coupled to the excitation circuit via high-resistance resistors, and at the same time connected
to the earthing brush (potential to earth) via a low-resistance measuring shunt RM (see also Appendix). The
voltage taken at the measuring shunt and the control voltage are fed into the protection device via measuring
transducers. The control voltage is proportional to the injected 50 V voltage Ug in terms of amplitude and fre-
quency. The earth current flowing in the rotor is reflected by the measurement voltage.

Every time the polarity of the direct voltage Ug is reversed, a charging current Ig is driven across the resistor
unit into the earth capacitance of the excitation circuit. This current causes a proportional voltage drop UMeas in
the measuring shunt. Once the rotor earth capacitance is charged, the charging current drops to zero. If a rotor
earth fault is present a continuous earth current is driven. The amplitude depends on the fault resistance.

The use of a low-frequency square-wave voltage as displacement voltage eliminates the influence of the earth
capacitance and ensures at the same time a sufficient margin against interference signals from the excitation
system.

Figure 2-110 Connection Schematic of Voltage Injection into the Rotor Winding
CE Rotor-earth capacitance
Rs Series resistor
Ug Square-wave voltage from 7XT71
Ig Current flowing from the 7XT71 through the rotor into the earth
fg Square-wave frquency of the 7XT71

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2.35 Sensitive Rotor Earth Fault Protection with 1 to 3 Hz Square Wave Voltage Injection (ANSI 64R - 1 to 3 Hz)

Measurement Method

From the control voltage UCtrl, the function determines the timing for the polarity reversals and triggers the mea-
surement. At the same time it calculates the voltage amplitude and converts it to the driving voltage Ug. The
actual fault resistance is determined from the voltage UMeas, which is proportional to the current Ig. Every time
the polarity of the control voltage is reversed, the DC component of the measurement voltage is determined by
a mean value filter. The frequency of the series device must be set low enough to ensure that during the mean-
value generation the rotor-earth capacitances are charged, so that only the steady-state portion is evaluated.
This allows detection of high-resistance faults (max. approx. 80 kΩ) without being influenced by the earth ca-
pacitance.

However, the measurement is distorted by two sources of interference. One of them is a DC voltage component
in the measurement circuit which depends on the intensity of the excitation voltage and on the location of the
earth fault in the excitation winding, and the other are considerable high-frequency AC voltage peaks that may
be superimposed on the DC excitation voltage. These peaks are attenuated by a numerical filter.

To eliminate interference from the superimposed DC voltage components, the polarity of the voltage Ug is re-
versed (square-wave voltage). The measurement voltage calculation described above is performed for both
polarities. On formation of the difference between two subsequent measurement results for Ig, namely Ig1 and
Ig2, the DC component originating from the excitation circuit (Ioffset) is eliminated, whereas the DC components
originating from the injected voltage Ug accumulate.

With the measured quantity thus obtained, and the calculated amount of the displacement voltage Ug, the earth
resistance can be calculated, taking into account the series resistors Rs (see Figure 2-111).

Figure 2-111 Curves of the Displacement Voltage Ug, Shunt Voltage UMeas and the Measurement Current Ig

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2.35 Sensitive Rotor Earth Fault Protection with 1 to 3 Hz Square Wave Voltage Injection (ANSI 64R - 1 to 3 Hz)

Monitoring Functions

On each polarity reversal, the charging current of the earth capacitance is determined. If this is undershot,
errors in the measuring circuit such as wire break, poor brush contacts etc. can be detected. This is possible
however only if the earth capacitances are sufficiently large (> 0.15 µF) and excitation disturbances minimal.

As an alternative, the protection function offers an external test option using a test resistor (included in the
7XR6004 and 7XR6003). The test mode is activated via a binary input, and the fault resistor then connected to
a slip ring with an external relay. The protection function must be informed of the relevant test resistance. The
protection function issues appropriate indications showing the test results. It is also able to detect one-sided
interruptions (such as wire breaks or loose terminals in a coupling).

The evaluation logic is shown in the following figure.

Figure 2-112 Logic Diagram of the Rotor Earth Fault Protection in Test Mode

In addition, the control voltage is monitored. If the control voltage is found to be missing or too low, a failure of
the control unit is assumed (see also logic diagram).

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2.35 Sensitive Rotor Earth Fault Protection with 1 to 3 Hz Square Wave Voltage Injection (ANSI 64R - 1 to 3 Hz)

Logic

The logic diagram shows the parts:


• Monitoring of the series device
• Supervision of the measurement circuit
• Two-stage protection function
• Effect of the rotor earth fault protection test

If the earth resistance drops below the high-resistance stage RE<, a warning message will normally be issued.
If it drops below the second, low-resistance stage RE<<, a trip signal is issued after a short time.

Figure 2-113 Logic Diagram of Sensitive Rotor Earth Fault Protection

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2.35 Sensitive Rotor Earth Fault Protection with 1 to 3 Hz Square Wave Voltage Injection (ANSI 64R - 1 to 3 Hz)

2.35.2 Setting Notes

General

Sensitive rotor earth fault protection is only effective and available if configured at address 161 REF 1-3Hz to
Enabled.

It must also be ensured that the measuring transducer inputs TD1 and TD2 are not used for any other function.

Address 6101 REF 1-3Hz serves to switch the function ON or OFF or to block only the trip command (Block
relay).

The delivery setting of the measuring transducers TD1 and TD2 to 10 V must not be changed (see tables 3-18
and 3-19).

Pickup Values

Since the protection calculates the ohmic rotor-earth resistance directly from the values of the applied bias volt-
age, the series resistor and the flowing earth current, the thresholds for the warning stage (6102 RE< WARN)
and for the trip stage (6103 RE<< TRIP) can be set directly as resistance values. The default settings (RE<
WARN = 40 kΩ and RE<< TRIP = 5 kΩ) are sufficient for the majority of cases. These values can be changed
depending on the insulation resistance and the coolant. Care must be taken to allow a sufficient margin
between the setting value and the actual insulation resistance.

As interference from the excitation system cannot be excluded, the setting for the warning stage is finally es-
tablished during primary tests.

Time Delays

The time delay for the warning stage 6104 T-WARN-RE< is usually set to approximately 10 s, and the delay for
the trip stage 6105 T-TRIP-RE<< to approximately 1 s. The set times are additional time delays not including
the operating times (measuring time, drop-out time) of the protective function.

Monitoring Functions

The setting value of the measuring circuit monitoring (6106 Qc <) is defined during the primary test. For this
purpose the operational measured value (Qc) is read out and half of this value is set. If the charge measured
is too low, monitoring cannot be effective. The parameter Qc < should in that case be set to 0 mAs. No fault
indication will be issued in this case.

No setting is required if the external test is done using the test resistor 7XR6004 (3.3 kΩ). If a different resistor
is to be used, its resistance must be set as an advanced parameter TEST RESISTOR (only via the DIGSI com-
munication software) at address 6107A.

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2.35.3 Settings

Addresses which have an appended "A" can only be changed with DIGSI, under Additional Settings.

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


6101 REF 1-3Hz OFF OFF Rotor Earth Fault Protection (1-
ON 3Hz)
Block relay
6102 RE< WARN 5.0 .. 80.0 kΩ 40.0 kΩ Pickup Value of Warning Stage
Re<
6103 RE<< TRIP 1.0 .. 10.0 kΩ 5.0 kΩ Pickup Value of Tripping Stage
Re<<
6104 T-WARN-RE< 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 10.00 sec Time Delay of Warning Stage Re<
6105 T-TRIP-RE<< 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 1.00 sec Time Delay of Tripping Stage
Re<<
6106 Qc < 0.00 .. 1.00 mAs 0.02 mAs Pickup Value of open Rotor Circuit
(Qc)
6107A TEST RESISTOR 1.0 .. 10.0 kΩ 3.3 kΩ Testing Resistor

2.35.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
5381 >REF 1-3Hz BLK SP >BLOCK rotor earth fault prot. (1-3Hz)
5386 >Test REF 1-3Hz SP >Test rotor earth fault prot. (1-3Hz)
5387 REF 1-3Hz OFF OUT REF protection (1-3Hz) is switched OFF
5388 REF 1-3Hz BLK OUT REF protection (1-3Hz) is BLOCKED
5389 REF 1-3Hz ACT OUT REF protection (1-3Hz) is ACTIVE
5395 REF 1-3Hz open OUT REF protection (1-3Hz) open circuit
5401 Fail REF 1-3Hz OUT Failure REF protection (1-3Hz)
5403 REF 1-3Hz Warn OUT REF prot. (1-3Hz) warning stage (Re<)
5406 REF 1-3Hz Fault OUT REF prot. (1-3Hz) Re<< picked up
5407 REF 1-3Hz Trip OUT REF prot. (1-3Hz) Re<< TRIP
5408 Test REF PASSED OUT REF prot. (1-3Hz) test passed
5409 Test REF Fail. OUT REF prot. (1-3Hz) test NOT passed
5410 1 Cir. open OUT REF (1-3Hz) 1 Measuring circuit open
5411 2 Cir. open OUT REF (1-3Hz) 2 Measuring circuits open

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2.36 Motor Starting Time Supervision (ANSI 48)

2.36 Motor Starting Time Supervision (ANSI 48)

When using the 7UM62 to protect motors, the motor starting protection supplements the overload protection
described in Section 2.11 by protecting the motor against too long starting procedures. In particular, rotor-criti-
cal high-voltage motors can quickly be heated above their thermal limits when multiple starting attempts occur
in a short period of time. If the durations of these starting attempts are prolonged by excessive voltage surges
during motor starting, by excessive load moments, or by locked rotor conditions, a tripping signal will be initiated
by the device.

2.36.1 Functional Description

Motor Startup

The motor starting time monitoring is initiated by the motor starting recognition setting entered at address I
MOTOR START. This current releases the calculation of the tripping characteristic.

One characteristic is definite time while the other one is inverse time.

Inverse Time Characteristic

The inverse time-overcurrent characteristic is designed to operate only when the rotor is not blocked. With de-
creased startup current resulting from voltage dips when starting the motor, prolonged starting times are calcu-
lated properly and tripping can be performed in time. The tripping time is calculated based on the following for-
mula:

with

tTRIP Actual tripping time for flowing current I

tStart max Tripping time for nominal startup current IStartCurr (param. 6503, STARTING TIME)

I Current actually flowing (measured value)


IStartCurr Nominal starting current of the motor (Parameter 6502, START. CURRENT)

IMotor Start Pickup value for recognition of motor startup (Parameter 6505, I MOTOR START)

Figure 2-114 Trip Time Depending on Startup Current

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2.36 Motor Starting Time Supervision (ANSI 48)

Therefore, if the starting current I actually measured is smaller (or larger) than the nominal starting current IStart-
Curr entered at address 6502 (parameter START. CURRENT), the actual tripping time tTRIP is lengthened (or
shortened) accordingly (see also Figure 2-114).

Definite-Time Overcurrent Tripping Characteristic (Locked Rotor Time)

If the motor starting time exceeds the maximum allowable blocked rotor time t E, tripping must be executed at
least with time tE when the rotor is blocked. The device can detect a blocked rotor condition via a binary input
(„>Rotor locked“) from an external rpm-counter. If the current in any of the phases exceeds the already
mentioned threshold I MOTOR START, a motor startup is assumed and in addition to the above inverse time
delay, a current-independent delay time (locked rotor time) is started. This happens every time the motor is
started and is a normal operating condition that is neither entered in the operational annunciations buffer, nor
output to a control centre, nor entered in a fault record.

The locked rotor delay time (LOCK ROTOR TIME) is ANDed with the binary input „>Rotor locked“. If the
binary input is still activated after the parameterized locked rotor time has expired, tripping is performed imme-
diately, regardless of whether the binary input was activated before or during the delay, or after the delay time
had elapsed.

Logic

Motor startup monitoring may be switched on or off using a parameter. It may be blocked via binary input, i.e.
times and pickup indications are reset. The following figure shows the indication logic and fault administration.
A pickup does not result in a fault record. Fault recording is not started until a trip command has been issued.

Figure 2-115 Logic Diagram of the Motor Startup Time Monitoring

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2.36 Motor Starting Time Supervision (ANSI 48)

2.36.2 Setting Notes

General

Startup Time Monitoring is only active and available if address 165 STARTUP MOTOR was set to Enabled
during configuration. If the function is not required, it is set to Disabled. Address 6501 STARTUP MOTOR
serves to switch the function ON or OFF or to block only the trip command (Block relay).

Pickup Values

The device is informed of the startup current values under normal conditions at address 6502 START.
CURRENT, and of the startup time at address 6503 STARTING TIME. This ensures timely tripping if the value
of I2t calculated by the protection device is exceeded.

If the startup time is longer than the permissible blocked rotor time, an external rpm-counter can initiate the
definite-time tripping characteristic via binary input („>Rotor locked“). A locked rotor leads to a loss of ven-
tilation and therefore to a reduced thermal load capacity of the machine. For this reason the motor starting time
supervision is to issue a tripping command before reaching the thermal tripping characteristic valid for normal
operation.

A current above the threshold 6505 (address I MOTOR START) is interpreted as a motor startup. Consequent-
ly, this value must be chosen such that it is reliably attained by the actual starting current under any load or
voltage conditions during motor startup, but not during a permissible short-time overload.

Example: Motor with the following data:

Nominal voltage UN = 6600 V


Nominal current IMot.Nom = 126 A
Startup current IStartCurr = 624 A
Permissible continuous stator current: Imax = 135 A
Starting time at IStartCurr tStart max = 8.5 s
CT Ratio IN CTprim/IN CTsec 200 A/1 A

The setting for address START. CURRENT is calculated as follows:

For reduced voltage, the startup current is also reduced almost linearly. At 80% nominal voltage, the startup
current in this example is reduced to 0.8 · IStartCurr = 2.5 · IN CTsec.

The setting for detection of a motor startup must lie above the maximum load current and below the minimum
startup current. If no other influencing factors are present (peak loads), the value for motor startup I MOTOR
START set at address 6505 may be set to an average value:

The tripping time of the starting time monitoring is calculated as follows:

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2.36 Motor Starting Time Supervision (ANSI 48)

Under nominal conditions, the tripping time is the maximum starting time tStart max. For ratios deviating from
nominal conditions, the motor tripping time changes. At 80% of nominal voltage (which corresponds to 80% of
nominal starting current), the tripping time is for example:

After the delay time LOCK ROTOR TIME has expired, the binary input becomes effective and initiates a tripping
signal. If the blocked rotor time is set to a value that, in a normal startup, the binary input „>Rotor locked“
(No. 6805) is reliably reset during the delay time LOCK ROTOR TIME, faster tripping will be available during
motor starting under locked rotor conditions.

2.36.3 Settings

The table indicates region-specific presettings. Column C (configuration) indicates the corresponding second-
ary nominal current of the current transformer.

Addr. Parameter C Setting Options Default Setting Comments


6501 STARTUP MOTOR OFF OFF Motor Starting Time Su-
ON pervision
Block relay
6502 START. CURRENT 5A 0.50 .. 80.00 A 15.60 A Starting Current of Motor
1A 0.10 .. 16.00 A 3.12 A
6503 STARTING TIME 1.0 .. 180.0 sec 8.5 sec Starting Time of Motor
6504 LOCK ROTOR TIME 0.5 .. 120.0 sec; ∞ 6.0 sec Permissible Locked Rotor
Time
6505 I MOTOR START 5A 3.00 .. 50.00 A 8.00 A Current Pickup Value of
Motor Starting
1A 0.60 .. 10.00 A 1.60 A

2.36.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
6801 >BLK START-SUP SP >BLOCK Motor Starting Supervision
6805 >Rotor locked SP >Rotor is locked
6811 START-SUP OFF OUT Starting time supervision switched OFF
6812 START-SUP BLK OUT Starting time supervision is BLOCKED
6813 START-SUP ACT OUT Starting time supervision is ACTIVE
6821 START-SUP TRIP OUT Starting time supervision TRIP
6822 Rotor locked OUT Rotor is LOCKED after Locked Rotor Time
6823 START-SUP PU OUT Starting time supervision picked up

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2.37 Restart Inhibit for Motors (ANSI 66, 49Rotor)

2.37 Restart Inhibit for Motors (ANSI 66, 49Rotor)

The rotor temperature of a motor generally remains well below its admissible limit temperature during normal
operation and also under increased load conditions. However, with startups and resulting high startup currents
caused by small thermal time constants of the rotor it may suffer more thermal damage than the stator. To avoid
that multiple starting attempts result in tripping, a new motor start must be prevented if it can be expected that
the allowed rotor heating would be violated by this starting attempt. Therefore the 7UM62 device provides a
motor restart blocking feature. An inhibit signal is issued until a new motor start is admissible (restarting thresh-
old). This blocking signal must be configured to a binary output of the device whose contact is inserted in the
motor starting circuit.

2.37.1 Functional Description

Determining the Rotor Overtemperature

Because rotor current cannot be measured directly, stator currents must be used. The rms values of the cur-
rents are used for this. Rotor overtemperature ΘR is calculated using the highest of the three phase currents.
For this it is assumed that the thermal limits for the rotor winding according to the manufacturer's data regarding
nominal startup current, maximum admissible starting time, and the number of starts permitted from cold (ncold)
and warm (nwarm) state are just reached. From this data, the device calculates values for the thermal rotor profile
and issues a blocking signal until this profile decreases below the restarting threshold allowing restart.

Figure 2-116 Temperature Curve at the Rotor and the Thermal Profile during Repeated Start-Up Attempts

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2.37 Restart Inhibit for Motors (ANSI 66, 49Rotor)

Although the heat distribution at the rotor cage bars can range widely during motor startup, the different
maximum temperatures in the rotor do not necessarily affect the motor restart inhibit (see Figure 2-116). It is
much more important to establish a thermal profile, after a complete motor startup, that is appropriate for pro-
tection of the motor's thermal state. The figure shows, as an example, the heating processes during repeated
motor starts (three startups from cold operating condition), as well as the thermal replica of the protection
device.

Restart Threshold

If the rotor temperature has exceeded the restart threshold, the motor cannot be restarted. Only when the rotor
temperature goes below the restart threshold, i.e. just when a startup becomes possible without exceeding the
rotor overtemperature limit, the blocking signal is retracted. Therefore, the following applies for the restart
threshold ΘRe.Inh., related to maximum admissible rotor overtemperature:

ncold 2 3 4

ΘRe.Inh. [%] 50 % 66.7 % 75 %

Restart Times
The motor manufacturer allows a number of cold (ncold) and warm (nwarm) startups. No subsequent renewed
startup is allowed. A corresponding time — the restart time — must expire to allow the rotor to cool down.
Thermal behaviour is allowed for as follows: Each time the motor is shutdown, a leveling timer is started (ad-
dress 6604 T EQUAL). This takes into account the different temperatures of the individual motor components
at the moment of shutdown. During the leveling time the thermal profile of the rotor is not updated but main-
tained constant to replicate the leveling processes in the rotor. Then the thermal model cools down with the
corresponding time constant (rotor time constant x extension factor). During the leveling time the motor cannot
be restarted. As soon as the restart threshold is undershot, a new restart may be attempted.

The total time that must expire before motor restart equals to the leveling time and the time calculated using
the thermal model required for the rotor temperature to decrease below the restart threshold:

with

TLeveling Rotor temperature equilibrium time address 6604

kτ extension factor for the time constant = Kτ at RUNNING address 6609 or Kτ at STOP
address 6608

τR rotor time constant, internally calculated:

τR = tStart · (ncold – nwarm) · Ion2

where:

tStart = Startup time in s

Ion = Startup current in pu

Θpre thermal profile at the moment of motor shutdown (depends on the operating state)

The operational measured value TRem.= (to be found in the thermal measured values) shows the time remaining
until the next restart is allowed.

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2.37 Restart Inhibit for Motors (ANSI 66, 49Rotor)

Prolonging the Cooling Time Constant

In order to properly account for the reduced heat removal when a self-ventilated motor is stopped, the cooldown
time constant can be increased relative to the time constants for a running machine with the factor Kτ at STOP
(address 6608). A motor at standstill is defined by current below an adjustable current threshold BkrClosed
I MIN. This assumes that the idle current of the motor is greater than this threshold. The pickup threshold
BkrClosed I MIN also affects the thermal overload protection function (see Section 2.11).

While the motor is running, heating of the thermal profile is modeled with the time constant τR calculated from
the motor ratings, and the cooldown is calculated with the time constant τR · Kτ at RUNNING (address 6609).
In this way the requirements for a slow cooldown (slow temperature leveling) are met.

Minimum Inhibit Time

Regardless of thermal profiles, some motor manufacturers require a minimum inhibit time after the maximum
number of permissible startup attempts has been exceeded.

The duration of the inhibit signal depends on which of the times, T MIN INHIBIT or TRem., is longer.

Behaviour on Power Supply Failure

Depending on the setting of parameter 274 ATEX100, the value of the thermal profile is either reset to zero on
failure of the power supply voltage, or cyclically buffered in a non-volatile memory until the power supply voltage
returns. In the latter case when power supply is restored, the thermal profile uses the stored value for calcula-
tion and matches it to the operating conditions.

Emergency Startup

If, for emergency reasons, motor starting that will exceed the maximum allowable rotor temperature must take
place, the motor start blocking signal can be terminated via a binary input („>Emer. Start ΘR“), thus allow-
ing a new starting attempt. The thermal rotor profile continues to function, however, and the maximum admis-
sible rotor temperature can be exceeded. No motor shutdown will be initiated by motor start blocking, but the
calculated excessive temperature of the rotor can be observed for risk assessment.

Blocking

If the motor start blocking function is blocked or switched off, the thermal profile of the excessive rotor temper-
ature and the equilibrium time T EQUAL as well as the minimum inhibit time T MIN. INHIBIT are reset, and
any existing motor start inhibit signal is terminated.

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2.37 Restart Inhibit for Motors (ANSI 66, 49Rotor)

Logic

The thermal profile can also be reset via a binary input. This may be useful for testing and commissioning, and
after power supply voltage restoration.

The following figure shows the logic diagram for the restart inhibit.

Figure 2-117 Logic diagram of the Restart Inhibit

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2.37 Restart Inhibit for Motors (ANSI 66, 49Rotor)

2.37.2 Setting Notes

General

Restart inhibit is only effective and available if address 166 RESTART INHIBIT was set to Enabled during
configuration. If the function is not required Disabled is set. Address 6601RESTART INHIBIT serves to
switch the function ON or OFF or to block only the trip command (Block relay).

Required Characteristic Values

Many of the variables needed to calculate the rotor temperature are supplied by the motor manufacturer.
Among these variables are the starting current IStartCurr, the nominal motor current IMot.Nom, the maximum allow-
able starting time T START MAX (address 6603), the number of allowable starts from cold conditions (ncold),
and the number of allowable starts from warm conditions (nwarm).

The starting current is entered at address 6602, expressed as a multiple of the nominal motor current
(IStart/IMOTnom). For a correct interpretation of this parameter, it is important that in Power System Data 1
the apparent power (address 252 SN GEN/MOTOR) and the rated voltage (address 251 UN GEN/MOTOR) of
the motor are correctly set. The number of warm starts allowed is entered at address 6606 (MAX.WARM
STARTS) and the difference (#COLD-#WARM) between the number of allowable cold and warm starts is entered
at address 6607.
For motors without separate ventilation, the reduced cooling at motor standstill can be accounted for by enter-
ing at address 6608 the reduced ventilation factor Kτ at STOP. As soon as the current no longer exceeds the
setting value entered at address 281 BkrClosed I MIN, motor standstill is detected and the time constant
is increased by the extension factor configured.

If no difference between the time constants is to be used (e.g. externally-ventilated motors), then the extension
factor Kτ at STOP should be set to 1.

Cooling with running motor is influenced by the extension factor Kτ at RUNNING. This factor considers that a
motor running under load and a stopped motor do not cool down at the same speed. It becomes effective as
soon as the current exceeds the value set at address 281 BkrClosed I MIN. With Kτ at RUNNING = 1 the
heating and the cooling time constant are the same at operating conditions (I > BkrClosed I MIN).

Setting Example:

Example: Motor with the following data:

Nominal voltage UN = 6600 V


Nominal current IMot.Nom = 126 A
Startup current IStartCurr = 624 A
Starting time at IStartCurr tStart max = 8.5 s
Permissible number of startups with cold ncold = 3
motor
Permissible number of startups with warm nwarm = 2
motor
Current transformer 200 A / 1 A

The ratio between startup current and motor nominal current is:

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2.37 Restart Inhibit for Motors (ANSI 66, 49Rotor)

The following settings are made:


IStart/IMOTnom . = 4.9
T START MAX . = 8.5 sec
MAX.WARM STARTS . =2
#COLD-#WARM . =1
For the rotor temperature equilibrium time, a setting of approx. T EQUAL = 1.0 min has proven to be a practical
value. The value for the minimum inhibit time T MIN. INHIBIT depends on the requirements set by the motor
manufacturer, or on the system conditions. It must in any case exceed T EQUAL. In this example, a value has
been chosen that roughly reflects the thermal profile (T MIN. INHIBIT =6.0 min).

The motor manufacturer's or the user's requirements also determine the extension factor for the time constant
during cooldown, especially for motor standstill. Where no other specifications are made, the following settings
are recommended: Kτ at STOP = 5.0 and Kτ at RUNNING = 2.0 .

For proper functioning it is also important that the CT values for side 2 (addresses 211 and 212), the power
system data (addresses 251, 252) and the current threshold for distinction between stopped and running motor
(address 281 BkrClosed I MIN, recommended setting ≈ 0.1 · I/IMot.Nom.) were set correctly. An overview of
the parameters and their default settings is given in the settings list.

Temperature Behaviour during Changing Operating States

For better understanding of the above considerations, two of the many possible operating states will be dis-
cussed in the following paragraph. The examples use the settings indicated above. 3 cold and 2 warm startup
attempts have resulted in a restart limit of 66.7 %.

The following figure illustrates the temperature behaviour during 2 warm startup attempts. The motor is contin-
uously operated at nominal current. After the first switchoff T EQUAL is effective. 30 s later the motor is restarted
and immediately shut down again. After another pause, the 2nd restart attempt is made. The motor is shut down
once again. During this 2nd startup attempt, the restart limit is exceeded, so that after shutdown the restart
inhibit takes effect. After the temperature leveling time (1 min), the thermal profile cools down with the time con-
stant τR · Kτ at STOP ≈ 5 · 204 s = 1020 s. The restart inhibit is effective for about 7 min.

Figure 2-118 Temperature Behaviour during Two Successive Warm Starts

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2.37 Restart Inhibit for Motors (ANSI 66, 49Rotor)

In Figure 2-119, the motor is also restarted twice in warm condition, but the pause between the restart attempts
is longer than in the first example. After the second restart attempt, the motor is operated at 90 % nominal cur-
rent. After the shutdown following the first startup attempt, the thermal profile is "frozen". After the temperature
leveling time (1 min), the rotor cools down with the time constant τR · Kτ at STOP ≈ 5 · 204 s = 1020 s. During
the second restart, the starting current causes a temperature rise, whereas the subsequently flowing on-load
current of 0.9 I/IMot.Nom. Kτ at RUNNING reduces the temperature. This time, the time constant τR · Kτ at
STOP = 2 · 204 s = 408 s is effective.

The fact that the restart limit is exceeded for a short time does not mean a thermal overload. It rather indicates
that a thermal overload of the rotor would result if the motor were shut down immediately and restarted.

Figure 2-119 Two Warm Restarts Followed by Continuous Running

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2.37 Restart Inhibit for Motors (ANSI 66, 49Rotor)

2.37.3 Settings

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


6601 RESTART INHIBIT OFF OFF Restart Inhibit for Motors
ON
Block relay
6602 IStart/IMOTnom 1.5 .. 10.0 4.9 I Start / I Motor nominal
6603 T START MAX 3.0 .. 320.0 sec 8.5 sec Maximum Permissible Starting
Time
6604 T EQUAL 0.0 .. 320.0 min 1.0 min Temperature Equalization Time
6606 MAX.WARM STARTS 1 .. 4 2 Permissible Number of Warm
Starts
6607 #COLD-#WARM 1 .. 2 1 Number of Cold Starts - Warm
Starts
6608 Kτ at STOP 1.0 .. 100.0 5.0 Extension of Time Constant at
Stop
6609 Kτ at RUNNING 1.0 .. 100.0 2.0 Extension of Time Constant at
Running
6610 T MIN. INHIBIT 0.2 .. 120.0 min 6.0 min Minimum Restart Inhibit Time

2.37.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
4822 >BLK Re. Inhib. SP >BLOCK Restart inhibit motor
4823 >Emer. Start ΘR SP >Emergency start rotor
4824 Re. Inhibit OFF OUT Restart inhibit motor is switched OFF
4825 Re. Inhibit BLK OUT Restart inhibit motor is BLOCKED
4826 Re. Inhibit ACT OUT Restart inhibit motor is ACTIVE
4827 Re. Inhib. TRIP OUT Restart inhibit motor TRIP
4828 >RM th.rep. ΘR SP >Reset thermal memory rotor
4829 RM th.rep. ΘR OUT Reset thermal memory rotor
4830 Re. Inhib.ALARM OUT Alarm restart inhibit motor

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2.38 Breaker Failure Protection (ANSI 50BF)

2.38 Breaker Failure Protection (ANSI 50BF)

The breaker failure protection can be assigned to the current inputs of side 1 or side 2 during configuration of
the protective functions (see Section 2.4). The breaker failure protection monitors whether the associated
circuit breaker is opened correctly. In machine protection it concerns usually the mains breaker.

2.38.1 Functional Description

Mode of Operation

The following two criteria are available for circuit breaker failure protection:
• Checking whether the current in all three phases undershoots a set threshold following a trip command,
• Evaluation of the position of a circuit breaker auxiliary contact for protective functions where the current cri-
terion is perhaps not representative, e.g. frequency protection, voltage protection, rotor earth fault protec-
tion.

If the circuit breaker has not opened after a programmable time delay (breaker failure), a higher-level circuit
breaker can initiate disconnection (see the following example).

Figure 2-120 Function Principle of the Breaker Failure Protection Function

Initiation

The breaker failure protection function can be initiated by two different sources:
• Internal functions of the 7UM62, e.g. trip commands of protective functions or via CFC (internal logic func-
tions),
• external start commands e.g. via binary input.

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2.38 Breaker Failure Protection (ANSI 50BF)

Criteria

The two pickup criteria (current criterion, circuit breaker auxiliary contact) are OR-combined. In case of a trip-
ping without short circuit current, e.g. for voltage protection on light load, the current is not a safe criterion for
circuit breaker response. For this reason pickup is also made possible using the auxiliary contact criterion.

The current criterion is fulfilled if at least one of the three phase currents exceeds a parametrized threshold
value (CIRC. BR. I>). The dropout is performed if all three phase currents fall below 95 % of the pickup
threshold value.

In the operating condition 0 the current criterion is inactive. In that case, the breaker failure protection will be
activated only by the breaker auxiliary contacts.
If the binary input of the circuit breaker auxiliary contact is inactive, only the current criterion is effective and the
breaker failure protection cannot become active with a tripping signal if the current is below the CIRC. BR.
I> threshold.

Two-Channel Feature

To increase security and to protect against possible disturbance impulses the binary input for an external trip
signal is stabilized. This external signal must be present during the entire period of the delay time. Otherwise,
the timer is reset and no tripping signal is issued. A redundant binary input „>ext.start2 B/F“ is linked to
further enhance the security against unwanted operation. This means that no initiation is possible unless both
binary inputs are activated. The two-channel feature is also effective for an “internal” initiation.

Logic

If the breaker failure protection has picked up, a corresponding message is transmitted and a parameterized
time delay starts. If the pickup criteria are still fulfilled on expiration of this time, a redundant source evaluation
before fault clearing is initiated via a further AND combination through a higher level circuit breaker.

A pickup drops off and no trip command is produced by the breaker failure protection if
• one of the internal start conditions (Output relay BO3 or via CFC) or „>ext.start1 B/F“ or
„>ext.start2 B/F“ causing the pickup drop off.
• a tripping signal of the protective functions still exists, whereas the current criterion and the auxiliary contact
criterion drops off.

The following figure shows the logic diagram for the breaker failure protection function. The overall breaker
failure protection can be enabled or disabled via parameters and also blocked dynamically via binary input
„>BLOCK BkrFail“ (e.g. during a machine protection check).

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Figure 2-121 Logic Diagram of the Breaker Failure Protection

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2.38.2 Setting Notes

General

Breaker failure protection is only effective and available if address 170 BREAKER FAILURE is set to Side 1
or Side 2 during configuration. If the function is not required Disabled is set. Address 7001 BREAKER
FAILURE serves to switch the function ON or OFF or to block only the trip command (Block relay).

The current measurement for breaker failure protection can be performed either at side 1 (inputs IL, S1) or at
side 2 (inputs IL, S2). It is recommended to use the terminal-side set of CTs, i.e. side 1.

Criteria

The parameter 7002 TRIP INTERN serves to select the OFF criterion of an internal pickup. It can be imple-
mented by reading the switching status of the output relay BO12 provided for this (7002 TRIP INTERN = BO12)
or by a logic link created in CFC (= CFC) (Message 1442 „>int. start B/F“). The internal source can also
be completely deactivated (7002 TRIP INTERN = OFF). In this case only external sources have effect.

Note: Be aware that only the potential-free binary output BO12 (relay BO12) can be used for the breaker failure
protection. This means that trippings for the mains breaker (or the particular breaker being monitored) must be
configured to this binary output.

The pickup threshold 7003 CIRC. BR. I> setting of the current criterion applies for all three phases. The
user must select a value ensuring that the function still picks up even for the lowest operating current to be
expected. For this reason, the value should be set at least 10% below the minimum operating current.

However the pickup value should not be selected lower than necessary, as an excessively sensitive setting
risks prolonging the drop-out time due to balancing processes in the current transformer secondary circuit
during switchoff of heavy currents.

Time Delay

The time delay is entered at address 7004 TRIP-Timer and is based on the maximum breaker disconnecting
time, the dropout time of overcurrent detection plus a safety margin which takes into consideration delay time
runtime deviation. The time sequences are illustrated in the following figure.

Figure 2-122 Time Sequence for Typical Fault Clearance and for Breaker Failure

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2.38 Breaker Failure Protection (ANSI 50BF)

2.38.3 Settings

The table indicates region-specific presettings. Column C (configuration) indicates the corresponding second-
ary nominal current of the current transformer.

Addr. Parameter C Setting Options Default Setting Comments


7001 BREAKER FAILURE OFF OFF Breaker Failure Protection
ON
Block relay
7002 TRIP INTERN OFF OFF Start with Internal TRIP
BO12 Command
CFC
7003 CIRC. BR. I> 5A 0.20 .. 10.00 A 1.00 A Supervision Current
Pickup
1A 0.04 .. 2.00 A 0.20 A
7004 TRIP-Timer 0.06 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 0.25 sec TRIP-Timer

2.38.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
1403 >BLOCK BkrFail SP >BLOCK breaker failure
1422 >Break. Contact SP >Breaker contacts
1423 >ext.start1 B/F SP >ext. start 1 breaker failure prot.
1441 >ext.start2 B/F SP >ext. start 2 breaker failure prot.
1442 >int. start B/F SP >int. start breaker failure prot.
1443 int. start B/F OUT Breaker fail. started intern
1444 B/F I> OUT Breaker failure I>
1451 BkrFail OFF OUT Breaker failure is switched OFF
1452 BkrFail BLOCK OUT Breaker failure is BLOCKED
1453 BkrFail ACTIVE OUT Breaker failure is ACTIVE
1455 B/F picked up OUT Breaker failure protection: picked up
1471 BrkFailure TRIP OUT Breaker failure TRIP

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2.39 Inadvertent Energization (ANSI 50, 27)

2.39 Inadvertent Energization (ANSI 50, 27)

The inadvertent energization protection has the task to limit damage caused by the accidental energization of
the stationary or already started, but not yet synchronized generator by quickly actuating the generator circuit
breaker. A connection to a stationary machine is equivalent to connecting to a low-ohmic resistor. Due to the
nominal voltage impressed by the power system, the generator starts up with a high slip as an asynchronous
machine. Thereby inadmissibly high currents are induced in the rotor which could destroy it.

2.39.1 Functional Description

Criteria

The inadvertent energizing protection only intervenes if measured quantities do not yet exist in the valid fre-
quency working area (operational condition 0, with a stationary machine) or if an undervoltage below the
nominal frequency is present (machine already started up, but not yet synchronized). The inadvertent energiz-
ing protection is blocked by a voltage criterion on transgression of a minimum voltage, to prevent it picking up
during normal operation. This blocking is delayed to avoid protection being blocked immediately in the event of
an unintended connection. Another pickup delay is necessary to avoid an unwanted operation during high-
current faults with heavy voltage dip. A dropout time delay allows for a measurement limited in time.

As the inadvertent energizing protection must intervene very rapidly, the instantaneous current values are mon-
itored over a large frequency range already in operational condition 0. If valid measured quantities exist (oper-
ational condition 1), the positive phase-sequence voltage, the frequency for blocking inadvertent energizing
protection as well as the instantaneous current values are evaluated as tripping criterion.

The following figure shows the logic diagram for inadvertent energizing protection. This function can be blocked
via a binary input. For example the existence of the excitation voltage can be used here as an additional crite-
rion. As the voltage is a necessary criterion for enabling the inadvertent energizing protection, the voltage trans-
formers must be monitored. This is done by the Fuse-Failure-Monitor (FFM). If it detects a voltage transformer
fault, the voltage criterion of the inadvertent energizing protection is deactivated.

Figure 2-123 Logic Diagram of the Inadvertent Energizing Protection (Dead Machine Protection)

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2.39 Inadvertent Energization (ANSI 50, 27)

2.39.2 Setting Notes

General

Inadvertent energizing protection is only effective and available if address 171 INADVERT. EN. is set to
Enabled during configuration. If the function is not required Disabled is set. Address 7101 INADVERT. EN.
serves to switch the function ON or OFF or to block only the trip command (Block relay).

Criteria

Parameter 7102 I STAGE serves to specify the current pickup threshold of the inadvertent energization pro-
tection function. As a rule, this threshold value is set more sensitively than the threshold value of the time-over-
current protection. In this case, the inadvertent energizing protection may only be effective if the device is either
in operational condition 0 or if no nominal conditions have been reached yet. The parameter 7103 RELEASE
U1< serves to define these nominal conditions. The typical setting is about 50 % to 70 % of the nominal voltage.
The parameter value is based on phase-to-phase voltages. A 0 V setting deactivates the voltage tripping. How-
ever, this should only be used if 7102 I STAGE shall be used as 3rd time-overcurrent protection stage, at a
very high setting.

The parameter 7104 PICK UP T U1< represents the time delay for the release of the tripping condition with
undervoltage. The user should select a higher value for this time delay than for the tripping time delay of the
time-overcurrent protection.

The delay time to block the tripping conditions when the voltage is above the undervoltage threshold is set at
7105 DROP OUT T U1<. The inadvertent energizing protection is blocked only after this time in order to enable
a tripping subsequent to connection.

The following figure illustrates the course of events during an unwanted connection at machine standstill and,
in contrast to this, during a voltage collapse on short circuit close to generator terminals.

Figure 2-124 Chronological Sequences of the Inadvertent Energizing Protection

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2.39 Inadvertent Energization (ANSI 50, 27)

2.39.3 Settings

The table indicates region-specific presettings. Column C (configuration) indicates the corresponding second-
ary nominal current of the current transformer.

Addr. Parameter C Setting Options Default Setting Comments


7101 INADVERT. EN. OFF OFF Inadvertent Energisation
ON
Block relay
7102 I STAGE 5A 0.5 .. 100.0 A; ∞ 1.5 A I Stage Pickup
1A 0.1 .. 20.0 A; ∞ 0.3 A
7103 RELEASE U1< 10.0 .. 125.0 V; 0 50.0 V Release Threshold U1<
7104 PICK UP T U1< 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 5.00 sec Pickup Time Delay T U1<
7105 DROP OUT T U1< 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 1.00 sec Drop Out Time Delay T
U1<

2.39.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
5533 >BLOCK I.En. SP >BLOCK inadvertent energ. prot.
5541 I.En. OFF OUT Inadvert. Energ. prot. is swiched OFF
5542 I.En. BLOCKED OUT Inadvert. Energ. prot. is BLOCKED
5543 I.En. ACTIVE OUT Inadvert. Energ. prot. is ACTIVE
5546 I.En. release OUT Release of the current stage
5547 I.En. picked up OUT Inadvert. Energ. prot. picked up
5548 I.En. TRIP OUT Inadvert. Energ. prot. TRIP

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2.40 DC Voltage/Current Protection (ANSI 59NDC/51NDC)

2.40 DC Voltage/Current Protection (ANSI 59NDC/51NDC)

To detect DC voltages, DC currents and small AC quantities, the 7UM62 is equipped with a measuring trans-
ducer input (TD1) that can be used either for voltages (± 10V) or currents (± 20mA). Higher DC voltages are
connected via an external voltage divider. The DC voltage/DC current protection can be used, for example, for
the monitoring of the excitation voltage of synchronous machines or for the detection of earth faults in the DC
section of the start-up converter of a gas turbine set.

2.40.1 Functional Description

Principle of Function

A measuring transducer performs the analog/digital conversion of the measured quantity. The measuring trans-
ducer provides for galvanic isolation, a digital filter integrates the measurement voltage over two cycles and
suppresses high ripple content or non-periodic peaks in the measured value. A mean value of 32 samples is
generated. Since the absolute values are sampled, the result is always positive. Thus, the polarity of the voltage
is of no concern. When no suitable measured AC quantities are present ("operating condition 0"), the DC
voltage protection is still operative. The mean value is then calculated over 4 x 32 measured value samples.
If, in special cases, an AC voltage should be evaluated, select RMS as measurement method. The input quantity
is mathematically rectified, then the mean value calculated and reference to RMS made using factor 1.11.

Optionally, this function can be used for monitoring small currents, provided that the TD input has been config-
ured as current input and the settings of the associated jumpers on the C-I/O-6 have been changed. If the
jumper settings do not match the configuration parameters, an error message is output.

The protection can be set to operate for overvoltage or undervoltage. Pickup can be blocked via a binary input,
and the output signal can be time delayed.

Excitation Voltage Monitoring

The following figure shows the excitation voltage monitoring. The excitation voltage is stepped down to a pro-
cessable level by a voltage divider, and fed to the measuring transducer.

Figure 2-125 DC Voltage Protection for Excitation Voltage Monitoring

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2.40 DC Voltage/Current Protection (ANSI 59NDC/51NDC)

Earth Fault Detection in the Startup Converter

If an earth fault occurs in the startup converter circuit, a current flows through all earthed parts of the system
because of the DC voltage. As earthing and neutral transformers have a lower ohmic resistance than voltage
transformers, the thermal load is the highest on them.

The DC current is converted into a voltage in a shunt, and fed via a shunt converter to the measuring transducer
of the device.

Shunt converters can be measuring transducers such as the 7KG6131. For short distances between the shunt
converter and the protective device, a voltage input may be used. For longer distances, use the version with
current input (-20 to 20 mA or 4 to 20 mA).

Figure 2-126 DC Voltage Protection for Detecting an Earth Fault in the Startup Converter

Figure 2-127 Logic Diagram of the DC Voltage Protection

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2.40 DC Voltage/Current Protection (ANSI 59NDC/51NDC)

2.40.2 Setting Notes

General

The DC voltage protection is only effective and available if set to Enabled at address 172 DC PROTECTION.
If the function is not required, Disabled is set. For the associated measuring transducer 1, address 295
TRANSDUCER 1 was set to one of the alternatives 10 V, 4-20 mA or 20 mA (see section 2.5).

Jumpers X94, X95 and X67 on the C-I/O-6 module are used to set in the hardware whether the measuring
transducer input will be a voltage or a current input (see section 3.1.2 in the chapter „Installation and Commis-
sioning“). Their setting must correspond to the setting at address 295. If it does not, the device is blocked and
issues an annunciation to that effect. When the relay is delivered from the factory, the jumpers and configuration
parameters are set to voltage measurement.

Address 7201 DC PROTECTION serves to switch the function ON or OFF or to block only the trip command
(Block relay).

Measurement Method

Normally, the arithmetic mean of a DC voltage is detected. A high ripple content or non-periodic peaks in the
measurement voltage are averaged in this manner. The polarity of the measured voltages is of no concern
since the absolute value is taken.

Alternatively, the RMS of a sinusoidal AC voltage can be measured (address 7202 MEAS.METHOD = RMS). The
protection then multiplies the rectified average value with 1.11. The frequency of the AC voltage must match
the frequency of other input quantities, because the latter determine the sampling rate. The maximum AC am-
plitude must not exceed 10 V, so that for r.m.s. value measurement a maximum setting of 7.0 Vrms is reason-
able. The resulting higher secondary voltage can be reduced by means of a voltage divider.

The DC voltage/DC current protection can be set to operate for overvoltage protection at address 7203 DC >/<
= DC > or undervoltage protection = DC <.

Pickup Thresholds

Depending on whether current or voltage input has been set at address 295 TRANSDUCER 1, one of the fol-
lowing parameters is available, whereas the other is hidden:
• Voltage measurement threshold: 7204 U DC ><
• Current measurement threshold: 7205 I DC ><

When setting the pickup values (address 7204), the ratio of a voltage divider – if fitted – has to be considered.

Application Examples

When used for excitation voltage monitoring, the DC current protection is configured to operate for undervolt-
age; the pickup threshold is set to approx. 60 % to 70 % of the no-load excitation voltage. Users should be
aware that normally a voltage divider is connected between the protection and the excitation voltage (see
above).

Another typical application is the earth fault protection for the startup converter of a gas turbine set. In the case
of an earth fault in the DC circuit, half of the DC voltage is present between the transformer starpoint and the
earth if the transformer starpoint is not earthed. This voltage can be considered as the voltage feeding the earth
current. As the transformer starpoints are earthed, the current flowing is determined by the feeding voltage and
the ohmic resistance of all transformers that are galvanically connected to the converter set and earthed. This
DC current is normally between about 3 and 4 A.

For a startup converter with a startup transformer of UN, ST ≈ 1.4 kV and a 6-pulse bridge circuit, there will be a
DC voltage of UDC ≈ 1.35 · UN, ST = 1.89 kV. In case of an earth fault in the intermediate circuit, the „displacement
voltage“ will be half of the DC voltage (UDC, fault = 0.5 UDC = 945 V).

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If we assume that the earthing transformer has an ohmic winding resistance of R ≈ 150 Ω, a DC current of I0 =
945 V/150 Ω = 6.3 A will flow through its starpoint.

Note: The ohmic winding resistances of earthing and neutral transformers can differ widely depending on the
type. For a concrete application, they should be obtained from the manufacturer, or determined by measure-
ments.

If not tripped, the earth fault current would cause a temperature overload that would destroy the wye-connected
voltage transformers and the earthing transformer. To ensure that the protection will pick up reliably, it is set to
a value of less than half the fault current, in this example to 2 A. With the shunt and shunt converter used in the
example, this current causes a secondary current of 4 mA (see above ) (fault current ≈ 6 A, selected pickup
value = 2 A, setting value = 4 mA).

Delay

The tripping delay can be set at address 7206 T DC. The set time is an additional time delay not including the
operating time of the protective function.

For the startup earth fault current protection T DC is determined by the permissible temperature load of the
earthing and/or neutral transformer. A value of 2 s or less is quite common.

Note: It should be noted that in operating condition 0, the operating times for pickup and dropout are 4 times
longer due to the more complex filter procedure needed to eliminate disturbances.

2.40.3 Settings

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


7201 DC PROTECTION OFF OFF DC Voltage/Current Protection
ON
Block relay
7202 MEAS.METHOD mean value mean value Measurement Method
RMS (MEAN/RMS Values)
7203 DC >/< DC > DC > Method of Operation (DC >/<)
DC <
7204 U DC >< 0.1 .. 8.5 V 2.0 V DC Voltage Pickup
7205 I DC >< 0.2 .. 17.0 mA 4.0 mA DC Current Pickup
7206 T DC 0.00 .. 60.00 sec; ∞ 2.00 sec Time Delay for Trip of DC Protec-
tion

2.40.4 Information List

No. Information Type of In- Comments


formation
5293 >BLOCK DC Prot. SP >BLOCK DC protection
5301 DC Prot. OFF OUT DC protection is switched OFF
5302 DC Prot.BLOCKED OUT DC protection is BLOCKED
5303 DC Prot. ACTIVE OUT DC protection is ACTIVE
5306 DC Prot.pick.up OUT DC protection picked up
5307 DC Prot. TRIP OUT DC protection TRIP
5308 Failure DC Prot OUT Failure DC protection

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2.41 Analog Outputs

2.41 Analog Outputs

Depending on the variant ordered, the 7UM62 machine protection can have up to four analog outputs (plug-in
modules on ports B and D).

Starting from firmware version 4.62, the device features a universal analog output (type 2) for additional select-
ed measured values. An output ranging for instance from 4 to 20mA is thus possible with both positive and
negative values. The old analog output (type 1) for only positive values can still be used.

2.41.1 Functional Description

When configuring the functional scope, the user can specify which values are transmitted via these outputs.
The following table shows which type of analog output is possible for each measured value.

Table 2-13 A maximum of four of the following analog outputs are available:

Measured value Description Scaling Type 1 Type 2


I1 Positive sequence current component in % based on IN generator X X
I2 Negative sequence current component in % based on IN generator X
IEE1 Sensitive earth current in % based on 100 mA X
IEE2 Sensitive earth current in % based on 100 mA X
U1 Positive sequence voltage component in % based on UN generator/√3 X X
U0 Zero sequence voltage component in % based on UN generator/√3 X
U03H 3. Harmonic voltage in % based on 0.1 UN generator/√3 X
(relatively small values)
|P| Absolute amount of real power in % based on SN generator X
|Q| Absolute amount of reactive power in % based on SN generator X
P Active power in % based on SN generator X
Q Reactive power in % based on SN generator X
S Apparent power in % based on SN generator X X
f Frequency in % based on the nominal frequency fN X X
U/f Overexcitation in % based on the nominal values of the X
protected object
PHI Power angle in % based on 90° (0° to 360°) X
PHI Power angle in % based on 90° (–180° to + 180°) X
((–180° = –200 % and + 180° = +200 %
|cos ϕ| Value of the power factor in % based on 1 X
cos ϕ Power factor in % based on 1 X
ΘR/ΘR Trip Rotor temperature in % based on the maximum permissible X
rotor temperature
ΘS/ΘS Trip Stator temperature in % based on the tripping temperature X
RE REF Rotor earth resistance in % based on 100 kΩ X
(fN measuring method)
RE REF 1-3Hz Rotor earth resistance in % based on 100 kΩ X
(1-3 Hz measuring method)
RE SEF "Secondary" stator earth resistance in % based on 100 Ω X

The operational nominal values are those configured at address 251 UN GEN/MOTOR and 252 SN GEN/MOTOR
(see also section 2.5).

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2.41 Analog Outputs

For measured values that can also be negative (power, power factor), absolute values are formed and output
in the type-1 analog output. The analog output type 2 (additionally available starting from firmware version
V4.62) allows the negative values to be output as well (see 2.41.2, example 2).

Analog values are output as injected currents. The analog outputs have a nominal range between 0 mA and
20 mA, their operating range can be up to 22.5 mA. The conversion factor and the validity range can be set.

Note

If both analog output types are accidentally assigned to one analog channel or if scaling errors are made, a
current of 0 mA will be output in response to the error.

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2.41 Analog Outputs

2.41.2 Setting Notes

General

You have specified during configuration of the analog outputs (Section 2.4.2, addresses173 to 176) for analog
output type 1 and addresses 200 to 203 for analog output type 2 which of the analog inputs in the device will
be used for which measured value. Please remember that you can assign only one output type to an analog
channel. If a function is not needed, Disabled is set. The other parameters associated with this analog output
are hidden in that case.

Measured Values for Analog Outputs of Type 1

Once the measured values are selected for the analog outputs (Section 2.4.2, Addresses 173 to 176), set the
conversion factor and the valid range for the available outputs, as follows:
• For analog output B1 at location "B" (port B1):
At address 7301 20 mA (B1/1) = the percent value to be displayed at 20 mA.
Address 7302 MIN VALUE(B1/1) the smallest valid value.
• For analog output B2 at location "B" (port B2):
At address 7303 20 mA (B2/1) = the percent value to be displayed at 20 mA.
Address 7304 MIN VALUE(B2/1) the smallest valid value.
• For analog output D1 at location "D" (port D1):
At address 7305 20 mA (D1/1) = the percent value to be displayed at 20 mA.
Address 7306 MIN VALUE(D1/1) the smallest valid value.
• For analog output D2 at location "D" (port D2):
At address 7307 20 mA (D2/1) = the percent value to be displayed at 20 mA.
Address 7308 MIN VALUE(D2/1) the smallest valid value.

The maximum possible value is 22.0 mA; in case of an overflow (value outside the maximum permissible
range) 22.5 mA is output.

The following diagram illustrates the relationships.

Figure 2-128 Definition of output range display for type 1

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2.41 Analog Outputs

Example 1:

The positive sequence components of the currents are to be output as analog output B1 at location "B". 10 mA
is to be the value at nominal operational current, consequently 20 mA corresponds to 200 %. Values below 1
mA are invalid.

Settings:

Address 7301 20 mA (B1/1) = 200.0 %,

Address 7302 MIN VALUE(B1/1) = 1.0 mA.

Measured Values for Analog Outputs of Type 2

This analog output type enables the measured values to be output universally. The value range of the mea-
sured values and the current of the analog interface to be output can be selected in a large range.

In the addresses 200, 201, 202 and 203 you can define which of the analog outputs (B1, B2, D1 and D2) are
used for which measured value.

If you have selected measured values for the analog outputs, you should make the following settings:
• for analog output 1 at location "B" (port B1):
Address 7310 MIN. VALUE B1/2 the minimal reference value in %.
Address 7311 MIN.OUTPUT B1/2 the minimal current output value in mA,
Address 7312 MAX. VALUE B1/2 the maximum reference value in %.
Address 7313 MAX.OUTPUT B1/2 the maximum current output value in mA.
• for analog output 2 at location "B" (port B2):
Address 7320 MIN. VALUE B2/2 the minimal reference value in %.
Address 7321 MIN.OUTPUT B2/2 the minimal current output value in mA,
Address 7322 MAX. VALUE B2/2 the maximum reference value in %.
Address 7323 MAX.OUTPUT B2/2 the maximum current output value in mA.
• For analog output 3 at location "D" (port D1):
Address 7330 MIN. VALUE D1/2 the minimal reference value in %.
Address 7331 MIN.OUTPUT D1/2 the minimal current output value in mA,
Address 7332 MAX. VALUE D1/2 the maximum reference value in %.
Address 7333 MAX.OUTPUT D1/2 the maximum current output value in mA.
• For analog output 4 at location "D" (port D2):
Address 7340 MIN. VALUE D2/2 the minimal reference value in %.
Address 7341 MIN.OUTPUT D2/2 the minimal current output value in mA,
Address 7342 MAX. VALUE D2/2 the maximum reference value in %.
Address 7343 MAX.OUTPUT D2/2 the maximum current output value in mA.

The maximum current output value is determined by the setting parameter (address 73x3). It can be set to a
maximum of 22 mA. If measured values are higher than the maximum reference value, this maximum current
output value will be output. For measured values below the minimum reference value, the specified mimimum
current output value is output. The setting ranges can be selected such that both positive and negative values
can be represented over the output range, as is necessary for the display of P, Q, cos j.

The minimum reference value (address 73x0) must always be set smaller than the maximum reference value
(address 73x2) (positive increase). Otherwise 0 mA is output.

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2.41 Analog Outputs

The following diagram illustrates the relationships.

Figure 2-129 Definition of output range display for type 2

Example 2:

The reactive power Q is to be output over analog output D1 with a sign and between 4 to 20 mA. A reactive
power Q = 0 % is to be equivalent to a current value of 12 mA. 80 % is sufficient as reference value because
the reactive power is referred to the nominal apparent power of the protected object.

We thus obtain the following settings:

Address 7330 MIN. VALUE D1/2 = -80%

Address 7331 MIN.OUTPUT D1/2 the minimum current output value in mA, = 4 mA

Address 7332 MAX. VALUE D1/2 = 80%

Address 7333 MAX.OUTPUT D1/2 = 20 mA


We thus obtain the relationships between measured values and current output values shown in the following
illustration.

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2.41 Analog Outputs

Figure 2-130 Example of a reactive power Q output

If the machine is run with cos j = 0.8, the resulting active power is 80 % referring to the apparent power. The
reactive power is correspondingly 60 % of the apparent power. This measured reactive power value results in
an output value of 18 mA.

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2.41 Analog Outputs

2.41.3 Settings

Addr. Parameter Setting Options Default Setting Comments


7301 20 mA (B1/1) = 10.0 .. 1000.0 % 200.0 % 20 mA (B1/1) correspond to
7302 MIN VALUE(B1/1) 0.0 .. 5.0 mA 1.0 mA Output value (B1/1) valid from
7303 20 mA (B2/1) = 10.0 .. 1000.0 % 200.0 % 20 mA (B2/1) correspond to
7304 MIN VALUE(B2/1) 0.0 .. 5.0 mA 1.0 mA Output value (B2/1) valid from
7305 20 mA (D1/1) = 10.0 .. 1000.0 % 200.0 % 20 mA (D1/1) correspond to
7306 MIN VALUE(D1/1) 0.0 .. 5.0 mA 1.0 mA Output value (D1/1) valid from
7307 20 mA (D2/1) = 10.0 .. 1000.0 % 200.0 % 20 mA (D2/1) correspond to
7308 MIN VALUE(D2/1) 0.0 .. 5.0 mA 1.0 mA Output value (D2/1) valid from
7310 MIN. VALUE B1/2 -200.00 .. 100.00 % 0.00 % Minimum Percentage Output
Value (B1/2)
7311 MIN.OUTPUT B1/2 0 .. 10 mA 4 mA Minimum Current Output Value
(B1/2)
7312 MAX. VALUE B1/2 10.00 .. 200.00 % 100.00 % Maximum Percentage Output
Value (B1/2)
7313 MAX.OUTPUT B1/2 10 .. 22 mA; 0 20 mA Maximum Current Output Value
(B1/2)
7320 MIN. VALUE B2/2 -200.00 .. 100.00 % 0.00 % Minimum Percentage Output
Value (B2/2)
7321 MIN.OUTPUT B2/2 0 .. 10 mA 4 mA Minimum Current Output Value
(B2/2)
7322 MAX. VALUE B2/2 10.00 .. 200.00 % 100.00 % Maximum Percentage Output
Value (B2/2)
7323 MAX.OUTPUT B2/2 10 .. 22 mA; 0 20 mA Maximum Current Output Value
(B2/2)
7330 MIN. VALUE D1/2 -200.00 .. 100.00 % 0.00 % Minimum Percentage Output
Value (D1/2)
7331 MIN.OUTPUT D1/2 0 .. 10 mA 4 mA Minimum Current Output Value
(D1/2)
7332 MAX. VALUE D1/2 10.00 .. 200.00 % 100.00 % Maximum Percentage Output
Value (D1/2)
7333 MAX.OUTPUT D1/2 10 .. 22 mA; 0 20 mA Maximum Current Output Value
(D1/2)
7340 MIN. VALUE D2/2 -200.00 .. 100.00 % 0.00 % Minimum Percentage Output
Value (D2/2)
7341 MIN.OUTPUT D2/2 0 .. 10 mA 4 mA Minimum Current Output Value
(D2/2)
7342 MAX. VALUE D2/2 10.00 .. 200.00 % 100.00 % Maximum Percentage Output
Value (D2/2)
7343 MAX.OUTPUT D2/2 10 .. 22 mA; 0 20 mA Maximum Current Output Value
(D2/2)

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2.42 Monitoring Functions

2.42 Monitoring Functions

The device is equipped with extensive monitoring capabilities - both for hardware and software. In addition, the
measured values are also constantly monitored for plausibility, therefore, the current transformer and voltage
transformer circuits are largely integrated into the monitoring.

2.42.1 Measurement Supervision

2.42.1.1 Hardware Monitoring

The device monitoring extends from the measuring inputs to the binary outputs. Monitoring circuits and proces-
sor check the hardware for malfunctions and inadmissible conditions (see also Table 2-14).

Auxiliary and Reference Voltages

The processor voltage of 5 VDC is monitored by the hardware since if it goes below the minimum value, the
processor is no longer functional. In that case the device is put out of operation. When the normal voltage re-
turns, the processor system is restarted.

Failure or switching off the supply voltage removes the device from operation and a message is immediately
generated by the "life contact" (an alternatively NO or NC contact). Brief auxiliary voltage interruptions of less
than 50 ms do not disturb the operational readiness of the device (for nominal auxiliary voltage ≥ 110 VDC).

The processor monitors the reference voltage of the ADC (analog-to-digital converter). In case of inadmissible
deviations the protection is blocked; persistent faults are signalled (indication: „Error A/D-conv.“).

Buffer Battery

The buffer battery, which ensures operation of the internal clock and storage of counters and messages if the
auxiliary voltage fails, is periodically checked for charge status. If it is less than an allowed minimum voltage,
then the „Fail Battery“ message is issued.

If the device is isolated from the auxiliary voltage for several hours, the internal back-up battery is switched off
automatically, i.e. the time is not registered any more. Messages and fault recordings however are kept stored.

Memory Components

All working memories (RAMs) are checked during start-up. If a fault occurs in this process, the start is aborted
and an LED starts flashing. During operation the memories are checked by means of their checksum.

For the program memory (EPROM), the cross-check sum is cyclically generated and compared to a stored ref-
erence program cross-check sum.

For the settings memory, the cross-check sum is formed cyclically and compared to the cross-check sum that
is freshly generated each time a setting process takes place.

If a fault occurs the processor system is restarted.

Probing

The sampling frequency and the synchronism between the internal buffer modules is continuously monitored.
If any deviations cannot be removed by renewed synchronisation, then the processor system is restarted.

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Measurement Value Acquisition – Currents

In the current paths there are three input transformers each on side 1 and side 2; the digitized sum of the trans-
former currents of one side must be almost zero for generators with isolated starpoint during earth-fault-free
operation. A current circuit fault is detected if

IF = | IL1 + IL2 + IL3 | > ΣI THRESHOLD S1 · IN + ΣI FACTOR S1 · Imax or

IF = | IL1 + IL2 + IL3 | > ΣI THRESHOLD S2 · IN + ΣI FACTOR S2 · Imax

The component ΣI FACTOR S1 · Imax or ΣI FACTOR S2 · Imax takes into account admissible current-propor-
tional transformation errors in the input transducers which may occur especially during high fault currents (see
the following figure). The dropout ratio is about 95 %.

This malfunction is reported as „Fail. Σ I Side1“ or „Fail. Σ I Side2“.

The current sum monitoring is only effective for the side for which the starpoint has been configured (address
242 or 244) as Isolated in the power system data.

Figure 2-131 Current sum monitoring

Measured-value Acquisition - Voltages

Four measuring inputs are available in the voltage path: if three of them are used for phase-earth voltages, and
one input for the displacement voltage (e–n voltage from the broken delta winding or neutral transformer) of the
same system, a fault in the phase-earth voltage sum is detected if

| UL1 + UL2 + UL3 + kU · UE | > SUM.thres. U + SUM.Fact. U x Umax

where SUM.thres. U and SUM.Fact. U are parameter settings, and Umax is the highest of the phase-earth
voltages. Factor kU considers the transformation ratio differences between the displacement voltage input and
the phase voltage inputs (parameter kU = Uph / Udelta address 225). The SUM.Fact. U x Umax component
considers admissible voltage-proportional transformation errors of the input transducers, which can be espe-
cially large in the presence of high voltages (see the following figure).

This malfunction is reported as „Fail Σ U Ph-E“.

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Note

Voltage sum monitoring is only effective if an external displacement voltage is connected at the displacement
voltage measuring input and this is also notified via the parameter 223 UE CONNECTION to the device.

Voltage sum monitoring can operate properly only if the adaptation factor Uph / Udelta at address 225 has
been correctly configured (see Subsection 2.5.1).

Figure 2-132 Voltage sum monitoring

2.42.1.2 Software Monitoring

Watchdog

For continuous monitoring of the program sequ