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Application of the Pathloss Software

Contents

 Overview

 Importing the Data

 Pre-Planning Routes

 Outputting the

Information
Overview
• Purpose
1. Masters the basic operations of the Pathloss.
2. Pre-plans the microwave routes by using the Pathloss.

• Studied Case
Area: Mauritius, which is located in the east longitude and
south latitude, Southern Hemisphere

Basic information of the site:

High- accuracy electronic map (in the Planet_UTM format):


Overview
• The Pathloss software is a comprehensive path design tool based on the radio
links. The Pathloss software operates at frequencies ranging from 30 MHz to
100 GHz. Currently, Pathloss 4.0 is commonly used.
• Generally, electronic maps in three formats are used for the Pathloss software.
They are described as follows:
1. Electronic map released with the software

The accuracy of this map is 900 meters. The map is carried in two disks as
follows:
Disk 1-map covering the North and South America
Disk 2-map covering the Europe, Africa and Asia
2. Electronic map in the SRTM format

This kind of map is classified into the following three categories:
SRTM 1': The accuracy of this map is 30 meters. Only the electronic map
covering part of the North America is available.
SRTM 3':The accuracy of this map is 90 meters. The high-accuracy electronic
map covering the entire globe is available. It is commonly used.
SRTM 30': The accuracy of this map is 900 meters. The high-accuracy
electronic map covering the entire globe is available.
3. Electronic map in the Planet_UTM format

This kind of map has high accuracy, which ranges from several meters to tens
of meters. You can obtain it form the Radio Network Planning Dept.
Overview
Four versions of the Pathloss Software
• PL4B: basic design software for microwave
transmission
• PL4C: basic design software for microwave
transmission + coverage calculation
• PL4I: basic design software for microwave
transmission + interference analysis
• PL4CI: basic design software for microwave
transmission + coverage calculation + interference
analysis
Overview
Requirements for Installing the Pathloss Software
• The computer should be of the Pentium series, and should run in the
Windows 95/98 (or a later version) or Windows NT 4.0 (or a later version)
operating system.
• The Pathloss software (with few database engines) requires a minimum of
6-Mbyte hard disk space. More database engines and various data files will
increase the requirement for the hard disk space to 25 Mbytes.
• A memory with a capacity of more than 64 Mbytes is required when the
computer runs in the Windows 95/98 operating system, or a memory with a
capacity of more than 128 Mbytes is required when the computer runs in the
Windows NE operating system.
• The authentication of license (in a floppy disk or in a dongle) is required.
• You can obtain these contents at the website of CTE: www.pathloss.com
Overview
Uninstallation of the Pathloss
License in a floppy disk:
• Choose Configure > Program > Uninitialize Program from the menu in the
Pathloss.
• Click Start, and select Control Panel. In the displayed window, choose Add or
Remove Programs > Change or Remove Programs > Pathloss 4.0.
License in a USB
• Click Start, and select Control Panel. In the displayed window, choose Add or
Remove Programs > Change or Remove Programs > Pathloss 4.0.
Contents

 Overview

 Importing the Data

 Pre-Planning Routes

 Outputting the

Information
Importing the Data
• Processing the Data

• Importing the Electronic Map


1. Importing the electronic map released with the software
• Click Start, and choose Program > Pathloss 4.0 to run the software.
• Choose Configure > Terrain Database from the menu of the Pathloss. (In the
displayed dialog box, according to the format of the map released with the software,
GTopo30 Global 30 sec under Primary is generally selected.)
Importing the Data
• Click Setup Primary, and then click Set Directory in the Gtopo30 Global 30 sec
dialog box to set the directory that contains the information of the map to be used in
the network planning. When the directory setting is complete, click OK. Click Close
in the GTopo30 Global 30 sec dialog box, and then click OK in the Configure
Terrain Database dialog box.
Importing the Data
2. Importing the electronic map in the SRTM format
• Run the Pathloss software, and choose Configure > Terrain Database from the
menu of the Pathloss. In the displayed dialog box, select SRTM under Primary.
• Click Setup Primary, and the SRTM window is displayed. Choose Files > BIL-
HDR-BLW to select the proper map (in the format of *.hgt).
Importing the Data
3. Importing the electronic map in the Planet_UTM format
Run the Pathloss software, and choose Configure > Geographic Defaults from
the menu of the
Pathloss. In the displayed Geographic Defaults dialog box, modify the values in
Datum and Ellipsoid to the formats specified in the Projection file. Select the
proper items under Latitude, Longitude and Use as required. Under Grid
Coordinate System, select Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM). Modify
other items according to the actual situation. (In the studied case, Mauritius is
located in the east longitude and south latitude, Southern Hemisphere.)
Importing the Data
Descriptions of the options:
1. Datum: You should make a selection in the drop-down list after Datum if Datum is selected.
Select the proper item in the drop-down list after Datum, according to the attribute of the
map that is used.

2. Ellipsoid: You should make a selection in the drop-down list after Ellipsoid if Ellipsoid is
selected. Select the proper item in the drop-down list after Ellipsoid, according to the
attribute of the map that is used.

3. Longitude

4. Latitude

5. Use: Select Datum or Ellipsoid.

6. Grid Coordinate System: Generally, Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) is selected.

7. Seconds Format: Generally, Nearest 0.01 Second is selected. (This item does not affect
the calculation and the final result.)

8. Allow Non Standard UTM Zones


Importing the Data
The Pathloss software supports various ellipsoid definitions and projection
modes.

Projection modes: Approximately 10 projection modes, such as UTM,


Gausss Kruger, Gauss Conformal (south Africa), New
Zealand Gird, are supported.

Ellipsoid definitions: More than 100 ellipsoid definitions, such as WGS1984,


WGS1972, GRS80, Voirol1960, Massawa, Airy1983, and
Mahe19871, are supported.
Importing the Data
The maps used in the radio network planning all adopt the UTM projection mode.

The basic contents of the UTM are as follows: heights, clutter,


vectors.
The projection.txt file in the heights folder includes the
information of the digital map, such as the ellipsoid, time zone,
projection mode and range.
For example
GRS-1980: ellipsoid definition
29: time zone information of the digital map, that is, Time
Zone 29
UTM: projection mode of the map
0.0-9.0 500000.0 0.0: range of the map

The maps used in the radio network planning mostly adopt the
ellipsoid definitions WGS1984 and GRS1980, and the UTM
projection mode.
Importing the Data
Map Projection
The map projection can exhibit the curved earth surface on a flat
surface by using the specific mathematics method, according to a
certain algorithm, and thus establish mapping relations between the
points on the earth surface and the points on the flat surface. When the
ellipsoid of the earth is projected on a flat surface, the distortion will
occur. According to the shape of the projection plane, the map
projection is classified into azimuth projection, cylindrical projection,
and conical projection. According to the projection distortion property,
the map projection is classified into conformal projection, equivalent
projection, and equidistant projection.
Reference Ellipsoid
As the internal substances of the earth are distributed unevenly
and the earth surface rolls, the datum cannot be used as the
calculation plane of the measurement result. In this case, a
rotating ellipsoid that is similar to the earth is usually selected and
is expressed in the mathematical way to replace the datum. The
ellipsoid is the basis for measurement and map drawing. The
rotating ellipsoid that is in best accordance with the datum of the
local area (a nation or several nations) is called the reference
ellipsoids, such as GRS80, Krassovsky, and WGS84.
Importing the Data
Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)

UTM projection is a conformal, secant, and cylindrical projection. The cylinder intersects the
earth at the two circles of equal altitudes: south altitude 80 degrees and north altitude 84
degrees. After the projection, distortion does not occur to the two intersected longitudes. The
ratio of the two longitudes to the central meridian is 0.9996. The UTM projection is created for
the world war. In 1948, the U.S.A completed the calculation of this universe projection system.
The projection azimuth is not distorted, the central meridian is a straight line and is the
symmetry axis of the projection.
In UTM, earth is divided into 60 zones limited by west longitude 180 degrees, spanning six
degrees of longitude each from the west to the east. UTM is a widely used projection mode.
The satellite image of China often adopts the UTM projection mode.
Importing the Data
 Choose Configure > Terrain Database from the menu of the Pathloss.
In the displayed Configure Terrain Database dialog box, select
Odyssey - UTM under Primary.
Importing the Data
• Click Setup Primary. In the displayed Odyssey - UTM dialog box, select Use
special UTM zone, and enter the time zone number plus N or S in the box. ("N"
represents the Northern Hemisphere, and "S" represents the Southern Hemisphere.
If you do not enter N or S, it is set to N by default. In the case of Mauritius, you
should enter 40S.) If the map contains the information of buildings, select Embedded
building data. If the map covers regions that are located in several time zones, you
can select Use standard UTM zones in index.
Importing the Data
Descriptions of the options:
1. Use standard UTM zones in index: When the map covers regions that are
located in several time zones, you should select this item.
2. Use specified index file: When the time zone file is available, you can select this
item. In this case, you should specify the index file that contains the data of the
time zone.
3. Use specified UTM zone: When you select this item, enter the accurate time
zone number and the letter that indicates the hemisphere where the region is
located, for example, 40S
4. Embedded building data: When the map contains the information of buildings,
select this item. When the planned links are located in cities, this item has a great
impact.
Importing the Data
 Click Set Directory to specify the directory of the map. In the example, the path is as follows:
D:\Microwave Planning Design Software Training\20-new Mauritius\height. Note that you should select
the Heights folder in the directory of the digital map. Click Index, and choose Files > Import List in the
displayed Odyssey - UTM window. The Define Fields dialog box is displayed as follows:
Importing the Data
• Click Planet, and the format of the imported data is changed to Planet. In
UTM zone, enter the time zone number plus N or S. Then click OK, select
the Index.txt file, and click OK. The map information list is imported.
Choose Files > Close in the Odyssey - UTM window. Click Close and
then click OK.
• Descriptions of the preceding parameters:
Edge units: generally expressed in meters
Byte order: SPARC or INTEL
Bottom up: This item determines whether the map starts from the
southwestern corner or from the northwestern corner. If the imported map
is upside down, you need to adjust this item.
Importing the Data
• Importing the Data in the Format of CSV
Importing the data of a single layer
Choose Module > Network > Site Data > Site List > Import > Site Text
File from the menu of the Pathloss, and the Import Text File dialog box
is displayed.

 After you determine the related items in the Import Text File dialog box, click Import.
Select the data to be imported (final data format: *.CSV), click Open, and then click
Import. Click Close when the process is complete.
Importing the Data
• Choose Files > Save (in the format of *.gr4) > Site
Data > Create Background. The background file
is created.
Importing the Data
• The background files may not be created when the
Pathloss is used. The possible causes are as
follows:
1. The table heading in the saved *.CSV file is not
deleted.
2. The path of the map is incorrectly set.
3. The geographical location is incorrectly set.
4. The file is not saved as required, that is, you
should choose Files > Save to save the file in the
format of *.gr4.
Importing the Data
Importing the data of multiple layers

• Click Start, and choose Program > Pathloss 4.0 to run the
software.
• Choose Module > Network > Configure > Terrain
Database, and the Configure Terrain Database dialog box
is displayed.
• Setting the layers: Select Layers to determine the layer
where the site is located, and then click OK.
• Modifying the legends of sites in batches: Choose Defaults
> Site Legend.
• Choose Site Data > Site List > Import > Site Text File,
and the Import Text File dialog box is displayed. After you
set the attributes of the site in the dialog box, click Import to
select the data to be imported (in the format of *.CSV). Click
Import, and then click Close when the process is complete.
Contents

 Overview

 Importing the Data

 Pre-Planning Routes

 Outputting the

Information
Pre-Planning Routes
1. Read through the contents on network, transmission and line construction in the
tender document and digest these contents. Sort out the required information.
2. If the clauses that are required for the network planning but are not specified in the
tender document, communicate with the operator and clarify the doubts.
3. Fully understand the bidding strategies of the project team.
4. Determine the required conditions for pre-planning the microwave transmission
routes, based on the requirements of the tender document, the conclusion reached
after the communication with the project team, and the output of the radio network
planning. These required conditions are described as follows:
• Bidding strategies of the project team
• KPIs
• Transmission modes of the backbone network (network between cities)
• Selected microwave products
• Maximum antenna heights
• Adopted protection modes
Pre-Planning Routes
• Risk factor of the microwave BOQ
• Frequencies
• Geographical location of the nation, that is, the hemisphere, longitude, and latitude
where the nation is located.
• Location of each BTS and the requirement of each BTS for the transmission
capacity
• Location of each BSC and the requirement of each BSC for the transmission
capacity
• Subordinating relations between BSCs and BTSs
5. When the Pathloss software is used to pre-plan the microwave transmission routes,
the following aspects are involved:
• Divide the work of personnel involved in the project microwave planning and
design and making out the plan.
• Produce the project-level microwave transmission distance calculation table.
• Determine the graphic example of the project-level microwave planning and design
and outputting the format.
• Determine the microwave network topology to design the network at different
layers, that is, backbone layer, convergence layer, and access layer. Increase the
distance of routes in the SDH backbone network to a proper length to decrease the
number of SDH microwave hops, choosing curved profiles, and capitalizing on the
local terrain condition.
Pre-Planning Routes
• Network Configuration
SDH (large-capacity microwave: 4xE1
STM-1)
PDH (small-capacity microwave:
4xE1, 8xE1, 16xE1) 1E1
2xE
1
BSC 1+1
4xE1

16xE1

4xE1 4xE1 2xE1 1xE1

1xE1

2xE1
Pre-Planning Routes
Start

Connecting the BSC at the root


node to the nearest site

(1) Check if there is the site with NO


no link configured

YES
Click on the connection line

Terrain Data

Operations

Generate Profile

Close Adding a
Relay Site

Module

Antenna Heights

Calculate to adjust the antenna heights


at two ends

Check if the line-of- NO


sight Transmissions
Between two sites
is available

YES
Network

Flow chart 1 YES

END
Pre-Planning Routes
Procedures for Configuring a Link
 Connect the BSC to a nearest site, and click on the
connection line. Choose Terrain Data > Operations >
Generate Profile.
 In the displayed Generate Profile dialog box, click Generate
and then click Close. Choose Module > Antenna Heights,
and click Calculate (check if the line-of-sight transmission
between the two sites is available).
 Choose Module > Network, and then click Yes.
Pre-Planning Routes
• Drag the mouse to connect Site38 and Site40. Click on the
connection line, and select Summary. Based on the data in
Calculated Distance (km), enter the proper value in
Frequency. This hop of link adopts the central frequency
point 12996 MHz of the 13 GHz frequency band.
Pre-Planning Routes
• Choose Module > Terrain Data > Operations >
Generate Profile.
Pre-Planning Routes
• Click Generate in the Generate Profile dialog box, and then click
Close. Double-click the blank area under Structure, and then
select Range of Structures. Set the height of the structure (in the
example, a tree of 15 meters).

 Select any point on the profile, and you can modify the related parameters, for
example, distance, elevation, structure, scale and ground.
Pre-Planning Routes
• Choose Module > Antenna Heights, and then click .
Pre-Planning Routes
• Choose Module > Print Profile.
220

200

180

160

140
Elevation (m)

120

100

80

60

40

20
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Path length (9.11 km)
Site38 Frequency (MHz) = 12996.0 Site40
Latitude 20 11 15.36 S K = 1.33, 0.67 Latitude 20 08 52.08 S
Longitude 057 43 03.36 E %F1 = 100.00, 60.00 Longitude 057 38 28.68 E
Azi muth 298.90 Azi muth 118.93
Elevation 40 m ASL Elevation 170 m ASL
Antenna CL 28.5 m AGL Antenna CL 29.8 m AGL

十月18 07
Pre-Planning Routes
Operations for the Sites Between Which the Line-of-Sight Transmission Is not Available: Adding a
Relay Site
Determine the
location of the relay
site to be added

Site Data

Add Site

Click on the location


of the relay site to be
added

Add Site

Enter the name of


the relay site

OK

Flow chart 2 Flow chart 2 chart 2


Flow
Flow chart 1-(1)
Pre-Planning Routes
• Deleting a Relay Site
Choose Site Data > Site List, and select the site to be deleted. Choose
Edit > Delete > Import > Close.
• Labeling a Link
Labeling a link by default (labeling the site distance only)
Right-click on a link and select Label, and the Label dialog box is displayed.
Select Distance, and deselect Do not draw. Enter the information of the
link in the blank of the dialog box. You can also adjust the font size and
position of the characters. After the process is complete, click OK.
Labeling a link in a customized way (labeling any information on the
link)
Right-click on a link and select Label, and the Label dialog box is displayed.
Deselect Do not draw. Enter the information of the link in the blank of the
dialog box. You can also adjust the font size and position of the characters.
After the process is complete, click OK.
Pre-Planning Routes
• Labeling a Link by Default (Labeling the Site Distance Only)
Pre-Planning Routes
• Labeling a Link in a Customized Way (Labeling Any
Information on the Link)
Contents

 Overview

 Importing the Data

 Pre-Planning Routes

 Outputting the

Information
Outputting the Information
Outputting the
terrain diagram

Outputting the
profile diagram
between sites

Outputting the
antenna height
and site distance

Outputting the networking


diagram as a PDF document
Outputting the Information
• Choose Module > Network > Print > Copy from the menu
of the Pathloss. Paste the terrain diagram in the Word and
save it in the format of *.doc.
Outputting the Information
• Outputting the Profile Diagram of a Single Link
Click on the link whose profile diagram is to be output
between two sites, and choose Terrain Data > Module >
Print Profile > Print > Copy from the menu of the
Pathloss. Paste the profile diagram in the Word and save it
in the format of *.doc.
220

200

180

160

140
Elevation (m)

120

100

80

60

40

20
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Path leng th (9.11 km)
Site38 Freq uency (MHz) = 12996.0 Site40
Latitude 20 11 15.36 S K = 1.33, 0.67 Latitude 20 08 52.08 S
Long itude 057 43 03.36 E %F1 = 100.00, 60.00 Long itude 057 38 28.68 E
Azi muth 298.90 Azi muth 118.93
Elevation 40 m ASL Elevation 170 m ASL
Antenna CL 28.5 m AGL Antenna CL 29.8 m AGL

十月18 07
Outputting the Information
• Outputting the Profile Diagrams of Multiple Links in Batches

 Two software programs should be installed: Adobe


Acrobat 5.0 and pdfprinter.
 Double-click Pathloss 4.0. Choose Module > Print
Profile > Batch Print, and then click on a certain
link. Press Ctrl+A to select all links, and then click
Open. Enter the names of these files, and save
them in the format of *.PDF. (The number of files is
determined by the number of links. In this case, the
PDF documents containing the profile diagrams
are generated in batches.)
 Double-click on a certain link whose PDF
document containing the profile diagram was
Outputting the Information
• Outputting the Antenna Height and Site Distance
Choose Site Data > Site List > Reports > CSV link list-microwave. Select
the site information to be output, and then click OK. In this case, the report is
saved as a CSV file. You should open it in the Excel and save it in the format
of *xls.
Outputting the Information
Outputting the Information
• The networking diagram is output as a PDF
document. Do as follows: Click Printer Setup, and
select Acrobat PDFWrite in the Printer Setup
dialog box. Set the size of the paper, and then
click Properties.
Outputting the Information
Outputting the Information
 Choose Print > Print to save the file in the format of *.pdf, and then click Save.