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DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

IN
BARBADOS

Report on A national study designed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Domestic
Violence in Barbados

Police Data on Homicides 2000-2007


Focus Groups conducted during October, 2008
Survey conducted during February and March, 2009

On behalf of the Bureau of Gender Affairs, Ministry of Youth, Family and Sport

by
CONTENTS

TABLE OF FIGURES .................................................................................................................................... 5


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................................... 6
Introduction and Background..................................................................................................................... 6
Section One Summary: Police Data on Homicides Associated with Domestic Violence .......................... 6
Section Two Summary: Focus Group Discussions ................................................................................... 6
Policy Recommendations: ......................................................................................................................... 8
SECTION ONE ........................................................................................................................................... 11
EMPIRICAL DATA ON DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ........................................................................................ 11
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND HOMICIDE .................................................................................................. 12
Table 01: .................................................................................................................................................. 12
Total Homicides in Barbados................................................................................................................... 12
SECTION TWO ........................................................................................................................................... 13
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH ON DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN BARBADOS ................................................ 13
SUMMARY JUDGMENT ............................................................................................................................. 14
INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGY AND LIMITATIONS .......................................................................... 15
SESSION A: DOMESTIC VIOLENCE STAKEHOLDERS .......................................................................... 16
OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................................. 16
DEFINITIONS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ............................................................................................ 17
Traditional ................................................................................................................................................ 17
The Barbadian Context............................................................................................................................ 18
MECHANICS OF ABUSE ........................................................................................................................ 19
GENDER DIFFERENCES ....................................................................................................................... 20
EFFECTS ON CHILDREN ...................................................................................................................... 21
ROLE OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................ 22
ROLE OF RACIAL BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................ 23
ROLE OF ECONOMIC BACKGROUND ................................................................................................. 24
TYPICAL PROFILE FOR PERPETRATORS .......................................................................................... 25
TYPICAL PROFILE FOR VICTIMS ......................................................................................................... 26
POSSIBLE CAUSES OF ABUSE ............................................................................................................ 27
FREQUENCY OF ABUSE ....................................................................................................................... 28
ROLE OF GOVERNMENT ...................................................................................................................... 29
ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOs) ............................................................ 31
SESSION B: DOMESTIC VIOLENCE SURVIVORS .................................................................................. 32
OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................................. 32
DEFINITIONS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ............................................................................................ 33
Traditional ................................................................................................................................................ 33
The Barbadian Context............................................................................................................................ 34
MECHANICS OF ABUSE ........................................................................................................................ 35

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 2


GENDER DIFFERENCES ....................................................................................................................... 36
EFFECTS ON CHILDREN ...................................................................................................................... 37
ROLE OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................ 38
ROLE OF RACIAL BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................ 39
ROLE OF ECONOMIC BACKGROUND ................................................................................................. 40
POSSIBLE CAUSES OF ABUSE ............................................................................................................ 41
FREQUENCY OF ABUSE ....................................................................................................................... 42
ROLE OF GOVERNMENT ...................................................................................................................... 43
ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOs) ............................................................ 45
SECTION THREE ....................................................................................................................................... 46
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH ON DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN BARBADOS ............................................. 46
SUMMARY JUDGEMENT .......................................................................................................................... 47
METHODOLOGY AND LIMITATIONS ....................................................................................................... 48
Table 02: Indicator of Each Last Matching Case as Primary .................................................................. 49
PREVALENCE AND DEMOGRAPHICS ..................................................................................................... 51
Prevalence ............................................................................................................................................... 51
Demographics ......................................................................................................................................... 51
Employment Status ................................................................................................................................. 53
Socio-Economic Status ........................................................................................................................... 54
Informant Details ..................................................................................................................................... 55
LOCATION OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE .................................................................................................... 56
NATURE OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ........................................................................................................ 57
Type of violence ...................................................................................................................................... 57
Table 03: Type of Domestic Violence ...................................................................................................... 57
Actions Involved in Abuse ....................................................................................................................... 58
Retaliation ................................................................................................................................................ 59
Frequency of Abuse ................................................................................................................................ 60
Duration and Consistency of Abuse ........................................................................................................ 60
Socio-Economic Relations....................................................................................................................... 62
Injuries ..................................................................................................................................................... 63
Psychological Impact ............................................................................................................................... 65
Living Arrangements ................................................................................................................................ 66
Table 04: Number of People Living in Abusive Households ................................................................... 66
Table 05: Number of Bedrooms in Abusive Households ........................................................................ 66
Informants Familiarity with Similar Cases ............................................................................................... 68
PROFILE OF THE ABUSER ....................................................................................................................... 69
Table 06: Barbados Religions ................................................................................................................. 69
(CADRES 2009 National Survey) ............................................................................................................ 69
INSTITUTIONAL REACTION TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ........................................................................ 74

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 3


Institutions Approached ........................................................................................................................... 74
Agency Interaction and Agency Reaction ............................................................................................... 74
Police Reports and Outcome................................................................................................................... 75
Victim/Survivor‟s Opinion on the Law and Courts ................................................................................... 77
APPENDICES ............................................................................................................................................. 78
APPENDIX I ................................................................................................................................................ 78
Focus Group Questions and Issues for Discussion: Stakeholders ......................................................... 78
APPENDIX II ............................................................................................................................................... 79
Focus Group Questions and Issues for Discussion: Survivors ............................................................... 79
APPENDIX III .............................................................................................................................................. 80
Document (1) One ................................................................................................................................... 80
APPENDIX IV .............................................................................................................................................. 81
Survey Instrument ................................................................................................................................... 81
Document Two (2) Instrument ................................................................................................................. 81
APPENDIX V ............................................................................................................................................... 87
Respondent Screener .............................................................................................................................. 87
APPENDIX VI .............................................................................................................................................. 89
Survey Areas ........................................................................................................................................... 89
APPENDIX VII ............................................................................................................................................. 93
Parish and Area Location of Domestic Violence ..................................................................................... 93

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 4


TABLE OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Percentage of Homicides due to Domestic Violence .......................................................................... 12


Figure 2: Respondents who knew of (Separate) Incidence of Abuse ............................................................... 51
Figure 3: Demographic Trends ............................................................................................................................... 52
Figure 4: Employment Status .................................................................................................................................. 53
Figure 5: Victim/Survivor's Socio Economic Background ................................................................................... 54
Figure 6: Informant Details ...................................................................................................................................... 55
Figure 7: Parish Location ......................................................................................................................................... 56
Figure 8: Type of Violence ....................................................................................................................................... 57
Figure 9: Actions Involved in Abuse ....................................................................................................................... 58
Figure 10: Retaliation ............................................................................................................................................... 59
Figure 11: Gender and Retaliation ......................................................................................................................... 59
Figure 12: Frequency of Abuse .............................................................................................................................. 60
Figure 13: Length of Time of Abuse ....................................................................................................................... 61
Figure 14: Consistency of Abuse ............................................................................................................................ 61
Figure 15: Abused - Abuser Socio Economic Relationship ................................................................................ 62
Figure 16: Gender and Injuries ............................................................................................................................... 63
Figure 17: Age and Injuries ..................................................................................................................................... 64
Figure 18: Psychological Impact ............................................................................................................................. 65
Figure 19: Persons per Bedroom (Ranges) .......................................................................................................... 67
Figure 20: Additional (Similar) Cases of Abuse .................................................................................................... 68
Figure 21: Major Demographic Characteristics (Abuser) .................................................................................... 69
Figure 22: Abuser's Religion and National Status ............................................................................................... 70
Figure 23: Major Social and Economic Characteristics (Abuser) ...................................................................... 71
Figure 24: Age and Pattern of Abuse..................................................................................................................... 72
Figure 25: Abuser-Abused Age Relationship........................................................................................................ 72
Figure 26: Abuser-Abused Employment Relationship......................................................................................... 73
Figure 27: Institutions Approached......................................................................................................................... 74
Figure 28: Agency Interaction/Reaction ................................................................................................................ 75
Figure 29: Police Reports ........................................................................................................................................ 75
Figure 30: Outcome of Police Reports ................................................................................................................... 76
Figure 31: Opinion on Law and Courts .................................................................................................................. 77

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 5


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Introduction and Background

The Bureau of Gender Affairs in the Ministry of Youth, Family and Sports is the government agency
charged with the responsibility of facilitating gender mainstreaming and advising government on national
policies and programmes as well as monitoring Governments‟ commitment and implementation of
international convention and treaties.

One critical area of work has been the reduction and elimination of domestic violence; however the ability
to measure the effect and impact of the programmes and activities is severely limited because of the
availability of reliable baseline data. CADRES was therefore contracted to develop a research
methodology that would achieve three key objectives:

a) The definition of “Domestic Violence” in the context of Barbados;


b) The determination of the extent to which domestic violence is prevalent in communities across
Barbados along with the identification of specific communities where abuse is more (or less)
prevalent; and
c) The development of an “abuse profile” which highlights demographic and sociological
characteristics which appear to pre-dispose persons to becoming victims of abuse.

The terms and conditions of this consultancy require that CADRES do the following:

i. Conduct focus groups with stakeholders designed to establish the dimensions of what is
commonly referred to as Domestic Violence in Barbados;
ii. Design and execute a national survey that conveys information on the prevalence and scope of
abuse consistent with (b) and (c) above; and
iii. Refine the data gathered in (i) and (ii) in a way that would facilitate the development of an “abuse
profile” for Barbados.

The focus group reports that appear in Section Two of this study speak to objective (a) which was
completed first, while objectives (b) and (c) are addressed in Section Three which benefited from a
greater understanding of the issue based on the focus group discussions.

Section One Summary: Police Data on Homicides Associated with Domestic Violence

The Royal Barbados Police Force (RBPF) has produced data which demonstrates that between 2000 and
2007, on average 21% of murders in Barbados were caused by domestic violence which is one in every
five murders and all of the victims in this time period were women.

Section Two Summary: Focus Group Discussions

CADRES‟ attempts to establish indicators that could predispose individuals to the perpetration of, or
subjection to, domestic violence proved to be largely futile, and the primary objective of creating a
definition of domestic violence was also complicated by the fact that there is no typical profile for
perpetrators or survivors, as the scourge cuts across social strata.

There were nonetheless certain conclusions that may be drawn. Significant among these is the fact that
several members of the female survivors focus group described themselves as “no-nonsense” individuals
who would normally “stand their ground” when challenged, whereas the physical abuse they suffered was
mainly thought to be borne of their partners‟ insecurities and inferiority complexes. When juxtaposed then,
these two pieces of information depict a possible profile of males who lack maturity and self esteem, and
seek to use physical force to subdue the types of intellectually superior females who tend to become
involved with them.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 6


The data also seems to suggest that those persons who work under a shift system seem to be more
susceptible to psychological abuse, as the abuser is able to use the time at home to devise plans and
manipulate various features of the household.

Overall, the research was much more effective in terms of identifying the shortcomings of the current
national response to domestic violence, as stakeholders and survivors alike took issue with the loopholes
which exist in the local legislation, and the seeming indifference of law enforcement officials. Indeed, they
believed that the law was failing to act as a necessary deterrent for potential perpetrators and for this
reason the overall levels of abuse were likely higher than average.

CADRES estimates that levels of domestic violence are in reality in line with international averages;
however deficiencies in the national response and undeveloped cultural attitudes have allowed the
scourge to thrive. These may be addressed through programmes geared to sensitise law enforcement
officials and the public, but the need to change the legislation coupled with the limited number of effective
non-governmental organizations continue to present more complicated issues at this time.

Summary for section three: National Informant Survey

The prevalence of domestic violence was assessed through an estimation method which relied on
informants, 27% of whom were aware of at least one incidence of domestic violence. The demographic
characteristics that were isolated demonstrated that victims/survivors were predominately mature, black,
Barbadian females, of working class economic backgrounds. It would appear as though violence is most
prevalent in St. Michael, which is not surprising since this is the most populous parish, however it is
interesting that St. James is the next highest, followed by St. Peter and Christ Church (in fourth place).

These data speak to pattern of occurrence and note that domestic violence most frequently occurs on a
monthly basis, with striking with an implement as being the most common form of abuse. The most
frequent configuration was between a man and woman with the man as the most frequent abuser. In
most cases domestic violence resulted in injury of some sort and in many cases, injuries were visible.
Although domestic abuse is mostly physical, data suggested that psychological complications often
emerged. Almost 40% of the victims/survivors interviewed were psychologically affected by the incidence
of domestic violence and 52% were emotionally troubled. Of these persons 51% did not seek or receive
psychological treatment; however the survey could not speak to the psychological impact of children and
other persons living within the household because in many cases children were indirectly affected by
instances of domestic violence.

The survey also concluded that the abusers were usually older than the victims/survivors and were mostly
employed, working class, mature males of African descent, which is consistent with the racial profile of
Barbados. Finally CADRES investigated institutional reaction as it pertains to the domestic violence.
Institutions such as crisis centres, churches, legal aid and the Welfare Department were examined and in
all instances these institutions were NOT sought by victims/survivors of domestic violence. As it pertains
to the police, in most instances the police were not called; however when they were called a full report
was made most of the time. Data also showed that investigations were stopped by the victim/survivor
31% of the time.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 7


Policy Recommendations:

Against the background of this report, the following recommendations are made to the Bureau of Gender
Affairs and the Government of Barbados to facilitate an enhanced response to cases of domestic
violence:

LEGISLATIVE AND POLICY INITIATIVES

I. Reporting and Monitoring Requirements

It is clear that little empirical data exists on the issue of domestic violence and this impacts
negatively on the Government‟s ability to identify and track instances of domestic violence. In this
regard, the relevant Ministry has developed a specific form, however CADRES is of the opinion
that it is entirely too complex to achieve the desired objectives. It is therefore recommended
that government pursue legislation that:

a) Clearly defines domestic violence in a manner that is entirely gender neutral and
makes no presumptions regarding the age or gender of both the aggressor and victim;
b) Imposes a reporting protocol that is applicable to agencies that would normally
receive reports of domestic violence;
c) Requires/Identifies a specific government agency to monitor incidences of domestic
violence and develop policies to respond appropriately.

II. Alternative Restraining and Protection Order Facilities

There is considerable evidence of domestic violence occurring outside of the more conventional
“live-in” scenarios that can give rise to a protection order. The alternative legal remedy that
facilitates protection is considerably more difficult to obtain, but is clearly necessary. The
Government should therefore create options whereby potential victims can seek
protection from assailants to whom they are not married and with whom they do not live.

III. Initiatives to Secure Sexual Orientation Neutrality

Although the laws of Barbados frown on same sex relationships, it is clear from this research that
such relationships occur and give rise to domestic violence and more recently led to at least one
known fatality. The present infrastructure might be challenged to respond to such scenarios;
however there is a difference between the law‟s approval of a particular type of union and the
law‟s protection of the individual within that union from undue exposure to violence. It is
therefore recommended that initiatives designed to respond to domestic violence be
equally applicable to the gay and lesbian community.

IV. Initiatives to Respond to Domestic Violence against Men

The survey produced a disproportionate quantity of data on domestic violence against men and in
these few instances, it was clear that there was even greater hesitation for male victims to come
forward and report such acts.
It is therefore recommended that government develop initiatives to encourage men to report
incidences of domestic violence, which might be as simple as exposing officers within relevant
institutions to sensitivity training.
Moreover, it is also clear that the legislative remedies available to victims (such as protection
orders) are NOT gender neutral and need to anticipate and respond to male complainants.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 8


V. Independent Prosecution of Abusers

There is clearly a major gap between the incidence of abuse and the quantity of reports made to
police and even when reports are made, it is clear that victims often discourage police
investigations and subsequent prosecutions. It is therefore prudent that Government develop
legislative initiatives which allow for the investigation and prosecution of perpetrators of
abuse WITHOUT the cooperation of the victim.

VI. Distinction Between Corporal Punishment and Domestic Violence

Research suggests that there is some amount of (non-sexual) domestic violence being
perpetrated against Children and Teenagers and it is entirely possible that such persons are
unclear about the important distinction between legitimate corporal punishment and
domestic violence. This presents a clear issue to which legislation must speak and
thereafter needs to be addressed by advocacy.

GENERAL ADVOCACY

VII. Police Reaction to Domestic Violence Reports

The reaction of persons who were actual victims/survivors of domestic violence suggested that
they were often not taken seriously by the Police. One appreciates the complexity of scenarios in
which the Police often find themselves where complainants blow “hot and cold,” however this
cynicism can impact negatively on complainants who face serious crises. It is therefore
recommended that a programme of sensitivity training be developed for the Police in such
scenarios and specialist support be placed at the disposal of the Police when they are
required to respond to suspected cases of domestic violence.

VIII. Most Vulnerable Groups

Incidence data suggests that specific demographic groups that reside within particular areas
are more likely to become victims of domestic violence and it is therefore important that
advocacy programmes target Afro Barbadian Women who are from lower socio-economic
brackets and are between the ages 30-50 and either unemployed or are housewives.

IX. Role of the Church in Counselling

Victims of domestic violence clearly prefer to seek comfort with non-governmental organisations
and most frequently turn to the Church. In this regard Government might need to consider two
issues:
a) The need to expose Church officers to training that would help them to counsel
victims of domestic violence;
b) The extent to which Judeo-Christian doctrines that appear to encourage
submissiveness on the part of Women might not be particularly helpful in this
instance.

X. Responding to the Psychological Impact

Data suggest that victims are in many instances not seeking psychological help in situations
where they are abused although informants believe that such persons are also psychologically
damaged. It might therefore be necessary for parties that mediate and intervene in cases
of domestic violence to encourage psychological evaluation and assistance and as a
consequence Government might need to ensure that such facilities are available.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 9


FUTURE RESEARCH

XI. Revision of The Domestic Violence Reporting Form

The form that is designed to identify and trace cases and patterns of domestic violence is long
and complex and as such is not likely to be heavily used. It is therefore recommended that
Government review this document in an effort to identify what components are essential
and non-essential, and moreover towards the enhancement of its general “user-
friendliness”.

XII. Research into Male Victims of Domestic Violence

Although a special effort was made in both the qualitative and quantitative sections to capture
information related to male victim/survivors, very little information was forthcoming from these
persons and there remains a deceit regarding the cause and appropriate response to domestic
violence where men are victims. Future research should perhaps target male
victims/survivors specifically and seek to address their peculiar concerns.

XIII. The Issue of Psychological Domestic Violence

Much of this investigation focused on the more visible aspects of domestic violence, however
there was some evidence of the prevalence of domestic violence of a more psychological nature
that profoundly impacted on the victim‟s psyche in a way that was as bad as or worse than
physical violence.

Since little is known about this type of abuse, it would appear to be a logical issue that
future research should specifically examine psychological abuse.

XIV. The Impact of Domestic Violence

In this research the damage caused by domestic violence was taken as “given” however it would
be useful for later research to explore the impacts of this type of abuse that are not immediately
obvious. Among these issues are:

a) The potential for the victim of domestic violence to become an abuser at a later stage
in life or in a different environment at the same time;
b) The impact of domestic violence on bullying; and
c) The psychological impact of domestic violence.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 10


SECTION ONE

EMPIRICAL DATA ON DOMESTIC VIOLENCE


DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND HOMICIDE

In Barbados the Police force does not maintain records of


their reports of domestic violence as these data are
Table 01: subsumed under other categories of crime and criminal
activity. It is therefore difficult to assemble empirical data
Total Homicides in Barbados
on this issue and the qualitative and quantitative information
Homicides Due to Total presented in this report comes closest to empirical data on
Domestic Violence Homicides the issue in Barbados. The Police Force does, however
2007 7 28 maintain accurate records of persons who are murdered in
Barbados and can more easily determine whether these
2006 4 36
deaths result from domestic violence.
2005 9 29
2004 3 22 This information is presented in Table 01 and analysed in
Figure 01 against the total number of murders reported in
2003 10 33 Barbados and this demonstrates that between 2000 and
2002 6 25 2007, on average 21% of murders in Barbados arise from
incidents of domestic violence which is one in every five
2001 3 25
murders and this is not an insignificant number of people.
2000 4 20 The highest proportion of deaths due to domestic violence
occurred in 2005 and 2003, while 2006, 2004 and 2001
were the years with the lowest rates. It is noteworthy that all of these persons who were killed in this time
period were women.

Percentage of Homicides Due to Domestic Violence


31% 30%
25% 24%
20% 21%

14%
11% 12%

2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 Average


2000 -
2007

Figure 1: Percentage of Homicides due to Domestic Violence


SECTION TWO

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH ON DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN BARBADOS


SUMMARY JUDGMENT

The two reports that follow present a qualitative assessment of the issue of domestic violence, which is
intended to inform the Bureau of Gender Affairs‟ efforts to define domestic violence in the context of
Barbados. The findings are intended to complement the greater part of a comprehensive assessment of
the issue as it exists nationally, and to serve as a guide to the process of formulating policies aimed at the
reduction and minimisation of domestic violence from the society.

Overall then it may be said that the findings of this study, while informative, speak to an issue that lacks
specifics and will therefore be difficult to pinpoint going forward in the present research probe. CADRES‟
attempts to establish fundamental indicators that may predispose certain individuals to the perpetration
of, or subjection to, domestic violence proved to be largely futile, and the primary objective of creating a
definition of domestic violence will be complicated by the fact that there is no typical profile for
perpetrators or survivors, as the scourge cuts across social strata

There were nonetheless certain conclusions that may be drawn through careful analysis of the data. An
example of this is the fact that several members of the female survivors focus group described
themselves as “no-nonsense” individuals who would normally “stand their ground” when challenged,
whereas the physical abuse they suffered was mainly thought to be borne of their partners‟ insecurities
and inferiority complexes. When juxtaposed then, these two (2) pieces of information depict a possible
profile of males who lack maturity and self esteem, and seek to use physical force to subdue the types of
intellectually superior females who tend to become involved with them.

Even so, this of course but one aspect of the physical side of domestic violence. The data also seems to
suggest that those persons who work under a shift system seem to be more susceptible to psychological
abuse, as the abuser is able to use the time at home to devise plans and manipulate various features of
the household.

Overall, however, the research was much more effective in terms of identifying the shortcomings of the
current national response to domestic violence, as stakeholders and survivors alike took issue with the
loopholes which exist in the local legislation, and the seeming indifference of law enforcement officials.
Indeed, they believed that the law was failing to act as a necessary deterrent for potential perpetrators
and for this reason the overall levels of abuse were likely higher than average.

CADRES nonetheless estimates that levels of domestic violence are in reality in line with international
averages at present, based on indicators gained during Phase I of the study; it is simply the deficiencies
of the national response and undeveloped cultural attitudes which have allowed the scourge to thrive.
These may, of course, be addressed through programmes geared to sensitise law enforcement officials
and the public, but the need to change the legislation coupled with the limited number of effective non-
governmental organizations continue to present more complicated issues at this time.
INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGY AND LIMITATIONS

This section of the study presents focus group discussions targeting major stakeholders and known
victims of domestic violence, in an attempt to frame the research and establish definitions applicable to
Barbados. Data gathered during this stage also informed the survey instrument used in the quantitative
phase of the research.

During this Phase, CADRES nonetheless encountered several limiting factors in the attempt to gather of
qualitative preliminary data, and these factors are worth noting while reading and interpreting the findings
of this report:

 The study intends to treat child abuse as a separate issue, and the research conducted therefore
sought to focus on domestic abuse as perpetrated between adult Barbadians;

 Inevitably, the question of which terms most accurately describe the overall issue of abuse arose
during the course of research. However, given that this is a study designed to gather baseline
data on the issue of domestic violence, the report seeks to avoid the use of terms such as
“gender-based violence”; conversely, it is hoped that the data may serve as a reference in
establishing an accurate definition of the violence that exists in Barbados for the future;

 Similarly, there was a question of whether the withholding of sex, food, and finances, extramarital
relationships, or even the exposure of persons‟ belongings in public places could be considered
as manifestations under the overall banner of domestic violence, particularly since the actions
may have a negative psychological and emotional impact on victims. Again, however, the
research did not set out to respond to these questions and, having been raised by the research,
they now remain to be subjected to further analysis;

 As stated above, the qualitative research set out to capture the views of respective audiences of
stakeholders, survivors (males and females), as well as perpetrators of domestic violence, in a
focus group setting. However, as findings were dependent on a “human response” and CADRES
managed to convene only audiences of stakeholders and females, the results of the study may
not necessarily be considered to be comprehensive;

 Regarding male victims of domestic violence in Barbados, it thus remains unclear whether
females are indeed more likely to be abused than men, or whether they are simply more likely
than males to report incidents to the police or relevant support groups. It will be seen that
CADRES did manage to capture the views of one male survivor, but these views cannot be
considered to be representative of the Barbadian population of male survivors;

 Given that most of the participants in the female survivor focus group (7 of 8) were referred to
CADRES by the crisis centre of the Business and Professional Women‟s Club, it may be argued
that these survivors had been, for the most part, beneficiaries of the treatment and sensitisation
programmes made available by the Club. While the work of the Club is commendable, this
dynamic may not necessarily be representative of the population of female survivors at large; and
lastly

 It will be seen in the report that domestic violence is portrayed as a phenomenon which is
generally perpetrated between males and females in heterosexual Barbados. Naturally violence
is also perpetrated within the homosexual sub-culture that exists in the island; however, CADRES
had no immediate means of tapping into this social sphere.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 15


SESSION A: DOMESTIC VIOLENCE STAKEHOLDERS

OVERVIEW

The following report is an assessment of a focus group on domestic violence in Barbados, conducted by
CADRES on behalf of the Bureau of Gender Affairs at the Warrens Office Complex on 25 October 2008.
The session was intended to probe the general views of representatives of several stakeholder agencies,
though these persons were encouraged to offer their personal opinions rather than act as mere
spokespersons for their respective institutions. The session thus sought to convene an audience of
representatives of the State and non-State entities that currently constitute the national response to
domestic violence, in order to probe their views and perceptions of a number of issues relating to the
nature of domestic violence as it exists in Barbados.

Respondents were invited to answer questions designed to establish a “snapshot” of domestic violence in
Barbados, and also to gain feedback on existing and prospective avenues for development of State and
non-State responses to the issue in the future. For methodological purposes, the types of questions
posed to the group were divided into multiple segments. During the first segment, group members were
invited to express opinions intended to establish a working definition of domestic violence in Barbados.
The subsequent segments sought to delve more directly into group members‟ perceptions of the root
causes of domestic violence, the mechanics of abuse and possible solutions for the problem, as it exists
nationally.

Generally, there was a high level of consensus in the discussions, with no discernibly strong minority
opinion emerging. The general group response may be said to indicate that there are many cultural and
historical factors that contribute to the unique nature of domestic violence in the Barbadian context. The
group may further be described as holding a generally sceptical view of the adequacy of the current
makeup of the national response (particularly as it relates to the competence - or lack thereof - of the
State‟s response) to the overall issue of domestic violence.

Group members were in agreement that the State should not be expected to shoulder the burden of
housing and counselling victims of domestic violence, but held that the State‟s capacity to handle the
aspect of law enforcement is imperative in efforts to contain and control the problem in the future.

The following sections will seek to examine group members‟ perspectives in greater detail, in an effort to
build a definition of how and why violence is perpetrated domestically in Barbados, and in a way that
would lend itself to the creation of policies intended to minimise the problem in the future.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 16


DEFINITIONS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

Traditional

As a preliminary question, group members were asked to indicate whether they found the following
classic definition of domestic violence be comprehensive enough in nature to cover the Barbadian
scenario:

“any violence between current and former partners in an intimate relationship wherever
the violence occurs. The violence may include physical, sexual, emotional and financial
abuse.”

The collective response of group members indicated that all of the factors listed in the definition are of
importance; however, they likewise believed that the definition perhaps needed to be extended, or made
more explicit, to account for:

 Violence between persons who do not necessarily live under the same roof;
 Violence within non-intimate relationships whereby adult children still living with parent(s) may
inflict harm on others in the household;
 Partner violence between persons who may not be co-habitants but may be in the dating stage of
a relationship;
 Psychological factors such as harassment and stalking which are incorporated within the
Domestic Violence Act of Barbados, and have both reportedly been on the increase;
 The advancement of cellular phone technology and the Internet, which have created avenues for
abuse via text messaging, email and instant messaging; and
 Cases of visual infatuation in which intimacy is not necessarily a factor, yet there is equal
occasion for violent acts.

It was suggested that the definition perhaps ought to be expanded to include the reasons why victims
often find it difficult to remove themselves from abusive situations.

Overall, however, there was general consensus that domestic violence is more often than not used by
one person as a means to maintain control over another person, or persons. This pertains to man-
woman, man-man, and woman-woman relationships, as well as adult relationships with children.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 17


The Barbadian Context

The group was then to asked to compare and contrast the classic definition of domestic violence noted
above with the violence perpetrated in the Barbadian context, indicating the key issues that set local
circumstances apart from that which obtains in other countries.

One respondent suggested that while the definition fits Barbadian society generally, there are certain
cultural realities borne of our colonial past that shape the nature of the domestic violence that exists here.
He argued that, during slavery, planters endeavoured to keep male and female slaves separate as the
females were viewed merely as child-bearers since they lacked the physical strength of male slaves.
Hence the male slaves were not allowed to love, females were not respected, there was no love or desire
to bond between male and female slaves and to this day society continues to be comfortable with the role
of mere child-bearer for women.

Another respondent referred to several additional peculiarities of Barbadian culture that perhaps help to
shape the existence of domestic violence in the local setting. Specifically, she referred to:

 Language, claiming that an image of ownership is transmitted by the possessive types of


language that are often used to describe male-female relationships, e.g. a woman has a child for
a man;

 Family life, claiming that in the past, there was total separation of the sexes with regard to
certain family activities. As an example, she mentioned that traditionally on Sundays women
would take children to church, the beach or fairs while the men were more likely to be found in the
“Rum Shops” or playing cricket, amongst other adult males; and

 Extramarital affairs, claiming that such acts were often publicly acknowledged and accepted as
part of the culture for men in the past.

Another argument referring to Barbadian culture alluded to the “visiting relationship”, whereby the man
and woman live in 2 separate households, but any violence enacted between the two could be termed
spousal even though they do not cohabitate. This was argued to be a reality that exists in Barbados, yet
would not fit under the classic definition domestic violence.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 18


MECHANICS OF ABUSE

Domestic abuse in Barbados, according to the stakeholders, in most cases begins with the types of
verbal and psychological abuse outlined in a previous sub-section of this report. This may then progress
to violence perpetrated by means of kicks, punches, slaps, the throwing of hard objects such as pots and
pans, and the throwing of victims against solid surfaces. There is also financial abuse, which is the
withholding of money from a person (or persons) dependent on such financial aid, for whatever reason.

Such abuse is also generally continuous, rather than isolated, given that victims seldom leave after the
first offence. Indeed, when the victim reaches the point of deciding to remove him/her from the situation,
he/she has usually survived a series of experiences.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 19


GENDER DIFFERENCES

In an effort to establish whether there are gender differences in Barbados in terms of the types of violence
that are perpetrated against males and females, CADRES posed a direct question intended to reveal any
possible trends group members might have chanced to uncover in their respective lines of work.

Perhaps unsurprisingly, there did not seem to be any one type of abuse that is perpetrated solely against
either of the sexes. However, it was revealed that there are certain types of abuse that are more likely to
be perpetrated against either of the sexes, owing largely to the superior physical strength which males in
most cases hold over females.

Mental and physical abuse via kidnapping seems to be one type of abuse that is perpetrated specifically
by males towards females. In such instances, the female victim is physically removed from her familiar
surroundings, taken to a remote area and either raped or abused and this is a scenario which usually
results from men‟s physical ability to remove women from places of safety.

Abuse perpetrated by women against men is reportedly often (but not limited to) verbal and emotional,
again owing to the difference in physical strength. Physical, verbal, emotional and financial abuse are
also used on women.

The withholding of visitation rights is another form of mental and emotional abuse that is perpetrated, but
the respective sexes of the perpetrator and the victim depend on which parent has custody of the
children.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 20


EFFECTS ON CHILDREN

Respondents were asked to identify the ways in which domestic violence perpetrated between adults has
been known to have a negative impact on children.

Aside from the instances in which a child may fall victim to some of the physical abuse suffered by a
parent, violence perpetrated between adults in a household has been known to have indirect effects on
the child living there. The atmosphere of violence may develop a level of fear in a child, which in turn may
engender behavioural problems at school, and affect the nature of the child‟s academic performance and
relationships with other students. Such children may become socially withdrawn, or grow to be ultra-
violent in their behaviour towards other students, and the violence in the household may also affect how
the child goes on to relate to males or females in adult life.

Children are often unable to sleep or, as a result, concentrate on schoolwork since the unrest caused by
domestic violence makes them fearful of sleeping at night. There are also instances in which mothers use
the presence of a child for protection.

One aspect of financial abuse is that of physically abusive fathers in some cases preferring to forfeit child
support responsibilities, deny their children and be incarcerated, rather than support their children
financially.

As a natural follow-on from the previous question, CADRES sought to gain a greater understanding of the
Barbadian definition of domestic violence by probing the possible existence of several social
denominators, and/or learned behaviours, that may potentially predispose certain individuals to a lifestyle
of violence during adulthood.

In each case it will be seen that, while these social denominators may individually increase the likelihood
that domestic violence may occur in a given scenario, group members were unwilling to pinpoint any
specific denominators as root causes of abuse.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 21


ROLE OF FAMILY BACKGROUND

Respondents were first asked to identify the impact, if any, of family history on the probability that
domestic violence may occur in a given home.

It was revealed that individuals who experience or witness instances of domestic violence during
childhood are perhaps marginally more likely to become abusive themselves in adult life.

In addition, families living in overcrowded households tend to have boundary issues in terms of proximity;
children are sometimes forced to share bedrooms with siblings and/or parents and, in some instances,
this may cause an individual to see others in the home not as other individuals, but as extensions of him
or herself.

Lastly, the overconsumption of alcohol is often passed on from generation to generation as children
emulate the example set by their parents, as it is they who set the moral standard for the home.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 22


ROLE OF RACIAL BACKGROUND

Respondents were then asked to identify the impact, if any, of racial factors on the probability that
domestic violence may occur in a given home.

It was argued that domestic violence cuts across racial backgrounds, and thus race does not have any
bearing on whether or not a person may display violent behaviour in the home. Nor may domestic
violence be said to be prevalent in certain racial communities more so than others. However, persons of
racial backgrounds that might perceive themselves to be of high social standing may arguably be less
likely than others to report incidences of domestic violence, for fear of public disclosure.

The potential dynamic of illegal immigration should be noted here, as it was argued that men attracted to
illegal immigrants are seldom men of high moral standing. Living underground arguably increases
proximity to illegal drugs, alcohol and sex, and accordingly deviant behaviour. Female illegal immigrants
are thought to frequent various Barbadian males in order to meet various needs (such as food and
shelter), and this may also provoke instances of violence owing to cases of believed infidelity in
relationships.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 23


ROLE OF ECONOMIC BACKGROUND

Lastly respondents were asked to identify the impact, if any, of economic factors on the probability that
domestic violence may occur in a given home.

According to one respondent, who spoke from a background of social work, a significant percentage of
persons live in domestic situations, not by choice, but due to economic limitations. Hence these situations
of forced co-habitation are conducive to violence and abuse, particularly in cases of relationships that
have ceased to be intimate, but have roles and boundary lines that are blurred by the close proximity of
the living conditions.

Additionally, families that have to scrounge to make a living have a harder time „getting by‟, and are thus
more likely to spend time in the “Rum Shop”. Alcohol was argued to be a social issue which tends to
affect lifestyle. A representative of the women‟s shelter claimed that the shelter records its highest levels
of intake on weekends, at the end of the month and during the Christmas season; these are all instances
in which salaries received are likely to be spent on alcohol, and thus in turn increase the likelihood that
domestic violence may occur.

The unemployed and those who work in seasonal industries may turn to physical abuse of others in the
home due to frustration with working conditions, or in an effort to maintain some form of psychological
control over a partner who may be viewed as being more financially stable. Reportedly, a study of the
region carried out in Trinidad and Tobago during a period of structural adjustment in the Caribbean
showed that the incidence of domestic violence increased during times of economic recession.

However, while such factors may undoubtedly give rise to instances of domestic violence, group
members pointed to instances in which persons were made redundant from their jobs yet became
passive and withdrawn in the home setting, instead of taking out their frustrations on family members.
The group maintained that the proclivity to resort to violence is ultimately determined by the psychological
background of the potential perpetrator, and the extent of that individual‟s desire to control another person
for whatever reason.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 24


TYPICAL PROFILE FOR PERPETRATORS

Given the responses noted thus far it is perhaps unsurprising that group members were reluctant to
attempt to typify perpetrators of domestic violence and did not believe such persons could be restricted to
a pre-defined set of social features.

They acknowledged that persons who were abused as children often grow to be abusers later on in life.
However, they were also quick to point out that persons with histories of abuse are perhaps just as likely
to vow to completely avoid violent behaviour in life.

Respondents limited themselves to defining the average perpetrator as an individual who feels out of
control of him or herself, and/or feels that he/she can control his/her partner through the use of violent,
demonstrative behaviour.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 25


TYPICAL PROFILE FOR VICTIMS

Similarly, when CADRES attempted to establish whether, in their line of work, group members had found
there to be a defined set of social features that may be associated with victims of domestic violence, the
group response made it clear that while there may be certain signs that exist such persons cannot be
restricted to any specific characteristics.

There are women who may wield power in the working world, but allow themselves to be controlled at
home by their husbands. Such persons tend to have low self-esteem in some area of their lives that they
are not fully in control of, and as a result tend to believe that they need their partners for survival.

Another factor is the fact that, arguably, the infrastructure of Barbados does not allow women to easily
leave men; independence comes by virtue of employment so those who spend days at home and are
dependent can be abused at any time of day when the husband comes home.

However, some persons have the wherewithal to have their injuries masked by physicians, and hence are
not included in the statistics. Working class victims tend to keep Bibles at hand as they pray for guidance.
In general though they learn to lie to society, knowing that their suffering is not justified, but feeling
trapped nonetheless.

Overall, domestic violence is a matter of abusive power, and one person exerting control over others,
such that circumstances which are not conducive to violence in one instance may well be conducive to
violence in another. Persons who may be assertive in some life situations may be very passive in others,
or may become that way if certain dynamics are added or removed.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 26


POSSIBLE CAUSES OF ABUSE

CADRES sought to label some of the possible causes or prevailing circumstances in instances of
domestic violence. Several of the following factors may be implicit in the findings recorded thus far, but
are nonetheless are itemised below:

 The rises and falls of the local economic situation invariably affect levels of domestic violence,
hence the latter is expected to increase during the current economic downturn;

 Alcohol is often the basis of family violence, though inferior mental health can also trigger
violence. However, when alcohol acts as a stimulant, prolonged drinking may decrease an
individual‟s respect for the status quo. The intoxicated individual may become angry, irrational
and violent, as they are deprived of privileges, such as sex and interaction with children, which
they would otherwise believe to be their right. Some males drink with the direct intention of
disrupting family life;

 Domestic violence is argued to be cyclical; as such children who are abused learn what they live
and may ultimately live what they learn. For example, a child may hate to see his/her mother
being battered and may harbour murderous feelings towards his/her father, or, the mother may
become emotionally inaccessible hence the child becomes the most vulnerable in the situation.
The mother may also turn to beating her child out of frustration arising from the abuse that she
suffers.

As a result, though the child may dislike the lifestyle, it becomes natural for him/her and he/she
lacks the skills necessary to cope when confronted by the challenges of adulthood;

 The patriarchal nature of Barbadian society implies that Barbadians are often raised with the idea
that they may claim ownership of others;

 There is currently no safety net that exists to assist women who are dependent on their husbands
for financial well-being; and, perhaps most importantly

 There are currently no measures being taken to help perpetrators “unlearn” their deviant
behaviour.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 27


FREQUENCY OF ABUSE

In an effort to establish the frequency with which domestic violence is perpetrated in Barbados, CADRES
asked group members their unbiased opinions of whether the frequency in Barbados is higher, lower or
on par with global trends.

Overall, the frequency of domestic violence in Barbados is believed to be in line with global trends.
Barbadians have been becoming increasingly familiarised with the existence and definitions of domestic
violence, hence the number of reported cases (especially from men) rises as the level of sensitisation
does.

However, the incidence of domestic violence per capita in Barbados is likely high due to a lack of
infrastructure; it is comparably easy to prosecute domestic violence in other countries, since the law takes
the responsibility out of the hands of the victims once a crime is reported. In Barbados, perpetrators and
potential perpetrators are aware and emboldened by the knowledge that they will likely escape
prosecution.

Indeed, in countries where the response to domestic violence is more advanced, trauma counsellors
accompany the police officers responding to incidents, which allows the police to deal with the legal
aspect while counsellors deal with family issues. Court-issued sentences for incidents of domestic
violence further include counselling for victims, in order to help women to understand the dangers that
exist, and ultimately avoid repeat cases of abuse.

The infrastructure in Barbados would need to improve to the point that perpetrators are restricted from
having any further contact with the family. Questions remain surrounding the ethics that govern the law
enforcers who come into contact with victims of abuse since there will always be a “who-knows-who”
scenario at play in Barbados.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 28


ROLE OF GOVERNMENT

Respondents found fault generally with the adequacy of state responses, for both the abused and the
abusers, as currently constituted in Barbados. In sum, the group did not find that the issue of domestic
violence has been given the requisite attention by the State. The specifics of their arguments are listed
below:

 Though domestic violence is not defined as a crime under the Barbados Domestic Violence Act,
the legislation ought to be changed in order that perpetrators may be prosecuted. At present,
persons may be charged under the Sexual Offenses Act or other Acts that target crimes of a
personal nature. Otherwise, domestic violence becomes a chargeable offense only if the
perpetrator violates a Protection Order. If the legislation could be changed to curb certain
behaviours it might arguably lead to a change in attitudes;

 Another of the problems is that statistics are not maintained for victims of domestic violence,
hence there is no track record for repeat victims. The police are reportedly often forced to depend
on records kept by the crisis centre operated by the Business and Professional Women‟s Club,
and even then the hope is that the victim would have used the same name in all instances, so as
to be able to pinpoint the case history.

It was argued that polyclinics ought also to maintain statistics and records of victims, and have
psychologists and nurses on staff with experience dealing with the fallout of domestic violence;

 In many instances victims lack information and awareness regarding possible recourse from
situations of abuse. The example given alluded to the fact that persons often apply for a
protection order from the police without being informed that if the order does not have a power of
arrest clause, and the police are thus limited to issuing the perpetrator with a mere warning.

Reportedly the police response to instances of domestic violence is notoriously poor. Indeed, one
respondent held that one of the current shortcomings of the protection order is that it is a
document which must ultimately be enforced by human beings who, in many cases, do not take
the violence seriously.

The police are untrained in methods of dealing with reports of domestic violence, such that male
and female victims are often ridiculed when reporting crimes to stations. Yet, as mentioned in the
Overview, stakeholders believed that the effectiveness of law enforcement officials is key in a
coordinated response to domestic violence. It is paramount that police have the ability to move in
and charge perpetrators. From the time the police are called the responsibility should be taken
from the hands of the victim since victims generally have difficulty seeing the situation from an
objective perspective, that is for his/her own safety. The time when the perpetrator is arrested and
released from custody was noted as the time when the risk is highest for the victim to be abused
or killed.

New police recruits should be profiled, and the entire police force should be sensitised to the
seriousness of domestic violence. Perhaps if the legislation were amended to make such violence
a chargeable offense, it would be met with heightened seriousness.

 At present, there are no government safety nets in place to help women who are financially
dependent on abusive husbands. The majority of the effort to house and counsel victims is
currently being undertaken by the women‟s shelter and the crisis hotline, which certain
stakeholders thought commendable but inadequate. Though the Women‟s Club reportedly
receives a subvention from the Government, it must also work to raise funds on its own.
However, it is believed that Government would be unable to run an efficient shelter due to
bureaucracy, and due to the fact that this would likely make public issues which most victims
would want to remain private;

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 29


 There are currently no support programs available for perpetrators; UNIFEM reportedly tried to
develop such a regional program, but the success rate was very low in terms of reforming
behaviours.

There were two schools of thought amongst stakeholders regarding the issue of support
programs for perpetrators: one which argued that they are ineffective since the abused tend to be
deceived that the abusers are reformed once they consent to take the programs, and the other
which suggested that perpetrators can unlearn their violent behaviour if they are subjected to a
minimum of two (2) years probation and made to financially compensate victims. Perpetrators
should also be continuously monitored by counsellors.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 30


ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOs)

Respondents similarly found fault with the adequacy of the collective non-governmental response, for
both the abused and the abusers, as currently constituted in Barbados.

Stakeholders found that the non-governmental response in Barbados currently tends to focus primarily on
crisis management, and hence little time is given to planning any types of comprehensive programs. They
held that it is impossible to address the issue of domestic violence without addressing the micro, mezzo,
and macro levels simultaneously.

However, they maintained that nothing would change as long as there are no laws in place to make it
detrimental for a person to perpetrate abusive forms of behaviour, and perpetrators therefore continue to
see their lifestyle as permissible by law. The State must hold the ability to arrest perpetrators, with
probable cause.

The other major problem with social services in Barbados is the territorial behaviour exhibited between
institutions. According to the group, the relevant providers of social services in Barbados often resist the
prospect of working together; this, in turn, tends to lead to a lack of coordination, hence the persons in
need of support suffer most.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 31


SESSION B: DOMESTIC VIOLENCE SURVIVORS

OVERVIEW

The following report is an assessment of a focus group focusing on domestic violence in Barbados,
conducted by CADRES on behalf of the Bureau of Gender Affairs at the University of the West Indies
Cave Hill Campus on 22 November 2008. The session was intended to probe the general views of
persons who have been victims of domestic violence, and CADRES was able to assemble an audience of
eight (8) female victims in order to probe their views and perceptions of a number of issues relating to the
nature of domestic violence, as it exists in Barbados.

Respondents were invited to answer questions designed to establish a “snapshot” of domestic violence in
Barbados, and also to gain feedback on existing and prospective avenues for development of State and
non-State responses to the issue in the future. For methodological purposes, the types of questions
posed to the group were divided into multiple segments. During the first segment, group members were
invited to express opinions intended to establish a working definition of domestic violence. The
subsequent segments sought to delve more directly into group members‟ perceptions of the root causes
of domestic violence, the mechanics of abuse and possible solutions for the problem.

Generally, there was a high level of consensus in the discussions, with no discernibly strong minority
opinion emerging. The general group response may be described as consistent with the views expressed
by the stakeholders in the previous session, and will thus aid significantly in forming a comprehensive
model of the specifics at play at this time.

Overall, the group seemed to believe that the single most important factor impeding the containment of
domestic violence locally may be the lackadaisical attitude displayed by both the public and law
enforcement officials in particular. They held a generally sceptical view of the adequacy of the current
makeup of the State‟s response to the overall issue of domestic violence, and found that the State‟s
capability to handle the aspect of law enforcement is imperative to efforts to contain and control the
problem in the future.

The following sections will seek to examine group members‟ perspectives in greater detail, in an effort to
build a definition of how and why violence is perpetrated domestically in Barbados, and in a way that
would lend itself to the creation of policies intended to minimise the problem in the future.

It should be noted that, in addition to the focus group session in this instance, CADRES was able to
capture the opinion of two other individuals – a female victim of psychological abuse, and a male who had
been physically abused by a female – in one-on-one interviews, outside of the focus group setting.

These interviews were conducted using the same list of questions as the focus groups, and the findings
of are particularly relevant to this study. This is due to the fact that the female survivor had been a victim
of prolonged psychological (rather than physical) abuse, while the male was the only such survivor whose
views CADRES was able to record. This report will therefore attempt to incorporate their views and
present survivors‟ combined perspective of the violence perpetrated domestically in this country.

The case of the male respondent and that of a female of Trinidadian origin who participated in the focus
group session also provided evidence of the existence of a separate aspect of domestic violence, which
is violence perpetrated within Barbados by and against persons of other nationalities. Indeed, the
Trinidadian woman seemed to have suffered even more than a Barbadian would as a result of
xenophobic discrimination from those in her community, and this is clearly not an isolated case. However,
it is not an area that was probed directly in this study, and would require further analysis to establish the
precise dynamics that exist.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 32


DEFINITIONS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

Traditional

As a preliminary question, group members were read the following classic definition of domestic violence,
and asked to indicate whether they found the definition to be comprehensive enough to cover the
Barbadian context:

“any violence between current and former partners in an intimate relationship wherever
the violence occurs. The violence may include physical, sexual, emotional and financial
abuse.”

The collective response of group members indicated that all of the factors listed in the definition are of
importance; however, they likewise believed that the definition perhaps needed to be extended to refer to
elements of psychological abuse such as:

 Stalking, which is reportedly often overlooked but may have a dramatic effect on the victim. It was
claimed that there are no laws in Barbados that state that stalking is a crime, hence the
harassment may occur anywhere and at anytime and may take a lasting toll on the victim as well
as the victim‟s children, family and friends;

 Denial of entry to the home, by the abuser to the victim, especially in the night-time;

 “Putting out” and “locking out” whereby the abuser forcibly removes the victim from the home and
thereafter denies re-entry; and

 The changing of locks by the abuser on the main points of entry to the home without warning, or
handing over new keys to the victim.

Overall, physical abuse was thought to be the most common form of abuse perpetrated, whereas
financial abuse was acknowledged to exist but seemed to be somewhat less common. One respondent
did acknowledge having experienced financial abuse, as her partner would claim that he had no money,
with the result that the victim would be forced to use all of her financial resources to cover her expenses
and those of the children. He would also make use of the food and household items she bought, thereby
ultimately ensuring complete financial dependence on him.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 33


The Barbadian Context

The group was then asked to comment on domestic violence specifically as it is perpetrated in the
Barbadian context, indicating the key issues that set local circumstances apart from those which obtain in
other countries.

Group members seemed to be most familiar with the state of affairs that exists in neighbouring Trinidad
and Tobago, and their knowledge of the situation there would cause them to be of the opinion that it is
relatively similar to the Barbadian context. Yet at least one respondent suggested that the incidence of
domestic violence in Barbados seems to be escalating with the passage of time, and further suggested
that the types of physical abuse perpetrated have been growing to be more severe, offering the example
of reports of stabbings and arson as supporting evidence. She believed these developments to be
perhaps attributable to foreign behaviours learned overseas by returning nationals who re-enter Barbados
with “a criminal mind”.

The Trinidadian respondent affirmed that the violence perpetrated in Trinidad and Tobago tends to be
more harsh than in Barbados, but argued that the attitude of Barbadian bystanders is more callous than
that of Trinidadians, as the collective cultural attitude here is one which prefers to cast a blind eye
towards the problems of others. She complained that neither her priest, the authorities, nor the people in
her community had done anything to help her to escape from her situation of abuse; those of her
community were willing to discuss the problem only outside of her presence, saying that she is not
Barbadian and ought to return to her country of origin, as if she was in some way deserving of the
treatment she was receiving by virtue of being a non-national.

She also claimed that the situation is worse here than in Trinidad and Tobago because local victims often
make an attempt to hide the bruises, which makes the problem more difficult to detect and address here
than in other places.

There are supposedly other preconceptions that Barbadians have that complicate the issue, such as a
disinclination to believe that a churchgoer would be capable of perpetrating violence.

Another respondent actually believed levels of abuse in Barbados to be comparable with the situation in
North America, with the main difference being the fact that the laws in North America allow the police to
arrest and remove the perpetrator from the household, whereas Barbadian victims are left to fend for
themselves.

The entire group suggested that the local police are there in theory to protect and serve but in reality offer
little protection at present, and need to be sensitised to the issue on the whole. Group members who had
reported incidents of domestic violence to the police claimed to have received an uneven response, with
some police officers taking the situation seriously, while some use it as an opportunity to try to make
advances towards the women, and others tire quickly of responding to repeated calls from the same
victim. The latter type of officers was said to allow reports of violence to languish without action for
several days in some cases.

Solo female survivor: The female who was interviewed individually believed Barbados to be above-
average in terms of the frequency with which domestic violence occurs, and based this opinion on reports
in the visual and print media. She considered one of the main reasons for the above-average frequency
to be the fact that victims in Barbados lack a representative body intended solely to lobby on their behalf.
Another possible reason, she believed, is ignorance amongst Barbadians of the types of behaviour which
constitute abuse. Hence less attention may be paid to other aspects of abuse, such as the psychological
aspect, that are arguably just as dangerous as physical abuse. Hence many Barbadians may be unaware
that they are being abused in instances where physical violence is not a factor.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 34


MECHANICS OF ABUSE

Domestic abuse in Barbados, according to the respondents, is perpetrated in most cases with the hand
as the primary means of inflicting pain and injury. However, respondents had also known weapons such
as tennis rackets, cutlasses, home appliances, and stones to be used, and two (2) of the women had
even sustained gunshots.

One woman experienced a combination of physical and psychological abuse, as she was an asthmatic
whose husband had started to smoke with the intention of triggering her asthma. Her husband had also
thrown her clothes outside at some point removed all of the curtains from the windows of the house, thus
exposing the interior of the house to passers-by.

Solo female survivor: She had suffered primarily from aspects of psychological abuse, but her abuser
had also used poisonous chemicals in his attempts to control her.

Male survivor: His abuser used weapons and a combination of physical and verbal abuse to intimidate
him. She had also stolen money from him on at least one occasion.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 35


GENDER DIFFERENCES

In an effort to probe any gender differences that may exist locally in terms of the frequency with which
violence is perpetrated against either of the sexes, CADRES posed a direct question asking group
members their perception of whether violence is more frequently perpetrated against men or women in
Barbados.

Perhaps unsurprisingly, respondents were of the collective opinion that violence is perpetrated more
frequently against women in Barbados. They argued that even if the levels of abuse suffered by both
sexes are equal, then the men need to come forward so that more statistics may be collected. They
believed that male victims generally avoid going public for reasons that are ego-driven, and avoid
reporting being beaten by a wife or girlfriend for fear of ridicule.

Male survivor: In response to the same question, the lone male survivor indicated a belief that the two
sexes are subjected to abuse in equal measures, with the main difference being that male victims are far
less likely to articulate their suffering outside of their most private settings.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 36


EFFECTS ON CHILDREN

Respondents were asked to identify the ways in which domestic violence perpetrated between adults has
been known to have a negative impact on children, and the responses are listed below:

 Significant decreases in the quality of schoolwork;


 Fighting at school;
 Shortened attention spans;
 Frequent crying;
 Eating disorders, eating either too much or too little;
 Constant anxiety and fearfulness of hypothetical situations such as losing a parent to an act of
violence;
 Sudden fear of being in dark places

 One woman‟s son, at a younger stage, would hit back when she spanked or scolded him. He also
tended to be insubordinate, and would seek solace with his father when scolded by his mother.
Now he has grown to be more protective of his mother than aggressive, not wanting anyone to
come into close contact with her.

 Another woman had been summoned to her daughter‟s school on numerous occasions, on
account of “unusual behaviour”: aggressive behaviour, zero schoolwork and most notably,
completely unfeminine behaviour. The daughter explained that no man is ever to hit or beat her,
as she witnessed this happen to her mother.

 One woman‟s son became withdrawn at school, and tends to become very aggressive regarding
the most frivolous matters. He has taken on the role of his mother‟s protector and frequently
enquires where his mother is going, with whom, and the time she expects to return.

Solo female survivor: The individual female respondent claimed to know of two (2) cases of children
who were abused, and have both now grown to be aggressive and rebellious as teenagers.

Male survivor: The male respondent claimed that his female abuser verbally abused him in front of his
child, and then turned to verbally abusing the child directly. The child responded with threats of violence
so it seems as though this may make him aggressive in later life.

Overall, respondents argued that though they may try to help their children, a history of domestic violence
leaves a “scar” on the lives of children that can‟t be healed, such that the unusual behaviours displayed
immediately following periods of abuse have the potential to surface at anytime.

As a natural follow-on from the previous question, CADRES sought to gain a greater understanding of the
Barbadian definition of domestic violence by probing the possible existence of several social
denominators and/or learned behaviours that may potentially predispose certain individuals to a lifestyle
of violence during adulthood.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 37


ROLE OF FAMILY BACKGROUND

Respondents were first asked to indicate if they were aware whether their abusers had any relatives who
were also abusive, in an effort to identify the possible impact of family history on the probability that a
given individual may grow to be violent in adult life.

There was a generally affirmative response to this question; it was revealed that one woman‟s child‟s
father had a father who would beat his mother, and also had several brothers who had grown to be
abusive. She attributed this phenomenon to behaviour which they had witnessed growing up.

Another woman claimed that her husband had a father who was abusive of his family.

Solo female survivor: She had been able to learn from her abuser‟s family members that his mother
died and his father abandoned him when he was four years old. He was then raised by his grandmother
and reportedly never felt the need to contribute financially to the household where he lived previously.

Male survivor: He claimed that his female abuser had an abusive father who eventually abandoned the
mother and children. He suggested that this had perhaps had an influence on her view of her role as a
female in family life. She, like her mother, eventually left her home country of Guyana and came to
Barbados to live.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 38


ROLE OF RACIAL BACKGROUND

Respondents were asked to indicate whether they believed abuse to more prevalent amongst members
of certain races than others, in an effort to identify the possible impact that race might have on the
probability that an individual may grow to be violent in adult life.

Group members all agreed that this type of violence features amongst all races, and did not believe racial
background to be a factor in the likelihood that a person may become abusive as an adult. They were,
however, of the opinion that black female victims tend to be more vocal and thus more likely than to
speak out about the abuse being suffered, whereas their counterparts of other racial origins might be
more concerned about social appearances, and more content to try to mask their suffering from the public
as a result.

The lone Trinidadian respondent believed the issue to be one of racial cultures: she believed that east
Indians would be least likely to speak out about abuse, as they observe this type of behaviour in their
community as children before experiencing it again in the marital home.

Male survivor: He believed domestic violence to more prevalent amongst Blacks than other races, as a
result of an overall lack of education. He believed that Blacks are more likely than other races to act
without taking the time to think.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 39


ROLE OF ECONOMIC BACKGROUND

Lastly, respondents were asked to indicate whether they believed abuse to be more prevalent amongst
the poor than the rich, in an effort to identify the possible impact of economic factors on the probability
that a given individual may grow to be violent in adult life.

Group members and individual respondents alike agreed that financial background is not a contributing
factor in the likelihood that a given individual may grow to be violent. They believed that domestic
violence cuts across social classes, with the difference being that the rich have social hang-ups, and the
option of having their injuries covered up by private physicians. They also have the wherewithal to afford
legal fees for a divorce, and to survive independently.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 40


POSSIBLE CAUSES OF ABUSE

CADRES sought to label some of the perpetrators‟ possible motives for resorting to domestic violence,
and the group‟s submissions are itemised below:

 In order for the male to control the female in instances in which the female is a no-nonsense
individual prone to contradicting the male, or taking issue with him for seeming infidelity;

 In order for the male to control and maintain power over the female in instances in which the
female is determined to stand her ground verbally and physically;

 In order for the male to assuage his insecurities concerning the female‟s capacity to command a
greater salary than he does, or to be unfaithful. Such males supposedly fear the prospect that the
female will build a social circle which functions independently, and ultimately gain knowledge
through her work and colleagues;

 In order for the male to maintain control over the female, on account of the male‟s lack of self
esteem;

 In order for the male to assuage his insecurities concerning sibling rivalries. This was suggested
by one woman had been abused by her brother but had no explanation for the reason why he
abused her, and not her two sisters;

 In submission to pressure from family;

 In submission to peer pressure. One abuser was described as merely doing what he observed his
friends doing and repeating their behaviour;

 As a result of excessive alcohol consumption; and

 The influence of friends and family – one woman revealed that members of her abuser‟s family
would spy on her, and keep track of the places that she went.

Solo female survivor: She believed that Barbadian males are typically flashy and like to make a public
display of financial wherewithal, sporting jewellery and expensive clothing rather than investing in long
term objectives that engender security. This may inevitably lead to feelings of jealousy when the female in
a relationship is seen to be pursuing personal goals which cause feelings inferiority.

In her case, her abuser (before becoming abusive) seemed to want and need to be mothered, which she
did not see as her responsibility. She earned more than he did, yet he seemed to embrace this fact
boasting that he had always been fortunate to find women (partners) whom he could depend on
financially, so that he did not need to contribute.

This is possibly a feature of the male-to-female abusive relationship: males who never outgrow the need
to feel mothered by the females in their lives experience feelings of intimidation, inferiority and insecurity
as they observe their female partners strive to better themselves. For these males, the only obvious way
to maintain the power imbalance to which they are accustomed is to impose themselves on their partners
through abuse.

Male survivor: His abusive situation likely arose as a consequence of immigration issues, in conjunction
with family history and a lack of education. His abuser was supposedly socialised to lie, cheat and steal
and in turn has grown to distrust those around her.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 41


FREQUENCY OF ABUSE

In an effort to establish the continuity of typical cases of domestic violence in Barbados, CADRES invited
group members to specify the periods of time their respective periods of abuse had been allowed to
continue.

Judging from the group response then, cases of abuse in Barbados seem to be more likely to be
continuous rather than isolated incidents; most of the women had experienced abuse for periods
stretching from three (3) to five (5) years. One woman stated that her situation was allowed to continue
because of her female desire for the security of a long-term relationship. Hence, not knowing much about
domestic violence at that time, she kept returning to the abuse. Another woman‟s period of abuse was
perpetuated by the fact that her partner/abuser was aware that she had a very strained relationship with
her family, hence returning to live in her family‟s home was not a viable option for her. This gave him
leverage over her and allowed him to act as he pleased.

Solo female survivor: She had been subject to abuse from April 2007 to the time of research, and this
abuse became more intense when she became involved with another man.

Male survivor: His abuse had been on-going for four years, and had grown progressively more intense
with the passage of time. The abuse is often verbal, with threats made on his life

Members of the group also shared the view that domestic violence is on the increase in Barbados. They
believed the perpetrators to be growing to be more “technical” in their approach to abusing victims; one
respondent assessed abuse in the past as limited primarily to straightforward physical abuse, whereas
recent years have seen perpetrators employing all kinds of mental and psychological abuse such as
stalking, ensuring they know their victim‟s every move, and generally devising plans and making sure that
the plans will be executed effectively. Yet she considered the national response to have remained at the
same level as always, while the victims suffer increasingly. By now she believed that the legislation
should at the very least reflect that if a person is being abused, the situation needs to be addressed
before that person‟s life becomes threatened.

Solo female survivor: She was of the firm opinion that domestic violence is on the increase in Barbados,
mainly due to the fact that the law does not act as a deterrent for perpetrators, as cases are generally not
addressed unless they become fatal. The police always say that they need proof, yet in most cases it is
difficult to produce irrefutable evidence of abuse.

Male survivor: He likewise considered domestic violence to be on the increase, and believed that males
are abused constantly but do not report the cases.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 42


ROLE OF GOVERNMENT

Respondents found fault generally with the adequacy of state responses as currently constituted, and
believed that stiffer legislation is necessary to meet the changing dynamics of the Barbadian context of
domestic violence.

In sum, the group did not find that the issue of domestic violence has been given the requisite attention by
the State, and believed that it is the government‟s responsibility to enact the necessary legislation and
then, more importantly, ensure that the police understand and enforce that legislation.

The specifics of their arguments are listed below:

 There was consensus that perpetrators tend to familiarise themselves with the loopholes existing
in the local laws and tailor their behaviour to suit. It was argued that perpetrators are often highly
educated and knowledgeable individuals; one woman‟s abuser was actually an island constable,
and so he was familiar with the laws and what could and could not be done legally.

In Barbados once the perpetrator keeps behaviour within the law, or knows persons who work in
law enforcement, the victim suffers more. Law enforcement personnel do not think of what they
can do to prevent incidence of domestic violence, and instead are usually more concerned with
the action and excitement created by a potential bust than the need to address the issue from a
law enforcement standpoint;

 Group members took issue with the level of confidentiality in Barbados stating that they could
understand why wealthy victims prefer to seek private means of medical treatment, since
domestic issues become open to the public eye in the hospital here. The women were of the
opinion that male/female victims admitted to the hospital to deal with injuries inflicted by abuse
should receive a different type of treatment. At present, personal information is recorded and
displayed for all patients of the hospital, this should never be the case whereas for victims of
domestic violence.

One woman‟s abuser actually accompanied her to the hospital, and refused to leave when the
doctor asked to speak with her privately. Nor did security personnel intervene; the woman
believed that this scenario should have been dealt with by the police, such that the abuser would
have been removed from the situation instead of having the opportunity to interfere. Until such
time, the situation at the hospital will continue to make it possible for the abuser to cause further
damage.

 The attitude of indifference amongst the police seems to be the same regardless of the gender of
the officer. The Trinidadian respondent complained that her daughter, also being abused by her
husband, was referred by one of the polyclinics to the police doctor. A comprehensive series of
tests was taken in December of last year yet the female officer who accompanied her to the
doctor never submitted the specimens taken from the tests, so that no action had been taken up
to the time of research.

 The Trinidadian respondent referred the existence of “Clause 4” in Trinidad which gives victims of
domestic violence more protection than the protection orders issued in Barbados.

On the whole, women are better sensitised than they used to be regarding matters such as protection
orders and arrest clauses, yet domestic violence was believed to be on the increase. This was argued to
be due to the apathy and/or disinterest of the authorities. It was believed that many cases of abuse could
potentially serve as a learning experience for police officers, but their collective lack of sensitisation and
training inhibit them from responding in the most effective manner. In other cases, the problem is that the
police officers themselves are abusers within their home setting.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 43


Solo female survivor: In instances that she appealed to the police there was often nothing they could do
to help because of the nature of the local laws, and the officers in question seemed to grow tired of
responding repeatedly to her reports. She also appealed to a magistrate, but he never seemed to take the
case seriously, and seemed to be unsure of whether or not he ought to give her story credence.

She applied for and was eventually issued with a protection order, but this was of no help to her since she
owned the house where she lived and was seeking to have her male abuser removed.

Male survivor: He generally approached the police (rather than having them come to him) and they
advised him to get a divorce. He claimed that the police had been doing nothing to help his case, as his
abuser knew many of police officers personally, and they thus tended to side with her. Supposedly she
became involved with a police officer following one of her trips to the station to respond to a report of
abuse.

Even so, the respondent contended that male victims are currently likely to receive even worse treatment
than females at the police stations of Barbados, since the general attitude of police officers is one that
finds the idea of a woman beating a man ridiculous, and suggests retaliating with blows to subdue her.

The respondent claimed that he had attempted to speak directly with a magistrate but the magistrate was
largely inaccessible, and informed him that rather than speak directly, he would have to communicate
through his lawyer. The magistrate eventually advised him to reconcile with his abuser and referred them
to a counsellor, but his abuser then lied to the counsellor.

The male victim further claimed that his futile attempts for a solution had given him feelings of
helplessness and desperation, and in turn had increased the likelihood that he would eventually resort to
violence in order to contend with his abuser.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 44


ROLE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOs)

Respondents similarly found fault with the adequacy of the collective non-governmental response for both
the abused, as currently constituted in Barbados.

The work being done by the crisis centre of the Business and Professional Women‟s Club was described
as commendable, yet this seemed to be the only NGO that the women were familiar with that could offer
any viable support.

However, one respondent revealed that the first person to reach out to her was a representative of the
Victim Support Unit, during the respondent‟s time recuperating from the injuries inflicted by her abuser, in
hospital. It was through this contact that she learned of the women‟s shelter, which in turn educated her
on the details of domestic violence. She nonetheless thought greater coordination was necessary
between the hospital and NGO‟s offering counselling services.

Solo female survivor: She had been in contact with the crisis centre, but she was opposed to being
admitted to a shelter, since she owned the house where the abuse was taking place.

She did not believe there to be any local NGOs currently in existence that could help her to address her
specific needs, and she also found that there needs to be an organization with the capacity to lobby on
the behalf of Barbadian women. Her response signalled an indication that the shelter is a facility designed
to protect women moreso from physical, rather than other forms, of abuse. The shelter perhaps does not
provide for special, in-between cases such as hers, which could be argued to be equally dangerous as
others.

Male survivor: He was aware of the existence Men's Educational Support Association (MESA) but did
not seem to have much of an idea of how specifically MESA could help him in his situation. He seemed to
be clearly in a state of frustration and desperation, and was hoping to see Ralph Boyce before he would
be willing to pronounce on any possible outcomes. Fundamentally, he also seemed to be in search of an
NGO that could act as mediator between himself and the police, lobby on his behalf and effect action
which he would not be able to achieve as an individual.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 45


SECTION THREE

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH ON DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN BARBADOS


SUMMARY JUDGEMENT

The report that follows presents data collected during the months of February and March of 2009 on
behalf of the Bureau of Gender Affairs in the Ministry of Youth, Family and Sports in pursuit of its focus on
domestic violence. CADRES was commissioned to execute this survey which sought to highlight the
demographic and sociological characteristics of perpetrators and persons vulnerable to domestic
violence.

The prevalence of domestic violence was assessed through an estimation method which relied on
informants, 27% of whom were aware of at least one incidence of domestic violence. The demographic
characteristics that were isolated demonstrated that victims/survivors were predominately mature, black,
Barbadian females, of working class economic backgrounds. It would appear as though violence is most
prevalent in St. Michael, which is not surprising since this is the most populous parish, however it is
interesting that St. James is the next highest, followed by St. Peter and Christ Church (in fourth place).

These data speak to pattern of occurrence and note that domestic violence most frequently occurs on a
monthly basis, with striking with an implement as being the most common form of abuse. The most
frequent configuration was between a man and woman with the man as the most frequent abuser. In
most cases domestic violence resulted in injury of some sort and in many cases, injuries were visible.
Although domestic abuse is mostly physical, data suggested that psychological complications often
emerged. Almost 40% of the victims/survivors interviewed were psychologically affected by the incidence
of domestic violence and 52% were emotionally troubled. Of these persons 51% did not seek or receive
psychological treatment; however the survey could not speak to the psychological impact of children and
other persons living within the household because in many cases children were indirectly affected by
instances of domestic violence.

The survey also concluded that the abusers were usually older than the victims/survivors and were mostly
employed, working class, mature males of African descent, which is consistent with the racial profile of
Barbados. Finally CADRES investigated institutional reaction as it pertains to the domestic violence.
Institutions such as crisis centres, churches, legal aid and the Welfare Department were examined and in
all instances these institutions were NOT sought by victims/survivors of domestic violence. As it pertains
to the police, in most instances the police were not called; however when they were called a full report
was made most of the time. Data also showed that investigations were stopped by the victim/survivor
31% of the time. The issues presented above are further extrapolated throughout this report.
METHODOLOGY AND LIMITATIONS

The methodology employed in this study was complex, largely because the study was seminal and also
due to the covert nature of the issue under study. Since the study attempted to estimate the prevalence
of Domestic Violence in Barbados the ideal approach would have been to ask a national sample of
persons if they had experienced such violence in the past year and if so, to give our interviewers details
about their experiences. Needless to say, this was not an option for two key reasons:

a) We presumed that respondents would not be honest at first instance with interviewers regardless
of how professional these interviewers were;
b) If respondents confessed to such experiences neither the research team nor the Bureau of
Gender Affairs believed that they were equipped to provide the necessary emotional support to
address the respondent‟s crisis.

The alternative that CADRES proposed was a study that exploited the knowledge of “informants” who
interviewers would ask to speak about a specific incident that they were familiar with, but have not
experienced personally. Interviewers were instructed that a “respondent” for the purposes of this study
could be any adult that was rational and cooperative, but there should be no presumption that every
person who was cooperative would necessarily be in a position to give information on an incident of
Domestic Violence. It should also be noted that CADRES did not solicit information on either the identity
of the informant or the victim/survivor of domestic violence.

Although compensation issues are not normally referred to in methodological reports, in this instance it is
important to note that the interviewers compensation package was designed to ensure that these persons
employed to execute the project would NOT have had a vested interest in the production of instances of
abuse which were “less than certain”. Hence interviewers were compensated for:

a) Each day spent in the field;


b) Each cooperative respondent; and
c) Each cooperative respondent that conveyed “useful” data.

Interviewers were supplied with a working definition of “Domestic Violence” for the purposes of this
exercise, which was:

“any violence between current and or former partners in an intimate or familial relationship
wherever the violence occurs. The violence may include physical, sexual and or emotional
abuse.”

Interviewers were instructed to go on the assumption that respondents knew for themselves what such
violence was as far as possible, however in the instance that they were unsure, the respondent was to
explain the type of situation to the interviewer who would determine the applicability of their incident to the
study.

The selection of households for the conduct of interviews was done in random fashion without bias with
respect to the type of house, race or any other factor. Interviewers were assigned areas that
corresponded to randomly selected Polling Divisions which are almost equal regions within the 30
national constituencies which are also almost equal. Interviewers were instructed to approach a single
individual in every third house and where that person was not willing to cooperate, to approach someone
at the house next door, until they achieved a successful interview (a cooperative person who may or may
not have known of an incident of abuse).

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 48


The methodology identifies three types of respondents that were labelled for the operational purposes.
An initial screener was administered to each cooperative respondent that would determine how he/she
would be treated for the purposes of this survey:

Category A: The Respondent who does not want to speak to you;


Category B: The Respondent who speaks willingly, but says s/he does not know of any case
of Domestic Violence;
Category C: The Respondent who says s/he knows of a case of Domestic Violence well
enough to speak about it, but won‟t;
Category D: The Respondent who knows of a case, consents to an interview, but is deemed
to be unworthy since s/he cannot satisfy all the conditions of the screener;
Category E: The Respondent who knows of a case, consents to an interview and satisfies the
conditions of the screener.

Accordingly, information was solicited from respondents in categories “A,” “B,” “C” and “D,” based on a
“Screener” a copy of which is presented in Appendix V. Consistent with that document, information was
collected on “Document 1” (Appendix III).

Respondents who satisfied ALL of the criteria associated with “Document 1” were classified as worthy
respondents and the full Questionnaire (Appendix IV) was administered to them. The screener was
designed to determine if the respondent was a worthy respondent based on their familiarity with the
incident and where they did not appear to know the basic information requested of them in the screener
the respondent was deemed unworthy, the respondent thanked and the exercise discontinued.

The final methodological issue that is explored relates to the possibility of duplicate cases within the
sample which is always a possibility with an informant study. Since persons are informing on cases that
they are familiar with it is entirely possible that more than one person will report on the same incident and
this would inflate the quantity of incidents of domestic violence identified here. To counteract this problem,
the data was sorted and potential duplicates were identified based on similar outcomes regarding:

I. Type of Violence Reported;


II. Type of Action involved in Violence;
III. Injury to Victim/Survivor;
IV. Victim‟s honesty with Health Care Provider;
V. Sex/Gender of the Abuser;
VI. Race of the Abuser;
VII. Abuser‟s Employment Status;
VIII. Abuser‟s Nationality;
IX. Sex/Gender of the Victim/Survivor;
X. Race of the Victim;
XI. Employment Status of the Victim;
XII. Victim/Survivor‟s Nationality/Status.

Table 02 presents the results of the process described above which identified 59 duplicate cases or 2.1%
of the sample and these cases were deleted from the data set used for analysis.

Table 02: Indicator of Each Last Matching Case as Primary


Frequency Percent
Duplicate Case 59 2.1
Primary Case 2769 97.9
Total 2828 100
The analysis that follows exploited two distinct data sets and the first of these was the entire national
sample that included all respondents who were cooperative, but might not necessarily had known of an

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 49


incident of domestic violence. Once duplicate incidents were eliminated from this data, these data
generated prevalence estimates; however, all subsequent analysis was conducted using the dataset that
included all instances of domestic violence and excluded respondents who did not provide information on
a specific case.

This approach makes it considerably easier to establish correlations in the data since any uneven
distribution identified in relation to any characteristic that is isolated in the analysis automatically reflects a
“bias” that indicates this characteristic is more or less likely to predispose the victim/survivor or abuser. In
some cases these correlations are obvious, such as the fact that the vast majority of victims/survivors are
Afro Barbadian women who are abused by Afro Barbadian men and in these cases subsequent analysis
does not refer to this peculiarity repeatedly. Moreover in several instances there were no deviations that
appeared to be statistically significant and in such cases the analysis is superficial. The reader can
therefore assume that this report presents cross tabulated data in instances where the peculiarity
identified either debunks a commonly held perception or presents an interesting dimension. Similarly, in
instances where the analysis speaks exclusively to the national sample the reader can assume that this
implies the absence of any correlations with any of the characteristics isolated in this instance.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 50


PREVALENCE AND DEMOGRAPHICS

Prevalence

The prevalence of domestic violence is an estimation that arises from the national sample and in this
instance every effort was made to ensure that the selection of informants was as systematic and
representative as possible. Informants were randomly selected and could arguably have had an equal
opportunity to be both selected and to inform on cases of domestic violence known to them.

The intention was to produce a statistic which speaks to the prevalence of domestic violence nationally;
however this type of estimation is notoriously difficult in situations where one cannot interview the
victim/survivor. The statistic that emerges is proximate to the prevalence of domestic violence but
under no circumstances should this proximity be interpreted to suggest that the statistic
presented in Figure 02 is itself the prevalence of domestic violence in Barbados.

Respondents Who Knew of (Seperate)


Incidence of Abuse
Yes
27%
No
73%

Figure 2: Respondents who knew of (Separate) Incidence of Abuse

Figure 02 demonstrates that 27% of Barbadians knew of at least one incident of abuse and since we
have already eliminated the duplicate cases, then we can assume that each of these incidents is a
separate case and this statistic directly informs the level of abuse taking place in Barbados (in the year
preceding the interview). The actual prevalence of domestic violence would be directly related to this
statistic which speaks to reported abuse and would most likely be slightly higher since we can assume
that not all violence would be reported to someone. This implies that domestic violence has taken place
in more than 27% of Barbadian households.

Demographics

The demographic profile of persons who were victims/survivors of domestic violence is drawn not from
the entire national sample as was the case with the prevalence data, but from the actual data that speaks
to the individual cases and conveys a comprehensive understanding of who the victim/survivor is and
which persons are more likely to be subjected to domestic violence.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 51


It is, however, important to note that before the “active” sample was selected, the entire national sample
was tested against the actual incidence of domestic violence using the chi square test to establish the
existence of a relationship with demographic variables, or simply put, an attempt was made to determine
the extent to which each demographic variable impacted on the likelihood that a person in Barbados
would become a victim of domestic violence. These tests were all conclusive to the extent that they
demonstrated that all key demographic variables impacted on the likelihood that a person would be a
victim of domestic violence; however several of these correlations are logical. The analysis that follows,
therefore, seeks to identify the key demographics that impact on domestic violence in a way that would
NOT be expected.

Figure 03 consolidates this data and presents the four key demographic characteristics. Respondents
were asked their exact age and this information was re-coded for the purposes of this report, into groups
representing:

a) Children: 0-12
b) Teenagers: 13-19
c) Young Adults: 20-29
d) Mature Adults: 30-50
e) Seniors: 50 Plus

These age groups appear to have some amount of significance as it relates to the issues of domestic
violence, while the other demographic characteristics were presented “as is” since these were already
logical categories around which an analysis could be arranged.

Demographic Trends
91%
83% 82%

59%

30% 27%
12% 14%
4% 6% 9%
2% 2% 2% 0% 3%
Asian/Indo
Anglo/White

Born in Barbados
Seniors (51 Plus)

Male

Mixed
Children (0 - 12)

Sino/Chinese

Living here Ilegally


Afro/Black

Barbados (Reported)
Mature (30 - 50)

Female

Living here Legally


Young Adults (20 - 29)
Teenagers (13-19)

Age Sex Race Nationality/status All


Figure 3: Demographic Trends

Figure 03 demonstrates that most of the victims/survivors of domestic violence were between 20 and 50,
with the majority being in the age range 30-50. Although this is perhaps not surprising, it is noteworthy
that 2% of the victims/survivors of domestic violence are children, with 4% being teenagers and 6% being
seniors. It might be reassuring that incidents are quite low in these age groups, but the very existence of
this type of violence in these very young and very old groups is somewhat disturbing.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 52


The vast majority of victims/survivors of domestic violence were women, with 9% being men and this
finding should help to confirm the existence of male victims/survivors, even though these quantities are
considerably smaller than the female incidents.

The finding that 83% of the victims/survivors are Afro Barbadian is directly related to fact that the
population of Barbados is about 95% Afro Barbadian and in no way can it be suggested that there is any
correlation between race and the likelihood that the individual is likely to become a victim/survivor of
domestic violence.

The final major demographic group identified is that of nationality and in this instance the victim/survivor
was identified as either Barbadian born, living here legally or illegally based on the knowledge of the
respondent. This helps to separate those who “recently” acquired Barbadian status; however it is difficult
to compare that statistic to the actual number of naturalised Barbadians here at present since this data is
normally compiled by the authorities on a periodic basis. One CADRES poll in October 2006 did,
however identify 21% of a national sample as “naturalised Barbadians” and this would imply that
CADRES has estimated a slightly lower quantity of naturalised Barbadians (14%) who have been abused.
It is, however considerably more difficult to determine the extent to which illegal immigrants are more
vulnerable to abuse since there is no official or unofficial estimate that speaks to the percentage of
persons residing in Barbados that are here illegally.

Employment Status

Respondents were asked about their employment status and this information is presented in Figure 4 and
demonstrates the emergence of peculiar trends regarding the impact of employment status on domestic
violence. It would appear as though employed persons are more likely to be victims/survivors, which is
consistent with the fact that most of those persons are within the age range that is likely to be employed.
It is also not surprising that comparatively lower levels of abuse exist among retired persons and
students; however the level of abuse among housewives and househusbands as well as the unemployed
is, however, noteworthy. The chi square test used cannot discriminate in a way that would allow us to
exclude the large number of working persons from the analysis, however the quantities of persons
identified in the housewife/husband and unemployed categories appear to be striking and suggests that
persons in these categories are more likely to become victims of domestic violence.

Employment Status
26% 27%

17% 19%
16%
9%
5% 5%
1%
Student

Retired
Employed part-time

Employed part-time

Unemployed
Employed full-time

Employed full-time

House-wife/husband

Barbados (Reported)
(Private Sector)

(Private Sector)
(Public Sector)

(Public Sector)

Figure 4: Employment Status

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 53


Summarily the demographic profile can be said to confirm the belief that mature, Afro Barbadian women
who are employed are the most likely to become victims of domestic violence, however these data also
demonstrate that other categories of persons are also more vulnerable and these are the unemployed,
housewives and househusbands. In this regard it is highly likely that the extent to which these persons
are economically dependent is a factor that determines their vulnerability.

Socio-Economic Status

Victim/Survivor's Socio Economic


Upper Background
Class/Higher
Socio-Economic
Group
4%
Working
Class/Lower
Socio-Economic
Middle
Group
Class/Middle
66%
Socio-Economic
Group
30%

Figure 5: Victim/Survivor's Socio Economic Background

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 54


Informant Details

The nature of the relationship between the informants and the persons that were abused is presented in
Figure 06 and this would be of considerable interest since it establishes the type of person that abused
persons are most likely to confide in. In this instance, the abused persons were most inclined to speak to
friends about this abuse, while family members were the second most popular person to confide in.
Similar quantities of persons discussed their abuse with acquaintance, work colleagues and neighbours.

Informant Details
42%

25%

9% 9% 10%

Neighbour
friend/Acquaintance
Friend
Family member

Work colleague
Friend of a

Figure 6: Informant Details

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 55


LOCATION OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

Cumulative data relating to the parish that the victim/survivor lives in is presented in Figure 7 and is
interesting if one assumes that the second most populous parish in Barbados is Christ Church. Assuming
that this is the case, the fact that both St. James and St. Peter have more reported incidents speaks
volumes about the extent to which those locations are more likely to be the venues for domestic violence.
The survey also generated some amount of data on the exact location of the interviews which is
voluminous and presented in Appendix VII, however this could have little impact on the location of the
actual incident of violence since Barbados is a densely populated country where people move easily
among parishes.

Parish Location of Abuse


45%

16%
12%
8%
4% 6%
1% 1% 2% 3% 3%
St. Lucy

St. Philip

Christ Church
St. John

St. Peter
St. Thomas
St. Andrew

St. George

St. Michael
St. Joseph

St. James
Figure 7: Parish Location

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 56


NATURE OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

Type of violence

The actual type of


Type of Violence violence that was
reported on is
analysed in Figure 08
86% and confirms the
belief that “Man on
Woman” violence is
most popular in
Barbados since 86%
of the cases reported
on were of this type.

1% 3% 4% 1% 4%

Man on Man Man on Woman on Woman on Child on Adult on


Woman Woman Man Adult Child
Figure 8: Type of
Violence

Although it would appear as though there is one major type of Domestic Violence, the survey is also
useful in that it demonstrated the fact that other types of violence do occur and the comparative levels of
these other types. In this regard, woman on man violence is estimated to be in the region of 4%, which
the same as adult on child violence. It is also interesting to note that the survey identified incidences of
violence within the “gay” and “lesbian” community and in this regard lesbians appeared to be more
inclined to violence.

Table 03: Type of Domestic Violence


Man Man Woman Woman Child Adult
on on on on on on
Man Woman Woman Man Adult Child
Children 35%
Teenagers 2% 4% 45%
Age Group
Of Young Adults 30% 31% 33% 15% 20% 10%
Victim/Survivor Mature 60% 61% 46% 70% 80% 3%
Seniors 10% 5% 17% 15% 7%
Sex/Gender Male 100% 100% 20% 48%
Of
Female 100% 100% 80% 52%
Victim/Survivor

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 57


Table 03 presents information relating to the type of domestic violence and the age group that such
violence impacts on. It can be seen that the most popular type of violence (man on woman) takes place
“against” young adults and mature persons, which is consistent with the types of scenarios that present
themselves in most other age categories, with the exception of abuse involving children where the data is
obviously skewed in that direction. It is also interesting to note that “child on adult” violence cases are
more inclined to present the female as a victim, while both boys and girls are equally vulnerable to “adult
on child violence”.

Actions Involved in Abuse

Actions Involved in Abuse


55%
49%
46%
40% 41%
37%
30%
23%
19% 17%
15%
12%
Sometimes

Sometimes

Sometimes

Sometimes

Sometimes

Sometimes
Yes (always)

Yes (always)

Yes (always)

Yes (always)

Yes (always)

Yes (always)
Striking with Striking with Playing Deprivation of Penetrative Non-Penetrative
hand (alone) implement games/tricks on food/money to Sexual Abuse Sexual Abuse
the victim buy food

Figure 9: Actions Involved in Abuse

The different configurations of domestic violence were pursued in Figure 9 which drew heavily on the data
collected in the qualitative component of this research exercise. In this instance, respondents were
presented with possible options and encouraged to tell interviewers if (to the best of their knowledge)
these different activities were involved in domestic violence “sometimes” “always” or “never”. In the
interest of simplicity, the data relating to “never” was eliminated so the activities most popular can be
clearly seen.

Striking with the hand alone was virtually always present, while the use of implements appeared less
popular and was “sometimes” resorted to in 55% of cases. Less popular activities included playing of
games/tricks, deprivation of food/money and sexual abuse of the penetrative and non-penetrative
varieties. In these instances, it can be seen that the particular activity is almost always “occasional”.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 58


Retaliation

Figure 10 speaks to
Retaliation the likelihood that the
victim/survivor will
48% retaliate and here an
attempt was made to
establish the
43% likelihood that the
43%
victim would retaliate
40% and if a fight would
ensue (separately).

Victim normally Victim does not Abuse is not Abuse is generally


resists/retaliates normally followed by a fight followed by a fight
resist/retaliate

Retaliation Fighting ensues


Figure 10: Retaliation

The comparison of retaliation to non-retaliation suggests that there is almost a 50/50 chance that persons
will retaliate and the same can be said for fighting which was equally likely to happen or not happen and
this analysis is further enhanced by reference to Figure 11 which speaks to the impact of gender on
fighting and suggests that in the instances where the victim/survivor is a man, the abuse is less likely to
be followed by a fight and correspondingly where the victim/survivor is a woman there is a 50/50 chance
of fighting.

Gender and Retaliation


Male Female

52%
42% 43%
40%

Abuse is not followed by a fight Abuse is generally followed by a fight

Figure 11: Gender and Retaliation

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 59


Frequency of Abuse

The frequency of abuse was also explored by asking respondents to offer information on frequency in
three different time periods. Clearly the most popular time period was “from time to time” which also
meant every month/every few months and 52% of cases conformed to that general rule. The regular
weekly/daily abuse took place in 37% of cases and the rarest frequency was that of “seldom” which has
implications for the type of abuse that respondents believed met the qualifying bar. This analysis is
perhaps most useful in that regard, since it implies that respondents defined abuse as activity which
occurred “regularly” as in either weekly or monthly, but didn‟t consider infrequent cases worthy of
reporting, or perhaps they were more overwhelmed by the cases of frequent abuse that were reported to
them. Notwithstanding, it can still be argued that most abuse in Barbados takes place “from time to time”
while the consistent daily or weekly abuse is only popular in one-third of the instances.

Frequency of Abuse
Seldom Regularly
(Annually/Once (Daily/Weekly)
or Twice) 37%
11%

From time to
time
(Monthly/Every
few months)
52%

Figure 12: Frequency of Abuse

Duration and Consistency of Abuse

Related to the issue of frequency is the matter of consistency and duration of abuse, which in this
instance means how long has this specific pattern of abuse been taking place and has it been a
consistent barrage of abuse or if it has been periodic over the time period referred to. In this instance
there appears to be a relationship between these factors and the age and sex of the abused person,
suggesting that these demographic factors pre-dispose the victim/survivor.

These peculiarities require some amount of discussion since none of the peculiarities relating to the
length of time that the abuse was taking are profound. It would appear that the abuse that impacted on
teenagers and to a lesser extent young adults started more recently, while the abuse in other age
categories was more long standing. Regarding the sex/gender profile, the absence of any pattern is
noteworthy, since it implies that abuse that impacted on both men and women continued for a similar
period of time.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 60


Length of Time of Abuse
Years/As long as I can remember Recently started

58% 61%
52% 55% 55% 54% 54%
38% 41%38%
34%
25% 26% 27% 28%
21%

Children Teenagers Young Mature Seniors Male Female Barbados


Adults

Abused Person's Age Group Abused Person's All


Sex/Gender

Figure 13: Length of Time of Abuse

Figure 14 speaks to the consistency of abuse and in this regard there are several similar subtleties that
emerge. Abuse that impacted on children and mature individuals was consistent while abuse in all other
age categories was sporadic, suggesting that it happened periodically, or perhaps in response to
particular events. At the national level there is no significant relationship emerging that suggests a
difference consistent and sporadic abuse patterns and the gender analysis also reflects this consistency.

Consistency of Abuse
Abuse is Consistent Abuse is Sporadic

58% 55% 56% 58%


51% 52%
41% 46% 46% 46%49% 46%49%
39% 37%
25%

Children Teenagers Young Mature Seniors Male Female Barbados


Adults

Abused Person's Age Group Abused Person's All


Sex/Gender

Figure 14: Consistency of Abuse

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 61


Socio-Economic Relations

The socio economic analysis is based on a question to the respondent that asked him/her to determine
which socio economic group the abuser and the victim/survivor best fits into. Figure 15 consolidates and
presents this information and suggests that there is very little “inter-class” abuse taking place. In most
instances, persons appear to abuse persons within their social class, which implies that domestic
relationships also conform this type of pattern or that where relationships take place, persons are unlikely
to abuse partners who are outside of their social class.

There are some subtleties that emerge, however suggesting that the most probable inter-class abuse
takes place between abusers who are from the middle socio-economic bracket and who abuse persons
from the lower socio-economic group. The next most likely relationship emerges in relation to abusers
who are from the upper socio economic group who abuse persons who are from the middle socio
economic group. It is also noticeable that there is little likelihood of abusers who originate from the lower
socio-economic group abusing those in higher socioeconomic groups. The juxtaposition of these two
issues support the contention that abuse is to some extent influenced by socio-economic factors and
persons who are “poorer” are more likely to be abused by persons who might have economic power over
them.

Abused - Abuser: Socio-Economic


Relationship
ABUSER Working Class/Lower Socio-Economic Group
ABUSER Middle Class/Middle Socio-Economic Group
ABUSER Upper Class/Higher Socio-Economic Group
92%
75% 77%
23% 19%
4% 8% 0% 2%

ABUSED Working ABUSED Middle ABUSED Upper Class/Higher


Class/Lower Socio-Economic Class/Middle Socio- Socio-Economic Group
Group Economic Group

Figure 15: Abused - Abuser Socio Economic Relationship

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 62


Injuries

Figure 16 speaks to injuries and seeks to establish a relationship between the gender of the person who
is abused and various issues related to injuries that arise from the abuse. The initial observation that
men are less likely to be injured in the course of abuse is perhaps not surprising since the physical
limitations imposed by sex would make it less likely that women injure men. Similarly, men‟s injuries
would be less serious and less visible. It is, however, interesting to note that in instances where men are
injured (these cases were isolated) those injuries were less likely to be treated and men were
considerably less likely to be truthful to health officers about the origin of these injuries and as a result
less likely to be treated in public institutions. These data demonstrate that there is some amount of public
embarrassment associated with male abuse that is considerably greater than is the case with female
abuse. As is the case with other aspects of this report, the data is perhaps not surprising, but instead
supports popularly held beliefs with empirical data.

Gender and Injuries


Male Female Barbados
67%
64%

59%
57%
50%

48%
46%
39%
38%

37%

37%

29%

29%
29%
28%

28%
27%
27%

26%
25%
24%

22%
22%
21%
21%

20%
19%

18%
13%
13%

13%
12%
11%
11%

3%
2%
Injured

Not Injured

Serious Injuries

Injuries Treated
Injuries Visible

Not Truthful
Injuries Not Visible

Injuries Not Treated


Minor Injuries

Truthful to Health Officer

Public Treatment

Private Treatment
Figure 16: Gender and Injuries

Age appears to have a similar impact on issues associated with injuries as is evidenced in Figure 17. In
this instance, it can be seen that as victims/survivors get older they are more likely to seek public
treatment, or indeed seek treatment at all and to be truthful to the health officer. It is interesting that this
trend is reflected in older abused persons but the oldest behave in the same way that men and young
persons do, in that they tend not to report instances of abuse or seek treatment in public institutions. It
cannot be denied that persons in the age groups that are truthful and are more likely to seek treatment
are also more likely to be abused and this could impact on their reactions, however there is also a clear
(albeit small) impact that sex and age appears to have on the persons willingness to pursue treatment for
their injuries.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 63


Age and Injuries
Children Teenagers Young Adults Mature Seniors Barbados

50%

46%
44%
42%

42%
38%

33%
32%

29%
27%
27%

26%

26%
24%
23%

23%
22%

22%

22%
20%

20%
20%

18%

17%
14%

12%
12%

12%
12%
10%

9%
8%

8%
3%

Public Treatment Private Treatment Truthful to Health Not Truthful Injuries Treated Injuries Not
Officer Treated

Figure 17: Age and Injuries

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 64


Psychological Impact

The potential psychological impact of abuse was assessed by way of three questions that were asked of
the informant and as such these cannot conclusively determine that there was indeed any psychological
impact, since neither the informant or the interviewer were formally trained in psychology.
Notwithstanding, the response to general questions that relate to perception is interesting. Informants
were asked if the abused/victim sought psychological treatment, if they were psychologically damaged (in
the opinion of the informant) and also what was the victim/survivor‟s emotional state and it is noteworthy
that on this occasion there were no correlations detected that could potentially impact on any
demographic characteristic employed in the survey.

In the majority of instances, victims/survivors neither sought nor received psychological treatment,
suggesting that they neither believed themselves to be damaged nor did not believe that such treatment
was available to them. This could imply that people considered abuse to be normal to some extent and
as such would not require professional care. At the same time, respondents believed that the majority
were psychologically damaged by the incident although it is clear that informants also believed that close
to one third of the victims/survivors were not psychologically damaged and hence would not need
psychological assistance. This perception also speaks to some amount of cynicism on the part of
informants as well, but still conveys the hope that abuse is not having profound psychological impacts on
victims/survivors.

The final question spoke to the perceptive emotional impact of the abuse and in this instance 52% of the
abused persons appeared to be emotionally troubled based on the assessment of the informants. The
quantity of persons who were still emotionally stable is not insignificant and does support the suggestion
made above that domestic violence is not having as profound an impact on the psyche of
victims/survivors that it could.

Psychological Impact
51% 52%
39%
29%
22%
10%
2%
No
Neither Sought nor
Sought but Didn't

Emotionally Troubled
Yes

Emotionally Stable
Sought & Received

Receive

Received

Psychological Treatment Sought Victim/Survivor Emotional State


Psychologically Damaged
Figure 18: Psychological Impact

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 65


Living Arrangements

In this section an attempt was made to determine the impact


Table 04: Number of People Living in that living arrangements had on the potential for abuse.
Abusive Households Simply put, CADRES attempted to determine whether there
1 0.5%
was a relationship between crowding and abuse or if persons
that lived in crowded situations were more likely to be abused.
2 18.6% Hence respondents were asked how many persons were
3 21.7% living in the house where abuse was taking place along with
4 23.5% how many bedrooms these residence had in an attempt to
5 16.2% determine the impact of crowding. Table 04 presents raw
6 11.2%
data relating to the first question, while Table 05 presents raw
data relating to the second.
7 5.2%
8 1.2% This type of analysis is not straightforward since domestic
9 0.5% abuse of necessity requires that two or more persons be
10 0.4% present hence there will always be a direct relationship
between numbers larger than one and domestic violence.
12 0.1%
Moreover, the presumption that one person should occupy
13 0.3% each room in ideal situations is also not relevant here since
14 0.3% most familial arrangements would require some amount of
15 0.1% sharing between the two principal partners and indeed the
20 0.1% absence of that sharing arrangement would be a clear signal
of abnormality. Against this background it is perhaps not
4.1 Average
surprising that in most instances, 3-4 people lived in a house
with 2-3 bedrooms (Tables 04 and 05).

Table 05: Number of Bedrooms


in Abusive Households
1 5.4%
2 43.0%
3 40.4%
4 8.6%
5 1.5%
6 .6%
7 .3%
16 .1%
2.6 Average

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 66


In an attempt to present an analysis that speaks to the issue of crowding, CADRES arranged the
bedroom-resident data into three distinct scenarios which were identified as “ideal” (0-2 persons per
bedroom); “acceptable” (2-3 persons per bedroom) and “regrettable” (3-9 persons per bedroom). In
addition the average arrangement was generated and this was all presented in Figure 19 (below). This
demonstrates that the average scenario is 1.7 persons per bedroom which would be classified as the
“ideal” arrangement. Since the ideal living arrangement is that which is most popular in our survey of
victims/survivors, then it is reasonable to assume that there is no relationship between crowding and
abuse and this point is further supported by the fact that only 4% of abuse cases occurred in “regrettable”
living scenarios.

Persons Per Bedroom (Ranges)


1.7

78%

18%
4%
Ideal (0-2)

Average
Acceptable (2-3)

Regrettable (3-9)

Figure 19: Persons per Bedroom (Ranges)

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 67


Informants Familiarity with Similar Cases

Although informants were asked to confine themselves to one particular case, CADRES nonetheless took
the opportunity to ask them if they knew of other similar cases to determine the extent to which the
problem could have been more widespread and the patterns generally applicable. Figure 20
demonstrates that most of the respondents knew of one or two more cases and almost 17% knew of
three or more, suggesting that what was reported on spoke to roughly half of the incidents that took place
over the reporting year. The fact that there was some duplication among reported cases means that
there was likely to be some duplication among these additional cases as well, hence there is no
suggestion here that previous estimates are under-reported; however the “similarity” implies that these
trends and patterns are likely to be replicated in other domestic violence cases nationally.

Additional (Similar) Cases Informant


Knows of
None
39%
Three or More
17%

One or Two
More
44%

Figure 20: Additional (Similar) Cases of Abuse

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 68


PROFILE OF THE ABUSER

In this section an effort is made to create a profile of the abuser so that potential abusers could more
easily be identified. Summarily, the major demographic characteristics of the abuser are presented in
Figure 21 which suggests that potential abusers are likely to be mature Afro Barbadian men. This profile
is perhaps not surprising, however this profile also highlights the fact that 16% of abusers are young
adults, 11% are seniors and 11% are women.

Major Demographic Characteristics (Abuser)


89% 87%
72%

11% 16% 11%


3% 2% 8%
0.1% 1% 0.4%
Children

Asian/Indo
Anglo/White
Mature

Other
Male

Young Adults

Mixed
Seniors

Afro/Black
Female

Teenagers

Sex/Gender Age Group Race


Figure 21: Major Demographic Characteristics (Abuser)

The impact of religion is best viewed in comparison with the


Table 06: Barbados Religions national trends which are presented in Table 06 for convenience.
These data are taken from a national survey conducted in 2009
(CADRES 2009 National Survey) and the comparisons with Figure 22 need to appreciate the fact
Practicing Christian 53.7% that more than one-third of respondents did not know the religious
orientation of abusers. The second largest group was that of non-
Non-Practicing Christian 34.3%
practicing Christians (36%) which compares to 34% in the national
Muslim 1.0% survey suggesting that these patterns (among abusers) were not
Jewish 0.6% abnormal. Although there is a major difference between the 53.7%
Rastafarian 5.6% practicing Christians locally and the 8% in this survey of abusers, it
Baha'i 0.3% is still highly likely that there is a relationship between the two sets
of data since informants are more likely to assume that a person
Hindu 1.2%
who abuses other is NOT a practicing Christian, while that abuser if
Atheist 1.8% interviewed might still classify him/herself as such.
Agnostic 1.5%
The national analysis is also suggestive of some association
between the national sample and this survey since 97% of abusers were either Barbadians or naturalised
and this would confirm that quantity of illegal abusers is negligible.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 69


CADRES solicited information on the abuser‟s religion and national status to determine whether there
were correlations there and Figure 22 implies there none that are of any significance. The major clusters
that emerge here relate to the status “non-practising Christians”; those “unsure of their religion” and those
who are Citizens of Barbados and these are not inconsistent with the national scenario. There are some
very minor correlations that emerge regarding religion if we take the national profile into consideration. In
2009 the CADRES national survey identified 6% self identified Rastafarians and 2% self identified
atheists, while this survey presents 10% of abusers as Rastafarians and 6% Atheists, which is slightly
inconsistent and suggests that persons within these categories are slightly more inclined to become
abusers.

Abuser's Religion and National Status


87%

36% 36%

8% 10% 6% 10%
0.1% 0.1% 2% 1% 2% 2%

Hindu
Non-Practising

Agnostic

Unsure
Muslim

Jewish

Rastafarian

Atheist

Citizen by Birth

Living here legally


Practising Christian

Living here illegally


Unsure of Religion
Christian

Religion Abuser's Nationality/Status


Figure 22: Abuser's Religion and National Status

Other major socio-economic characteristics have been explored in Figure 23 and it can immediately be
seen that employment status does not impact heavily on the likelihood that a person will become an
abuser since the vast majority of abusers are gainfully employed. This rejects the assumption that
abusers engage in such activity because they have “too much time on their hands”. There is also an
implicit rejection of another perception that abusers are able to “get away” with their abuse because of
economic dependence and this is consistent with other observations made above regarding the
relationship between abuse and socio economic status. In this instance, it was noted that in 65% of
cases others in the family work and in only 31% of cases is the abuser the main breadwinner in the
family. It could be argued that this (31%) is suggestive of some trend, however it is not possible to
present comparative data that speaks to the quantity of persons in Barbados who are the exclusive
breadwinner in the household and in the absence of such evidence it can be assumed that 31% of
abusers being the sole breadwinners is not unusually high.

At first “blush” the final component of data presented in Figure 23 implies that persons from the lower
socio-economic group are more inclined to be abusers, however this is a trend that emerged throughout
the survey and could have been influenced by the fact that most cases that were chronicled in this study
originated from a similar socio-economic group. It is unwise to assume that this bias is related to the
presumption that abuse is more prevalent in the lower socio economic groups if one is familiar with the
cultural peculiarities of Barbados and the Caribbean. Throughout this region, persons from lower socio-
economic groups are more inclined to report on their experiences with domestic violence, while persons
from “higher” groups tend not speak about such experiences, even though these appear to happen just
as frequently.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 70


Major Social and Economic Characteristics
(Abuser)
88%
65% 65%
31% 32%
11% 4% 4%
Employed

Unsure
breadwinner
Unemployed/Not

No, others work

Middle Class/Middle
Working Class/Lower

Upper Class/Higher
Yes, main

Socio-Economic
Socio-Economic
Socio-Economic
Working

Group
Group
Group
Employment Status Main "Breadwinner" in Family Social Class
Figure 23: Major Social and Economic Characteristics (Abuser)

Figure 24 speaks to other aspects of the profile of the abuser and suggests that abusers are generally
younger than their victims however the 14% of cases where persons are abused by younger persons
present interesting scenarios.

It is unfortunate that the informants were unsure whether the abuser was abused in the past since it
would have been useful to seek to establish correlations in relation to this widely held view. The data
does, however suggest that a likelihood that this is the case since there was such a pattern in known
cases.

The next question posed in this section was somewhat complex since there was an attempt to determine
whether the abuser had other partners or family members that s/he also abuses (in addition to the one
that was reported on) and in 58% of cases the respondent was unsure. In this instance, however, no
pattern or suggested pattern emerges since multiple partner/family member abuse is identified in only
17% of cases, with a clear indication that no abuse takes place in 14% of cases. In 11% of cases the
informant indicated that there were multiple partners/family members that they were aware of, but to the
best of their knowledge there was no abuse taking place in these “outside” scenarios. These
observations should appreciate the reality that to some informants the presence of such an “outside
relation” is itself abusive behaviour, while to others this type of arrangement is normal.

The final major issue explored in Figure 24 relates to substance abuse being a factor in abuse and these
data suggest that there is almost a 50/50 chance that there will be some amount of substance abuse in
these situations of abuse. In 42% of cases there was the belief that substance abuse might have been a
factor, however this would best be viewed against/compared to national substance abuse data which
provides several estimates depending on the type of substances that are considered. One
CADRES/NCSA study (2002) suggested that what could be considered “low level” abuse of illegal drugs
(Marijuana) occurs in about 30% of the population of Barbados on an occasional basis. This
classification, however, excludes alcohol abuse which, while legal could substantially broaden the “net”.
Hence the 42% of cases in which substance abuse is a factor compared to the 45% of cases where it is
not relevant suggests that drug abuse could be a minor factor that predisposes or encourages domestic
violence.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 71


Age and Pattern of Abuse
82% 76%
58%
42% 45%
14% 15% 9% 17% 14% 11% 13%
3% 1%

No

No
Younger

Unsure

Unsure

Unsure
Older

Yes

Yes

partners/family…
Same age

Yes, (Think so)

Unsure/Won't say
No, (Don't think so)
Abuser has other
Is the abuser older/younger Was the abuser abused Does the abuser have other Abuser engages in
than the victim? in the past? partners/family that s/he also Substance Abuse?
abuses?
Figure 24: Age and Pattern of Abuse

The fact that abusers generally preyed on younger persons provoked the need for an analysis of the
instances in which this was not the case and this is facilitated in Figure 25. This demonstrates that all of
the child abusers preyed on young adults, while teenaged abusers concentrated mostly on mature
victims. Young adult abusers abused within their age range and mature abusers behaved similarly.
Senior abusers focused mostly on mature victims and this suggests that older persons generally preyed
on victims that were either younger or within their age range, while younger abusers went for older
victims, however the general trend was for persons to abuse within their age range.

Abuser-Abused Age Relationship


Children Teenagers Young Adults Mature Seniors

100%

66% 67% 71%


60%

25% 23%
20%20% 20%
10%
1% 3% 2% 2% 4% 5% 1%

Child Abusers Teenaged Abusers Young Adult Abusers Mature Abusers Senior Abusers

Figure 25: Abuser-Abused Age Relationship

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 72


In an earlier section the possibility that a lack of employment could have implicitly encouraged domestic
violence was dismissed and this issue is returned to once more in Figure 26 which examines the
relationship between the abuser‟s employment status and that of the person that s/he abuses. It
becomes clear here also that the abuser‟s status is of little relevance. In most cases, the bulk of abused
persons are employed and between 80 and 90 percent of their oppressors are also gainfully employed.
There is one slight deviation from this norm and this occurs in relation to the designation “students” that
unemployed abusers appear to take more interest in. Students were victims of abuse by unemployed
abusers twice as often as was the case with employed abusers and this points to an interesting trend.

Abuser-Abused Employment Relationship


Employed full-time Employed part-time Students Retired Unemployed

90% 91% 88%


82%
78%

22%
13% 16%
9% 10%

Employed Abusers Unemployed Abusers

Figure 26: Abuser-Abused Employment Relationship

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 73


INSTITUTIONAL REACTION TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

In this final section the reaction of various governmental and non governmental institutions to domestic
violence is examined, based on information provided by informants.

Institutions Approached

Initially the respondents were asked (if they knew) which institutions were approached and this
information is presented in Figure 27. It is immediately obvious that in most instances, no institutions
were approached, however in instances where there was an institutional approach; the church was most
frequently turned to, followed by the Welfare Department. It is interesting that the most popular institution
is both non-governmental and secular, while the second most popular is the welfare department which is
a governmental agency. The Crisis Centre is a non-governmental, non-secular institution which was
established to provide support in these types of cases; however, it would appear as though it is either not
well known or not sufficiently trusted.

Institutions Approached
80% 79%
70% 74%
62%

22%
14%
2% 4% 4%
No

No

No

No

No
Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

WELFARE CHURCH CRISIS Centre LEGAL AID NETWORK


Department SERVICES
Figure 27: Institutions Approached

Agency Interaction and Agency Reaction

In addition to the basic approach, there was an attempt to determine what was the reaction of the agency
approached and also if this reaction was satisfactory to the complainant. These response categories
were sorted into governmental and non-governmental agencies and presented in Figure 28 which
demonstrates that in one-third of cases, respondents were not sure if assistance was sought and if so
what type of reaction was received.

Regarding governmental agencies, in only 18% of instances was help sought from these institutions and
in 13% of these instances there is an indication that the assistance sought was received. Informants
reported that requests for help were unsuccessful in only 5% of cases, which are relatively few instances
and there is no clear indication on the reasons why demands were not successful. Comparatively, the
outcome regarding assistance that was sought from governmental organisations appears more positive
since help was sought from these agencies in 16% of cases and these requests were satisfied in all but
1% of instances. It is entirely possible that the type of assistance that was sought from non-governmental
organisations was considerably easier to provide than the type of assistance that was demanded of
governmental agencies and the lower expectations establish a basis for greater satisfaction from these
agencies, however these issues were not pursued in the survey.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 74


Agency Interaction/Reaction
54% 51%

33%
29%
13% 15%
5% 1%
Assistance Sought &

Assistance was not

Assistance Sought &

Assistance was not


Assistance Sought

Assistance Sought
Unsure

Unsure
Unresponsive

Unresponsive
BUT Agency

BUT Agency
Received

Received
sought

sought
Governmental Agencies Non-Governmental Agencies

Figure 28: Agency Interaction/Reaction

Police Reports and Outcome

Since the Police are a specialised governmental agency, specific issues were raised regarding the
victim/survivor‟s intercourse with them and these are presented in Figure 29 and 30. Figure 29 speaks to
frequency with which Police reports were made and this information is useful in determining the extent to
which Police cases of domestic violence are under-reported and it is clear that there are some key
demographic variables that impact on the likelihood that a case will be reported. Informants indicated that
reports were made to the Police in 35% of instances and in another 10% of instances, they were unsure
whether there was a Police report or not. It can therefore be said that reports are made to the Police in
roughly 30% or one-third of cases, suggesting that Police statistics (if such exist) would need to be tripled
to present a realistic estimation of the level of abuse taking place in Barbados.

Police Reports
Yes, reports made at (some) times No, never reported Unsure if reports were made
79%
70%
58% 54% 53% 58% 53% 54%
33% 34% 37% 35% 37% 35%
21% 20%
8% 12% 10% 7% 9% 10% 10%

Children Teenagers Young Mature Seniors Male Female Barbados


Adults

Victim/Survivor's Age Group Victim/Survivor's All


Sex/Gender
Figure 29: Police Reports

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 75


There is no major deviation from this 30% rule in the reporting pattern that is caused by age and this fact
is noteworthy in and of itself. It however appears as though Teenagers are slightly less inclined to make
reports to the Police since only 21% of teenagers who were abused are reported to have come forward to
the Police and this peculiarity might generate some interest.

The sex/gender based finding that women were more likely to report their abuse to the Police is not
surprising and is consistent with expectations that men are not comfortable reporting their abuse to the
authorities.

Outcome of Police Report (Reports Only)


44%
34% 38%
31% 32%
25% 23% 23% 21%
12%

No
Unsure

Unsure

Unsure
Yes
No Investigation

Recommendation)
Full Investigation

Matter Went Before


No (Victim/Survivor's

No (Police
Request)

Courts
Outcome of Police Report Victim Stopped Matter Reached Court?
Investigation

Figure 30: Outcome of Police Reports

There was no significant pattern emerging that relates to the outcome of Police reports based on major
demographic characteristics, hence Figure 30 simply reports on the outcome of reports at the national
level. In this presentation, it can be seen that full investigations ensued in 44% of cases, while there was
no investigation reported in 31% of cases. The level of uncertainty was 25% and this does seem high.

The quantity of cases that were interrupted by the actions of the complainant should not be surprising
since the authorities in Barbados have frequently commented that the actions of the complainant interrupt
their prosecutions in many instances. In this regard, informants estimated that in 34% of cases the
victim/survivor terminated the Police investigations, while they believed that the Police acted
independently in 38% of cases, however the high level of uncertainly here should also be noted. Here
also there is no indication of the reasons why investigations or prosecutions were terminated and it is also
important to appreciate that the informants are presenting second-hand information at best and this could
impact negatively on the authenticity of data which is at best a guide to the way in which victims believe
themselves to be treated by the Police.

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 76


Victim/Survivor’s Opinion on the Law and Courts

As this analysis continued, the outcome of court action was probed and it would appear that 23% of
cases went before the courts and informants believed that in about 12% of cases the Police did not
pursue these matters because they had insufficient evidence, or for some other legitimate reason. Here
also, it would appear that approximately one-third of cases did not reach the courts because of the
actions of the complainant.

The final question presented in this section spoke to the victim/survivor‟s opinion of the Law and Law
Courts based on information conveyed to the informant. Generally, victims/survivors believe that the law
does not do enough to prevent domestic violence (74%) and in only 12% of cases are persons of the
opinion that the law does enough to prevent these acts. This point needs to appreciate the evidence
presented earlier that in about one-third of cases, the victims/survivors themselves prevented the Police
from proceeding with the cases, or the courts from acting against their oppressors. This means that the
data in Figure 31 could be interpreted to mean that either the law does not do enough to prevent violence
or perhaps the law does not do enough to protect the complainant who needs to discontinue their actions
in their own self-interest. This is an issue that the survey was not equipped to respond to and future
investigations might need to probe, since it is an important dimension of the issue.

Although there were only a small number of instances in which court action ensued and a comparatively
large number of instances in which informants were unsure about the level of satisfaction with this court
action, it is still noteworthy that victims/survivors are equally inclined to be happy (4%) or unhappy (3%)
with the court‟s actions. This 50/50 scenario can be positively interpreted in light of the general trend of
dissatisfaction, since it would appear that once matters actually reach the courts that institution is able to
act to the satisfaction of complainant in at least half of the cases presented to it.

Opinion on Law and Courts


74% 76%
12% 14% 4% 3% 16%
No

Unsure/No opinion

Unsure
Yes

Not Relevant

Happy with Court's

Court's Response
Not Happy with
Response

Law Does Enough to Prevent Opinion of the Court's Response in this Matter
Domestic Violence (Respondent (Victim/Survivor)?
Opinion)?

Figure 31: Opinion on Law and Courts

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 77


APPENDICES

APPENDIX I

Focus Group Questions and Issues for Discussion: Stakeholders

ISSUE: (WHAT) Definition of Domestic Violence (WHAT)

 Group‟s general reaction to a classic definition of Domestic Violence:


“any violence between current and former partners in an intimate relationship wherever
the violence occurs. The violence may include physical, sexual, emotional and financial
abuse.”
 Does anything need to added to or omitted from this definition?
 How is Barbados Different?
 Are there any gender differences in Barbados, in terms of the types of violence that are
perpetrated?
 What are the peculiarities that impact on children?
 What is the impact, if any, of family history on the possibility/probability that domestic
violence may occur in a given home?
 What is the impact, if any, of race factors on the possibility/probability that domestic
violence may occur in a given home?
 What is the impact, if any, of economic factors on the possibility/probability that domestic
violence may occur in a given home
 Is there a typical profile for perpetrators?
 Is there a typical profile for survivors?

ISSUE: (WHY) Frequency, Incidence, Causes and Predisposing Circumstances

 What are some of the leading causes or prevailing circumstances in instances of


domestic violence?
 What is the frequency in Barbados, and how do you think this relates to global trends?
Higher/lower?

ISSUE: (HOW) Regions, Areas and Mechanics of Abuse

 How exactly is abuse inflicted, what are modes? Is it more likely to be continuous or “one
off”?
 What are the “tools of the trade”?
 Is abuse on the increase/decrease in Barbados?
 How would you describe the existence and adequacy of state responses, for both
survivors and perpetrators?
 How would you describe the existence and adequacy of NGO responses, for both
survivors and perpetrators?
APPENDIX II

Focus Group Questions and Issues for Discussion: Survivors

ISSUE: (WHAT) Definition of Domestic Violence

 Group‟s general reaction to a classic definition of Domestic Violence:

“any violence between current and former partners in an intimate relationship wherever
the violence occurs. The violence may include physical, sexual, emotional and financial
abuse.”

In your opinion is this a comprehensive definition? Does it define your situation?

 Do you think the situation in Barbados is any different to what pertains in other countries?
Is the violence more or less harsh, more or less frequent?

 Do you think that violence is more frequently perpetrated against men or women in
Barbados?

 Were your children affected in any way by your experience with domestic violence?

 In your case, are you aware whether or not your partner (abuser) had any relatives who
also abused people?

 Do you think that this type of violence is more or less prevalent among blacks? Do you
know if it is different with Indians? What about White people, do you have any
knowledge of their behaviour?

 Do you think that this type of violence takes place more in poor households, or rich
households?

ISSUE: (WHY) Frequency, Incidence, Causes and Predisposing Circumstances

 In your opinion why do you think your abuser abused you?

ISSUE: (HOW) Regions, Areas and Mechanics of Abuse

 In your case was the abuse continuous, or “one off”? How long did it continue? Were
there periods when it was more intense than others?

 Was it normal that your abuser would use a weapon against you? Was the abuse more
emotional? If so how did it happen?

 Do you think that domestic violence is on the increase/decrease in Barbados??

 Do you think that government provided enough help for you in your time of need?
Specifically, were the police, courts and other support service helpfully? Did you find
them easily, were they responsive?

 Are you aware of any non-governmental institutions that can help you? If so, how did
these institutions work for you and what can be done to improve them?

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 79


House Identifier
Interviewer Name

Positive Response to Area of Interviews


introduction

Knows of Incident of
Abuse
Initial Screen

Willing to Share
Information on Abuse

Age of Abused

Sex of Abused

Race of Abused

Abused Employment
Status

Abused relationship to
APPENDIX III

respondent
Document (1) One
Document (1) One

Qualifying Questions

Area of Residence
Status
Interview Number
APPENDIX IV

Survey Instrument

Document Two (2) Instrument


Questionnaire Number ________________

Nature of Domestic Violence

1. Generally, is the violence (Interviewer note that a child is defined as under 18 in this instance):

Man on Man 1 Man on Woman 2 Woman on Woman 3

Woman on Man 4 Child on Adult 5 Adult on Child 6

2. Generally, which of these actions would be involved in the abuse that you are familiar with:

I. Striking with hand (alone)


Yes (always) 1 No 2 Sometimes 3
II. Striking with implement
Yes (always) 1 No 2 Sometimes 3
III. Playing games/tricks on the victim
Yes (always) 1 No 2 Sometimes 3
IV. Deprivation of food/money to buy food
Yes (always) 1 No 2 Sometimes 3
V. Penetrative Sexual Abuse
Yes (always) 1 No 2 Sometimes 3
VI. Non Penetrative Sexual Abuse (Including peeping, spying and physical touching)
Yes (always) 1 No 2 Sometimes 3
3. Generally does the victim retaliate or is the action normally met with little or no resistance?

Victim normally resists/retaliates 1 Victim does not normally resists/retaliate 2

Unsure 3

4. Does fighting normally ensue?

Abuse is not followed by a fight 1 Abuse is generally followed by a fight 2

Unsure if victim and abuser fight 3

5. How frequently are there incidents of abuse that you are aware of?

Regularly (Daily/Weekly) 1 From time to time (Monthly or every few months) 2

Seldom (Annually or something that has happened once or twice that you are aware of) 3
6. Has the victim ever been injured to the best of your knowledge?

Yes 1 No 2 Unsure 3

7. If so, would you consider the injuries serious or minor?

Serious 1 Minor 2 Unsure/Not relevant 3


8. Were the injuries (at any time) visible to you and the general public?

Visible 1 Not visible 2 Unsure/Not relevant 3

9. Were the injuries (at any time) treated by a health care facility?

Yes, treated 1 No, not treated 2 Unsure 3

10. Do you know whether the victim was honest with the health care provider regarding the source of the
injury?

Yes, s/he told the truth 1 No, s/he made up a story 2


Unsure 3 Not relevant 4

11. Do you know whether the victim went to a public or private health care facility?

Public facility 1 Private facility 2 Unsure 3

12. Do you know whether the victim sought or received psychological treatment as a result of abuse?

Sought and received Psychological Treatment 1 Sought but didn‟t receive 2

Did not seek nor receive 3 Unsure 4

13. In your opinion is the victim psychologically damaged as a result of this problem?

Yes, psychologically damaged 1 No, not psychologically damaged 2

Unsure if psychologically damaged 3

14. Approximately how many people live in this house where the abuse takes place? ________

15. Approximately how many bedrooms does this house have (place of abuse)? ________

16. How many other cases of domestic violence are you aware of that are similar to this one you are
reporting on? (approximately how many and if none insert 0) ________

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 82


Nature of the Abuser

17. What is the sex of the abuser? Male 1 Female 2

18. What is the race of the abuser?

Anglo/White 1 Afro/Black 2 Asian/Indo 3

Sino/Chinese 4 Mixed 5 Other 6

19. What is the age of the abuser? ____________

20. What (if any) is the religion of the abuser?

Practising Christian 1 Non Practising Christian 2 Muslim 3

Jewish 4 Rastafarian 5 Bahia 6 Atheist 7 Agnostic 8

Hindu 9 Unsure 10

21. Is the abuser employed? Yes, employed 1 No, not employed 2

22. What (to the best of your knowledge) is the abuser‟s nationality/status?

Born in Barbados 1 Living in Barbados legally 2

Living in Barbados illegally 3 Unsure 4

23. Is the abuser the sole/main “bread winner” in the family?

Yes, sole breadwinner 1 No, other work 2 Unsure 3

24. Is the abuser older/younger than the victim?

Abuser older 1 Abuser younger 2 Unsure 3

25. Do you know if the abuser was abused in any way in the past?

Yes, the abuser was abused 1 No, the abuser was not abused 2

Unsure if the abuser was abused 3

26. If you were to attempt to place the abuser in a social class, what social class would you say best
reflects that person‟s background?

Working Class/Lower Socio Economic Group 1

Middle Class/Middle Socio Economic Group 2

Upper Class/Higher Socio Economic Group 3

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 83


27. Do you know if the abuser has other partners/family groups where the same thing occurs (In this
question we are trying to determine if the abuser has other women/men or related families who s/he
also abuses)?

Yes, s/he has other partners/family groups that are also abused 1

No, s/he does not have other partners/family groups that are also abused 2

I believe that s/he has other partners/family groups, but these are not abused 3

I am not sure if there are other partners/family groups or if abuse takes place in these situations
4
28. To the best of your knowledge does the abuser engage in substance abuse?

Yes, I believe so 1 No, I doubt 2 Unsure/Won‟t say 3

Nature of the Abused/Victim

29. What is the sex of the victim? Male 1 Female 2

30. What is the race of the victim?

Anglo/White 1 Afro/Black 2 Asian/Indo 3

Sino/Chinese 4 Mixed 5 Other 6

31. Is the victim employed?

Employed full-time (Public Sector) 1 Employed full-time (Private Sector) 2

Employed part-time (Public Sector) 3 Employed part-time (Private Sector) 4

Student 5 Retired 6

Housewife/Husband 7 Unemployed 8

32. What (to the best of your knowledge) is the victim‟s nationality/status?

Born in Barbados 1 Living in Barbados legally 2

Living in Barbados illegally 3 Unsure 4

33. How long has this abuse been going on?

Years/as long as I can remember 1 Recently started 2

Unsure 3

34. Has the pattern of abuse been consistent or sporadic?

Consistent, to the best of my knowledge 1 Sporadic 2

Unsure 3

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 84


35. If you were to attempt to place the victim in a social class, what social class would you say best
reflects that person‟s background?

Working Class/Lower Socio Economic Group 1

Middle Class/Middle Socio Economic Group 2

Upper Class/Higher Socio Economic Group 3

36. How would you characterise the victim‟s emotional state at this time (In this instance we want the
respondent’s opinion on if the abuse has caused this problem).

Emotionally troubled 1 Emotionally stable 2 Unsure 3

37. To the best of your knowledge has the victim ever reported these incidents to the Police?

Yes, reports made at (some) times 1 No, never reported 2

Unsure if reports were made 3

38. Where a Police report has been made, what has been the outcome?

Full investigation ensued 1 No investigation to the best of my knowledge 2


Unsure of outcome 3 No report made/Not Relevant 4
39. To the best of your knowledge has the victim ever acted to stop the Police investigation or action?

Yes, the victim stopped it 1 No, the victim did not interfere 2
Unsure 3 Not relevant 4
40. What about court action? Did the matter reach court?

No, it never moved from the Police to the courts at their (the victim‟s) request 1
No, it never moved from the Police to the courts on the recommendation of the Police 2
Yes, it went before the courts 3
I am not sure if it was referred to court, or what was the outcome 4
Not relevant/There was no Police report made so court was not an option 5

41. Do you think that the Law does enough to prevent domestic violence?

Yes, enough 1 No, not enough 2 Unsure/No opinion 3

42. What was the victim‟s opinion of the court‟s response in this matter?

Not relevant, there was no court response possible/needed 1


Victim was happy with the court‟s response 2
Victim was not happy with the court‟s response 3
Unsure of victims pleasure/displeasure with the court‟s response 4
43. To the best of your knowledge had the victim ever sought the assistance of any of these other
agencies?

Welfare Department Yes 1 No 2 Unsure 3


Church Yes 1 No 2 Unsure 3
Crisis Centre Yes 1 No 2 Unsure 3
Legal AID Yes 1 No 2 Unsure 3
Network Services Yes 1 No 2 Unsure 3

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 85


44. To the best of your knowledge, how would the victim‟s interaction with governmental agencies
generally be classified?

Yes, assistance sought and received easily 1


Yes, assistance sought but agency was not responsive 2
No, assistance was not sought 3
I am not sure if assistance was sought 4

45. To the best of your knowledge, how would the victim‟s interaction with non governmental agencies
generally be classified (you might need to explain what a non-governmental agency is)?

Yes, assistance sought and received easily 1


Yes, assistance sought but agency was not responsive 2
No, assistance was not sought 3
I am not sure if assistance was sought 4

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ASSISTANCE

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 86


APPENDIX V

Respondent Screener
Screening Questions

 Good morning/evening, I am here as a representative of CADRES and we are conducting a


survey on behalf of the Bureau of Gender Affairs, Ministry of Youth, Family and Sports
regarding the issue of Domestic Violence in Barbados.

 I realise that this issue is a sensitive one in Barbados and it is for this reason that I am NOT
asking you about your personal situation, but instead I am asking if you might know of anyone
who is a victim of such violence that you might be able to speak to us about confidentially. I
want to assure you that the persons you speak to us about will NOT be identified in any way in
the report and we will not attempt to find that person or try to interview them. We are doing
what is referred to as an “informant study” which will help the Bureau of Gender Affairs better
understand the problem of Domestic Violence, know where these problems are located, the
extent of these problems and all this will help government plan its response to this issue and
help those who are being abused.

 We would ask that in your conversation with us that you refer to one particular individual that
you might know and speak based on your knowledge of the particular case in question.
Please do not speculate or speak about multiple persons who are being abused. If you know
several such people, please speak specifically to one of these persons and we would prefer if
that is the person you know best.

Interviewer Assessment:

Positive response? Yes 1 No 2

Knows of incident of abuse? Yes 1 No 2

Willing to Share Information on Abuse Yes 1 No 2

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 87


 In order to determine if you know such a person well enough to speak of this experience with
abuse, I want to ask you a few questions about your neighbour/friend/family member:

1. Persons age (approximate/specific) ________

2. Persons sex Male 1 Female 2

3. Persons race Anglo 1 Afro 2 Indo 3 Sino 4 Mixed 5

4. Person‟s employment status:

Employed full-time (Public Sector) 1 Employed full-time (Private Sector) 2


Employed part-time (Public Sector) 3 Employed part-time (Private Sector) 4
Student 5 Retired 6
Housewife/Husband 7 Unemployed 8
5. Nature of your relationship to the person being abused:
Family member 1 Friend 2 Friend of a friend/acquaintance 3
Work colleague 4 Neighbour 5

6. Area of Residence: _________________________________________________________

7. Status: Barbadian 1 Non Barbadian 2

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 88


APPENDIX VI

Survey Areas

Approximate
Constituency General Areas Interview
Days/Weekends
Bridgetown Roman Catholic School, Jemmott‟s Lane 2
Salvation Army Centre 2
Wesley Hall Infants School 2
Westbury Primary School 2
Saint Michael Central Church Of The Nazarene, Bank Hall 2
Abundant Life Assembly 2
Combermere School 2
Power In The Blood Assembly, Kew Road 2
Saint Michael East Belmont Girls‟ School 2
Community College, Howells Cross Road 2
Happy Vale School, ”Richmond” Welches 2
Springer Memorial School 2
Saint Michael South Bay Primary School 2
Seventh Day Adventist School, Dalkeith 2
Garrison Secondary School 2
Bethel Baptist Church, Britton's New Road 2
Saint Michael South East Samuel Jackman Prescod Polytechnic, Wildey 2
Church Of The Nazarene, Collymore Rock 2
Edgar Cochrane Polyclinic, Wildey 2
Parkinson Secondary School 2
Saint Michael South Carrington‟s Primary School 2
Central St. Michael‟s School 2
Erdiston Primary School 2
Luther Thorne Memorial School 2
Saint Michael North Eden Lodge Primary School 2
Christ The King Church, Rock Dundo 2
Christ The King Church, Rock Dundo 2
C . E. F. Miracle Centre, Lodge Hill 2
Saint Michael North East Warrens Polyclinic 2
Church Of God, Jackson Tennantry Road 2
White Hall Methodist Church 2
Grace Hill Moravian Church 2
Saint Michael West New Testament Church Of God, Goodland 2
St. Leonard‟s Boy‟s Secondary School 2

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 89


Approximate
Constituency General Areas Interview
Days/Weekends
Bethany Evangelical Church, Eagle Hall 2
Welfare Office, Country Road 2
Saint Michael North West St. Stephen‟s Primary School 2
Ellerslie Secondary School 2
Deacons Primary School 2
Eagle Hall Primary School 2
Saint Michael West Central Wesleyan Holiness Church, Clevedale 2
Nightengale Home 2
Nazarene Tabernacle, Browne‟s Gap, Eagle Hall 2
Lawrence T. Gay Memorial School, Spooner‟s Hill 2
Christ Church West Foundation School 2
Central Deighton Griffith Secondary School 2
Revival Time Assembly, Maxwell Hill 2
Smith Corner Pentecostal Church 2
Christ Church South Dover Sports Club Pavilion 2
Cuthbert Pilgrim Memorial Hall, Maxwell Road 2
Pegwell Community Church, Pegwell 2
Atlantic Shores 2
Christ Church East Central Vauxhall Methodist Church 2
Aquatic Centre (Garfield Sobers Gymnasium 2
Complex)
Christ Church Boys' School 2
Wesleyan Holiness Church, Lodge Road 2
Christ Church West Unique High School, Dayrell‟s Road 2
Bonnett‟s Resource Centre, Bonnett‟s, Britton‟s Hill 2
Hawthorne Methodist Church, Worthing View 2
Wesleyan Holiness Church, Sergeant‟s Village 2
Christ Church East Waithe Memorial Auditorium, Providence 2
Nazarene Church, Pilgrim Road 2
St. Christopher„s School 2
Jerusalem Apostolic Cathedral, Ealing Grove 2
Saint Phillip North Principal‟s Lodge, Industrial School 2
St. Philip‟s Primary School 2
St. Mark‟s Senior School 2
Hilda Sheene Primary School 2
Saint Phillip South Church of the Nazarene, Gemswick 2
St. Martin‟s Four Roads Primary School 2

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 90


Approximate
Constituency General Areas Interview
Days/Weekends
Church of The Nazarene, Ruby 2
Industry High School 2
Saint Phillip West Ebenezer Methodist Church 2
Princess Margaret Secondary School 2
St. Patrick‟s Church Hall 2
Wayne Daniel Pavilion, Brereton 2
Saint George South New Testament Church of God, 2
Boarded Hall Tenantry
Ellerton Community Centre 2
Church of the Nazarene, Newbury 2
Prerogative House 2
Saint George North St. George Secondary School 2
Valley Resource Centre 2
St. Jude‟s Primary School 2
Cuthbert Moore Primary 2
Saint John St. John‟s Primary School 2
Community Centre, Gall Hill 2
Lodge School 2
Wesleyan Holiness Church, Messiah Street 2
Saint Joseph St. Ann‟s Church 2
Wesleyan Holiness Church, Proute Hill 2
St. Joseph Primary School 2
Grantley Adams Memorial School 2
Saint James South West Terrace Primary School 2
Queens College, Husbands 2
West Terrace Primary School 2
Caribbean Meteorological Institute, Husbands 2
Saint James North Gordon Greenidge Primary School 2
St. Alban‟s Infants School 2
Weston Community Centre 2
St. James Parish Church Hall 2
Saint James Central Good Shepherd Church Hall, Fitt‟s Village 2
Bagatelle Pavilion 2
Payne‟s Bay Methodist Church Hall 2
St. James Secondary School 2
Saint Andrew Alleyne School 2
Chalky Mount Primary School 2

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 91


Approximate
Constituency General Areas Interview
Days/Weekends
Hillaby Turner‟s Hall Primary School 2
Community Centre, Rock Hall 2
Saint Thomas Sharon Primary School 2
Moravian Church, Dunscombe 2
Lester Vaughan School 2
Church of God, Welchman Hall 2
St. Peter Alexandra School 2
Coleridge and Parry School 2
Christian Mission Church, Indian Ground 2
Boscobel Boys‟ School 2
Saint Lucy Half Moon Fort Primary School 2
St. Lucy‟s Church Parish Hall 2
Ignatius Byer Primary School 2
Miracle Pentecostal Faith Centre, Hope Road 2
Total Research Days 240

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 92


APPENDIX VII

Parish and Area Location of Domestic Violence

Christ Church
St. Thomas

St. Michael
St. Andrew

St. Joseph

St. George

Area Total
St. James

St. Philip
St. Peter
Area

St. John
St. Lucy
11 74 6 7 91 11 222 13 14 41 29 519
Airy Cot 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Arch Hall 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Arthur Seat 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Atlantic Shores 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
Bagatelle 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 3
Bakers 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Bakers Ave 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Bank Hall 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 3
Baxter's Rd 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Bay Gardens 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Bayland 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Belair 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2
Belleplaine 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Bobby's Lane 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Black Bess 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Black Rock 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 6
Bonnets‟ Housing 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Bonnets‟, Britton‟s Hill 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Brereton 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
Britton‟s Hill 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 3
Bush Hall 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2
Cane Garden 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Cane Gardens 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Canevale 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Carrington Village 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2
Carters Gap 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
Cave Hill 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Cave Hill 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5
Chancery Lane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
Checker Hall 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Clapham 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 93


Christ Church
St. Thomas

St. Michael
St. Andrew

St. Joseph

St. George

Area Total
St. James

St. Philip
St. Peter
Area

St. John
St. Lucy
Clermont 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Coach Hill 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Crane 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
Culloden Rd 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2
Darrell‟s Rd 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Deacons Farm 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2
Dover 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
Dunes 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
Eden Lodge 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2
Elizabeth Park 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2
Ellerton 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Fitt‟s Village 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 10
Flagstaff 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Foul Bay 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
Gall Hill 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 1 0 7
Glebe Land 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Goodland 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Graeme Hall 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
Gazettes 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 4
Green Hill 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Greenfield 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2
Guinea 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Gun Hill 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Harmony Lodge 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
Horse Hill 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Husbands 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
Indian Ground 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Ivy 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2
Kensington Lodge 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Kings St 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 4
Light Foot Lane 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Lightfoot Lane 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2
Long Bay 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
Mangrove Garden 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
Martindale‟s Road 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 94


Christ Church
St. Thomas

St. Michael
St. Andrew

St. Joseph

St. George

Area Total
St. James

St. Philip
St. Peter
Area

St. John
St. Lucy
Mason Hall St 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Maxwell 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
Maynards‟ 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Maynards‟ Housing 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Millionaire Rd 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Moon Town 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Mount Standfast 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Mullins 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Nelson St 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
New Orleans 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2
Paddock Rd 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Parkinson Field 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Payne‟s Bay 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
Pickwick Gap 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 3
Pine 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5
Pine Gardens 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Pine Housing 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Prior Park 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Rendezvous Gardens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
Rock Dundo 0 0 0 0 1 0 5 0 0 0 0 6
Rock Dundo Park 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Rock Hall 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Rowans 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Ruby 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2
Salters 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2
Sandy Crest 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Sheraton Park 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
Shorey‟s Village 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Silver Hill 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
St. Martins 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
St. David's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
St. Michael 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 5
St. Patricks 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
Station Hill 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Sugar Hill 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 95


Christ Church
St. Thomas

St. Michael
St. Andrew

St. Joseph

St. George

Area Total
St. James

St. Philip
St. Peter
Area

St. John
St. Lucy
Sunbury 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
Tangerine St 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
The Whim 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Thornburry Hill 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
Tudor Bridge 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Valley View 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Vauxhall 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
Vauxhall Gardens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
Warners Park 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
Waterford 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 4
Welches 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Welchman Hall 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Weston 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Wildey 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Work Hall 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2
Barbados 12 82 9 10 115 18 316 25 22 59 41 709

Domestic Violence in Barbados: CADRES Page 96