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AIRLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM

BY

KAAVYA KUPPA

Bachelor of Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, India, 2005

A REPORT

submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

MASTER OF SOFTWARE ENGINEERING

Department of Computing and Information Sciences


College of Engineering

KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY


Manhattan, Kansas

2008

Approved by:

[Major Professor]

Dr. Daniel Andresen

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ABSTRACT

The objective of the project is to design an Airline Reservation System application which
enables the customers to search and book flights, packages and hotels. The project has been
designed in C#.NET technology and consists of a SQL server which acts as the database for the
project.
My motivation for the project came from my enthusiasm and strong urge to learn C# and
.NET which is one of the fastest growing technologies in today’s world. The Airline Reservation
System project mainly consists of two types of users. The customers who access the information
provided by the website and the administrator who modifies and updates the information
available in the website. All the data needed for the application is stored in the form of tables in
the SQL server 2000.
The report contains the details of all the tasks carried out during the entire software
development life cycle of the Airline Reservation Project. This document depicts all the details
of the project starting from the project design to testing.

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Table of Contents

List of Figures ................................................................................................................................. 9


List of Tables ................................................................................................................................ 11
List of Tables ................................................................................................................................ 11
Acknowledgements....................................................................................................................... 12
Dedication ..................................................................................................................................... 13
CHAPTER 1 - VISION DOCUMENT......................................................................................... 14
1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 14
1.1 PURPOSE AND MOTIVATION....................................................................................... 14
1.2 PROJECT OVERVIEW ..................................................................................................... 14
.1.3 REFERENCES .................................................................................................................. 14
2. OVERALL PRODUCT DESCRIPTION ............................................................................. 15
2.1 PRODUCT PERSPECTIVE............................................................................................... 15
2.2 PRODUCT FEATURES..................................................................................................... 15
2.2.1 Customer / End user activities ..................................................................................... 15
2.2.2 Administrator Activities............................................................................................... 17
2.3 USER CHARACTERISTICS............................................................................................. 18
2.4 CONSTRAINTS ................................................................................................................. 18
2.5 ASSUMPTIONS AND DEPENDENCIES ........................................................................ 19
3. SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS ............................................................................................. 19
3.1 EXTERNAL INTERFACES .............................................................................................. 19
3.1.1 USER INTERFACE .................................................................................................... 19
3.1.3 SOFTWARE INTERFACE ......................................................................................... 20
4. FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS ..................................................................................... 20
4.1 Use Case name: User Registration...................................................................................... 21
4.2 Use Case name: User Login................................................................................................ 21
4.3 Use Case name: Contact the company................................................................................ 21
4.4 User Case name: Booking Instructions............................................................................... 22
4.5 Use Case name: Book Flights ............................................................................................. 22

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4.6 Use Case name: Book Motel .............................................................................................. 22
4.7 Use Case name: Booking Packages .................................................................................... 23
4.8 Use Case name: Login/Logout ........................................................................................... 23
4.9 Use Case name: Add/Delete or Modify Customer information ......................................... 23
4.10 Use Case name: Add/Delete or Modify flight information .............................................. 24
4.11 Use Case name: Cancellation of Reservations ................................................................. 24
4.12 Use Case name: E-mail confirmations.............................................................................. 24
4.13 Use Case name: Modifying details of webpage................................................................ 25
4.14 Use Case name: Add/Delete or Modify Motel information ............................................. 25
4.15 Use Case name: Add/Delete or Modify package information.......................................... 25
5. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................. 26
CHAPTER 2 - PROJECT PLAN.................................................................................................. 27
1. TASK BREAKDOWN ......................................................................................................... 27
1.1 INCEPTION PHASE.......................................................................................................... 27
1.2 ELABORATION PHASE .................................................................................................. 27
1.3 PRODUCTION PHASE ..................................................................................................... 28
2. COST ESTIMATE ............................................................................................................... 29
2.1 COCOMO MODEL............................................................................................................ 29
2.2 GANTT CHART ................................................................................................................ 32
3. ARCHITECTURE ELABORATION PLAN ....................................................................... 32
3.1 REVISE VISION DOCUMENT ........................................................................................ 32
3.2 REVISE PROJECT PLAN ................................................................................................. 33
3.3 ARCHITECTURE DESIGN .............................................................................................. 33
3.4 DEVELOPING PROTOTYPE ........................................................................................... 33
3.5 TEST PLAN ....................................................................................................................... 33
3.6 FORMAL TECHNICAL INSPECTORS ........................................................................... 33
3.7 FORMAL REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION ............................................................. 33
CHAPTER 3 - ARCHITECTURE DESIGN................................................................................ 34
1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 34
2. ARCHITECTURE OF THE AIRLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM................................... 34
3. PRESENTATION TIER....................................................................................................... 36

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4. BUSINESS LOGIC TIER .................................................................................................... 38
4.1 CLASS DIAGRAM ............................................................................................................ 39
4.2 SEQUENCE DIAGRAM ................................................................................................... 39
5. DATABASE TIER ............................................................................................................... 40
CHAPTER 4 - INSPECTION CHECKLIST................................................................................ 41
1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 41
2. ITEMS TO BE INSPECTED ............................................................................................... 41
3. FORMAL TECHNICAL INSPECTORS ............................................................................. 41
4. FORMAL TECHNICAL INSPECTION CHECKLIST....................................................... 41
CHAPTER 5 - FORMAL REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION............................................... 43
CHAPTER 6 - COMPONENT DESIGN ..................................................................................... 47
1. INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE .................................................................................... 47
2. CLASS DIAGRAM .............................................................................................................. 47
2.1 CLASS DESCRIPTIONS................................................................................................... 48
2.1.1 USER ........................................................................................................................... 48
2.1.2 ADMINISTRATOR .................................................................................................... 48
2.1.3 CUSTOMER................................................................................................................ 49
2.1.4 PACKAGE................................................................................................................... 50
2.1.5 FLIGHT ....................................................................................................................... 50
2.1.6 HOTEL ........................................................................................................................ 51
CHAPTER 7 - SOFTWARE QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN ................................................. 52
1. PURPOSE............................................................................................................................. 52
2. REFERENCE DOCUMENTS.............................................................................................. 52
3. MANAGEMENT.................................................................................................................. 52
3.1 ORGANIZATION .............................................................................................................. 52
3.2 RESPONSIBILITIES ......................................................................................................... 53
3.3 TASKS................................................................................................................................ 54
4. DOCUMENTATION ........................................................................................................... 54
5. STANDARDS, PRACTICES, CONVENTIONS AND METRICS .................................... 54
6. REVIEWS AND AUDITS ................................................................................................... 55
7. TEST AND PROBLEM REPORTING................................................................................ 55

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8. TOOLS, TECHNIQUES AND METHODOLOGIES.......................................................... 56
9. RECORDS COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE AND RETENTION ................................. 56
10. DELIVERABLES............................................................................................................... 56
CHAPTER 8 - TEST PLAN ......................................................................................................... 58
1. TEST PLAN IDENTIFIER .................................................................................................. 58
2. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 58
2.1 OBJECTIVES ..................................................................................................................... 58
2.2 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................... 58
2.3 DEFINITIONS.................................................................................................................... 59
3. TEST ITEMS ........................................................................................................................ 59
4. APPROACH ......................................................................................................................... 59
4.1 UNIT TESTING ................................................................................................................. 60
4.2 INTEGRATION TESTING................................................................................................ 60
4.3 REGRESSION TESTING .................................................................................................. 60
4.4 ACCEPTANCE TESTING................................................................................................. 61
4.5 SYSTEM TESTING ........................................................................................................... 61
5. TEST CASES ....................................................................................................................... 61
5.1 TEST CASE 1 – USER LOGIN ......................................................................................... 61
5.2 TEST CASE 2 – USER REGISTRATION ........................................................................ 61
5.3 TEST CASE 3 – USER REGISTRATION ........................................................................ 62
5.4 TEST CASE 4 – SEARCH AND BOOK FLIGHTS ......................................................... 62
5.5 TEST CASE 5 – SEARCH AND BOOK PACKAGES..................................................... 62
5.6 TEST CASE 6 – SEARCH AND BOOK HOTELS........................................................... 63
6. PASS OR FAIL CRITERIA ................................................................................................ 63
7. SUSPENSION CRITERIA AND RESUMPTION REQUIREMENTS............................... 63
7.1 SUSPENSION CRITERIA................................................................................................. 63
7.2 RESUMPTION REQUIREMENT ..................................................................................... 64
8. TEST DELIVERABLES ...................................................................................................... 64
CHAPTER 9 - ASSESSMENT EVALUATION ......................................................................... 65
1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 65
2. TEST CASE RESULT SUMMARY.................................................................................... 65

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3. DETAILED TEST RESULTS.............................................................................................. 66
3.1 MANUAL TESTING ......................................................................................................... 66
3.1.1 TC # 1 – USER LOGIN............................................................................................... 66
3.1.2 TC # 2 - USER REGISTRATION............................................................................... 66
3.1.3 TC # 3 – SEARCH AND BOOK FLIGHTS ............................................................... 67
3.1.4 TC # 4 – SEARCH AND BOOK PACKAGES........................................................... 68
3.1.5 TC # 5 - SEARCH AND BOOK HOTELS ................................................................. 68
3.1.6 TC # 6 - ADMINISTRATOR SIGN IN ...................................................................... 69
3.1.7 TC # 7 – NEW FLIGHT/PACKAGE/HOTEL ADDITION ....................................... 70
3.1.8 TC # 8 – UPDATING FLIGHT, PACKAGE, MOTEL DETAILS ............................ 70
3.2 PERFORMANCE TESTING ............................................................................................. 71
3.2.1 Home page of Airline Reservation System website..................................................... 72
3.2.2 Login Page of the Airline Reservation System............................................................ 74
3.2.3 Flight Search and booking page of the Airline Reservation System ........................... 75
4. OBSERVATIONS ................................................................................................................ 76
CHAPTER 10 - USER MANUAL ............................................................................................... 81
1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 81
2. INSTALLATION AND SETUP .......................................................................................... 81
2.1 REQUIRED HARDWARE ................................................................................................ 81
2.2 REQUIRED SOFTWARE.................................................................................................. 81
2.3 REQUIRED NETWORK CONFIGURATION ................................................................. 82
2.4 SOFTWARE SET-UP ........................................................................................................ 82
3. AIRLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM USAGE FOR CUSTOMERS................................. 88
3.1 REGISTER FEATURE ...................................................................................................... 88
3.2 FLIGHT SEARCH AND BOOKING ................................................................................ 90
3.3 HOTEL SEARCH AND BOOKING ................................................................................. 92
3.4 PACKAGE SEARCH AND BOOKING............................................................................ 95
CHAPTER 11 - PROJECT EVALUATION ................................................................................ 98
1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 98
2. PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED........................................................................................... 98
2.1 SOLUTION DOMAIN RESEARCH AND LEARNING .................................................. 98

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2.2 LEARNING ASP.NET AND C# LANGUAGE ................................................................ 98
2.3 SECURITY ISSUES........................................................................................................... 98
2.4 JMETER ............................................................................................................................. 99
3. SOURCE LINES OF CODE ................................................................................................ 99
4. PROJECT DURATION........................................................................................................ 99
5. LESSONS LEARNT .......................................................................................................... 101
REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................... 102

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List of Figures

Figure 1 - Customer use case diagram.......................................................................................... 15


Figure 2 - administrator use case diagram .................................................................................... 18
Figure 3- gantt chart...................................................................................................................... 32
Figure 4 - Three Tier Architecture................................................................................................ 35
Figure 5 - page flow diagram for customer .................................................................................. 38
Figure 6 - class diagram................................................................................................................ 39
Figure 7 - sequence diagram for customer.................................................................................... 39
Figure 8 - class diagram................................................................................................................ 47
Figure 9 - user class ...................................................................................................................... 48
Figure 10 - administrator class...................................................................................................... 48
Figure 11- customer class ............................................................................................................. 49
Figure 12 - package class.............................................................................................................. 50
Figure 13 - flight class .................................................................................................................. 50
Figure 14 - hotel class ................................................................................................................... 51
Figure 15 - Performance and Maintenance in Control Panel........................................................ 83
Figure 16 -IIS................................................................................................................................ 83
Figure 17 - Creating a New Virtual Directory .............................................................................. 84
Figure 18 - Virtual Directory Creating Wizard........................................................................... 85
Figure 19 - Virtual Directory Alias............................................................................................... 86
Figure 20 - Home Page of Airline Reservation System................................................................ 88
Figure 21 - Customer Registration Page....................................................................................... 89
Figure 22 - Customer Home Page................................................................................................. 90
Figure 23 - FlightSearch Page....................................................................................................... 91
Figure 24 - Flight Booking Confirmation Page ........................................................................... 92
Figure 25 - Hotel Search page ...................................................................................................... 93
Figure 26 - Hotel Booking Confirmation...................................................................................... 94
Figure 27 - Package Search page .................................................................................................. 95
Figure 28 - Package Confirmation page ....................................................................................... 96

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Figure 29 - figure showing the task breakdown for each phase ................................................. 100

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List of Tables

Table 1 - adjustment factor table .................................................................................................. 30


Table 2- ASP.NET webforms and their purpose .......................................................................... 37
Table 3 - inspection checklist ....................................................................................................... 41
Table 4- user/customer pages testing summary............................................................................ 65
Table 5 - Administrator pages testing summary ........................................................................... 65
Table 6 - tc # 1 - user login ........................................................................................................... 66
Table 7 - tc # 2 - user registration ................................................................................................. 66
Table 8 - tc # 3 search and book flights ........................................................................................ 67
Table 9 - tc # 4 search and book packages.................................................................................... 68
Table 10 - tc # 5 search and book hotels....................................................................................... 68
Table 11 - tc # 6 Administrator sign in ......................................................................................... 69
Table 12 - new flight /hotel/.package addition ............................................................................. 70
Table 13 - updating flight, package, motel details........................................................................ 70
Table 14 - Project BreakDown and Duration ............................................................................. 100
Table 15 - : Activities and allotted time for all the Phases of MSE project ............................... 100

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Acknowledgements

I would like to thank Dr. Daniel Andresen my major professor who has helped me and
guided me through the entire life cycle of the project. I would also like to thank Dr. Torben
Amtoft and Dr. Mitchell L.Neilsen for accepting to serve on my committee.
I would also like to specially thank my parents for their constant moral support and
encouragement throughout the project. It is they who have helped me achieve all my dreams
through their blessings throughout my life.

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Dedication

I would like to dedicate the MSE project Airline Reservation System to my mother Mrs.
A.Uma Devi and my father Mr.K.V.S.Prasad .

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CHAPTER 1 - VISION DOCUMENT

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 PURPOSE AND MOTIVATION


The main purpose of this vision document is to list the requirements of the Airline
Reservation System project. This document also helps us to collect and analyze the ideas
gathered for the project. This vision document will be subject to change, if more requirements
are added to the project. This document is mainly prepared to set stage for the design phase of
the project. The document being prepared is the first version of vision document for the Airline
Reservation System project.
C#.NET is a new technology which is being used a lot in the IT field. My interest to learn
this new technology has prompted me to take up this project, which would set the stage for the
applications I would be developing in the future.

1.2 PROJECT OVERVIEW


The Airline Reservation System project is an implementation of a general Airline
Ticketing website like Orbitz, which helps the customers to search the availability and prices of
various airline tickets, along with the different packages available with the reservations. This
project also covers various features like online registration of the users, modifying the details of
the website by the management staff or administrator of the website, by adding, deleting or
modifying the customer details, flights or packages information. In general, this website would
be designed to perform like any other airline ticketing website available online.

.1.3 REFERENCES
Some of the references used for preparing the vision document include:
1. http://inkboard.sourceforge.net/docs/VisionDocument.pdf
2. www.orbitz.com
3. IEEE document for Software Requirements Specifications
4. E-Draw software is used to generate the use case diagrams

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5. wikipedia
6. MSE Portfolio presentation I lecture by Dr. Deloach, on the CIS website

2. OVERALL PRODUCT DESCRIPTION

2.1 PRODUCT PERSPECTIVE


The Airline Reservation System project uses the .NET framework 1.1 and is completely
independent. The project itself is a bigger product and does not need to be introduced into a
larger system. The application would be running on a Windows XP/2000 Operating system

2.2 PRODUCT FEATURES


The Airline Reservation System has the following features:
This project is mainly intended for two types of audiences. One is the customer or the end
user and the other is the administrator of the website. Some of the major functions of the product
can be categorized under two different categories that are for the administrator and the user.

2.2.1 Customer / End user activities

Figure 1 - Customer use case diagram

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The above use case diagram depicts all the functions or activities that a user or a
customer can perform on the application. They can be discussed in detail as follows:

Home Page: Like all the other airline websites available online, the user can access the user
home page of the Airline Reservation System website, after he logs into the system.Here, he can
look up information regarding flights, packages and motels.

Login and Register: The Airline Reservation System also comes with the customer registration
details page, where the customer can enter his details and register. He can also create a username
and password. Moreover, he will also be able to modify the registration information in case of a
change in his e-mail address or any other information.

Booking Flights: The customer can also search for the flights available and reserve his place on
the flight by purchasing a ticket.

Book Motels: Different Airline websites like Orbitz also offer various deals for booking Motels
along with the airline tickets. So, the customer will also be able to view this functionality on the
website.

Book Packages: This functionality is similar to the motel booking function, except the fact that
the customer can look up various touring packages available at the person’s destination.

Contact the Company: The Customer can also call the company if he has any concerns or
questions related to the bookings he has made online.

Booking Instructions: The website also provides instructions to the customers on how to book
airline tickets or motels along with the different packages.

Some of the functions of the Airline Reservation System, such as creating, maintaining
and updating the database are available only to the administrator. The functions of the
administrator, explained in detail are as follows:

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2.2.2 Administrator Activities

Login/Logout: The administrator has to login first in order to be able to make changes to the
Airline Reservation System, by adding, deleting or modifying the data in the Airline Reservation
System database. After making the necessary changes, he then has to logout of the system, in
order to prevent misuse of the data.

Add/Modify Customer Information: Daily the Airline Reservation System will have many
customers registering with the website and many of them unsubscribing. Only the administrator
will have the sole rights to modify the database accordingly.

Add/Modify Flight Information: The Administrator also has the sole rights to add, delete or
modify the flight information. Sometimes, flights get cancelled for some reason, so such flights
would be removed from the list of flights available to the customer. Similarly whenever any
flight information has to be modified or if any new flights need to be added to the database, these
operations are performed by the administrator.

Add/ Modify Motel Information: The administrator can also add/delete or modify information
related to different motels. This information can be the number of rooms available at the motel,
the prices etc.

Cancellation of Reservations: Sometimes, after making a reservation, a customer might cancel


the reservation he has made. So, the administrator also handles such special situations and sends
the customer an e-mail confirmation after deleting the specific transaction.

E-mail confirmations: Whenever a customer makes or cancels a reservation, the administrator


is responsible for sending confirmation e-mails to the customer, confirming the transaction.

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Login/Logout

Add/Delete/Modify
Customer Information

Add/Delete/Modify
flight information

Add/Delete/Modify
Administrator Motel information

Add/Delete/Modify
Package Information

Cancellation of
Reservations

Modify details of
webpage

E-mail
confirmations

Figure 2 - administrator use case diagram

2.3 USER CHARACTERISTICS


There are two kinds of users for the Airline Reservation System. One is the customer and
the other is the administrator. The customers do not need to have any prior training to use the
application. However, instructions for making flight and motel reservations would be provided to
them on the airline website. The administrators would however need to be trained in order to use
the application.

2.4 CONSTRAINTS
Incase of changes made to the database, the application should be able to show the
updated information on the website, without much delay. The database for the project is designed
to be of moderate size. Currently, the application is designed to be able to run in Internet

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Explorer. The Airline Reservation system will be designed in such a way that, it can be run on a
Windows XP/2000 and IIS server. The .NET technology will be used to code the project and
SQL server 2000 will act as the database for the project. The project will run on Internet
Explorer and it should be installed on User’s system.

2.5 ASSUMPTIONS AND DEPENDENCIES


There are no assumptions as of now. To be updated in later versions of the vision
document.

3. SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS

3.1 EXTERNAL INTERFACES


The different types of interfaces that we would come across while developing the Airline
Reservation System application are as follows:
• User Interface
• Hardware Interface
• Software Interface

3.1.1 USER INTERFACE


There are two types of users for the Airline Reservation System project. One is the
customer and the other is the administrator. Both the customer and administrator user interface
would be a graphical user interface. The graphical user interface for the customer home page
would be as follows:

IMAGE

About us AdminPage How to book Contact Us Home

Email ID
Images Password

L New
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Figure representing the sample Customer GUI

The Graphical User Interface would mainly consist of Hyperlinks, Data entry fields like
the E-mail Id field, push down buttons like the Login button etc.
The administrator of the website would also have a similar Graphical User Interface.
After an administrator logs onto the system, the home page for the administrator would be as
follows:
Figure representing the sample Administrator Interface

IMAGE

Customerdetails Flight details Hoteldetails Packagedetails Cancellations

3.1.2 HARDWARE INTERFACE


The Airline Reservation System does not use any hardware interface

3.1.3 SOFTWARE INTERFACE


The application should run on a Windows XP/2000 Operating System. Since the
application needs a database to store all the customer details, airline, motel and package
information, SQL server 2000 would be used.
Visual Studio.NET 2003 would be used for creating the application. All the coding will
be done in C#.

4. FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS
The functional requirements of the Airline Reservation System are divided among the
customer and the administrator of the application.
These functional requirements can be explained in detail as follows:

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4.1 Use Case name: User Registration
• Description: This use case describes the scenario where the user registers with the
application by providing all the necessary details, in order to make reservations or
bookings for flights, motels, special packages.
• Actor: User or the Customer
• Input: The user or the customer will have to provide all the necessary details present in
the customer registration form of the application.
• Output: All the details entered in the customer registration page will be verified and
accepted by the system into the database.

4.2 Use Case name: User Login


• Description: This use case describes the scenario where the user logs into the
application, with the username and password he has provided while registering with the
system.
• Actor: User or the Customer
• Input: The user or the customer creates a username and password at the time of
registering with the system. He then uses them to logon to the system and make
reservations or view any information.
• Output: The application then verifies the authenticity of the username and password that
the customer has provided and allows the user to view the information available on the
system, if the username and password are valid.

4.3 Use Case name: Contact the company


• Description: This use case describes the scenario where the user contacts the company
for any information.
• Actor: User or the Customer
• Input: The customer can contact the airline company, requesting them for any
information he needs.
• Output: The application verifies the authenticity of the username and password that the
customer has provided and allows the user to view the contact information for the
company.

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4.4 User Case name: Booking Instructions
• Description: This use case describes the scenario where the user views the instructions
for booking flights, packages, or motels.
• Actor: User or the Customer
• Input: After the customer logs onto the application with his username and password, he
can look up the instructions posted on the website for booking flights, packages or
motels.
• Output: The application verifies the authenticity of the username and password and
displays the how to book instructions page.

4.5 Use Case name: Book Flights


• Description: This use case describes the scenario where the user books airline tickets.
• Actor: User or the Customer
• Input: After logging into the application, the customer looks up the information related
to various airlines and checks the availability of seats on flights. If he finds that there are
any available tickets, he then purchases them.
• Output: The application verifies the authenticity of the username and password and then
displays information related to various flights to the customer.

4.6 Use Case name: Book Motel


• Description: This use case describes the scenario where the user books motels at the time
of airline ticket reservation
• Actor: Customer or the user
• Input: After logging onto the application, the customer looks up the information for all
the available motels at his destination.
• Output: The application verifies the authenticity of the username and password and then
displays information pertaining to various motels at the customer’s destination.

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4.7 Use Case name: Booking Packages
• Description: This use case describes the scenario where the user books different touring
packages at the airline ticket reservation
• Actor: Customer or the user
• Input: The customer looks up information regarding various touring packages available
at his destination at the time of airline ticket reservation.
• Output: The application verifies the authenticity of the username and password of the
customer and then displays information of various touring packages available at
customer’s choice of place.

The administrator activities use cases will be described here:

4.8 Use Case name: Login/Logout


• Description: This use case describes the scenario where the administrator of the
application, logs into the system and logs out after the work is done.
• Actor: Administrator
• Input: The administrator of the website logs into the application with the username and
password provided to him.
• Output: The application verifies the authenticity and displays the home page of the
administrator.

4.9 Use Case name: Add/Delete or Modify Customer information


• Description: This use case describes the scenario where the administrator adds, deletes
or modifies customer information in the system database
• Actor: Administrator
• Input: The administrator of the applications logs onto the system with his username and
password.
• Output: The application authenticates the administrator, and then displays the page
where the administrator can add new customers to the database, or delete existing
customers or modify details of customers in the database.

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4.10 Use Case name: Add/Delete or Modify flight information
• Description: This use case describes the scenario where the administrator adds, deletes
or modifies flight information in the application database
• Actor: Administrator
• Input: The administrator logs onto the system with the username and password provided
to him.
• Output: The application authenticates the administrator, by verifying the username and
password. Then the application displays the page where the administrator can add new
flights to the database, delete the flights that have been cancelled or modify information
for the flights.

4.11 Use Case name: Cancellation of Reservations


• Description: This use case describes the scenario where the administrator handles the
cancellation of reservations by the customers.
• Actor: Administrator
• Input: The administrator logs onto the system with the given username and password.
• Output: The application authenticates the administrator and then displays the page
where the administrator looks up the id of the customer who has requested cancellation
of reservation. After canceling the reservation, the administrator then sends a
confirmation e-mail to the customer.

4.12 Use Case name: E-mail confirmations


• Description: This use case describes the scenario where the administrator sends e-mail
confirmations to the customers of the application.
• Actor: Administrator
• Input: The administrator logs onto the application with the username and password
provided.
• Output: The application then authenticates the administrator and displays the page where
the administrator can send e-mail confirmations to the customer. These e-mail

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confirmations may be sent in cases where the customer has cancelled a reservation or
changed the personal information available on the website.

4.13 Use Case name: Modifying details of webpage


• Description: This use case describes the scenario where the administrator logs onto the
application to modify the details of the airline website
• Actor: Administrator
• Input: The administrator logs onto the application with the username and password
provided to him
• Output: After verifying the username and password of the administrator, the application
then allows the administrator to login. The administrators can then browse through the
website and change the details of any webpage in the Airline Reservation system
application.

4.14 Use Case name: Add/Delete or Modify Motel information


• Description: This use case describes the scenario where the administrator adds, deletes
or modifies motel information in the database.
• Actor: Administrator
• Input: The administrator logs onto the system with the username and password provided
to him.
• Output: The application authenticates the administrator, by verifying the username and
password. Then the application displays the page where the administrator can add new
motels to the database, delete a specific motel from the list of motels, since there are no
more available rooms there. He can even update the price per room of each motel. To
make it easier, the administrator might assign a unique id for each hotel.

4.15 Use Case name: Add/Delete or Modify package information


• Description: This use case describes the scenario where the administrator adds, deletes
or modifies package information in the application database
• Actor: Administrator

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• Input: The administrator logs onto the system with the username and password provided
to him.
• Output: The application authenticates the administrator, by verifying the username and
password. Then the application displays the page where the administrator can add new
packages to the database, delete the packages that are no longer available or modify
information for any particular package.

5. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
The Airline Reservation System application should be able to respond to the queries
submitted by the customer without much delay. When a user searches for a flight leaving from a
particular place to another place, the application should not take much time to return the results,
similarly for the motel and package information. Considering that the application is of moderate
size, it should be able to display 10 results at a time on each page, when the customer looks up
for any particular data. Since the Airline Reservation websites have much traffic, the user should
also be able to logon to the system using high speed internet. Most of the requests sent to the
application should be answered in less than 5 seconds.

26
CHAPTER 2 - PROJECT PLAN

1. TASK BREAKDOWN

1.1 INCEPTION PHASE


The Inception Phase is the first phase of a software development life cycle. The main
objective of the inception phase is to establish the business case for the system and define the
scope of the system. The inception phase of the Airline Reservation System project mainly
focuses on defining the project requirements. The primary documents created in the inception
phase consist of the Vision document, Software Quality Assurance Plan and the Project Plan.
The Vision document, which is one of the outcomes of the inception phase, mainly
focuses on core project requirements and the key features. It also discusses the main features of
the project along with the interfaces of the project. The next document which is an outcome of
the inception phase is the project plan document. The project plan document as the name says is
mainly used to document the schedule of the project as well as the time required for each phase
of the project. This plan, gives us an estimate of when the project will be completed. The
Software Quality Assurance Plan, which is also an outcome of the inception phase documents
the standards and conventions that need to be followed in order to ensure good quality of the end
product.
At the end of the inception phase, the developer will give a presentation to the
supervisory committee after submitting all the documents necessary. This phase will be marked
complete, once all the documentation for the phase I is reviewed and approved by the committee.

1.2 ELABORATION PHASE


The next phase in the software development lifecycle is the elaboration phase. The main
purpose of the elaboration phase is to establish a strong architectural foundation for the Airline
Reservation System project. It is the most critical phase of all the phases of the software
development lifecycle. The entire architectural design of the Airline Reservation System will be
documented using the appropriate UML diagrams. In this phase, revisions on the initial versions
of the Vision document, Project Plan document will be made based on the suggestions made by
the Supervisory Committee members. In the elaboration phase, each component in the Airline
Reservation System architecture will be documented at the interface level. Another deliverable

27
of this phase is the Test Plan which documents all the testing activities that will be carried out on
the project and also states how to report and track the test results. The two technical inspectors of
the project also perform an architectural review on the project and provide feedback by
submitting the formal technical inspection letters which are based upon their findings.
At the end of this phase, the developer will demonstrate an executable prototype of the
project and submit all the documentation required for the phase II of the project. The deliverables
of this phase can be stated as follows:
• Vision Document 2.0
• Project Plan 2.0
• Formal Requirement Specification
• Architecture Design
• Test Plan
• Formal Technical Inspection – submitted by two individual MSE students
• Executable Architecture Prototype
Once all the above documents and the prototype is reviewed and accepted by the
Supervisory Committee, the Elaboration phase is said to be complete.

1.3 PRODUCTION PHASE


The production phase of the Airline Reservation System project mainly focuses on the
implementation and testing of the project. In this phase, the entire working code for the project
will be constructed and all the documentation pertaining to the project is completed. In this
phase, the entire code for the Airline Reservation System project will be tested to ensure that it
has met all the requirements. All the test results will also be analyzed and documented. A user
manual is also produced for the project which describes how to install, run and use the tool
efficiently.
At the end of the production phase, the developer of the project will give a presentation to
the supervisory committee and will also demonstrate the entire working of the software product.
This presentation is the last presentation, and this phase of the project will be completed once the
committee members have reviewed and approved all the documentation and the working code of

28
the Airline Reservation System project. Once this phase is said to complete, then the MSE
project is also said to be complete.

2. COST ESTIMATE

2.1 COCOMO MODEL


The Constructive Cost Model known as the COCOMO Model, has been designed in 1981
by Barry Boehm, to give an estimate of number of man months it will take to develop a software
product. The model also estimates the development schedule for the project in months and gives
us a schedule distribution for all the major phases of a project.
The COCOMO models are developed for three classes of software projects. They are as
follows:
• Organic Projects - These are relatively small and simple software projects in which
small teams with good application experience work towards a set of less than rigid
requirements.
• Semi – Detached Projects – These are intermediate size software projects in which
teams with mixed experience levels must meet a mix of rigid and less than rigid
requirements.
• Embedded Projects – These are software projects that must be developed within a set of
tight hardware, software and operational constraints.

The Airline Reservation System project has an average complexity and fair flexibility.
Thus, this project is classified as an organic project under the COCOMO model.
The equations as they are modified for the organic projects are as follows:
Effort = 3.2 * EAF * (Size) ^ 1.05
Time = 2.5 * (Effort) ^ 0.38 where
Effort = number of staff months (PM)
EAF = effort adjustment factor
Size = number of lines of code for completed product. It is measures in KLOC (thousands
of lines of code)
Time = total number of months

29
The Effort Adjustment Factor mentioned above is the product of 15 adjustment
parameters. Each adjustment parameter is categorized as very low, low, nominal, high or very
high. Each adjustment factor along with the range of values it lies within is shown in the
following table:

Table 1 - adjustment factor table


IDENTIFIER EFFORT ADJUSTMENT FACTOR RANGE

RELY Required Reliability 0.75 – 1.40

DATA Database Size 0.94 – 1.16

CPLX Product Complexity 0.70 – 1.65

TIME Execution Time Constraint 1.00 – 1.66

STOR Main Storage Constraint 1.00 – 1.56

VIRT Virtual Machine Volatility 0.87 – 1.30

TURN Computer Turnaround Time 0.87 – 1.15

ACAP Analyst Capability 1.46 – 0.71

AEXP Applications Experience 1.29 – 0.82

PCAP Programmer Capability 1.42 – 0.70

VEXP Virtual Machine Experience 1.21 – 0.90

LEXP Language Experience 1.14 – 0.95

MODP Use of Modern Practices 1.24 – 0.82

TOOL Use of Software Tools 1.24 – 0.83

SCED Required Development Schedule 1.23 – 1.10

The adjustment factors for the Airline Reservation System are as follows :
• RELY as nominal with a value of 1.00
• DATA as nominal with a value of 1.00
• CPLX as low with a value of 0.75
• TIME as nominal with a value of 1.00

30
• STOR as low with a value of 1.00
• VIRT as nominal with a value of 1.03
• TURN as low with a value of 0.88
• ACAP as high with a value of 0.9
• AEXP as nominal with a value of 0.9
• PCAP as nominal with a value of 0.9
• VEXP as nominal with a value of 1.00
• LEXP as nominal with a value of 1.00
• TOOL as high with a value of 0.9
• SCED as nominal with a value of 1.00

Being a beginner to the C#.NET technology, my experience with the technology is not
very high, but only nominal, so I have assigned a value of 0.9 for the applications experience.
Since I will be implementing the project while learning C#.NET,
With the help of above stated values, the EAF for the Airline Reservation System project
is calculated as EAF = 0.45. Also by estimating the size of the project we have the value 3.0.
Since we already have the formulae for Effort and Time, we can calculate the values as
follows:
Effort = 3.2 * 0.45 * 3.0 ^ 1.05 = 4.56 staff months
Time = 2.5 * 4.56 ^ 0.38 = 4.44 months (development time)

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2.2 GANTT CHART
The Gantt chart for the Airline Reservation System project can be depicted as follows:

Figure 3- gantt chart

3. ARCHITECTURE ELABORATION PLAN


The following tasks have to be completed by the end of Phase II of the Airline
Reservation System project.

3.1 REVISE VISION DOCUMENT


The vision document which is produced at the end of Phase I will be revised in order to
make sure that all the requirements for the project have been represented. All the requirements
will be ranked in order of their importance. At the end of phase I of the project, the supervisory

32
committee members will provide suggestions to the developer regarding improving the vision
document. All the changes mentioned by the committee will be made in the revised document
and the correct document will be submitted at the end of Phase II for approval.

3.2 REVISE PROJECT PLAN


Similar to the vision document, the project plan document, submitted at the end of Phase
I, will also be reviewed by the supervisory committee and the updated document will be
submitted by the developer at the end of Phase II. This updated document will provide us with an
updated estimate of cost, size and effort required for the project. Finally, this document will be
submitted to the major professor for approval.

3.3 ARCHITECTURE DESIGN


The complete project design of the Airline Reservation System project, will be
documented using the UML diagrams.

3.4 DEVELOPING PROTOTYPE


The architecture executable prototype of the Airline Reservation System project will be
built to illustrate that all the requirements stated in the project’s vision document have been met.

3.5 TEST PLAN


A test plan will be developed at the end of the Phase II, which documents all the testing
activities that will be performed on the Airline Reservation system project, to ensure that the
project has satisfied all the requirements that have been mentioned in the vision document. This
test plan will also include evaluation criteria for all the critical use cases of the project.

3.6 FORMAL TECHNICAL INSPECTORS


The architecture design of the Airline Reservation system project will be inspected by
two other MSE students, Sandhya Bathini and Srunokshi Neelakantan.

3.7 FORMAL REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION


The Object Constraint Language will be used to define and verify the formal
specification of the product.

33
CHAPTER 3 - ARCHITECTURE DESIGN

1. INTRODUCTION
The main purpose of the Architecture Design document is to discuss the architectural
design for the Online Reservation System project in a clear and concise form. This design
document will give a detailed description of the presentation tier, the middle tier which consists
of the class diagrams, sequence diagrams for the Airline Reservation System and finally the data
tier. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standardized visual specification language for
object modeling. Thus, the class diagrams and the sequence diagrams depicted in the
Architecture design document will be developed according to the UML standard notation.

2. ARCHITECTURE OF THE AIRLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM


The architecture of the Airline Reservation System is based on the three-tier architecture.
This three-tier architecture mainly consists of three layers namely:
• Presentation Tier
• Business Tier
• Data Access Tier

The Presentation Tier converts and displays information into a human legible form. This
tier displays information related to services such as browsing the Airline website, purchasing
tickets etc. It communicates with the other tiers by outputting results to the browser/client tier
and all the other tiers. The Business Logic tier is mainly responsible for information exchange
between the user interface and the database of the project. The final layer of the three tiered
architecture is the Data Access tier, which mainly consists of the Database servers. The
information related to the Airline Reservation System is stored and retrieved from here.

34
A simple representation of the three-tier architecture would be as follows:

Figure 4 - Three Tier Architecture

35
The architecture of the Airline Reservation System can be depicted as follows:

This includes the ASP.NET


Presentation Tier
web forms and the ASP.NET user
controls for the Airline Reservation

Business Logic Tier This includes the C# classes or


the C# business components for the

This includes the Database


Data Access Tier
servers for the Airline Reservation
System project. SQL server 2000 is

The three tier architecture would be discussed in detail in the following sections:

3. PRESENTATION TIER
The presentation tier is the top most layer of the Airline-Reservation system application.
The presentation tier is mainly responsible for the user interface of the application which deals
with the presentation of data to the user. The presentation tier of the Airline Reservation System
is mainly formed by the ASP.NET web forms. In the case of the Airline Reservation system
project, I have used the Visual Studio 2003.NET to create the web forms. Each web form will
have the extension .aspx and there are several web forms created for the user and the
administrator of the website.
The web pages of the Airline Reservation System project are as follows for the User as
well as the Administrator. The following table shows the ASP.NET web forms for the users of
the Airline Reservation System:

36
Table 2- ASP.NET webforms and their purpose

ASP.NET Web PURPOSE


Forms

Home.aspx The home page for the Kansas Air Airline Reservation
System website

Register.aspx The page provided for the Customer Registration

Customer.aspx The home page that appears after the customer logs in

FlightSearch.aspx The page which helps the customer to search for the
available flights

FlightBooking.aspx The page which enables the customer to make


reservations for the flights available online.

PackageSearch.aspx The page which helps the customer to search for the
packages available.

PackageBooking.aspx The page which enables the customer to make


reservations for the packages available online.

HotelSearch.aspx The page which helps the customer to search for the
available hotels and rooms in each hotel.

HotelBooking.aspx The page which enables the customer to make


reservations for the hotel rooms available online.

About.aspx This page gives the customer some information about the
Airline Reservation System website.

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3.1 PAGE FLOW DIAGRAM
The page flow diagram for the users of the Airline Reservation System would be as
follows:
Figure 5 - page flow diagram for customer

The home page of the Airline Reservation System has the login id and the password field
for the user to login. So the home page can also be used as the login page for the customer.

4. BUSINESS LOGIC TIER


The Business Logic Tier is the middle tier of the three-tier architecture. The business
logic for the Airline Reservation System would be present here. In the case of my project, the C#
classes would be performing the duty of the business logic. This is the layer which is responsible
for the information exchange between the user interface and the database.
The Airline Reservation system mainly consists of the Users, which can be further
classified into the customer and administrator of the Airline Reservation System website.
The class diagram for the Airline Reservation System would be as follows:

38
4.1 CLASS DIAGRAM

Figure 6 - class diagram

4.2 SEQUENCE DIAGRAM


The sequence diagram for the Customer of the Airline Reservation System would be as follows:
Figure 7 - sequence diagram for customer

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5. DATABASE TIER
The database tier is the final and last tier of the three-tier architecture. All the data related
to the Airline Reservation System project is stored and retrieved from here. For this project I
have used the Microsoft SQL server to create the database. To be specific, Microsoft SQL server
2000 is being used. It is very easy to work with and makes creation and maintaining of tables
very easy.

40
CHAPTER 4 - INSPECTION CHECKLIST

1. INTRODUCTION
The major purpose of the document is to provide a checklist to the formal technical
inspectors of the Airline Reservation System project. The technical inspectors of the project will
be provided with a checklist which they will use to verify the correctness and the consistency of
the Airline Reservation System project. This helps the developer to understand any shortcomings
present in the project.

2. ITEMS TO BE INSPECTED
The items that are to be inspected by the Formal Technical Inspectors are as follows:
• Vision Document
• Architecture Design Document
• UML diagrams like the class diagram, sequence diagram
• Formal specification document

3. FORMAL TECHNICAL INSPECTORS


The formal technical inspectors for the Airline Reservation System project are as follows:
• Srunokshi Neelakantan
• Sandhya Bathini

4. FORMAL TECHNICAL INSPECTION CHECKLIST


The formal technical inspection checklist for the Airline Reservation System project
would be as follows:

Table 3 - inspection checklist

Items to be inspected Pass /Fail/Partial Comments


1. The document follows the MSE portfolio
standard which is described at:
http://mse.cis.ksu.edu/mse-portfolio.htm

41
2. All the classes used in the USE model are
represented in the class diagram
3. The multiplicities have been correctly
depicted in the class diagram
4. All the symbols used in the class diagram
are according to the UML standards
5. Classes are clearly depicted in the class
diagram
6. The symbols used in the sequence diagram
correspond to the UML standards
7. Sequence diagram matches the class
diagram
8. All the diagrams are correct and match the
documentation presented to the technical
inspectors

42
CHAPTER 5 - FORMAL REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION

model AirlineReservationSystem

----- CLASSES

class User
attributes
userid: string
password: string
emailid: string
name: string
loginstatus : Boolean
operations
VerifyLogin(email : string , password : string) : Boolean = user.allInstances -> exists (
u: user | u.emailid = emailid and u.password = password)
end

class Customer < User


attributes
userid : string
password : string
customername : string
emailid : string
address : string
phonenumber : integer
creditcardnumber : integer
age : integer
operations
register()
login() : Boolean

43
searchflights()
bookflights()
searchpackages()
bookpackages()
searchhotels()
bookhotels()
browse()
end

class flight()
attributes
flightnumber : integer
noofseats : integer
source : string
destination :string
end

class hotel()
attributes
hotelname : string
hotelid : integer
noofrooms: integer
end

class package()
attributes
packageid : integer
end

class seat()
attributes

44
seatnumber : integer
end
---- ASSOCIATIONS

-- This association is being written to indicate that there should be some number of seats
on the plane greater than zero.
association planeseats between
Flight[1] role belongto
Seat[10..300] role has
end

-- A customer can book any no.of seats on the flight, depending upon the capacity of the
flight.
Association customerandseats between
Customer[1] role bookedby
Seat[1..*] role books
End

-- A customer should be seated in the flight in only one seat.


Association customerseated between
Customer[1] role holds
Seat[1] role isheld
End

---- CONSTRAINTS

-- This constraint is written to indicate that each customer who registers to the Airline
Reservation system website should have a unique id.
Context user
inv uniqueid:
user.allInstances -> forAll( u1,u2 | u1 <> u2 implies u1.userid <> u2.userid)

45
end

--This constraint is written to indicate that each user will have a unique e-mail id.
Context user
inv uniqueemail:
user.allInstances -> forAll( us1,us2 | us1 <> us2 implies us1.emailid <> us2.emailid)
end

-- This constraint is written to indicate that each customer’s e-mail id, should be unique
Context customer
inv uniqueemail:
customer.allInstances -> forAll(c1,c2| c1<>c2 implies c1.emailid <> c2.emailid)
end

-- This constraint is written to indicate that the number of seats in the flight should be
greater than zero
Context flight
inv noofseats:
flight.allInstances -> forAll ( f1 | f1.nooseats >= 1)
end

--This constraint is written to ensure that no two flights have the same number.
Context flight
Inv uniquename:
flight.allInstances -> forAll ( f1,f2| f1<>f2 implies f1.flightnumber <> f2.flightnumber)
end
--This constraint is written to ensure that a hotel can have multiple rooms.
Context Hotel
Inv hotelrooms:
Hotel.allInstances -> forAll(h1| (h1.noofrooms ) ->size() >=1)
end

46
CHAPTER 6 - COMPONENT DESIGN

1. INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE


The main purpose of the Component Design document is to provide and explain the
component design for the Airline Reservation System project in detail.

2. CLASS DIAGRAM
The class diagram of the Airline Reservation System project would be as follows:

Figure 8 - class diagram

47
2.1 CLASS DESCRIPTIONS

2.1.1 USER

Figure 9 - user class

The user class is responsible for handling all the user functions. This user class is the super class
or the base class for two types of users namely the customer and the administrator. The user
logging into the system will be mainly verified for their username and password., which is the
email id for the customer and a username for the administrator.

2.1.2 ADMINISTRATOR

Figure 10 - administrator class


The administrator class is the sub class of the user class. This class is mainly depicted
here to define all the attributes and functions carried out by the administrator of the Airline
Reservation System website. The attributes for the administrator of the Airline Reservation
System website are the userid and password, which the administrator uses to log on to the Airline
Reservation system website. The administrator would be able to perform the tasks of adding or
updating the information for flights, motels and packages etc.

48
2.1.3 CUSTOMER

Figure 11- customer class

The customer class has been depicted here as it is a sub class for the super class user of
the Airline Reservation System project. The attributes for the customer would be the userid,
password, customer name, email id, credit card number, address, phone number.
The functions that the customer of the website would be able to perform are :
Register() – the customer would be able to register onto the system
Login() - the customer can login with the email id and password
Logout() – the customer would be able to logout of the system
Browse () – the customer can browse through the website
Searchflights() and bookflights() – the customer would be able to search and book the flights
available on the website.
Searchpackages() and bookpackages() - the customer would be able to search and book
packages available on the website
Searchhotels() and bookhotels() - the customer would be able to search and book for the hotels
available on the website

49
2.1.4 PACKAGE

Figure 12 - package class

The class package is depicted in the class diagram to represent the set of packages present in the
application. The customer can book packages using the PackageSearch page. Package generally
has the following attributes:
Package id – a unique id given to a package
Package name – the name of the package
Package location - the location of the package…it indicates the place where the package is
available
Package price – the price of the package

2.1.5 FLIGHT

Figure 13 - flight class

The class flight is depicted in the class diagram to represent the set of flights present in
the application. The customer can book packages using the FlightSearch page. A flight present
in the airline reservation system, generally has the following attributes:
Flight number - A unique number is given to the flight

50
airline name – the name of the airline that the flight belongs to
source – the place where the flight has as its beginning point
destination – the place where the flight has as its end point
price – the price of the airline ticket of a particular flight

2.1.6 HOTEL

Figure 14 - hotel class

The class hotel is depicted in the class diagram to represent the set of hotels present in the
application. The customer can book hotels using the HotelSearch and HotelBooking page. A
Hotel available in the Airline Reservation System application generally has the following
attributes:
hotel id – a unique id given to a hotel
hotel name – the name of the hotel
location - the location of the hotel
number of rooms – the number of rooms available at each hotel
price – the price of each room in a hotel

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CHAPTER 7 - SOFTWARE QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN

1. PURPOSE
The main purpose of the Software Quality Assurance plan is to ensure production of high
quality end software product according to the specific requirements stated. The Software Quality
Assurance plan of the Airline Reservation System establishes the goals, processes and
responsibilities required to ensure high quality and on-time delivery of the project. The results of
the reviews and audits conducted in the Software Quality Assurance plan would be provided to
the appropriate management of the project, so that they can track and assess the progress being
made on the project.

2. REFERENCE DOCUMENTS
• IEEE standard for Software Quality Assurance Planning
• IEEE guide for Software Quality Assurance Planning
• Project Plan document for the Airline Reservation System

3. MANAGEMENT

3.1 ORGANIZATION
The organization consists of the supervisory committee, major professor, developer and
two formal technical inspectors.

Supervisory Committee
The supervisory committee consists of:
• Dr. Daniel Andresen
• Dr. Torben Amtoft
• Dr. Mitchell L. Nielsen

Major Professor
• Dr. Daniel Andresen

52
Developer
The developer for this project is Kaavya Kuppa.

Formal Technical Inspectors


The formal technical inspectors of the Airline Reservation Project are:
• Sandhya Bathini
• Srunokshi Neelakantan

3.2 RESPONSIBILITIES

Supervisory Committee
The supervisory committee will be responsible for attending the presentations and
submitting their reviews at the end of each phase. After each presentation, the committee will
provide feedback and suggestions pertaining to each phase.

Major Professor
The major professor of the project will supervise and evaluate the work of the developer
on a regular timely basis. Along with the other supervisory committee activities, he will also
measure the progress being made by the developer at each meeting.

Developer
The developer of the project will be responsible for all the documentation and software
development tasks of the Airline Reservation System project. The developer will also meet the
major professor on a timely basis to report the progress of the project.

Formal Technical Inspectors


The formal technical inspectors are necessary to ensure good quality of the software
design of the project. They will be responsible for a technical review of the architecture design
artifacts and the formal requirements specifications and will also be required to submit a formal
report based on their observations.

53
These formal technical inspectors will be provided with a formal technical inspection
checklist, which will contain all the items that need to be inspected. After inspecting the project
against all the items in the checklist, the two technical inspectors will provide their report, which
will be included in the documentation for the project.

3.3 TASKS
All the tasks performed during the Airline Reservation System project are documented in
the project plan. The project plan along with the software quality assurance plan will be reviewed
at the end of phase 1 by the supervisory committee and all the changes necessary will be
incorporated in the documents and will be submitted at the end of phase 2.

4. DOCUMENTATION
The documentation for the Airline Reservation System project consists of documents
submitted at the end of each phase of the project. They consist of the vision document, project
plan, software quality assurance plan, architecture design, test plan, formal technical inspection,
prototype, user manual, component design, source code, assessment evaluation, project
evaluation, references and finally the formal technical inspection letters. The supervisory
committee will review all the documentation submitted at the end of each phase for final
approval. All the documentation prepared for the Airline Reservation System project will be
uploaded at the developer’s website at:
http://people.cis.ksu.edu/~kaavya/MSE%20PROJECTPAGE.htm

5. STANDARDS, PRACTICES, CONVENTIONS AND METRICS

Documentation Standard
The IEEE standards are used as a guideline for all the documentation of the project.

Coding Standard
The project follows the guidelines in the C# coding standards and style guide.

Commentary Standard

54
Comments are used in the project to give a brief description of the code, which mainly focuses
on the functionality and purpose of the commented areas.
Each block of statements will be well-commented. Each routine will also have a comment which
will be placed above the specific routine.

Testing Standard
The IEEE standard for software test documentation will be used for the Airline Reservation
System project.

Metrics
The basic COCOMO model will be used to estimate the project time and effort.

6. REVIEWS AND AUDITS


The main purpose of the reviews and audits is to check the quality of the application as it
develops. Apart from the audits and reviews conducted periodically, all the project
documentation will also undergo some technical inspections which will ensure that the quality of
the documentation is in compliance with the project. The developer of the project will give three
formal presentations, one at the end of each phase. The supervisory committee members will
conduct periodic reviews on the project code and documentation and will also evaluate the
performance of the developer at the end of each phase. So, the committee members will also
evaluate the software prototype at the end of each presentation and suggest changes that need to
be incorporated in the project code or documentation. The two formal technical inspectors of the
project, assess the architecture design artifacts and submit a formal report based on their
observations.

7. TEST AND PROBLEM REPORTING


The developer of the Airline Reservation System will develop a test plan which will
outline all the test activities. All the tests and their results will be evaluated and documented.
These documents will also be reviewed by the supervisory committee members. All the
unresolved problems will be reported to the committee members.

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8. TOOLS, TECHNIQUES AND METHODOLOGIES
The following are the tools that will be used for coding, testing and documentation:
• Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003 – for coding
• C# - for coding
• HTML – for coding
• JavaScript for coding
• IIS – for web server
• ASP.NET – for web forms
• SQL server 2000 – for database server
• MS WORD 2003 – for documentation
• XML – for coding
• NUnit – for unit testing
• JMeter for performance testing
• User Testing

9. RECORDS COLLECTION, MAINTENANCE AND RETENTION


Three copies of the design documentation are to be produced. One will be kept in the
Kansas State University Library, one with the major professor and the third with the developer
himself. A softcopy of the entire source code, documentation and web pages of the Airline
Reservation System project will be submitted to the major professor. A copy will also be kept
with the developer.

10. DELIVERABLES
The following set of deliverables will be submitted at the end of each phase:

Phase I
Vision Document 1.0
Project Plan 1.0
Software Quality Assurance Plan

Phase II

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Action items identified during phase I
Vision Document 2.0
Project Plan 2.0
Formal Requirement Specification
Architecture Design
Test Plan
Formal Technical Inspection – submitted by two individual MSE students
Executable Architecture Prototype

Phase III
Action items identified during phase II
User Manual
Component Design
Source Code
Assessment Evaluation
Project Evaluation
Test Results
References
Formal Technical Inspection- submitted by two individual MSE students

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CHAPTER 8 - TEST PLAN

1. TEST PLAN IDENTIFIER


Airline Reservation System – V 1.0

2. INTRODUCTION
The main purpose of the test plan for the Airline Reservation System is to discuss the
testing details of the use cases of the Airline Reservation System. The software project test plan
also describes the objective, scope and approach of the software testing effort for the Airline
Reservation System project. The test plan for the Airline Reservation System also indicates the
personnel responsible for each task and also specifies the risks associated with the test plan.

2.1 OBJECTIVES
The main objectives of the test plan for the Airline Reservation System are as follows:
• To identify the features of the system that will be tested.
• To identify and define all the activities necessary to prepare for and conduct the testing
process on the Airline Reservation System
• To define the pass/fail criteria for each item that will be tested
• To identify the deliverables of the testing phase.
• To define any suspension criteria and resumption techniques
• To discuss the testing techniques being used to test the Airline Reservation System.

2.2 REFERENCES
The following references have been used in the preparation of the Test Plan document for
the Airline Reservation System:
• IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation Std 829-1998
• Deliverables of the Phase I for the Airline Reservation System.
• MSE Portfolio lectures online
• Wikipedia

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2.3 DEFINITIONS
The following are some of the terms and definitions that are related to the test plan of the
Airline Reservation System:
• Pass/Fail criteria: Decision rules that are used to determine whether a software item
passes or fails a test.
• Test: A collection of one or more test cases
• Test Item: A software item that is an objective of testing.
• Test Plan: A document describing the scope, approach, resources and schedule of the
intended testing activities.
• Test Summary Report: A document summarizing the testing activities and results.
• Testing: The process of analyzing a software item to detect the differences between the
existing and required conditions.

3. TEST ITEMS
This section of the test plan lists all the items of the Airline Reservation System project
that will be tested:
• Login
• Search and book flights
• Search and book packages
• Search and book hotels
• Register

4. APPROACH
This section of the test plan describes the overall approach for testing the Airline
Reservation System project. The approach followed for testing the Airline Reservation System
ensures that the major features of the project are adequately tested. All the testing will be done
with the help ANTS (Advanced .NET Testing System). The testing would be carried out on the
Airline Reservation System while logging into the system as a customer or a normal user of the
system.

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4.1 UNIT TESTING
The Unit Testing is a test that tests each single module of the software to check for errors.
This is mainly done to discover errors in the code of the Airline Reservation System. The main
goal of the unit testing would be to isolate each part of the program and to check the correctness
of the code. In the case of the Airline Reservation System, all the web forms and the C# classes
will be tested. There are many benefits for this unit testing:
• The unit testing facilitates change in the code.
• It allows testing to be done in a bottom up fashion.
At the same time, unit testing has some disadvantages such as, it might not identify each
and every error in the system.

4.2 INTEGRATION TESTING


In Integration Testing, the individual software modules are combined and tested as a
whole unit. The integration testing generally follows unit testing where each module is tested as
a separate unit. The main purpose of the integration testing is to test the functional and
performance requirements on the major items of the project.
All the modules of the project developed individually would be combined together and
tested as a whole system in the integration testing.

4.3 REGRESSION TESTING


The Regression Testing is generally done whenever modifications are made to the source
code of a project. The Regression Testing can also be defined as the process of testing changes
made to the computer program and also makes sure that the older programming still works with
the new changes.
So, before any new version of a software product is released, the old test cases for the
project will be run against the software with the changes made, to make sure that the old
functionalities of the project still work.

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4.4 ACCEPTANCE TESTING
This testing is generally performed when the project is nearing its end. This test mainly
qualifies the project and decides if it will be accepted by the users of the system. The users or the
customers of the project are responsible for the test.

4.5 SYSTEM TESTING


The system testing is mainly done on the whole integrated system to make sure that the
project that has been developed meets all the requirements. The test cases for the system testing
will be the combination of unit and integration tests.

5. TEST CASES
The following are the test cases for the Airline Reservation System:

5.1 TEST CASE 1 – USER LOGIN


• Incorrect Input: Incorrect username, which is the email-id in the case of the Airline
Reservation System.
• Pass Criteria: An appropriate message should be generated to indicate that an invalid
username has been typed.
• Correct Input: The correct input would be a valid e-mail id of the user and a correct
password associated with the email-id which he uses to log in.
• Pass Criteria: The user should be directed to the webpage that the customer is intended
to go to after he logs into the system.

5.2 TEST CASE 2 – USER REGISTRATION


• Incorrect Input: Wrong format entered in the input fields for the registration page.
• Pass Criteria: An appropriate message should be generated to the user saying that he has
entered the wrong format in the specific input field.
• Correct Input: The correct input would a correct format entered by the customer into the
input fields of the registration page.

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• Pass Criteria: The pass criteria for this test case would be a successful registration of the
customer into the Airline Reservation System website. The system would log the user
into the system after this.

5.3 TEST CASE 3 – USER REGISTRATION


• Incorrect Input: The data fields left out empty in the registration page.
• Pass Criteria: An error message should be generated to the user saying that he has to fill
out those fields in order to be registered into the system.
• Correct Input: The correct input in this case, would be that the customer would enter the
data in all the fields in the registration form.
• Pass Criteria: The pass criteria for the system would be that it accepts all the customer
details and then registers the customer and helps him log into the system.

5.4 TEST CASE 4 – SEARCH AND BOOK FLIGHTS


• Incorrect Input: Incorrect input in this case, would be incorrect search criteria entered or
incorrect format of data entered into the data entry fields of the flight search and booking
page.
• Pass criteria: A message has to be generated to the user indicating the wrong entry that
he has made in the fields.
• Correct Input: A correct input would be entering the data into the data entry fields in a
correct format.
• Pass Criteria: The pass criteria for this test case would be that the search would return
valid results and then when the customer made the booking, the system has to generate a
confirmation to the customer and indicate that an e-mail has been sent to the customer.

5.5 TEST CASE 5 – SEARCH AND BOOK PACKAGES


• Incorrect Input: Incorrect input in this case, would be incorrect search criteria entered or
incorrect format of data entered into the data entry fields of the package search and
booking page. In this case, a wrong input would be an incorrect package id etc.

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• Pass criteria: A message has to be generated to the user indicating the wrong entry that
he has made in the fields.
• Correct Input: A correct input would be entering the data into the data entry fields in a
correct format.
• Pass Criteria: The pass criteria for this test case would be that the search would return
valid results and then when the customer made the booking, the system has to generate a
confirmation to the customer and indicate that an e-mail has been sent to the customer.

5.6 TEST CASE 6 – SEARCH AND BOOK HOTELS


• Incorrect Input: Incorrect input in this case, would be incorrect search criteria entered or
incorrect format of data entered into the data entry fields of the hotel search and booking
page. In this case, an incorrect input would be an incorrect hotel id, or an incorrect format
of date entered in the input field for the date.
• Pass criteria: A message has to be generated to the user indicating the wrong entry that
he has made in the fields.
• Correct Input: A correct input would be entering the data into the data entry fields in a
correct format.
• Pass Criteria: The pass criteria for this test case would be that the search would return
valid results and then when the customer made the booking, the system has to generate a
confirmation to the customer and indicate that an e-mail has been sent to the customer.

6. PASS OR FAIL CRITERIA


The test cases executed on the Airline Reservation System will pass if they meet the
specific requirements mentioned in the Vision document of the project. A test case is said to fail,
if the desired functionality is not satisfied by the system.

7. SUSPENSION CRITERIA AND RESUMPTION REQUIREMENTS

7.1 SUSPENSION CRITERIA

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Testing for all the dependant features will be suspended if a test case fails. The failed test
case will be logged onto the test log which contains the description for the error.

7.2 RESUMPTION REQUIREMENT


The test cases which are not dependant on the case where the bug is reported will be
executed in parallel with the bug fixing. Once the failed test case has been taken note of and has
been identified and fixed then the testing for the failed test case will resume.

8. TEST DELIVERABLES
The following documents will be produced after the testing phase for the Airline
Reservation System has been completed.
• Test Plan
• Test Cases
• Test Log

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CHAPTER 9 - ASSESSMENT EVALUATION

1. INTRODUCTION
The Assessment Evaluation document presents the results obtained by testing the Airline
Reservation System. The test cases are in reference to the test cases defined in the Test Plan
document from the Phase II.

2. TEST CASE RESULT SUMMARY


The summary of the test case result has been depicted in the table shown below:
These are the test cases for the User/Customer pages. The major part of testing has been
concentrated on the customer pages, as they would be the main clients of the Airline Reservation
System website.

Table 4- user/customer pages testing summary


TEST DESCRIPTION RESULTS/COMMENTS
CASE #
TC # 1 User Login Passed
TC # 2 User Registration Passed
TC # 3 Search and Book Flights Passed
TC # 4 Search and Book Packages Passed
TC # 5 Search and Book Hotels Passed

The below table represents the summary of results of testing on the Administrator pages.
The results have been explained in detail later in the document.
Table 5 - Administrator pages testing summary
TEST DESCRIPTION RESULTS/COMMENTS
CASE #
TC # 6 Administrator sign in Passed
TC # 7 New Flight/Package/ Hotel addition Passed
TC # 8 Updating Flight/Package/Hotel details Passed

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3. DETAILED TEST RESULTS

3.1 MANUAL TESTING


To start with, I have performed manual testing on the Airline Reservation System
website. Manual Testing is one of the oldest and rigorous methods of software testing. This
testing strategy gives the best opportunity to check every page thoroughly and make sure it
works in the expected manner. Due to the complexity of the various automation tools and the
time available for testing the entire web application, I preferred to use manual testing based on
the fact that it is one of the best methods of testing suggested for a beginner.
All the test cases mentioned in the Test Plan document of Phase II were tested here. The
results of the manual testing are represented in the following tables:

3.1.1 TC # 1 – USER LOGIN

Table 6 - tc # 1 - user login


TEST UNIT TEST CASE RESULT
Log In Button An invalid username(which The system generates a
is the e-mail id in this case) or message saying “ invalid user
password is entered by the user id” or invalid password,
whichever is the case.
Log In Button A valid username and The system logs on the
password is entered by the user user and transfers him to the
booking page

3.1.2 TC # 2 - USER REGISTRATION

Table 7 - tc # 2 - user registration


TEST UNIT TEST CASE RESULT
New User button Wrong format entered in the The system prompts a
(Used for Register) input fields of the registration page message to the user saying that

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he has entered a wrong format in
the input fields.
New User button Passwords and Confirm The system generates a
Password fields do not match in the message to the user saying
registration page “please enter the confirm
password field” again.
New User button Data Fields left out empty in The system prompts a
the registration page. message to the user asking him
to fill the empty fields he has left
out.
New User button Correct data entered into the The system accepts the
fields in the register page details of the customer and then
logs him onto the system and
displays the page where he can
search and book for flights,
packages and hotels.

3.1.3 TC # 3 – SEARCH AND BOOK FLIGHTS

Table 8 - tc # 3 search and book flights


TEST TEST CASE RESULT
UNIT
Flight booking Wrong format of information The system generates an
entered into the data fields of the error message to the user
flight booking page indicating that the wrong format
of data is entered and to re-enter
the data.
Flight Booking Wrong date format, in the The systems generates a
date of journey data field, wrong message to the user saying that
flight number in the Flight Number he has entered an invalid date

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fields etc, format and incase of wrong
(similarly for all the other flight number, indicates that his
data fields of the FlightSearch page) entry is invalid.
Flight Booking Correct format of data is The system allows the
entered into the data fields in the users to book the flight by
flight booking page. providing details required and
directs them to the booking
confirmation page.

3.1.4 TC # 4 – SEARCH AND BOOK PACKAGES

Table 9 - tc # 4 search and book packages


TEST UNIT TEST CASE RESULT
Package Booking Wrong format of data is The system displays an
entered into the data fields of the error message to the user
package booking page saying that invalid form of data
has been entered into the data
fields of the page.
Package Booking Correct form of data is entered The system verifies the
into the datafields of the details entered by the
PackageSearch.aspx page. customer, accepts the details
and confirms package booking
by redirecting the customer to
the package confirmation page.

3.1.5 TC # 5 - SEARCH AND BOOK HOTELS

Table 10 - tc # 5 search and book hotels


TEST UNIT TEST CASE RESULT

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Hotel Booking Wrong format of data is The system displays an
entered into the data fields of the flight error message to the user
search page. saying that he has entered
invalid data into the data fields
Hotel Booking Correct data entered into the The system then
data entry fields of the verifies and accepts the data
HotelSearch.aspx Page entered by the user into the
data entry fields allowing the
user to book hotel specified
and then directs him to the
hotel confirmation page

All the above mentioned results are for the customer pages. On the whole, the
user/customer pages have passed the manual testing phase. The manual testing results for the
Administrator pages of the Airline Reservation System are as follows:

3.1.6 TC # 6 - ADMINISTRATOR SIGN IN

Table 11 - tc # 6 Administrator sign in


TEST UNIT TEST CASE RESULT
Administrator sign Wrong username/password The system generates a
in feature entered into the username and message to the user saying
password data fields that an incorrect username /
password have been entered.
Administrator sign Correct username and The system verifies the
in feature password entered into the username details and allows the
and password fields in the administrator to log on to the
Administrator sign in page. system.

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3.1.7 TC # 7 – NEW FLIGHT/PACKAGE/HOTEL ADDITION

Table 12 - new flight /hotel/.package addition


TEST UNIT TEST CASE RESULT
Add new The administrator tries to add The system generates a
flight flight details already matching the message to the Administrator
/package/hotel to details of a flight present in the saying that the Record already
the database database. exists, thus avoiding
In other words, a duplicate duplicates.
record is being created by the
administrator.
Add new flight The administrator enters new The system then
feature flight details into the form, that is verifies the details entered by
those details are already not present in the Administrator and then
the database. saves the entry into the table
and displays a message that
Record has been saved
successfully.

3.1.8 TC # 8 – UPDATING FLIGHT, PACKAGE, MOTEL DETAILS

Table 13 - updating flight, package, motel details


TEST UNIT TEST CASE RESULT
Update The administrator enters the The system displays a
flight/package/motel wrong format of data in the data fields message to the Administrator
details button of the flight/motel/package page and saying that wrong format of
hits the update button data has been entered into the
data fields
Update The administrator enters the The system verifies the
flight/package/motel correct format of data in the data entry details entered by the

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details button fields for the flight/motel/package administrator and then sends a
updating message to the admin saying
that the update was successful
and updates the details in the
database.

Thus, the Administrator web pages have also passed the manual testing phase and thus
the above results have been produced.

3.2 PERFORMANCE TESTING

In general performance testing can be defined as one form of testing where we test the
system to determine how fast the system performs under a particular workload. Several other
features of the system such as scalability and security etc can also be tested under the
performance testing phase. For the performance testing of the Airline Reservation System, I have
used the JMeter tool. The Apache JMeter is a 100% pure Java desktop application which has
been designed to load test functional behavior and measure performance. This tool has been
originally designed for Web Applications, which has now been extended to a variety of other
functions.
The Apache JMeter can be used to performance test both static and dynamic sources.
With JMeter I was able to test various combinations of load types on the Airline Reservation
System web application and analyze the strength of the system.The inputs to the JMeter tool,
generally used for the performance testing of a web application would be as follows:
• Number of Threads /Users – The total number of people sending requests to a web page
• Ramp-Up Period - The Ramp Up period would be the time taken by J Meter to create
and make sure that all the threads are up and running.
• Loop Count – It would be the value which determines the number of times that the test
should be carried out.

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The criteria selected to be the input to the JMeter tool for the Airline Reservation System
would be explained later in the document. For the performance testing of the Airline Reservation
System, I have chosen three kinds of pages.
1. Home Page of the Airline Reservation System - It deals with people just accessing the
Home page of the Airline Reservation System. There is no database activity involved
here. So this would be one good choice
http://localhost/Kansas%20Air/Home.aspx
2. Login Page of the Airline Reservation System- This is the page where the user logs onto
the home page of the system and is redirected to the Booking.aspx page after he logs in.
So, here it involves authentication and some database activity. This would be another
good choice.
3. Flight Search and Booking Page of the Airline Reservation System
Here, the user searches for the available flights in the database of flights available
and makes a reservation for a specific flight. There is a lot of database activity involved
with the flight search page. The results of the JMeter testing are as follows for each of the
above mentioned pages:

3.2.1 Home page of Airline Reservation System website


http://localhost/Kansas%20Air/Home.aspx

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Fig: Summary report for Home.aspx page
The above screenshot shows the result of running the JMeter test for the home page of the
Airline Reservation System project. The above sample has been obtained as a result of the
following load details applied in the JMeter:

Thread Count Ramp-Up Period Loop Count


100 10 10

Thus the above result was obtained for a total of 1000 samples.
The following screen shot shows the response code 200 generated by the JMeter after it
has accessed the page. Here the Response 200 code is generated in a response that the home page
has been detected by the server.

The response time for the Home page was very less, and the number of requests handled
per sec is higher when compared to the other pages of the project. Since there is no database
activity involved. For the home page a throughput of about 100 requests/sec is recorded, which is
the number of requests handled by the server per second.

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3.2.2 Login Page of the Airline Reservation System
http://localhost/Kansas%20Air/Booking.aspx

Figure: Summary report for Booking.aspx

The above screenshot is produced as a result of the JMeter test performed on the Booking.aspx
page, which can be accessed by the user after he logs onto the website. The above result has been
produced as a result of the following load being applied on the server:

Thread Count Ramp Up Period Loop Count


100 10 10

Thus, for a total of about 1000 samples, the above results were recorded by JMeter. The
response time for the Booking.aspx page is a little higher than that of the Home page. The Home
page of the project does not have any database activity related to it. Where as for the
Booking.aspx page, the customer has to login in order to access the page. So, the response time
for the Booking.aspx page was a little higher when compared to the Home.aspx.

The result of the response created by JMeter while accessing the Booking.aspx page is as
follows:

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3.2.3 Flight Search and booking page of the Airline Reservation System
http://localhost/Kansas%20Air/FlightSearch.aspx

Fig: Summary report for the FlightSearch.aspx page

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The above screenshot is produced as a result of the JMeter test performed on the
FlightSearch.aspx page, which can be accessed by the user after he logs onto the website. The
above result has been produced as a result of the following load being applied on the server:

Thread Count Ramp Up Period Loop Count


100 10 10

Thus, for a total of about 1000 samples, the above results were recorded by JMeter. The
throughput for the FlightSearch.aspx page is very less when compared to the Home.aspx page or
the Booking.aspx page. It is because, the Flights available to the customer are displayed on this
page from the database and then the customer searches for a desirable flight and book the flight.
The response time for the FlightSearch.aspx page is very high when compared to the other two
pages. The time taken for the page to load is also very high compared to the other two pages.

The result of the response created by the JMeter for the FlightSearch.aspx page is as
follows:

4. OBSERVATIONS

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Based on the results obtained from the JMeter, the following observations were made:
1. The system can accept only a total of 800 users at a time. But there are some
exceptions to this too. If a combination of 800 users with a loop count of 1 was used
for testing, then system responds well. But when a combination of 800 users with a
greater loop count is used , it produced the following output in the response window
of JMeter:

Ultimately, the page requested would not be available to any of the users and an error
message would be displayed saying that there are too many people connected to the IIS
server and that the access to the requested web page is forbidden.
There are many factors affecting the behavior of the server.

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a. The Airline Reservation system project runs on a personal version of IIS and on a
personal computer. So, the hardware capability of the system might be one of the reasons
for the server to respond slowly.

b. JMeter also took a lot of time to respond to each request. This might be due to the fact
that the server on the laptop is very slow. So, the results produced by JMeter also might
not be accurate results.

2. The throughput obtained for the three pages are different. The three pages have been
tested under the same condition that is for 100 users, the loop count being 10 and the
ramp up period also being 10. The home page of the Airline Reservation System
project does not have any database activity involved with it. So the throughput for it
is very high when compared to the other pages.

WEB PAGE THROUGHPUT


Home page 100/sec
Login page 91.0/sec
Flight Search and Booking page 62.3/sec

Table: Comparison of throughput for three pages

3. The response time for each page also increases with the number of users accessing the
page. For the three pages the average response time with the number of users as 100,
loop count as 10 and ramp up period as 10, are as follows:
Web Page Average Response Time
Home.aspx 3 ms
Booking.aspx 2 ms
FlightSearch.aspx 6 ms

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Upon increasing the number of elements present in the customer database table,
which is by adding around 5000 new rows of random data to the customer table, the
results obtained for JMeter are as follows:

The throughput also decreases a lot and the number of requests handled by the
server reduces to about 12.3 requests per second.
The average response time for the customer details page before adding large
number of rows into the database table and after adding 5000 rows of data to the database
table are as follows:

WEB PAGE BEFORE AFTER


CustomerDetails.aspx 5 ms 3699 ms

The average response time of the page has shot up by a very high percentage.
I have added 10,000 users to the customer table and tested the application with JMeter,
the error rate obtained was very high and JMeter displayed a message in the response
window saying that there are too many users accessing the website and the access has
been forbidden.

4. The above results are also influenced by the fact that the IIS server and the database
server run on the same machine. So, this excessive load might also affect the results
being produced by the JMeter tool.

Based on the above observations the following conclusions can be made about the Airline
Reservation System project:

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1. The error percentage for each of the three pages is always 0%. So, the pages are very
reliable to the customer.
2. A decent throughput has also been obtained for the tested pages and it is above 63
requests/sec. However by improving the hardware of the system and by testing under
conditions where the overall performance of the system is very high also produces
changes in the results.
3. Since the IIS server and the database server run on the same machine, the results obtained
by JMeter might be affected by this factor. The performance and scalability of the Airline
Reservation System could be further improved by using dedicated Database server and a
dedicated web server.
Thus the above observations have been drawn based on results of testing of Airline
Reservation System.

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CHAPTER 10 - USER MANUAL

1. INTRODUCTION
The User Manual explains us the step by step procedure to set up and use the Airline
Reservation System web application.

2. INSTALLATION AND SETUP


This section describes the required software and hardware for the Airline Reservation
System project.

2.1 REQUIRED HARDWARE


• A Microsoft SQL Database Server
The Server should be equipped with a processor clock speed of over 1.5 GHz and
a memory of over 512 MB.
• An IIS web-server
The server should be equipped with a processor speed of over 1.5 GHz and a
memory of over 512 MB.

2.2 REQUIRED SOFTWARE


The required software for the Airline Reservation System project would be as follows:
• Operating System: Microsoft Windows XP Professional
• Internet Information Server (IIS): The IIS Web Server is included in the Windows XP
Professional installation CD. Since it is not automatically installed along with the XP
Professional Installation, it has to be installed.
• .NET Framework 1.1 SDK. It has been installed with the help of an installation CD
provided by the CIS department at Kansas State University
• Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003. It has been downloaded from the MSDNAA
account provided by the CIS department at Kansas State University.
• Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.0 or higher (or) Mozilla Firefox for clients
• Microsoft SQL server 2000, which includes the SQL Query Analyzer and the Enterprise
Manager. It can be downloaded from the following website:

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http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyID=D20BA6E1-F44C-
4781-A6BB-F60E02DC1335&displaylang=en

2.3 REQUIRED NETWORK CONFIGURATION


A broadband connection with 10Mbps and above connection is needed to provide fast
linkage to the server, thus providing faster service to the user/customer.

2.4 SOFTWARE SET-UP


The Windows XP Professional Operating System is installed in the D: / drive of the
laptop.
• Unpack the software to the World Wide Web root of the IIS Server. (Generally it is the
“C:\Inetpub\wwwroot” directory. But in this case, since I have the XP Professional
Operating System installed on the D:\ drive it is the
“D:\Inetpub\wwwroot”.
• Open the “Web.config” file and change the values of the < add name> property according
to your connection configurations.
• Open the SQL server 2000
• Create a database and label it as KansasAir_DB
• Open the SQL Query Analyzer
• Paste the contents of the KansasAir SQL files
• Select the name of the database as Kansas Air_DB
• Select F5 and all the tables will then be populated and formed.
• Open the Internet Information Services
• Go to the Start -> Control Panel -> Performance and Maintenance as shown in the screen
shot bellow:

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Figure 15 - Performance and Maintenance in Control Panel

• Then select the administrative tools option and then select the Internet Information
Services as shown in the figure below:

Figure 16 -IIS

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• Now choose the option Web Sites
• Then right click on the Default Web Site option
• Select the New -> Virtual Directory Option as shown in the screenshot below:

Figure 17 - Creating a New Virtual Directory

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• Now click on the Next Button which will then open the Virtual Directory Creating
Wizard.
• Click the Next Button

Figure 18 - Virtual Directory Creating Wizard

• Enter the Alias Name as Kansas Air and then click the Next Button

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Figure 19 - Virtual Directory Alias

• Now Browse the directory and select the folder where you have unpacked the software
and then click on the Next Button.

• Now again click the Next Button

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• Then the below screen shot appears

• Now click the Finish Button. The following screen shot will appear

• Now after this click on the Kansas Air folder and then select the “ Home.aspx “
• Right click on “Home.aspx” and then select the Browse option.

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You should then be able to see the home page of the Airline Reservation System website
as follows:

Figure 20 - Home Page of Airline Reservation System

The customer of the Airline Reservation System website will then be able to logon to the
system, to start using the features of the website. If the customer of the Airline Reservation
System is a new user and does not have an account with the website, he can log on to the system
only after registering with the web-site.

3. AIRLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM USAGE FOR CUSTOMERS

3.1 REGISTER FEATURE


After the user views the home page of the Airline Reservation System website, he can
begin to browse the links available on the home page of the application. The main purpose of the
Register feature is to help the customer of the website to create a login and password, which he
will later use to log on to the system. The Register page will appear to the customer once he
clicks the New User button on the home page of the application. The screen shot gives a
description of the above explanation:
Fig: New User button on Home page of the application

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Once the user clicks the new user button, the Register page appears where the user can
enter details into the system. The Registration page for the user would be as follows:
Figure 21 - Customer Registration Page

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On this page, if the user does not enter the correct details into the data fields of the
registration page, then the system prompts an error message to the user asking him to enter the
correct format of data into the fields.
Once all the details have been entered into the system by the user, the customer then
clicks the submit button on the registration page. All the details are then accepted and verified by
the system and then the user is redirected to the home page for the customer, where he can then
search and book the various flights, packages and hotels available to him.
The home page for the user after he logs onto the system would be as follows:

Figure 22 - Customer Home Page

From this page, the user can either go back to the home page of the Airline Reservation
System website, or he can search and book flights, packages or hotels or logout of the
application.

3.2 FLIGHT SEARCH AND BOOKING


The main feature of this part of the application is to enable the user to search and book
for the flights available to him through the website. When the user clicks the flight booking link

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available to him on the Booking.aspx page, the user would be redirected to the FlightSearch.aspx
page where the user would be able to see the list of available flights. The screen shot of the
FlightSearch.aspx page would be as follows:

Figure 23 - FlightSearch Page

The user can then search for a specific flight which has a choice of his source and
destination. From the drop down list available to the user, the user can select a place of his
choice from the source and a place of choice from the destination drop down box and then hit the
search button on the page. If there is a flight in the database with the above choice of the
customer, he can then view the results on the following page:

Then by filling in the required details on the page, like the data of journey, number of
tickets and the flight number, he can then click the make booking button on the page and then the
user would be directed to a confirmation page, which is as follows:

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Figure 24 - Flight Booking Confirmation Page

The customers can logout from the system after this process by clicking the logout button
on the FlightBooking.aspx page shown above.

3.3 HOTEL SEARCH AND BOOKING


The main feature of this part of the application is to enable the user to search and book
for the hotels available to the customer through the website. When the user clicks the
HotelBooking link available to him on the Booking.aspx page, the user would be redirected to
the HotelSearch.aspx page where the user would be able to see the list of available hotels. The
screen shot of the HotelSearch.aspx page would be as follows:

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Figure 25 - Hotel Search page

The user can then search for a specific hotel of his choice. From the drop down list
available to the user, the user can select a place of his choice and then hit the search button on
the page. If there is a hotel in the database with the choice of the customer, he can then view the
results on the following page:

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Then by filling in the required details on the page, like the check in date, number of
persons, number of days etc, he can then click the make booking button on the page and then the
user would be directed to a confirmation page, which is as follows:

Figure 26 - Hotel Booking Confirmation

The customers can logout from the system after this process by clicking the logout button
on the HotelBooking.aspx page shown above.

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3.4 PACKAGE SEARCH AND BOOKING
The main feature of this part of the application is to enable the user to search and book
for the packages available to the customer through the website. When the user clicks the
PackageBooking link available to him on the Booking.aspx page, the user would be redirected to
the PackageSearch.aspx page where the user would be able to see the list of available packages.
The screen shot of the PackageSearch.aspx page would be as follows:

Figure 27 - Package Search page

The user can then search for a specific package of his choice. From the drop down list
available to the user, the user can select a place of his choice and then hit the search button on
the page. If there is a package in the database with the choice of the customer, he can then view
the results on the following page:

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Fig: Package Search results

Then by filling in the required details on the page, like the date of journey, number of
persons, etc, he can then click the make booking button on the page and then the user would be
directed to a confirmation page, which is as follows:
Figure 28 - Package Confirmation page

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The customers can logout from the system after this process by clicking the logout button
on the PackageBooking.aspx page shown above.

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CHAPTER 11 - PROJECT EVALUATION

1. INTRODUCTION
This document mainly focuses on presenting the summary of experiences gained by me
as an MSE student during the entire life cycle of the MSE project.

2. PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED
This section of the project evaluation document describes all the difficulties that I have
encountered during my MSE project.

2.1 SOLUTION DOMAIN RESEARCH AND LEARNING


Identifying a technology to work on for my MSE project was one of the basic difficulties
that I have faced. But, to be honest, with my growing interest for C#.NET, I decided that it
would be the best fit for my MSE project. Since my MSE project “The Airline Reservation
System” is a web application project C# was chosen for the project. The different advantages
offered by C#.NET technology and my craving for the technologies made me choose C#.NET.

2.2 LEARNING ASP.NET AND C# LANGUAGE


Learning and experimenting with new technologies and languages is of great interest to
me. I wanted to take up the challenge of learning a new technology and then implementing it.
Learning this new technology has taken quite some time for me. I have had a few difficulties
finding a good resource for learning .NET. I have learnt .NET through many tutorials available
online and also the complete reference book for .NET has helped me a lot. Since all the examples
available online were very simple, I had to work hard to implement some of the features in the
project.

2.3 SECURITY ISSUES


Installing the software necessary for project took some time for me. I couldn’t find the
Visual Studio .NET 2003 CD and the Windows XP professional CD for a reasonable price
online. I finally found the software that I needed from the CIS department. I also had some
problems configuring the IIS server. A lot of research and hard work has helped me figure out
the problem.

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2.4 JMETER
JMeter installation and set-up was one of the problems I faced during the testing phase of
the project. Initially I was able to set-up JMeter, but it kept crashing each and every time I put a
heavy load on the server. So, I had to re-install it and then start the testing all over again.

3. SOURCE LINES OF CODE


The source line of code is a very important measure of the software project being
developed. For my Airline Reservation System project, I have used a tool called the SLOC
Metrics which counts the number of lines of code, based on the directory that we provide for
search to the tool. We also need to indicate the types of files that the tool has to scan. So, based
on the information provided by me to the tool, the following data was produced by the tool:
The numbers of lines of code in files with extension .cs are: 2310
The numbers of lines of code in the files with extension .aspx , which is the ASP.NET server
page are : 1262
The numbers of lines of code in the files with extension .resx are: 962
Thus combining all these , the total lines of code would be: 4534
Thus nearly more than 50% of the coding consisted of C# coding. Most of the time spent for
coding was for C# , since they are the files which have the actual logic to be implemented into
the system. Nearly 28 % of the coding was covered by the .aspx files, which are the ASP.NET
server pages.

4. PROJECT DURATION
Initially I had planned to complete my MSE project by the end of the July 2008. But due
to my health problems and also the availability of the committee members the project would be
completed by the end of summer semester.
Initially I had estimated the effort required for the project as 4.56 staff months. In the
project plan initially I had put in a total of 22 days for the Phase II of the project, but later on I
had some coding problems and I had to extend the deadline for the Phase II of the project by 15
more days.
The following table would best depict the break down and the duration for each phase of
the project:

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Table 14 - Project BreakDown and Duration
START TIME FINISH TIME
st
Phase I May 1 , 2008 June 11th, 2008
Phase II June 12th, 2008 July 21st, 2008
Phase III July 21st, 2008 Aug 12th, 2008

The breakdown of activities in each phase would also be presented in a table as follows:

Table 15 - : Activities and allotted time for all the Phases of MSE project
Phase I hours Phase II Phase III Total Hours
hours hours
Research 25 hours 20 hours 40 hours 85 hours
Design 16 hours 22 hours 20 hours 58 hours
Coding 0 hours 80 hours 110 hours 190 hours
Testing 0 hours 0 hours 25 hours 25 hours
Documentation 20 hours 30 hours 30 hours 80 hours
Total Hours 61 hours 152 hours 225 hours 438 hours
The pie chart diagram showing the breakdown of each phase of the project would be as follows:
Figure 29 - figure showing the task breakdown for each phase

BreakDown for each phase of the MSE project

Phase I
14%

Phase I
Phase III Phase II
51%
Phase II Phase III
35%

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5. LESSONS LEARNT
My MSE project has been one of the rewarding experiences I have had. I have learnt a lot
of things in the entire course of my Project. My desire to learn one of the fast evolving
technologies like C# and .NET has been satisfied. I have learnt the various coding techniques in
C# and .NET. In all the projects I have done till now, I have either taken up the front end or the
back end responsibility. But, this is the first project where I have taken up both the front end and
back end responsibility. I have experienced a situation similar to the real-time work environment,
where programmers and developers work under pressure and a specified deadline. Being new to
the technology I had some difficulties with the coding part initially. Going through the entire
life-cycle of the software development has given me a lot of knowledge and experience which
will be useful for my future. I have also improved my coding skills through this project.
The MSE project has also helped me realize that documentation for a project is as equally
important as the coding of the project.
Testing the Airline Reservation System project has helped me gain a lot of knowledge about the
stress and load testing of the web applications. Even though I had a lot of problems initially
getting JMeter to respond to a request, I was able to figure out the procedure with some research
online. On the whole, I would like to thank my committee members for guiding

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REFERENCES

The following references have been used by me, during all the phases of the MSE
project:

1. http://www.w3schools.com/
2. www.msdn.microsoft.com
3. Apache J Meter - http://jakarta.apache.org/jmeter/
4. http://mse.cis.ksu.edu/ - For MSE Project Portfolio.
5. IEEE Recommended Practice for Software Requirements Specifications - IEEE Std 830-
1998
6. SLOC Metrics Tool for .NET framework 1.1
http://www.softpedia.com/get/Programming/Other-Programming-
Files/SLOC-Metrics.shtml
7. http://www.devarticles.com/c/b/SQL-Server/ - SQL server 2000 help
8. http://www.sitepoint.com/article/sql-server-2000-database - SQL server 2000 help
9. SQL Server 2000 download - http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/
10. http://www.c-sharpcorner.com/
11. IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation IEEE 829-1998
12. http://www.mhhe.com/engcs/compsci/pressman/information/olc/COCOMO.html
13. Smart Draw software for the Gantt Chart
14. Wikipedia

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