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SOFTWARE REVIEWS

PFS-.File • Ski Writer II • The Print Shop • PROMAL May/June 1985


$2.50 U.S.

I ill I
puters
$3.50 Canada ISSN 0744-8724

i
d 1
WHAT DOES THE FUTURE HOLD?
• Interactive books, TV, movies
• Laserdiscs

STEVE DECK
• Film Special Effects
• Home Energy Management
• Eye Stimulation Devices m
FREE PROGRAMS
TO TYPE AND SAVE
• Budget Maste
• Net Worth SlaU

80299 S> 91A


aa >mvhvwox L22,
WIIH 9NISS0B T NHOT
IS0L0002Z0V

U 467'001 22' ■'


WE PROMISE YOU WON'T
USE THE COMMODORE 64
MORE THAN 24 HOURS
A DAY.
It's 6 a.m. Do you know the64K IBM PCjr™ or the higher game scores or higher
where your husband is? Apple lie™—it's one affordable S.A.T. scores, for words or
It's 8 a.m. Do you know computer. (In fact, you can add music. For all hours of the day.
where your daughter is? a disk drive, a printer or a And night.
It's 11 a.m. Do you know modem and get a powerful So if you're looking for a
where you are? computing system for just computer, it pays to look into
We do. about the price of those other the Commodore 64.
We make the Commodore computers alone.) You'll definitely have
64,™ the computer that's in more And with all the enough money for it. Just make
homes , businesses and schools Commodore software programs sure you have enough time for it.
than any other computer. we make for it, it's one useful
With its 64K memory, its computer. COMMODORE 64=
high fidelity sound and its high What can you use it for? IT'S NOT HOW LITTLE IT COSTS,
resolution sprite graphics, it's Just about anything you want IT'S HOW MUCH YOU GET.
one powerful computer. With its to. For fun or profit, for
price—about one third that of homework or housework, for
Lifestyle
With the Lifestyle Series from Commodore, you way to utilize the excellent graphics capabilities of
can put yourself in the position of an astrologer, the Commodore 64.
artist, or gourmet chef and let your imagination run Prepare a variety of tempting dishes with the
wild. help of Micro Cookbook and end the confusion
Are you intrigued by the wonders of the zodiac? of all of those dog-earred recipe books. Comes
Micro Astrologer will show you how your birth- complete with two diskettes and over 150 of the
date affects your personality, career, love life and world's favorite dishes to whet your appetite.
more. Loads of fun for So when you feel
the entire family! the pressures of your
Exhibit your crea day-to-day life begin
tive flair with Micro ning to close in on you,
Illustrator and de take a break . . . and
sign all kinds of car enjoy the lifestyle of
toons, patterns, and Commodore.
pictures. The perfect

suggested retail suggested retail suggested retail


price $19.95 price $29.95 price $34.95

COMMODORES
RECREATIONAL SOFTWARE
All three products are diskette based and are available on the Commodore 64.
* Micro Illustrator is also available on diskette for the Commodore Plus'4
UME 6, NUMBER 3, ISSUE 3

Mil

CONTENTS

SOFTWARE REVIEWS

PFS File reviewed by Al Willen 16 THE ELECTRONIC COTTAGE AND


Cell Defense reviewed by George Beekman 18 THE SOFTWARE HIGHWAY 66
The Print Shop reviewed by Tom Benford 20
SkiWNter II reviewed by Howard Millman 22 In the space of fifty years, technology significantly
Home Office reviewed by Ted Salamone 24 changed America, taking us out of our homes to work.
Logic Levels/Memory Manor reviewed byChristineAdamec 26 Now the personal computer may be taking us full circle-
right back home, by Kiel Sluart
Menuwriter reviewed by Donald Graham 28
Dialog System reviewed by Donald Graham 30 INTERACTIVE ENTERTAINMENT 70
Creative Write/FileiCalCreviewedbyTedSolamone 32
Home entertainment is demanding more and more
Pascal 64 reviewed by ShlomoGinsburg 34
interactive participation from its audience. What are the
PROMAL reviewed by Wai: Lounsbefy 36
implications for the future? by Dan Gutman
HARDWARE REVIEWS INTERACTIVE VIDEOGRAPHICS 74

CardC0MT/1 Monitor TunerreviewedbyTomBenford 40 Using a lightpen, graphics software and the


Computereyes image digitizer you can create exciting
BOOK REVIEWS
"videographics" with your Commodore 64. by Tom Benford
Programming Your Commodore 64 reviewed by ai wiiien 42 THE INTERACTIVE
Learning Commodore 64 LOGO Together VIDEODISC REVOLUTION 78
reviewed by Jame Chasse 43
Interface a Commodore 64 and a laserdisc player and
PROGRAMMERS' TIPS what have you got? A whole new approach to
education, for one thing, by Tom Benford
The Game Of Life by Cyndie Merten 48
STEVE BECK:
TECHNICAL TIPS RENAISSANCE MAN OF THE FUTURE 80

The S10 Keyboard Kneeboard byDanRusiin 52 Engineer, computer scientist, artist and weaver-is Steve
Home University by ShlomoGinsburg 53 Beck an early indication of a new kind of renaissance
Random Thoughts by Mark Zimmefmann 56 man?byTimOnoslco

SuperPET USERS ONLY ARAS.CALC by John Milcetich 96


Budget Master by Dennis Bloomfield 100
SuperPET Potpourri by Dick Barnes 59
HOW TO ENTER PROGRAMS IN
TELECOMMUNICATIONS
COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 107
Teletel by Matthew Kiell 86
USER GROUPS
COMMODORE 64 USERS ONLY
User Group List 110
Net Worth Statement by Robert Rupfer 62
DISDUMP by Mario Caprio 92 ADVERTISERS' INDEX 120

COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 3
EXCHANGE PQl£R PERIPHERALS
"
OR
REPAIR Publisher
uolt circuits in your home or business
Robert M.Kenney
The unit prouides £0 amps of snitching
current per circuit (3400 Watts Each). Assistant to the Publisher
Pouer Peripherals o-f-fer you i
Virginia 0. Dike
High Pouer i to operate major appliances Editor
Rugged trouble-free construction
Diane LeBold
Technical Editor
install yourself tn seconds
Jim Gracety
ReaQy to use software Assistant Editor
THE SENSIBLE Carol Minton
Easily maKe your own progrjms
ALTERNATIVE Art Director
*B9.B0 *l13.00
Single Circuit □oub 1 e Circuit Robert C. Andersen
Cover Illustration
TO ORDER SPECIFY
VeHin Miller
TTI is a fully authorized.
Single or double circuit design
depot level, computer repair Advertising Coordinator
center for all Commodore C-64 or VIC £0 Comnodore Compter Sharon Steinhofer
Computer products.
Advertising Assistant
□isK or Tape Program Media
Cheryl Griffith
Circulation Manager
Add SI.00 for postage and handling
Wlacons in residents add 'j'.'. sales tax John O'Brien
For more information,
Circulation Assistant
call or write: ACCELERATING TECHNOLOGIES
P.O. Box 233
Kathy Reigel
Marsh-f ield^WI 54449 Advertising Representatives
TEST TECHNOLOGY, INC.
SOUTHEAST
Commodore Bt and VIC 20 are products
1149 Marlkress Road
of C o rrmo d o r e Business Machines. Warren Longer, Spencer 0. Smith
Cherry Hill, New Jersey 08003
Warren Longer Associates
(609) 424-6570 1337NW 84th Drive
Circle Reader Service No. 9 Circle Reader Service No. 2 Coral Springs, FL 33065
800/635-6635
Now You Can Add In Florida call:
305/753-4124
ARTIFICIAL MIDATLANTIC

INTELLIGENCE AND NEW ENGLAND

To Your Programs Using a Powerful Combination Bob D'Ambrosio


Target Media
114 E. Main Street
Bogota, NJ 07603
201/488-7900
MIDWEST
Heres Your Chance to Profit by being on
the Forefront, Write 5th Generation Software Pamela S. Fedor
Learn How To: Easy Graphics & Sound Words
700 River Road
■ Creale lnlellige.il
Programs
• Conunicl
Rule Baw*
. Rotting
' Windows
1 Tuitle Graphics
■ Koala Pad Graphics
Fair Haven, NJ 07701
Bu-Jd E.peri Syslemi > Do Knowledge ■ Split Screen Integrator 201/741-5784
Wrue Stand Ajone Lieense Engineering ■ Punier, Plotter Cirl ' Hires Circle. Line. Arc
Free Programs • Use Inference Engin ' Spnle & Animation i Music Editor
Write Entelligeni Programs For: Editor > Sound Control
Home L'w • Data Analysis Easy Control of all [ O... Commodore Microcomputers, Volume 6. Number 3.
RoboiKS • Business • RS232 Functions • Interrupt Routin
Mcdkal Diagnose • Real Time • Access ail C-64 Penpherais Issue 35, May/June 1985. ISBN 0-88731-042-7
Education Process Conird
Utilities
Commodore Microcomputers ISSN 0744-8724) is
Intelligent CAi • Fas! Games
• Interactive Interpreter Interactive Compiler published six limes a year by Contempofary Marketing,
Snenlifie Analysis • GraphKTS
Data Acquisition • Financial Decowrw
• Forth Virtual Memory Roma^le Code Generator Inc., 1200 Wilson Drive. West Chester. PA 19380 U.S.A.
• Full Cursor Screen Edil 40K Lser Memorv
ilended Math Functions • Full String Handling Air Commodore File Types
U.S. subscriber rate is $15.00 per year. Canadian sub
Fast ML Floating Potni & Integer Math • Trace & Decompiler scriber rate is $20.00 per year. Overseas subscriber rate
Douhle Piecision 2E-3S with Auto. So Not • Conditional Macro Dejinod Commands
n'e" L09> Loge Sn Cos Tan SQR 1<X...
is $25.00 per year. Questions concerning subscriptions
Assembler
Mar n. and Multidimensional La nice Math should be directed to Contemporary Marketing Sub
Algebraic Expression Eva'uator scription Department, Box 651. Holmes, PA 19043,
Great Documentation phone (800) 345-8112. In Pennsylvania (800) 662-2444.
■ Easv lo Read 350 pg.
Manual wilh Tutorials
Copyright © 1985 by Contemporary Marketing, Inc. All
• Source Screen Provided rights reserved.
•Meets all MVP Forth-79 Contemporary Marketing also publishes Commodore
Induslnal Standards
Power/Play.
• Personal User Suppori
Application lo mail at Second Class postage rates is
A Total
SuncrFailh 64 pending at West Chester, Pennsylvania 19380 and addi
Integrated Package
EMw-'vrlul Indn nvnl ollw
64 tional mailing offices. POSTMASTER send address
computer Language*
changes to: Contemporary Marketing. Box 651. Holmes,
Sea Youi Loe«l Computer Sto
SPECIAL INTRODUCTORY OFFER PA 19043.
or CALL
VIC 20". Commodore 64' and Super PET"" are trade
onlyS99°° S9 (800)633-6335 marks of Commodore Electronics Ltd. PET* is
203™ Value hbm a registered trademark of Commodore Business
Limited Tine Olfer m£^m Machines, Inc. CBM s is a registered trademark of Com
(415) 651-3160
(•2 "Snip US A .'2"COD. USA • «1S» Overjeu PARSEC RESEARCH modore Electronics Ltd.
Bov 1766 Ficmonl. CA «5J<
Dtaltr inqjtHva In. kc
ABC Membership applied for.

4 MAY/)UNE Circle Reader Service No. 18


SMART-START
MAKES PROGRAMMING FUN AND EASY FOR EVERYONE!

, graphics and other


advanced features are what
make the Commodore 64 as
popular as it is. But these fea
tures can also require a lot more
programming know-how than
many Commodore owners care
to learn. That's why MUSE®
developed SMART START™
to harness the power of
the Commodore and
put it conveniently at
your finger-tips.
Here arejust a
few of the
things you
can do with
SMART
START™. Here's how it
• You don't works! Visityour
need to be authorized Muse®
familiar with the Software Dealer. Pur
Commodore key chase a SMART START"
board, SMART START™ lets along with any second
you quickly select all functions Muse title. Send us the
purchase receipt of your two
from pull-down menus with
Muse® programs plus a title
cursor orjoystick.
end flap from each software
• No need to type long instruc package.
tions to LOAD, RUN, SAVE and We'll send you a 10% REBATE on
CATALOG programs, with GETA the purchase price of yoursecond
SMART START™ you press a SMART START™ Muse® selection—that's up to $8
single key. FROM MUSE AMD back from Muse®. Rebate value will
• Easily design colorful graphics WE'LL GIVE YOU A HEAD vary according to program and
and exciting sound effects. dealer's actual selling price.
START ON YOUR NEXT
SMART START™ automatically SOFTWARE PURCHASE!
generates the BASIC code for
use in your own programs. GET UP TO AN $8 REBATE
MUSE® SOFTWARE
• Keep track of time with an DIRECTLY FROM MUSE®!
on-screen digital clock and REBATE OFFER
alarm.
• Always just a keystroke away ] Yes, I want a 10% Rebate
EXPECTTHE EXCEPTIONAL.
... works with any program

MUSE
® Name
you're running.
• Merge multiple programs into Address.

one.
• Easily print out screens and Qty_
programs.
SOFTWARE State Zip
Get the most out of your
347 N. Charles Street
Commodore 64 with a SMART
Baltimore, MD 21201 Allow four to six weeks to receive your
START™ from MUSE®. (301)659-7212 rebate directly from Muse®. Offer expires
Suggested retail price S39.95 June 30,1985. Offer void where prohibited
bylaw.
For limited time includes second Commodore is a registered trademark of
BASFQualimetric disk FREE Commodore Business Machines.

Circle Reader Service No. 17 COMMOUORl- MICROCOMPUTERS 5


To the Editor: for my needs. How then to "go wind up with a sorted list, three let
I appreciated the article on BASIC deeper" and sort by the second, third ters deep. WRONG! Error messages
list sorting by David Brooks in the or more letters of a string? How much galore. It took me some time to realize
January/February issue. For many time would accrue? Could the distri that the distribution counting routine
months I have been using a program bution counting method lend its does not account for blank spaces be
called "Filer" from an earlier edition. power? cause it is designed around initial let
I use the program on my 64 to sort The first problem to solve was how ters. I had to account for titles such as
over 200 entries by title, author and to sort using the ASC command on "D Day" in my sort. The command
volume number. My sorting subrou other than the initial letter of a string. above produces a value of — 32
tine for alphabetizing titles, has been The answer was provided by our old which must be recognized with an IF
Quicksort, obtained from Commo friend the MIDS command. By com . . . THEN statement which sets it to
dore's "An Introduction to BASIC." bining the two commands for the pur zero.

The Quicksort technique takes 93 pose of getting the ASC of the third The listing is simply three cycles of
seconds to alphabetize 200 book titles letter of a string, the command ASC the same procedure repeated for the
and drag along the authors and vol (MIDS(AS,3,l)-64) produces a value of third, second and first letters. The un-
ume numbers. When I saw the Distri nine for the letter "i" in AS "Alice in sorted sending arrays are AS, BS and
bution Counting technique outlined Wonderland." For a list of titles in an C. In each cycle, receiving arrays
in Brooks' article, I was determined array, the command becomes ASC must be dimensioned, in this case
to give it a try. On first glance, the (MIDS(AS(IS),3,1)). This command ending with ACS, BDS and CE. I left
results were extremely impressive— worked perfectly in sorting my list of each large enough to accommodate-
eight seconds flat! I soon realized, titles by the third letter. I thought that up to 300 entries. In addition, an ar
however, that alphabetizing by the ini I could blithely repeat the operation ray of 26 cells must be dimensioned
tial letter of a string was insufficent for the second and first letters and for each clue to receive the alphabetic

ALPHA ORDER SORT


7135 NEXT'BAEI
7000 REM ALPHA ORDER BY DISTR 7140 FOR KB=1 TO 26:RB(KB)=RB(KB)+RB
COUNTING-3 DEEP*BY TOM (KB-1):NEXT'HBD0
FOSTER*'BTPM 7145 FOR JB=T TO 1 STEP-1
7001 PRINT:PRINT:PRINT:PRINT"PLEASE :LB=ASC(MID$(AA$(JB),2,
WAIT ABOUT 1 MINUTE WHILE";'EEML 1))-641JAHU
7003 PRINT" THE[SPACE2] 7150 IF LB=-32 THEN LB=0'FHQJ
FILE IS ALPHABETIZED.[SPACE3] 7155 I=RB(LB):AB${I)=AA$(JB)
*THANK Y0U*[SPACE3]"'BAFN :BC$(I)=BB$(JB):CD(I)=CC(JB)'EWPX
7010 DIM R(26),AA$(300),BB$(300), 7157 RB(LB)=I-1'CIXP
CC{300)'BGXG 7158 NEXT'BAEN
7020 FOR 1=1 TO T:L=ASC(MID$(A$(I),3, 7160 FOR 1=1 TO T:PRINT AA$(I):NEXT
1))-64'HUWJ :REM * IF YOU WANT TO SEE SECOND
7025 IF L=-32 THEN L=0'FFJK CYCLE *'G0DU
7030 R(L)=R(L)+1'CJGF 8001 PRINT^RINTiPRINT^I'M ALMOST
7035 NEXT'BAEH FINISHED."'DCYI
7040 FOR K=l TO 26:R(K)=R(K)+R(K-1) 8010 DIM S(26),AC$(300),BD$(300),
:NEXT'HTDL CEC300)'BGFH
7045 FOR J=T TO 1 STEP-1 8020 FOR 1=1 TO T:M=A5C(AB$(I)}
:L*ASC{MID$(A$(J),3,1})-64'JVBS -64'GPYJ
7050 IF L=-32 THEN L=0'FFJI 8025 IF M=-32 THEN M-0'FFLL
7055 I = R(L) :AA$(I)=A$(J) :BB$(I)=B$ (J) 8030 S(M)=S(M)+1'CJKG
:CC(I)=C(J)'EOVU 8035 NEXT'BAEI
7057 R(L)=I-1ICGWN 8040 FOR KK=1 TO 26:S{KK)=S(KK)+S
7058 NEXT'BAEM (KK-1):NEXT'HXAN
7060 FOR 1=1 TO T:PRINT AA$(I):NEXT 8045 FOR JJ=T TO 1 STEP-1
:REM * IF YOU WANT TO SEE FIRST :M=ASC(AB$(JJ)J-64'ISBS
CYCLE *'GNGS 8050 IF M=-32 THEN M=0'FFLJ
7101 PRINT:PRINT:PRINTMIT WON'T BE 8055 I=S(M):AC$(I)=AB$(JJ)
LONG NOW'DCII :BD${I)=BC${JJ):CE(I)=CD(JJ)'EUVW
7110 DIM RB{26),AB$(300),BC$(300), 8057 S(M)=I-l'CGY0
CD(300)'BHRH 8058 NEXT'BAEN
7120 FOR 1=1 TO T:LB=ASC(MID$(AA$(I), 8060 FOR 1=1 TO T:PRINT AC$(I):NEXT
2,1))-64'HWVL :REM * IF YOU WANT TO SEE FINAL
7125 IF LB=-32 THEN LB=0'FHQL CYCLE *'GNDT
7130 RB(LB)=RB{LB)+l'CN0H 8070 RETURN'BAQH

6 MAY/JUNE
New Hard Disk
Signals Full
Speed Ahead
For Commodore 64

Speed. It's a major factor in the


business microcomputer world. Now,
Fiscal Information Inc., has broken the
speed barrier with the first really fast
hard disk subsystem for Commodore
FIl's Lt. Kernel with streaming tape option
64. How fast is really fast? It's fast
installed. enough to load a full screen of high-
resolution color graphics (about
11 kbytes) in less than one second! It is, in fact, up to 43 times faster than
Commodore's standard 1541 floppy disk drive.
FII's Lt. Kernel™ disk drive carries an on-board DOS. It's a substantial
upgrade to C64's BASIC, since it adds run-time functions and several
CP/M®—like command line functions. Lt. Kernel interfaces via the expansion/
cartridge port and transparently implements all Commodore 1541 DOS
functions.
Capacity of 10 or 20 MB is standard; larger capacities and integral streaming
tape backup are available as extra-cost options.
Price of the 10 MB Lt. Kernel is $1,595- Learn how your Commodore can
sail into serious business or scientific applications at full speed. Write Fiscal
Information Inc., or telephone 904/253-6222.

fl/Cfll
Commodore 6-4 is a trademark of Commodore
P.O. Box 10270/Daytona Beach, FL 32020 Business Machines.
CP/M Is a trademark of Digital Research. Inc.
Circle Reader Service No. 12 Ll. Kernel Is a trademark of Fiscal Information. Inc.
LETTER
MOST ASCII values.

VALUABLE
The entire new program (three
deep) decreased the sorting time by
40 seconds or over 50%. I am sure
that a bit of crunching by Commo

PERIPHERAL
dore readers can make it even more
efficient.

SUBSCRIBE NOW! Thomas Foster


Bel Air, Maryland

Use the subscription card enclosed. Editor's Note: To use this subroutine,
you must have already dimensioned
and initialized the arrays A$(), BS( )
and C(). If you want to use only

SkiWriterll
AS(), remove all portions of lines
referring to BS(), BBS(), BCS(),
BDS(), C(), CC(), CD() and CE().
Lines affected would be 7010, 7055,
7110, 7155, 8010 and 8055. B

To the Editor
We are coming to see the Commo
dore 64 in use in the science class
room for a variety of applications in
"A new generation of word-processing software! cluding laboratory enhancement, data
... SkiWriter II not only gives you a lot of word-processing power, it also manipulation, "dry labs" or pre-Iabs,
gives you a complete telecommunications program.. .From a high-
as well as classroom management and
school student who may be using a modem for research and
word processing.
reference material, to busy executives who want the latest stock
information in a snap, SkiWriter II is perfect and reasonably 1 am interested in contacting other
priced."—Family Computing science teachers and students who use
the Commodore 64 in the science
1.. .The advantages of having SkiWriter on a cartridge are classroom in order to share science
immediately evident. Simply stick the cartridge into the back of a programs written by the teacher and/
Commodore or the front of a PCjr and SkiWriter's main menu appears or student, evaluate commercial soft
instantly... But the ability to move quickly from editing to com ware and publicize science software
munications and back again in SkiWriter is what really separates available for the 64.
this package from anything available for home computers."
This last item is quite important in
—Personal Computing
the science field as many decision
'The cartridge version for the Com makers in the school districts are un

SdBWterfl
modore 64 is inexpensive and is aware of the many science applica
faster than many programs run
tions for the 64.
ning on the IBM PC... It has other
amazing properties, including a tele Besides the obvious educational
communications program that can be benefits, there are other advantages to
accessed at any time while you are the collaboration of science teachers.
using the word processor."—*Byte Commodore 64's and students:
Available on Cartridge for 1. We expose more students to the
Commodore 64/S69.95 world of computing.
Now at your software store, or call: 2. We allow the students a practi
cal application for their programming
800-624-0023 skills, for both the beginner and expe
(In New Jersey: 800-624-0024) rienced programmer.
Visa and MasterCard accepted.
3. We form a network of interested
.-is buyers of science software.
home software
Iprentice-hAll JeffSimpson
P.O. BoiS19, Englvwood Cuff j. New Jersey 07632
■SKiWnler ir and "Tho Communicating Worn Paradise Valley High School
Processor' aie iraflemarvs ol StsoH. lie.
3950 E. Bell Road
Phoenix, Arizona 85032 —
H

8 MAY/IUNE Circle Reader Service No. 20


PlayNET
announces 19 exciting ways to
bring people together.
Now there's a Home Computer Network

5-17
GAMES! WMORE! MORE! MORE!
that lets you communicate with all kinds GAMES! There's on-line updating of
of people—all over the country! Make new GAMES! your PlayNET Software as
friends, play exciting games, barter—shop PlayNET lets you games and services are added.
—trade, all from the comfort of your home. play exciting games with real people, not You have access to PlayNET's Shopping
The network operates 6PM-7AM every just a computer. All our games have full Center and Information Center, and every
weeknight, and 24 hours on Saturday, Sun color graphics, and they're all interactive! month you'll get our Newsletter.
day and Holidays. All you need to access
• Plus the added feature WYOUR SATISFACTION IS
PlayNET™ is a COMMODORE 64* DISK
of being able to talk with GUARANTEED for 30 days
DRIVE and MODEM.
your opponent while you (or your full subscription

1
TALK. play. Discuss strategy, price will be refunded upon
By typing on-line you can talk to comment on moves, even receipt of the package).
anyone, or everyone, on the sys try and psych your oppo This is all you pay:
tem. Meet fascinating people and nent out! • S39.95 for the PlayNET Software
make new • New games are added all Package (3 disks and a User Man
friends from the time, and there are ual). Monthly Newsletter, and 90
coast to coast. tournaments for every MINUTES ON-LINE TIME FREE!
skill level. • S6 monthly service
charge.
CURRENT GAMES INCLUDE: • S2 an hour on
line time (the
Backgammon
$2 includes
Boxes the telecom
Capture

2
ELECTRONIC MAIL. munication
You can send private messages to the Flag charges). That's much
people on the system, and the Checkers less than a long distance phone call.
message will be waiting when they Chess Here's how you can become a member!
sign on! Chinese Its easy to join, simply call PlayNET on the
Checkers toll-free number, I-800-PLAYNET, or send
Contract the coupon below and access all your Com
Bridge modore 64 has to offer. The sooner you do,

3
BULLETIN BOARDS.
Four-In- the sooner PlayNET can put the whole
You can post announcements, or
A-Row country at your fingertips!
check the listings of other mem
bers. There are lots of boards for Go
hobbies and spe Hangman =PlayNET
cial interests! If Quad 64™ _
you don't find Reversi The Network
the one you're Sea Strike™ that has people talking
looking for— r 52
create your
SEND TO PLAYNET, INC.

own!
P.O. BOX 587
WYNANTSK1LL, N.Y. 12198
or call 1-800-PLAYNET
YES! I WANT PlayNET TO PUT THE WHOLE COUNTRY AT MY FINGERTIPS. I

4
FILE TRANSFER. UNDERSTAND THAT MY SATISFACTION IS GUARANTEED FOR 30 DAYS tor my full
You can even transfer non-com subscription price will be refunded upon return of the package) I may cancel my
membership at any time by writing PlayNET.
mercial programs to other mem
Bill me on my charge card for S30-.95 (Plus sales tax for New York State residents). No
bers! There is a small extra fee for checks, cash or money orders accepted. Please send me the PlayNET Software, User
this service. Manual, and 90 minutes of free on-line time.
Please print.
Name—
Address
City .State. .Zip.

TRF1MSFGE E Phone_(
Check one: □ MasterCard D VISA
Card # .Exp. Date-
Signature ■

Circle Reader Service No. 19 ™ PljyNET. QuaJ 04 ind Sa Solkt '<' iradtiiuiks ci FUNET. tnc 'Commadnc M n i iradeirurk „! Commodore Bu«ncsi Machines Inc C WS5 PliyNET, Iik
Printer Stand
X he Write Angle desk-top printer stand from Northeast Peripherals (RD #1,
Box 44, Somerset, New Jersey 08873) puts computer output at the best
viewing angle. Crafted from clear acrylic in a one-piece design, this space-
saving stand offers convenient paper storage below the printer. Printed fan-
fold paper will automatically stack neatly behind the stand. The anti-skid
protective feet hold your printer and stand securely without marring your
furniture. The Write Angle printer stands carries a lifetime guarantee. It
comes in three sizes retailing from $29.95 to $39.95.

Compiler
anosec (Lincoln Plaza, 3544 Lincoln Avenue, Ogden, Utah 84401) has released Pro-Compiler, a full 32-bit arithmetic
compiler that can include other BASIC programs or subroutines. It doesn't generate slow P-code or its own library overhead
and compiles your BASIC program down to straight machine code. While doing this, it also optimizes your code. Now your
compiled programs can have up to 48K. Suggested retail price is S99.95.

Computer Graphics Dictionary


1 he theory and practice of computer graphics, a technique nearly 20 years old but only recently coming into widespread use,
has spawned a new vocabulary to explain its ideas, principles and procedures. The Dictionary of Computer Graphics, recently
published by Knowledge Industry Publications (701 Westchester Avenue, White Plains, New York 10604), brings this scientific
vocabulary within the reach of laymen, students and computer graphics artists.
The dictionary provides detailed, frequently illustrated explanations of 200 terms, such as achromatic color, algorithm,
CAD, eel, fractals and Z-buffer. Photos and diagrams illustrate such terms as digitizing, plotter and fractal surface. A special
eight-page four-color insert illustrates the complexity of computer-generated images and graphics techniques. The book also
includes a select list of references, associations and publications.
The book is written by Dr. John Vince and retails for $34.95.

New Dot Matrix


Printer
infcforunner Corporation (Airport
Business Center, 431N. Oak Street,
Inglewood, CA 90302) has released the
Riteman C +, a dot matrix printer for
Commodore computers with a print
speed of 105 characters per second. With
a built-in Commodore interface, the
Riteman C+ can be directly plugged
into the Commodore serial port. It also
includes cables and connectors.
The unique front-loading design of the Riteman C + allows computer paper to snap right into the adjustable front tractor
sprockets without any alignment problems. It also lets you use plain paper of any thickness (even card stock). The built-in
printer stand keeps paper right under the Riteman C +, away from its cables and connectors.
The logic-seeking bi-directional Riteman C + prints in a nine-by-nine dot matrix. In its reverse field mode, the Riteman C +
produces white letters on a black background. It prints 82 Commodore graphic characters and produces true descenders.
Other standard features of the Riteman C + include equipped friction fee, adjustable three through 10-5/8 tractor feed, 96-
character ASCII set and four international character sets. It has seven printing modes: standard, double strike, emphasized,
compressed, underline, italic and super/subscript.
Suggested retail price for the Riteman C + is $299 with a one-year warranty on parts and labor.

10 MAYflUNE
II NLAJOIKT

NEWS
Electronic Yellow Pages
Zi new service is now available which provides instant access to every Yellow Page directory in the country. The Instant
Yellow Page Service lets you dial in and retrieve business information on-line from a data base of over six million Yellow Page
listings.
Any printing terminal, communicating word processor or computer with modem can be used to access the Instant Yellow
Page Service. Charges are $1.00 per minute for connect time and ten cents per record printed, plus a nominal subscription fee
of $15 per month. Over 300 different Yellow Page titles are available nationwide, and for some states, every business in the
Yellow Pages may be accessed.
For more information, contact Instant Yellow Page Service, American Business Lists Inc., P.O. Box 27347, Dept. N, Omaha,
Nebraska 68127. The phone number is 402-331-7169.

Voice Synthesizers
V otrax (1394 Rankin Road, Troy, Michigan 48083) has
introduced two devices that make personal computers talk.
The two peripherals—Personal Speech System (PSS) and
Type-'N-Talk—convert computer data into spoken English.
Each operates from a CMOS synthesis chip and general
microprocessor.
Both products are designed to eliminate the need for
extensive phonetic skills, resulting in speech that is 95%
conversationally accurate. Users enter standard English
text through the keyboard and a Z80 microprocessor, then
use standard pronunciation rules to generate correct word
sounds through the Votrax SC-01, a CMOS speech synthesis
chip developed by Votrax.
PSS is priced at $395 and Type-'N-Talk retails for $249.

Home Medical Software for the 64


XM early every household has one or more home medical manuals. These manuals are usually organized by type of illness or
anatomical region, making it difficult to pinpoint the cause of one's ailment unless the symptoms are familiar. Thanks to the
power of the computer, it is now possible to identify the most likely illness, even if it is obscure and unfamiliar.
Navic (Box 14727, North Palm Beach, Florida 33408) has released Family Medical Advisor, a data base of nearly 200 medical
conditions. The user simply responds yes or no to a series of questions {symptoms and signs) in layman's terms. The computer
then analyzes the accumulated data and displays the most probable medical condition. Related disorders with similar
symptoms are also identified and listed on the monitor screen in descending order of probability.
The program retails at $38.00.

More Help for the Handicapped


Co/omputer Technology for the Handicapped, by Closing the Gap (P.O. Box 68, Henderson, Minnesota 56044), is a treasury of
state-of-the-art microcomputer applications written for special education and rehabilitation professionals as well as the
handicapped, their families and associates. This 260-page book details 45 of the more than 80 presentations made at the CTG
Annual Conference and focuses on how computer technology can help the handicapped or disabled person. Topics include
microcomputer applications in all disability areas—hearing and speech impaired, blind and vision impaired, physically and
mentally handicapped—as well as complete contact information on all presenters, a listing of nearly 60 hardware and
software producers exhibited at the conference and an introduction by Dolores Hagen, co-founder of Closing the Gap and
author of Microcomputer Resource Book for Special Education.
Computer Technology for the Handicapped retails for $17.95. For more information on this book or the other computer-
related services Closing the Gap provides to special education and rehabilitation professionals and handicapped persons,
contact Closing the Gap at the above address or call 612-248-3294.

COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 11
II NLAJOIKT

Hard Disk
Subsystem and
INEWS
DOS for the 64
i? iscal Information (P.O. Box 10270,
Daytona Beach, Florida 32020) has
announced a new hard-disk subsystem
and DOS for the Commodore 64. The
system supports storage capacities
from five megabytes to 144 megabytes
and transparently implements all
Commodore 1541 floppy DOS functions.
The DOS uses no normally available
user memory in the 64. The software
included with the package significantly
upgrades the 64's BASIC with additional
run-time functions and many CBM-like
command-line features including auto
start of applications upon power-up.
The package consists of a cartridge port interface, disk/controller subsystem and user-configurable DOS software. Price is
expected to be in the $1,300 to $1,700 range for a 10 megabyte system (the production interface will be enclosed).

Making Money with Your Home Computer


JVioonlighting on your personal computer can help pay for it. Here is a guide for both the novice and experienced user, to
profitable ways they may employ the home computer. Using many examples, the author explains the many services the home
computer user can provide: preparing mass mailings, programming for businesses, typesetting, creating games and programs
for syndication.
The book, Making Money with Your Home Computer by Dana K. Cassell, is published by Dodd, Mead & Company (79
Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016). It retails for $5.95.

Real-Time Space Adventure


Mineidscape (3444 Dundee Road, Northbrook, niinois 60062) and software author Tom Snyder have produced a new program
for the Commodore 64 that is an actual real-time simulation of our solar system. Called The Halley Project: A Mission in Our
Solar System, the program seeks players who qualify for the top secret project by making them complete a series of
navigational tests in an authentic space simulation.
Through the tests and obstacles, The Halley Project helps players master basic facts about the solar system. It includes
details on Halley's Comet and its orbit, an understanding of gravity, atmospheric conditions and orbital motion, relative size,
position and orbit of planets and moons, locations of constellations and how eclipses work.
A multitude of' 'courses" subjected to random conditions are built into the program to provide a variety of missions for the
player. The program records players' progress and speed, encouraging them to undertake missions that will increase their
understanding of the solar system.
Suggested retail price is $44.95.

Time Response Monitoring


1 yping Tutorm, recently released by Simon and Schuster (1230 Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York 10020), uses
a unique programming technique dubbed "time response monitoring" by its developer, Kriya Systems. The program for the
Commodore 64 continually monitors and records the precise time, in thousandths of a second, that it takes for the user to
respond to each key. This data is then stored and used to customize current and future lessons to meet each student's specific
needs.
For example, a weak left-hand little finger will type A's, Z's and Q's more slowly. Noting this, Typing Tutor JUwill create
special lessons to strengthen the student's skill in these letters. Or the student may have an accuracy program with specific
letter combinations. Typing Tu tor HIwill sense this and automatically create special lessons to strengthen it.

12 MAY0UNE
II NLAJOIKY

NEWS
Menu-Driven Disk Operations
Software Intelligence Corporation (P.O. Box 1390, Spring Valley, California 92077-0220) has released Achiever, an easy-to-
use disk operator for the Commodore 64.
The program provides menu-driven disk operations such as loading, opening, copying, renaming, scratching and closing
files. Achieveris loaded into memory (RAM) and there it stays to guide the user through disk operations. Achiever retails for
$29.95.

TPUG Conference
1 he fourth annual TPUG (Toronto PET Users' Group) conference will be held in Toronto on May 25 and May 26,
1985. The club is the world's largest Commodore users' group, with a membership of over 15,000. For more information
contact Doris Bradley at the TPUG Business Office, 1912A Avenue Road, Toronto, Ontario, M5M 4A1 Canada. The
telephone is 416-782-9252.

Science
Education
Programs
1 ech Sketch (26 Just Road, Fairfield,
New Jersey 07006), manufacturer of
light pens, is introducing three new
high school-level science education
programs for the Commodore 64.
Each of the new titles is the first in a
series planned for three subject areas.
The first, in the biology series, is
Structure of Leaves; the second, in the
matter series, is Molecules and Atoms;
and the third, in the chemistry section,
is Passive Transport.
The software makes use of both the
computer keyboard and a light pen. The
light pen is used to select categories and
answers displayed on the screen.

Monitor Stand
Dmincom's (260 Holbrook Drive, Wheeling, Illinois 60090) new monitor stand
has been designed to provide an ergonometrically superior work space for
both home and office computer use. With a suggested retail price of $26.95,
the monitor stand appeals to users who make comfort a priority.
The stand helps eliminate glare since it can swivel 360 degrees and tilt up
and down 12.5 degrees. The heavy-duty stand can hold a computer, video
monitor or television set with a screen size up to 14 inches. Its injection-
molded plastic shell is reinforced with a composite metal support plate
protected by a polyurethane cushion. Available in almond, the monitor stand
measures 11 inches wide by ten inches deep and a half inches high.

COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 13
HHHHHR3
■■■-.■■
■■-■■.,""
■■■■'.-
-■■■'-■•■■■

HI
' '■"' H\K

,--■■.■

■■"".-■■■" • -.1 *--'■■■■

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. *■;• :■ Tht-r.*.

IT'S NOT
HOW LITTLE IT COSTS,
ITS HOW
MUCH YOU GET.
B^^^H

mm L

We have a surprise for all thousands of programs for economically than people who
those people who think that in schools, business or funny don't. (Which is just about
order to get more you have to business. everybody else.)
pay more. But the Commodore 64 is So because it's a 64,
The Commodore 64™ about one third the price of the it's powerful. Because it's a
We also have a surprise 64K IBM PCjr™or the Apple lie™ Commodore, it's affordable.
for all those people who think In fact, for about the price of And because it's a Commodore
they have to settle for less just those computers alone you can 64, it's the world's best selling
because they're paying less. get the Commodore 64, a disk computer.
The Commodore 64. drive, a printer and a modem—
The Commodore 64 has a a powerful computing system. COMMODORE 64=
full 64K memory, high fidelity We don't do it with mirrors, IT'S NOT HOW LITTLE IT COSTS,
sound and high resolution, we do it with chips. We make our IT'S HOW MUCH YOU GET.
16-color sprite graphics. own. So we can make them for
It's fully capable of running less, more efficiently and more
S0F1WARE REVIEW.
C
REVIEWED HY Al. W1LLHN

PFS:File into a "Design" screen: a blank screen


with which you can organize your

Computer: Commodore 64 PFS:File is so easy to personal filing system.

Publisher: Software Publishing As with all PFS.File screens, the


1901 Landings Drive use, you don't even bottom three lines of the CRT screen
Mountain View, CA are exclusively devoted to program

94043
need documentation system information. This information

Medium: Disk includes the name of the file you are


to have it running creating, what stage of file develop
ment you are in, the page number of
Software Publishing has finally
within minutes. the file you are working on, fre
translated PFS.File into a Commodore quently used function keys, what they
64 version. This is significant for two do {PFS: File uses dedicated function
very important reasons: it " legiti keys, of which F7—a "go ahead"
mizes" the 64 in the eyes of people key—is used the most) and a meter
who thought that only the IBM and which tells what percent of the disk
Apple machines were valid in a busi space you have used so far.
ness/professional environment and it Once inside the "Design" screen,
marks a successful translation true to you can personalize your filing system
the integrity and purpose of the with up to 50 unique item names
original. (data fields), all arranged in whatever
If I didn't know better, I would graphic manner you decide is best for
have sworn that Software Publishing your particular application. Unlike
invented the term "user friendly." other database programs, your fin
PFS.File is so easy to use, you don't ished "Design" screen will look like a
even need documentation to have it report form (for example, a medical
running within minutes. Everything is alone program or as an integral team form), rather than simply a listing of
menu-driven so that the average user member with other PFS products. Al available fields.
can concentrate on the filing situa though there are seven components in In fact, this is just one reason why
tion, not the internals of the program. the PFS applications network so far PFS.File is so easy to use. Not only are
Though PFS.File is so easy to use only two of these packages have been such computer-unique words (such as
that an average computer user won't translated to the 64: PFS:File and database fields) completely avoided,
even have to read the 81-page manual. PFS: Report. but the user is given the opportunity
I do encourage you to do so. In fact, It takes almost two minutes to load to actually create the graphic format.
the PFS-File manual—by manual au the self-booting PFS.File program This screen-sized prompt, popular
thor Briana Burns—is unquestionably (PFS.File is a long program). After a ized by the program VisiCalc, seems
the best package documentation I simple anti-piracy scheme executes, more like an empty form—just wait
have ever used. It is everything a man the user is transported into the main ing to be filled in—than a computer
ual should be and more: easy to read, menu. The menu gives the user six input statement.
graphically pleasant to the eyes, and subroutine options, including: "De Once created, a "Design" screen is
convenient to use. It has quick guide sign File," "Add," "Search/Update," saved on the data disk. The first item
lines, an instant-access index and ter "Print," "Remove" and "Exit." Also name is inflexible and used as a sort
rific screen illustrations. included on the main menu is a line. (A sort line is the variable field
There are 17 built-in error messages prompt which asks the user to input used as the primary avenue of sorting
which cover a gambit of user situa the file name (not necessary, because and searching for any specific file. For
tions. Because of the efficient design the program automatically detects the example, a sort line is often used by
of this product—and with a little name if one exists on the disk) and the the computer to arrange individual
common-sense usage (for example, operation mode number. fields into some sort of alpha/numeric
remember to shut the disk drive order.) Another interesting feature of
door)—you'll probably never run into Design File Mode PFS.File is the ability to completely
an error message or a problem. This mode is important for two rea redesign the format presentation and
sons: it formats and initializes a blank variable fields, even after data has
The Program data diskette and readies it to receive been saved. The only restriction is
PFS.File is unpretentious. Although data, and it starts a procedure so that that a data form (a file) cannot be al
it has many powerful features found you can redesign a form, even if that tered after 50% of the storage capabil
on full-fledged database management data disk has been in use for a consid ity of the data disk has been reached.
programs, it is—and is advertised as— erable amount of time. Why? Well, I'll venture an educated
afiling program. It takes one and three-quarter min guess by saying that the program uses
Another unique feature of PFS.File utes to initialize a disk. After the disk close to 85K of disk space (half of the
is that it can be used either as a stand- drive stops operating, the user is put

16 MAYflL'NE
/ARE REVIEWS
I54l's 170K storage limit) to store the than learning disk drive commands!
previous format, while at the same
time, creating an equally large mu Print Mode
tated clone. Why mutated? Because A filing program without a print
the data stays stable, even though the I can request to mode is like a fish without water. For
field prompts and their positions are tunately, PFS:File contains a built-in
allowed to change. see all records "Print" mode. There are two addi
tional subroutines contained in this
Add Mode containingpeople mode. The first allows you to print
The "Add" mode is a subroutine any forms which meet your specified
which enables the user to enter raw living in New York, conditions (or no conditions, if you
data (names, addresses, phone num
bers) into the format established by
who have bought a like). The second option allows you to
create and name up to eight different
the "Design" file. How easy is it? It's widget within the print specifications for automatic
as easy as going down your screen formats.
"page," using cursors and other spe lastyear and owe How does one use the "Print"
cially defined function keys, and fill mode? After entering this mode, the
ing in a blank form. When you are fin me money. user defines the search pattern in the
ished, function key F7 saves the data same manner as in the "Search/Up
as found on the display screen and date" mode. Next, the user fills out a
wipes the form clean again for an "form" which specifies the print op
other record. The STOP key enables tions. These options include: number
the user to end any mode activity and Search/Update Mode of copies made for each file, lines per
instantly return to the main menu. This is probably the most powerful page (six for typical mailing labels),
Of course, there are some special mode of all. The "Search/Update" whether to print item names, and
conventions which can be added in mode, as the name suggests, serves a whether or not to use pre-defined
specific and unusual situations. These dual purpose. First, it allows the user print specs as set up in the "Define
include sorting records by zip code, to search through all the records until Print Spec" section of the same mode.
entering in times, entering in dates a condition (or conditions) are met. If the user has established print
and filing by customer number. A For example, if I can specify that all specs, the program will print out the
printout of a single form is also possi records be displayed, they will be, in data in the format specified by that
ble when in the "Add" mode. chronological order backwards. I can print spec. (These print specs can be
There is another interesting feature request to see all records containing modifed at will and are saved onto
of PFS.FHe, which can be accessed people living in New York, who have disk.) If not, the user manually indi
while in the "Add" mode. This special bought a widget within the last year cates (by use of the symbols
feature is called an attachment. Just as and owe me money. PFS.FHe will + and X) which item names will be
in real life, some file records inevita comply with no trouble at all. Sec printed and how they will appear.
bly contain more information than a ondly, this mode allows the user to Please note that the user has the op
single page (or screen full) can physi conveniently update or modify any tion of printing the item names along
cally contain. In real-life filing situa file at any time. with the variables, so that a "form"
tions, this is corrected by stapling ad What makes PFS:File so powerful look (for instance, a medical chart)
ditional pages to the main file form. in the "Search/Update" mode is its can be reproduced. The item names
In PFS:File, these additional pages— ability to hone in on specific logic can be dropped in order to produce
up to 31—are electronically linked to conditions with uncanny accuracy. mailing labels. Also, records can be
the main form (for a specific individ With the use of graphic symbols and a ordered alphabetically/numerically in
ual case) to append additional data to few easy-to-remember rules, any user the "Print" mode, a feature which is
the record. can quickly command this data base not available in the regular "Search/
So although there is a restriction to to do amazing things. Update" mode, where records are
the number of variable item names With a little practice, the user can stored in a last-in, first-out order.
(50 fields), there is virtually no restric even specify such involved search
tion to the amount of data contained procedures as:find club members Remove and Exit Mode
in each item name. As far as I can de who joined between September 1984 These remaining two modes are
termine, an item name—as displayed and November 1985 ( = 84/09.- self-explanatory. The "Remove"
on subsequent attachments—can con 85/11), find customers who owe me mode removes dead records from
tain a paragraph's worth of informa more than S50 (>50), find suppliers your database file. This act frees up
tion (for instance, a product descrip who manufacture widgets (... wid valuable storage space. The "Exit"
tion). And as we'll see in the next gets ..) and print all names except mode helps the user get back into BA
section, literally any byte of this infor those starting with "B" (/B . .). This SIC. Also included as a stand-alone
mation can be accessed in the may seem complicated, but take my utility program is a file backup. I
"Search" mode. Of course, attach word for it, it's a hundred times easier tested this backup routine, and while
ments do take up disk storage space. than learning disk drive commands! Continued on page 116

COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 17
ARE REVIEWS
REVIEWED BY GEORGE BEEKMAN
AND STEVE JOHNSON

Cell Defense
quires several skills: the ability to
think fast and make sound decisions
under pressure; a strong memory for
Computer: Commodore 64 Interactive computer recalling the state of layers not cur
Publisher: Human Engineered
Software simulations like rently shown on the screen; three-di
mensional visualization skills for un
150 North Hill Drive
Brisbane, CA 94005 Cell Defense give derstanding relationships between
adjacent levels; and, of course, joy
Medium: Disk
us a dynamic stick dexterity. It doesn't hurt to have
a color monitor or TV, either. The
JL he more we understand our understanding of graphics are excellent and color plays
bodies, the better we can take care of an important role in distinguishing
them. Today's technological tools al
complex biological different objects in this micro world.
low us to understand our bodies like The Cell Defense manual is clev
processes.
never before. Optical and photo erly designed to look like an old-fash
graphic breakthroughs bring us true- ioned science notebook, complete
to-life TV movies of our insides from with hand-printed notes, cartoon
the inside. Biofeedback devices allow tion of the current state of the organ drawings, and even a few doodles and
us to "see" stress on our forehead or ism. Below this figure, a "scanner" tic-tac-toe games. It's surprisingly
fingertip and visualize it away. And window shows an eight-by-eight layer thorough and readable given its small
now, interactive computer simulations of cells, indicating healthy and in (12-page) size. It's also supplemented
like Cell Defense give us a dynamic fected cells, bloodstream areas, some by a series of reminder help screens
understanding of complex biological cell defense mechanisms, and the that can be reviwed before any game.
processes by allowing us to take part player's current position. A joystick Even with these screens, most kids
in those proceses in an entertaining controls movement between cells of will probably need help from an old
way. this matrix and between cell levels. It ster to figure the instructions out, but
Cell Defense colorfully simulates also controls movement within a sin a joystick-literate ten year-old should
the defense of an organism (a human gle cell of the grid. The largest screen have no trouble playing the game once
body) against attack by a generic vi window gives a close-up animated the ground rules are clear.
rus. The organism is made of three look at the current single cell and its An opening menu allows the simu
main types of cells: quickly-reproduc immediate environment. That envi lation to be adjusted in a number of
ing labile cells (like those of the skin), ronment may include one or more ways. The number of cell levels, virus
stable cells that regenerate more tiny virus cells near or inside the cell. reproduction rate, cell regeneration
slowly (like liver cells), and irreplace It may also contain immunization rate and initial health of the host can
able perennial cells (like those found tools that can be used to slow down all be adjusted to eighi different set
in the skeletel muscles, heart, brain or stop a viral attack. tings. This increases the educational
and spinal cord.) These cells are ar There are four defenses against vi value of the simulation by allowing
ranged in one to eight cell layers, de ral attack: interferon, which can be players to explore the effects of each
pending on choices made by the grabbed from an infected cell and of these variables. But it also gives the
player/student during initialization of spread to nearby healthy cells to game added flexibility, so it can be
the program. (hopefully) stop the viruses from re fun for beginners and challenging for
As our story opens, some of the producing; macrophages, small green experienced defenders.
cells of the organism in question are gobblers that can be used to chomp Cell Defense might be criticized as
being ruthlessly attacked by tiny virus free viruses Pacman-style; B-cells, an oversimplification of the virus-host
cells whose mission is to convert in which divide to produce antibodies interaction, but the same can be said
nocent cells into virus "factories." A for protecting the blood stream; and of any introductory text book descrip
converted factory cell will eventually committed T-cells that can be used tion of that relationship. The truth is,
burst, but before it does it will pro like bombs to obliterate infected cells scientists really don't know very
duce several more nasty little viruses before the infection can spread. much about what's going on at that
to terrorize other cells. The object of The challenge is to choose the most level, and this program does a good
this game is to stop those viruses from appropriate type of defense, find the job of illustrating the basic principles
destroying the organism. The game correct defense token in the grid, that they do understand. It's no substi
ends with the destruction of the vi move the token to the optimum posi tute for biology lectures, textbooks or
ruses—or the body. tion and trigger the defense before it's films. But in the classrooms or at
The game screen is divided into too late. Since viruses may be attack home, Cell Defense offers an enter
three windows. A small window in ing several parts of the body at once, taining way for kids (and adults) to ac
the upper right corner of the screen it's often necessary to make rapid-fire tively experience a little of the submi-
shows the outline of a person. This strategic judgments. croscopic world inside. And as any
figure "fills" with a different color as Successfully defending the body educator can tell you, experience is a
cells die, giving a graphic representa- against attack in multi-level games re great teacher. Q

18 MAY/)UNE
\.

Simulator n

rr. '■ <I ■ tral


IV"**

Put yourself in the pilots seat of a Piper 181 Cherokee Archer for an awe-inspiring flight over realistic scener
from New York to Los Angeles. High speed color-filled 3D graphics will give you a beautiful panoramic vie
as you practice takeoffs, landings, and aerobatics. Complete documentation will get you airborne quickly
even if you've never flown before. When you think you're ready, you can play the World War I Ace aerial battU
game. Flight Simulator II features include ■ animated color 3D graphics ■ day, dusk, and night flying mode
■ over 80 airports in four scenery areas: New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Seattle, with additional scenery
areas available ■ user-variable weather, from clear blue skies to grey cloudy conditions ■ complete flight
instrumentation ■ VOR, ILS, ADF, and DME radio equipped ■ navigation facilities and course plotting ■ World
War I Ace aerial battle game ■ complete information manual and flight handbook.

See your dealer...


or write or call for more information. For direct orders enclose $49.95 plus $2.00
for shipping and specify UPS or first class mail delivery. American Express,
Diner's Club, MasterCard, and Visa accepted.
°)LOGIC
Corporation
713 Edgebrook Drive
Order Line: 800 / 637-4983 Champaign IL 61820
Circle Reader Service No. 27 (217) 359-8482 Telex: 206995
SORA/ARE REVIEWO REVIEWED BY TOM BENFORD

ics contained on the disk. The Print

The Printft Ifyou have a 64, a disk


Shop also provides you with a selec
tion of eight type fonts to print the

Shop drive and a dot-matrix words on your creations. All of the


fonts are in upper case only and the
Computer: Commodore 64 printer, then all you selection includes RSVP, Alexia,
Publisher: Broderbund News, Tech, Party, Block, Stencil and
need is a copy ofThe Typewriter. Some of the fonts are
17 Paul Drive
San Rafael, CA 94903 Print Shop to start larger in size than others, so by vary
Medium: Disk ing the fonts, you can have a combina
creating greeting cards, tion of large and smaller wording on
your projects. Another really nice fea
Ahis disk-based program from Bro
banners, letterheads, ture is the ability to alter these fonts in
derbund is aptly named, since many signs and screens. the editing section of the program.
of the applications you'd go to a type You may print the font in solid, out
setter and printer for can be handled line or three-dimensional (shadowed)
with it. If you have a 64, a disk drive
THE PRINT SHOP
form, adding even more impact and
and a dot-matrix printer, then all you MHIN MENU eye-appeal to your creations.
need is a copy of The Print Shop to The 28-page user's manual supplied
GREETING CflRD
start creating greeting cards, banners, with The Print Shop is a work of art
LETTERHEAD
letterheads, signs and screens. BANNER in itself. It is very complete. If there
SCREEN MRGIC
Broderbund has really done an out CRflPHIC EDITOR are any questions about using the pro
standing job. Not only is the software SETUP
gram or what you can do with it, the
itself superb and easy to use, they've answers will be found in diis manual.
also included a terrific user's manual Excellent documentation always adds
USE v A UNO (RETURN)
that's packed with handy hints and TO MOKE SELECTION. to the enjoyability of a program.
great ideas for using the program. I had lots of fun using the "screen
They've even included some fancy magic" selection on the main menu.
colored paper and envelopes to give Screen magic is an assortment of ka
your creations some extra pizzaz. The leidoscopic designs and patterns also
tractor-feed paper turns your Print contained on the program disk, but on
Shop creations into something special. the other side of it. Kaleidoscope 1 is
Included with the manual is a handy a selection of 11 pulsating patterns,
order blank for ordering more colored while Kaleidoscope 2 is a continually-
paper, envelopes and even colored changing series of geometric shapes.
printer ribbons. In either mode, the screen can be
The entire program is menu-driven, "frozen" and printed out on your line
which always makes life a bit easier. printer. In the screen magic section,
The main menu allows you to choose you may also draw text on the screen
from greeting card, sign, letterhead, and get, save or print a screen, in addi
banner, screen magic, graphic editor, tion to viewing the kaleidoscopes.
or set-up selections. The program leaves nothing wanting
When using The Print Shop for the in the way of completeness.
first time, you must select the set-up The Print Shop is destined to be
option. This option allows you to cus come a perennial favorite with 64
tom-configure the program to match owners, simply because it can do so
your printer type and interface so that much. I've never seen anything else
everything works the way it should. A like it available and I doubt that we
handy feature of the set-up is the abil and save them to disk. Creating your will see anything more flexible, fun-
ity to store your set-up data on disk. own graphics and designs is easy to to-use or practical to come for some
Once this is done, you won't need to do by using the cursor keys, and a sep time yet. It's one of those programs
use this option again unless you want arate graphics editing menu provides that allows you to use your equipment
to change it. you with the necessary commands. as a creative system; one that allows
The program disk contains an as The size of the graphics may also be you to use the tools of modern tech
sortment of 60 high-resolution graph varied according to your layout and nology while still making you the
ics and patterns you may incorporate the size of your intended printed most indispensable ingredient—the
into your creations. The graphic-de piece. Choices are given for small, creative one. It's a superb program
signs editor option from the main normal or large graphics and various that everyone in the house will enjoy
menu allows you to alter these graph positioning options are also provided. and use—I give it my highest recom
ics to your liking or create your own In addition to the library of graph mendation. Q

20 MAY/JUNE
TAKE
% ^ ^

wrri-i iMiGi-rr aaissioim

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the most realistic and challenging arcade simulation ever conceived! ■ Stunning graphics and dazzling
—^—v sound effects put Night Mission PINBALL in a class by itself. Game features: multi-
jjiiilNight 1 ball and multi-player capabilities, ten different professionally designed levels of play,
■*M and an editor that lets you create your own custom modes. ■ So take a break with
Night Mission PINBALL from SubLOGIC. Winner of Electronic Games magazine's
1 1983 Arcade Award for Best Computer Audio/Visual Effects.

See your dealer...


or write or call for more information
©[LQ[o)LOGlC
Order Line: 800 / 637-4983 713 Edgebrook Drive
Champaign IL61820
(217) 359-8482Telex: 206995
Circle Reader Service No. 28
SORA/ARE REVIEWS REVIEWED BY HOWARD MH.l.MAN

SkiWriter II
Computer: Commodore 64
Publisher: SkiSoft, Inc.
Prentice-Hall
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
07632
Medium: Cartridge

Simplicity, combined with speed, is


always a strong selling point. How
ever, true simplicity is defined in the
mind of the user, not the designer.
What appears sensible and sane to an
author may not be considered so by
the market.
SkiSoft, though, unquestionably did
their homework before releasing
SkiWriter II, a telecommunicating
word processor, and it shows. Perhaps
it's the experience author Ken Skier
gained designing Wang's legendary available. And with the program's key nation. All the tsk-tsking about the
word processing programs, or maybe board overlay, there's no need to computer industry's rampant non-
the formidable marketing resources memorize control codes. standardization becomes practically
available to Prentice-Hall, a publishing Formatting is handled by "dot com irrelevant, as a result. If you can't find
giant now expanding into the home mands" and, as you may well suspect, a menu choice supporting your
software market. Whatever it was, it they're so called because they start printer, then your set-up belongs in
works and works well. with a dot. Dot lines can be called via Ripley's.
SkiSoft "s decision to package their menu or, after you're familiar with the The manual is a delight, an out
package as a cartridge was not simply terminology, inserted directly. Also standing example of the three C's:
a means of copy protection. Accord included is a Comment dot line. This, concise, clear and compact. Hardly a
ing to Ken Skier, their motives were as the name promises, allows you to spellbinder, but thankfully brief and
altruistic: a cartridge is less fragile include unprinted remarks on the direct. In five fast-reading, short chap
than a disk, easier to handle and, screen—the electronic equivalent of ters, all the program's aspects are
perhaps most importantly, loads margin notes. painlessly explained. In fact, the self-
instantly. The eight dedicated function keys evident menus combined with the
are also used to good advantage and, keyboard overlay are sufficient for
Word Processor to the program's credit, not overused. diving right in, especially if you have
The main menu moves you into the FI and F3 are the biggies. Fl is Cancel a sense of adventure.
program's various modes. The main (that returns you to a prior menu), F3
choices consist of eight self-defining is Execute (used in lieu of the RE Telecommunications
functions: Edit (used before printing), TURN key). The other six keys have Not content to just design a super-
Print, Use Cassette, Use Disk, Use Mo functions assigned to them too, gener fast, supersimple word processor, Ski
dem, Select Screen (colors) and De ally affecting screen control or page- Soft went the distance and integrated
lete. Secondary menus evolve from at-a-time text movement. In Use a telecommunications program, too.
each choice and they too are equally Modem, the function keys have addi And when I say integrated, I mean
self-explanatory. tional applications. totally.
All basic text-processing functions Printing is handled with the same Branching from the main menu's
are included: word wrap, move/copy sensible ease as is editing. Several op Use Modem option, you can choose
text blocks, find/replace, format con tions are available including using ei from seven subsequent entrees includ
trols (by line, page or paragraph), end- ther a serial, parallel or Commodore ing Up or Download Files, plus three
of-page markers, plus numerous edit printer. Incidentally, both the 1525 ways of getting on-line. The three
ing features such as overtype or insert and MPS 801 printers are fully ways to get on-line are:
modes, as well as disk and cassette supported. Terminals: the standard telecom
control functions. If your printer is in any way non- munications protocol. Use this mode
The Commodore key functions as standard, just choose the Other to speak with the Source, Compu
an escape key. When you press the Printer option. Answer the yes/no Serve or any of the nearly 3,00,0 other
Commodore key then a number key, questions and the program configures public and private data bases now
the text-processing functions are itself for your printer/interface combi available.

22 MAY/IUNE
LEROY'S CHEATSHEET
Host: here your terminal is the host KEYBOARD OVERLAYS

and you are the system operator.


Converse: used when two comput
ers are communicating, both using
SkiWriter.
Telecommunications are routed
through any modem of your choice.
For convenience, Commodore's 1600
and 1650 modems' special features
are fully supported.
The singularly appealing aspect of FOR COMMODORE 64
(VIC-20 also available)
all integrated software is the promised
LEROY'S CHEATSHEETS® are plastic laminated keyboard
ease of transporting bulk data from
overlays designed for use with popular software and
one part of the program to another. hardware for Commodore's VIC-20 & C-64 computers.
For instance, once having
These cut-it-out yourself overlays are designed to fit over
downloaded a document, supposedly the keyboard surrounding the keys with commands and
you can immediately go in and start controls grouped together for easy references.
editing. But in many software pack
ages that promise is sometimes illu LEROY'S CHEATSHEETS7
sory. Perhaps it's just switching or make life easier for you
flipping disks that's required, or a tire
WORD PROCESSORS
some wait for disk search and load. MffiMWBgaiH
D Easy Script D Blanks flatth- not Lsn
However, with SkiSoft's buffer, these HESWriler D For The Beginner ms.
operations execute at turbocharged Paper Clip D Sprites Only
Quick Biown Fox
speed. D Fhgw Simulator II
O Scrip! 64 D Doodle
The buffer, set aside in random ac D S peed s c n pi i a hzette i D 15*1 Disk

cess memory, holds about 28,000 D Wordp^o 3/PLUS


O Omniwnter
characters, or about 28 screens of
LANGUAGES
data. Larger files require a mildly & UTILITIES
bothersome process of manually sav □ COMAl
ing the buffer to disk then continuing D SIMONS BASIC
□ Calc Result (ao.a™tj)
D Basic
the download. Still, the smoothly in D Calc Result i«>r)
O Hosmon 64
tegrated functions allow this interac O Easy Calc
D LOGOiimbid
D Muliipian
tion without signing off and back on. 0 PractiCBlc64(orPuiS)
D LOGOweoiZ)
D PiIoiicbm)
Writing a review of an excellent
program is an uncommon pleasure.
Truthfully, I'm not used to it. Not that
D Viaiax
SkiWriter is perfect—nothing is. But D The Consultant ic*ijmsOracle) D Trie Smart 64 Terminal

it's getting close. Nevertheless, I O Ths Manager icbu 0 VIP Terminal


D SuperBase 64 □ Term 64
should mention a minor flaw. When
downloading data into the buffer, an
on-screen meter decrements, indica
ting how much memory space is left. Qty. X $3.95 S.
<
□ Prime [CBU ISM, ups ao

As a result, after about 28 screens are a Prints ICBM I5J6. UPS 802
Shipping & handling $ 1.00
□ Prime (Epsu
downloaded, you'll have to sit and
1RX-M

D Prime (Gem rjiffl

watch the meter, because you have no D Printe Oklda1a92&93


6% sales tax S.
(PA residents only)
other way of knowing when memory
is full. A beep at about the IK mark TOTAL S
Dealer inquiries welcome U.S. FUNDS
would be appreciated to warn day
dreaming users in time to prevent data Name.
from being lost.
Address
Despite this relatively minor omis
sion, SkiWriter II is a superb word
processing/telecommunicating pro
gram for the 64—easy to learn and
easy to live with. Incidentally, I've
paid SkiWriter the writer's ultimate
tribute: I've abandoned my old famil
OR SEE YOUR LOCAL DEALER !
iar word processor and adopted this
one. Times are changing and SkiWri
ter is too good to overlook. Q
Circle Reader Service No. 5

COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 23
SOFM/ARE REVIEW, REVIEWED BY TED SALAMONE

Your Home
Office
Computer: Commodore 64
Publisher: Tri Micro
1010 N. Batavia, Suite 6
Orange. CA 92667
Medium: Disk

Xour Home Office is an integrated


word processor and electronic spread
sheet. Tri Micro has taken the experi
ence they gained creating the Plus/4's
integrated, built-in software and ap
plied it to the king of micros, the
Commodore 64. As a marriage of
convenience and value, the program
succeeds handsomely.
The entire manual consists of a
mere 43 pages, just enough to keep
you busy on a train ride from Bridge
port. Connecticut, to New York City.
Don't be fooled by the diminutive size
though, everything's covered in suffi
cient detail.
Four pages of quick reference cards
explain the spreadsheet, word proces
sor and printer format commands. Af
ter a short briefing on the program's "what-if scenarios. This modeling simultaneously. Windowing is also
power and a list of needed hardware, power can be very helpful in forecast featured.
the guide then provides data disk ing trends, determining quantities re Though Tri Micro's spreadsheet
formatting instructions. Once that quired or in costing. possesses impressive features, the pro
chore's been taken care of, Your Sometimes you don't want certain gram's true versatility and power
Home Office beckons. cells to be recalculated. In that case, comes to light only after the word
The spreadsheet handles most com there's a "freeze" command which processor's functions arc understood
mon duties with speed and efficiency. prevents further operations on desig and properly utilized for specialized
It's capable of many geometric, loga nated cells. "Thaw" reverses the com report generation.
rithmic, and exponential functions as mand as needed. For jobs requiring Perhaps the most important part of
well as the standard mathematical op manual manipulation of data, the auto the word processor is cursor control.
erations. It even handles conditional function can be switched off with just Besides the usual CRSR and RETURN
statements. a few keystrokes. keys, Your Home Office provides
Three command modes permit en It's also possible to catalog the disk, other ways to maneuver. Hitting F7
try of text, formulas and numeric format a blank, delete files and load transports the cursor to the right of
data. Cursor control is accomplished files from within the spreadsheet. Au the page while F8 does the same for
with the up/down CRSR key, F7 for tomatic justification of text and nu the southpaw side. The CLR/HOME
right column and F8 for left column. merals can also be overridden. key sends the cursor to the top of the
This scheme works surprisingly well. An IFTRUE command permits file while the SHIFT CLR/HOME does
The spreadsheet's 50-row by 17- complex expression evaluation, some the same for the bottom.
column size is more than enough thing many users will never need to Last but not least, [CTRL/left arrow]
space. Even the limited display of 12 explore. Besides absolute values and sets tabs and the left arrow key moves
rows by three columns isn't as much integer, dollar, and floating-point for the cursor accordingly. For conve
of a hindrance as it first appears. Data mats, the spreadsheet can handle sine, nience, Your Home Office pre-sets a
and formulas can be copied for move tangent, arctangent and cosine tab at line 77. But for this final
ment to other cells and labels can be functions. column setting, all tabs are displayed
repeated. In addition to the merge capabili at the bottom of the screen on the pro
There is an automatic recalculation ties, it's also possible to view the gram status line.
mode which makes it easy to perform spreadsheet and the word processor Continued on page 114

24 MAY/JUNE
It doesn't take much to make your
programs run up to 20 times faster.
If you've been writing programs for documentation and PROMAL system diskette
your Commodore 64, Apple including sample programs) for just
lie or Apple He in BASIC you can take $49-95-There's a 15-day, no-risk
a giant step forward in speed of execu moneyback guarantee. And the entire
tion and in programming productivity S49.95 may be credited against later
for just $49.95. purchase of the "Developer's Version"
You can get program performance The "Developer's Version"-all the
that you only thought possible from components of the "End User" system
machine language programs. While still plus the "run time" object module gen
using a powerful, understandable high- eration capability, additional documenta
level language. A language that's similar tion and an unlimited right to sell or
to Pascal, but much easier to learn and use. distribute PROMAL applications-is
You can create programs with our only S99.95.
advanced, full-screen editor-much Or-for only S10.00 plus S2.50 postage
like you would on a word processor, and and handling you can get the PM-100 demo
it even locates your compilation errors. system. It includes a 32-page manual and all the
And when you com capabilities of the
pile your programs,
you have a fast one- $49.95tobeexact.
pass compiler, a recursive descent compiler that can
PM-200 except the
ability to print or save
files to disk. It's a very inexpensive way to explore the
compile a 100-line source program in 10 seconds or less. wonders of PROMAL.
PROMAL™ also gives you an elegant operating Our Guarantee:Try PROMAL for 15 days. If you are
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and logically. There are no line numbers to worry about,
Systems Management Associates
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can document your programs completely.
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COMMODORE 64 BENCHMARK
(Sieve ofEratosthenes) Order Form
Please send me my copy of PROMAL
PROMAL BASIC COMAL FORTH PASCAL
Mysystemis(checkone)::: Commodore 64 O Apple He D Appleilc
Execution Time (sees.) 30 630 490 51 55
PROMAL Package Desired (check one):
Objeci Code Size (bytes) 128 255 329 181 415
D PM-200 (for systems listed above) S49.95 plus S5.00 ior shipping and handling at a
Program Load Time (sees.) 3.2 3.8 6.3 11.2 23.5 lol.il cost olS5-i.95. Satisfaction Guaranteed.
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Unlike languages developed for larger systems and
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PROMAL PM-200 "End-User" system (220 pages of

Circle Reader Service No. 29


SOFM/ARE REVIEWS REVIEWED »Y CHRISTINE ADAMEC

Logic Levels
and Memory
Manor
Computer: Commodore 64
Publisher: Spinnaker
One Kendall Square
Cambridge, MA 02139
Medium: Cartridge

A. logical mind and a good memory


are valuable assets in our world today,
but can young children be motivated
to learn how to reason effectively and
to exercise those brain cells control
ling memory? Software developer
Frieda Lekkerkerker thinks
so and
she's recently created two colorful
Logic Levels
and exciting Fisher Price learning
back later, pressing the key again.
games for children.
How can Logic Levels enhance a
Logic Levels child's reasoning skills? You must de
Logic levels is comprised of a maze cide where to place the bridges,
through which your little ball bounces springs and wall to maximize their
pinball-machine style. The object of points. Once you've learned how to
the game is to get the ball all the way get the ball to the end of the maze,
to the bottom as fast as you can while your next goal is to figure out how
earning points. Begin the game by can you earn more points—what eon-
making no changes to the scene and figuration will do it for you? Is it bet
merely letting the ball run through its ter to have the walls closer in or to
paces. By doing so, you'll see the Memory Manor place them at the very end of the side
problems you must later avoid. For ex There are also tactics to earn extra of the maze? (Make sure there's an
ample, you'll need to put up walls so points. For example, if you arrange outlet for your ball to go down or you
the ball won't fall through the side of the maze so the ball hits a paint can get stuck on one level.) Do you
the maze. bucket—say the yellow one— and it want to use most Of your tools or save
Now play the game using the tools then hits a yellow prize, you get dou them for later? The game rewards
available. Use your joystick to move ble points. You're also rewarded with planning and recognizing cause-and-
the magic hand to the walls, springs, a few bars of music and a dramatic effect relationships.
bridges, or red, yellow or blue paint flashing screen. Of course the maze changes slightly
bucket icons at the top of your screen. Use the joystick button to make with each play, so you'll have to care
Move the hand to the desired ob your springs leap up or compress and fully observe what layout you're
ject, press the joystick button and to make your ball jump up a level. Use given and think how you can best
you'll see the fingers moving to grasp the bridges to force the hall to bounce "fix" it.
it—good graphics. Move the hand against a red paint bucket and then a Logic Levels is a highly interactive,
with its object to the maze and press red heart. (Double points, remember?) creative game and 1 agree with Fisher
the button to release the object where Then move the joystick left or right to Price that it's ideal for children ages
you want it. (If you change your mind open up the bridge. six through 12. (A lot of fun for Mom
before pressing the joystick button— Each game has two rounds and you or Dad, too!)
say you really don't want to use a can give yourself a time limit—an
spring—you're still safe. Just move the "energy" bar which steadily de Memory Manor
object back to the box at the top of creases once you begin running the Memory Manor is another learning
your screen and put it in there, it'll ball through the maze. (If you do well, game but with the unusual theme of
reappear for later use.) you'll get more energy!) My six year- washing windows! You're in charge
Throughout the maze you'll see old son decided he'd prefer all the of Wee Willie the window washer
hearts, stars and other colored sym time he needed, so he erased the time man and your goal is to wash the win-
bols. These are prizes to gain points. limit using the F3 key. Then I called it Conttnued on page 115

26 MAYflUNE
THE PERFECT FAMILY
Everything you need
to work better.

Write better letters Forecast better spread Manage data better,


memos, and reports. sheets and financial Lists, records, names
and statistical analyses, and addresses.

Simple function keeps it Built-in forms and formulas ■ Built-in forms for instant
easy. So you can keep your help you get to work right filing help.
mind on what you're writing. away.
■ Sort criteria to help you get
Powerful editing features— Split-screen windows let the exact information
at the touch of a single key. you compare spreadsheet you need.
data.
A 50,000 word dictionary ■ Unlimited storage lets you
that helps you correct Multiple spreadsheets in put more data in one place.
spelling mistakes. memory multiply your
management power. Combine these PERFECT"
A Perfect Thesaurus to
programs with the Commodore
help you choose exactly the Regional recalculation lets
128 Personal
right word. you change some numbers.
Computer and
Without changing them all.
Split-screen windows that 1571 diskdrive.
help keep your thoughts Look for them
organized—while you write. at your nearest
Commodore
Automatic formatting to
dealer soon!
make your writing look even
better on paper.

COMMODORE'
1984, THORN EMI Computer Software, Inc.
all rights reserved
/ARE RB/IEWS Ri-vn-:\n-:i:> by donald graham

Menuwriter
Computer: Commodore 64
Publisher: Codewriter Corporation
7847 N. Caldwell Avenue
Niles, IL 60648 Create a menu that
Medium: Disk
gives you options to
load and run a series
IVxenuwriter is a code-generating
system from Codewriter that helps ofbusiness-related (or
you create automatic menus that link
related (or unrelated) application pro otherwise) programs
grams and makes them easy to load
to organize your
and run. Menuwriter also has the
power to link a menu with up to 20 finances or inventory,
additional separate menus, each of
which are created by Menuwriter.
keep track of tax
Here is just an example of what you information, do word
can do with Menuwriter: create a
menu that gives you options to load processing, organize
and run a series of business-related (or
otherwise) programs to organize your
travelling expenses.
finances or inventory, keep track of
tax information, do word processing,
organize travelling expenses, or virtu
ally any information processing that
you need. A single menu written by add to your custom menu: set display products. I found this to be a little
Menuwriter can contain up to 15 op colors, read a directory, format a disk, confusing and abiguous. Once you
tions, which can include linking up go to the master menu, go to the last overcome this (mental) hurdle
with additional menus. All of this and menu and exit to BASIC. though, things run very smoothly.
you don't have to write a single line of The results of your creative efforts Codewriter offers a very liberal and
BASIC. The only commands required will he an easy-to-use, spiffy-looking complete warranty and customer sup
are load, save and verify. (if you so desire) custom menu that port system. The warranty for the
What do you get for your money? will allow the user to load a program disk itself is for one full year, even if
You get a single disk, which contains or move through a series of related your pooch takes a bite out of it. Any
the needed software and an instruc program operations with ease. A sin upgrading that the manufacturer per
tion manual, which includes a tutorial gle keystroke can load a directory, for forms on the software is available free
on program use in a nice book-style mat a disk, or load and run a program. to registered owners. They didn't
protective binder. No more typographical errors to mention any automatic notification of
How does Menuwriter work? After worry about. No more "load errors" this, so 1 presume that you would have
loading the main program, you are or "file not found" messages. The to request an update. There is a toll-
prompted through the process of cre menu program takes all of the work free customer service number and a
ating a menu to your own specifica and worry out of finding and loading back-up copy of the disk is available
tions. At every step along the way, you your BASIC programs. for a nominal fee. You also get a per
are provided with prompts to keep The manual is written in Code- sonal I.D. number with your war
you on task and prevent you from get writer's consistently easy to follow, ranty registration card.
ting lost. Each step of the overall pro step-by-step tutorials. Each page has a Overall, the Menuwriter package is
cess displays your options at the bot margin containing visual prompts to an effective, easy-to-use system. It
tom of the screen. You can opt for aid in the menu creation process. The will undoubtedly make life around
loading the programs as they are instructions in the tutorial are clear the home (and small business) com
named on the application disk or you and precise. The tutorial is complete puter room a lot easier by virtually
can give them new names (on the and easy to follow for the most part. eliminating program location and
menu) that are more descriptive of The only shortcoming that I found loading problems. All you have to re
their purpose, and there is no need to in the tutorial was its reference to ap member is LOAD"MENU",8. Its a
re-name the programs on the disk. plication programs that were gener snap to learn and has tremendous
The menu program will keep all of ated using other Codewriter products. power and lots of applications. The
that straight for you. There is even a All of the allusions to program names more you use it, the more often you'll
list of some standard miscellaneous presume that the programs were cre want to use it. Q
options for you to choose from and ated using their other code-generating

28 MAYflUNE
FOR
COMMODORE 64
AND VIC-20
OWNERS ONLY:
This is just 1 of 15 pages of the From Skyies
newest and biggest Skyies catalog, hot Electric Works, the
off the press. oldest and largest
We know you'll want this page, in its full professional specialists in
7x 10 splendor, and another 14 pages ofpe the business.
ripherals, software and books that will make
your Commodore 64 or VIC-20 computer even ni
cer to live with. Skyies Electric Works
So, if we missed sending you your very own 231E South Whisman Road
copy within the last few weeks, call us at Mountain View, CA 94041
<415) 965-1735
(800) 227-9998, unless you live in California, in
1541 FLASH! is a trademark of Skyies Electric Works.
which case call (415) 965-1735. Commodore 64 is a trademark of Commodore.

Reader
SOHWARE REVIEWS REVIEWED BY DONALD GRAHAM

The Dialog ied methods of controlling program


flow provide variety as well as flexi
Dialog is a program-
System bility in program design.
On top of all of this, Dialog offers
generating system to some powerful bonus features. The
Computer: Commodore 64
Publisher: Codewriter Corporation be used in the creation user can stop anywhere during the
7847 N. Caldwell Avenue course of the session and save the ac

NUes, IL 60648 ofcustom-built tivity. Later, the user can load Dialog

Medium: Disk and pick up where he or she left off.


educationalprograms. Also, you can print out your Dialog
after its creation. When doing this,
V-rnce again, Codewriter has pro you can select any number of pages
duced a piece of high-quality pro (text pages, parameter pages, or
gramming software for the non-pro both). Another nice feature is the abil
grammer. This time, the application is o ity to call up another chapter from the
more specific than the company's ) riv disk. This is called "Unking" and can
multipurpose program generator, be very useful if you are creating a
Codewriter, and more flexible than
their Elf System. Coming to the aid of
P very long Dialog.
The instruction manual is very
parents and educators. Dialog is a complete and well structured. As
program-generating system to be used with most of Codewriter's products,
in the creation of custom-built educa each page contains a border in which
tional programs. You, the program de you will find prompts to aid in the de
signer, decide how the activity is to \__ - -i r- velopment of your Dialog.
flow. You decide what kind of re
sponses the program will present to
the end users, your students or chil
Cbt The manual contains two tutorials
to get you accustomed to the system.
The first tutorial merely acquaints the

=^#
dren. You decide how difficult the ac program designer with the layout and
tivities will be. All of this power and functions of the parameter and text
you don't need to write a single line pages. The second, or main, tutorial is
of BASIC code! Dialog does all of the larger and provides a complete run-
coding for you. through of each of the five sequence
When you develop a program or ac types, allowing the designer to create
tivity (called a chapter) with Dialog, a sample Dialog from start to finish.
you will be able to create up to 15 sponse for each of the incorrect an The main tutorial is completely docu
pages of text. Accompanying each swers, then direct the user back to the mented in the manual, leaving no
page of text is a parameter page. The original question for another try margin for error.
text page is what the end user will (keeping score along the way if you so It's interesting to note here that the
see, while the parameter page will desire). main tutorial was written using Dia
contain instructions as to how the text In a fill-in-the-blank type response, log itself! This attests to its power and
page is to be presented and how re you will specify a word or words as a flexibility. Also included in the man
sponses are to be evaluated. There are correct answer. When the user re ual is a handy reference section. This
five possible kinds of responses from sponds, Dialog will search the re is useful in that you can select a par
which to choose. They are multiple sponse to see if it contains the infor ticular operation of Dialog for study
choice, fill-in-the-blank, sequential, mation that you had established as and review.
true/false and memory. You can mix an acceptable answer. If the user re Dialog is a truly mighty program-
and match any of these sequence sponse contains that information, generating system. But beyond that,
types in your program as you see fit. then Dialog considers it a correct Dialog provides you with the oppor
This gives you great flexibility and answer. tunity to write interactive programs,
variety. The simplest type of parameter rather than the cut-and-dry passive
Some of the things you can control page is the sequential type. This type programs that currently flood the
are screen, border, text colors, mes merely gives the user a particular marketplace. It allows the end user to
sages to the user, whether or not to amount of time to read the text interact with the program instead of
provide hints to the user, whether or screen, then progresses to the next just reading the screen. This interac
not to keep score as well as where to screen. In the true/false parameter tion promotes learning and keeps the
keep score. Another feature that adds page, the user need only answer "T" user interested and alert. I doubt that
great power to Dialog is the ability to or "F" and the parameter page passes any other software on the market can
control the flow of the program. For control to whatever you have speci make the same claim and live up to
example, in a multiple-choice ques fied as the next appropriate page, de it in the same fine tradition of
tion, you can provide a different re- pending on the response. These var Codewriter. Q

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Commodore Electronics, Limited PET is a registered trademark of Commodore Electronics, Limited
/ARE REVIEWS RI'VIMWHD BY TBD SALAMONE

Creative
These threepro
Writer/Filer/ WRITER
grams can be used
Calc individually or
Computer: Commodore 64
Publisher: Creative Software as an integrated
960 Hamlin Court
Sunnyvale, CA 94089
package.
Medium: Disk

.Everyone has been jumping on the


integrated software bandwagon these
days. Approaches range from single
software packages containing word
processing, database and spreadsheet
components, to ROM-based firmware
and programs designed to either stand
alone or work together. Whatever sor to the bottom and top of the docu
method is used, the watchword is ment respectively.
versatility. Though text display is limited to 40
The Creative Software series con columns, the preview document
sists of three packages: Creative n tmmt Mem*, m 'm!i mJ I tui emit "I Ik
<* Omi Cm. screen shows the output format
Writer (word processing), Creative tlTW111 u iikt Hm
t, pftii tauMf
■if'tB
fil
Mr fit
Jn In.
liltli tob
tH. fl
It Mi
i«i u
ii'ihwLii
Itaila ii Inn
kn(kr kfl wttin Wit! aTsitiH U sUj through a graphic rendition of the
• t» m. riulli ni 11 Ik !n»l d*t«, »i ■ ilulri » -
Filer (file manager) and Creative Calc page. In other words, lines are used to
(mi Hi«»
, - I'-l *U tlH I U*l)>r. Ik !i(bi M •<!> !M i't(
(spreadsheet). Whether used individu I . fill
I mil] ixilti in I » i iM tw tint It ttr
ii I m it iw <u ii »: m ttvH. I *f.i [jam (h ad show text placement, although the
, iMleJI Ik i«r til InillMrt »i N> MM. Ik ktl mm
ally or as an integrated package, these I lilt tf ttkr Miuli, hk sitimls iti it as, iii nist i text itself isn't depicted.
programs exhibit numerous strengths mi* il. [ w twMwJkiiin il «. TttWHW Printer output options include num
and very few weaknesses. ber of copies desired, automatic pagi
Because they are completely menu nation (starting at a designated nu
driven, 1 found them easy to master. meral), a pause feature for paper and
This was true despite their wide range font changes, and the choice between
of capabilities. Compared to equiva Commodore and standard ASCII
lent software (on a dollar-to-dollar ba output.

sis), this set is hard to beat! Paper width and length, margin
The manuals are well organized, database merge capabilities in the set, justification, centering, header/
particularly those for Calc and other two programs are accessed footer placement and line spacing are
Writer. The Filer instruction booklet through Creative Writer) From the all easily altered. Besides blank disk
is more difficult to get through due to main menu, it's possible to clear mem initialization, the utility functions pro
the two dozen (plus) command and ory, save, load, write or delete docu vide horizontal and vertical print
control errors it contains. These, how ments with just a few keystrokes. tests. Additionally, the word count,
ever, are corrected on an enclosed er Other options include page format number of lines used and space re
rata sheet. (Once the miscues arc ting, output preview, printer output, maining (for any document in mem
transferred to the manual itself, the and file and disk handling utilities. As ory) can be had at the touch of a
amount of time spent being bewil needed, each of these contains sub single key.
dered and the number of mistakes menus for cutomized output and in Text can be deleted by the word,
committed decreases dramatically.) creased flexibility. line, sentence or paragraph. Thanks
Each guide contains a table of con Cursor movement is nearly identi to the 20-line buffer, it can also be re
tents and a complete index. Common cal to the keyboard functions. INST/ stored painlessly in case of an error.
topics include necessary hardware, DEL, CLR/HOME and CRSR keys Beyond this there's a 200-line copy/
manual conventions and program ca work as they do when you are enter move text buffer for text realignment
pacities. Having this data up front ing BASIC programs. Blank line inser and alteration. Combine these ad
eases startup considerably. tion and deleton is accomplished with vanced features with a string (up to 32
the INST/DEL key when the cursor is characters) search and replace func
Creative Writer on a blank line. SHIFT INST/DEL al tion and Creative Writer becomes a
Since the series is built around the lows for text insertion (without over very powerful processor indeed!
word processor, let's begin there. write) in the body of any document Imbedded print commands include
(Some of the report generation and and Fl and CLR/HOME move the cur force new page, tab control and a

52 MAY/JUNE
SORA/ARE REVIEWS
Creative Calc
Now we move on to the most pow
C R E A T I V E c r e a i y [■: erful and (generically speaking) the

FILER CALC
least understood program used by
non-professionals: the electronic
"A spreadsheet. Useful for forecasting
sales trends and parts requirements,
budgeting, modeling "what if' sce
narios and straight-out costing, these
packages also evoke more fear and
misunderstanding than the "dreaded"
data base.
Creative Calc is limited to 255
rows and 64 columns, making the
number of cells available a shade over
16,000. The number of worksheets
that can fit on a disk is determined by
the size of each.
CREATIVE SOFTWARE CREATIVE SOFT IV A R €
Users can alter the screen's color-
coded menu, cursor and comment
line to ease eyestrain. Text, numerical
keep function which eliminates wid Creative Filer admits to not having values and formulas are input by hit
ows and orphans. Nonprinting com the power of a DBase II or the like. ting RETURN or moving the cursor.
ment lines (like REM statements in BA The plus side, however, is its ease of (The entry edit cursor is controlled
SIC) serve as electronic memo pads in use and access to the most widely with the F5 and F7 keys.) the CRSR
the midst of the specified document. used (and needed) functions. The ma keys, CLR/HOME and a GOTO func
Variables are inserted as needed or jority of homeowners and small busi tion permit flexible, speedy cursor
desired to access the special files cre nessmen will find it more than ade control. Additionally, F2 moves the
ated by the other programs. Creative quate for their current and future cursor up a page, F4 moves it down
Tenter will load these from document needs. one, and F7 and F8 send it left and
disks, merging them with form letters Searches are conducted on a pri right, respectively.
or reports. It's also possible to link mary or secondary field. The first es A brief tutorial explains mathemati
lengthy documents, thereby skirting tablished field automatically becomes cal precedence and the use of paren
the already generous 700-line-per- the primary, so plan well. (Users des theses for the uninitiated. Don't
document limitation. ignate the secondary field.) Report worry about feeling stupid, Creative
Creative Writer provides functions generation can be customized to in Calc's manual is helpful without be
and features not usually found on clude or leave out any fields. Fields ing condescending.
word processors going for less than themselves may be truncated or Through this setup, Creative Calc
$300. At a mere S49.95, it's quite a printed in toto. Page formatting in allows cell, row and column erasure,
steal. cludes date, page and text length as copying, output to printer and recal
well as pagination and automatic col- culation. Row and column insertion,
Creative Filer umnation capabilities. and relative and constant formula rep
Creative Filer's main menu options Probably the most powerful set of lication are included, as well as disk
include form design, data entry, functions comes under the "derived manipulation (save, scratch and dis
search/modify entries, and report fields" heading. Users combine (arith play files).
writing. An erase capability, disk cata metically) any fields they desire. Addi Global or single-cell formatting of
log and exit to BASIC round out the tion, multiplication, subtraction and text or value inputs, decimal position
selections. This program can handle division are supported. Numerical en ing, and windowing are also part of
an unlimited number of files, each tries in fields like cost of goods, num this impressive package. Besides the
containing up to 100 fields per record ber of units sold, and operating ex standard mathematical operators,
with titles or field names comprising penses can be manipulated with these Creative Calc supports sine, cosine,
as many as 20 characters each. functions. Best of all, the program al arctangent, base ten logarithms, abso
There's no limit to the number of erts you to any illegal entries, making lute values, exponentiation and auto
characters permissible per record. it impossible to continue until they're matic column/row summation.
Record alteration, review, and out corrected. These brief "walk throughs" should
put preparation are quite easy. Most In addition to direct printer output demonstrate the value, power and
applicable commands are issued with of data, the program also saves fields flexibility Creative has packed into
the function keys or CTRL keystrokes. to disk for access by variables estab these Commodore 64 programs. Once
The latter are mnemonically struc lished in Creative Writer files. You again it must be noted, these packages
tured; that is, CTRL D deletes a line can have it both ways for a minimum are excellent whether used individu
while CTRL I inserts one. of effort and monev. ally or as a set. Q

COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 33
SOFM/ARE REVIEWS RUVII-WHD BY SI1LOMO

Pascal 64
Computer: Commodore 64
Publisher: Abacus Software
P.O. Box 7211
Grand Rapids, MI 49510
Medium: Disk

Jtciscal 64 by Abacus Software al


lows the user to create source files
(programs written in high-level lan
guage) by using the BASIC editor. The
programs are then compiled (trans
lated into machine language), saved
and run. Of course, the final product,
consisting of machine language code,
Local Variable Global Variable Boolean Variable
runs many times faster than a similar
BASIC program. But this is merely one
advantage of using Pascal 64 in place define his own data types. Pascal pro
Figure 1. Nesting of Blocks
of BASIC, as we shall see later. vides additional functions which stan
Pascal 64 contains many features dard BASIC does not include, that is,
BEGIN (blockl)
which allow the user to take advan the successor and predecessor of an
tage of the high-resolution graphics, integer variable. Variables which ob
BEGIN (block2)
sprites and disk-file management of tain fixed values can be declared as
the 64. BEGIN (block3)
constants.
There are many differences be In Pascal it is possible to create sets,
tween Pascal and BASIC, apart from which are collections of elements of
END (block3)
the fact that the former is compiled the same type. Set operations are use
while the latter is interpreted. Com ful for simplifying complicated com
END (block2)
modore users who have learned and parisons and for other purposes (the
used languages such as FORTRAN, BEGIN (block4) interested reader should refer to a text
ALGOL and PL/1 will find the logic on set theory). Another data structure
and syntax of Pascal easy to learn. is the record, which is a unit consist
END (block4)
Those users who have been exposed ing of several different data types
to BASIC alone will need to be more END (blockl)
(characters and numbers) that are dif
careful with commas, spaces, colons ficult to represent in a single array.
and semicolons, because the syntax of variables A, B and C, all of which are Pascal offers the option to save mem
Pascal is somewhat different from that real. Assuming that the user has cre ory by using packed arrays for Bool
of BASIC. This is a small sacrifice for ated the procedure, that is, it com ean variables in this version.
the opportunity to adapt this power putes C: = A/B, one can call the proce Loops in Pascal can take several
ful tool to the 64. dure by the statement forms. For example, REPEAT. . . UN
Pascal is a structured language. The CALC (X,Y,Z); TIL ..., WHILE ... DO and
programs consist of blocks which can Of course, the operation defined FOR ... TO ... DO ... Conditional
be nested as shown in Figure 1. Global within the procedure. C:=A/B, is statements can be of the form IF. . .
and local variables can be defined this performed on the arguments X, Y, THEN . . . ELSE . . . , or CASE ... OF
way. The nesting can be shown in the and Z (Z: = A/B). . . . END. GOTO statements use labels
program listing by properly indenting A library of general-purpose proce rather than line numbers, which is ad
the blocks. dures can be created and it is possible vantageous in many circumstances.
Procedures in Pascal allow one to to include members of the library One of the benefits offered by Pas
pass variables as arguments. This en within a program. But, one may also cal is dynamic memory allocation. By
ables the programmer to use the same use external libraries and call them using pointers, it is possible to insert
procedure many times with different like we do with built-in commands or delete elements of an array without
variables. This also applies to user-de and functions. A procedure or func affecting the position in memory of
fined functions. For example, a proce tion can call itself, thus recursion is other elements. There are many other
dure, named CALC would be de easily achieved. features of Pascal which cannot possi
clared by Pascal recognizes Boolean variables bly be reported in this brief review.
PROCEDURECALC (variables to be tested as true or false) Pctscal 64 provides means for file
(VARA,B,C:REAL); in addition to integer, real and charac management, including relative files.
This procedure defines (locally) the ter variables. It even allows the user to Continued on page 116

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Circle Reader Service No. 6 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 35


/ARE REVIEWS REVIEWED BY WALT LOl'NS])l:RV

Apply Yourself are very well integrated, it is possible


to talk about each item separately.
DIF, ENDWHILE or similar keywords.
On the other hand, a NOTHING key

with PROMAL First, let's look at the PROMAL word must be defined for empty
language. loops (a loop that executes until a key
is pressed, for example).
Exterminate Those
A New High-level Since we are on the subject of struc
Unsightly Line Numbers And tured languages, we should address
Computer Language GOTO Statements the central issue of structured pro
PROMAL provides many of the es gramming, the GOTO statement.
for the Commodore sential features of an application lan FORTRAN is supposed to be abys

64 guage, and enough power to write mally unstructured because it uses


text editors, compilers and operating GOTO. Well, Pascal or C program
systems. In fact, most of the PROMAL mers don't like to talk about it very
hat looks a bit like Pascal, oper system itself is written in PROMAL. much, but their languages also use
ates a bit like C, and has nothing what Yet, with all this power, it is still very GOTO.
soever to do with COMAL? It's a new easy to learn. Table 1 and Table 2 It would seem that PROMAL is the
computer language called PROMAL, show its simplicity. first truly structured language, since it
or PROgrammer's Micro Application PROMAL bears a distinct resem does not support either the GOTO or
Language. Designed by Bruce D. blance to Pascal, but avoids many of any form of line labels required by a
Carbrey, PROMAL is marketed by Sys Pascal's problems. For example, Pas GOTO statement. Whereas the other
tems Management Associates as an cal generally recognizes only the first Before leaving the topic of program
end-user system for S49.95, or as a eight characters of variable, program structure, it is important to mention
developer's system (for stand-alone and procedure names. PROMAL al that PROMAL has single-valued func
programs) for S99-95- lows up to 31 characters, all of them tions and argument passing to proce
significant. Underlined characters can dures. It insures procedure isolation
Give Your Computer a be used in names, which is a nice by passing variables by value, instead
Facelift touch. And PROMAL provides an of by location. If manipulation of vari
There are many ways to overhaul a ELSE clause for its version of the Pas ables outside a procedure is required,
computer. You can change the display cal CASE statement (CHOOSE). (Pas pointer values must be passed to the
or add a numeric keypad. You can rip cal has no ELSE!) procedure, which helps make PRO
out the guts and replace them with a A PROMAL program is written like MAL procedures and functions truly
coffee grinder (a Christmas gift for the a Pascal or C program, with global universal. It is possible to build up li
person who has everthing, perhaps). variables and constants defined first, braries of procedures and use them in
You can be almost as radical, and a lot then all procedures and functions, several programs. In fact, almost 50 li
less destructive, if you merely replace and finally the main program at the brary routines are included on the
the operating system and BASIC lan end. The example program in Listing PROMAL system disk.
guage on your Commodore 64, and 1 shows how structured program PROMAL supports data types that
make it think that it's a whole new writing is enforced. Unlike Pascal or are very similar to the C language.
machine. C, however, only one statement per There are only four types: byte, word
This is not as simple as it sounds. line is allowed and blank spaces are (unsigned 16-bit precision integer), in
Not only is a new computer language required between key symbols and teger (signed 15-bit precision integer)
in order, so is an operating system (for names. Since the programs arc com and real (11 significant-digit float
dealing with the disk drives, printer piled, this doesn't affect memory use. ing point). Single indexed arrays are
and so forth) and some kind of editor PROMAL's key requirement is in supported.
(to modify programs and files). While dentation of lines, which the compiler Where are character variables?
augmenting your Commodore 64 's recognizes as part of the structured Well, that's the one awkward thing
built-in software is like adjusting the syntax for loops and conditional state about PROMAL. Character string vari
carburetor on a car, replacing the soft ments. This makes PROMAL ex ables are defined as arrays of type
ware is like replacing the engine. tremely readable, and eliminates EN- "byte." The actual characters in a
However, in this case, the new "en
Table 1. PROMAL Key Words
gine" gives your Commodore 64 a
new kind of power.
AND CHOOSE FUNC OR TO
Although it is not possible to com
ARG DATA IF OWN TRUE
pletely cover the PROMAL system
ASM END INCLUDE PROC UNTIL
here, I will try to give you an idea of
AT ELSE INT PROGRAM WHILE
its "flavor," and what it can do.
BYTE ESCAPE LIST REAL WORD
PROMAL is a total system, with an
BEGIN EXT NEXT REFUGE XOR
operating system and an editor in
BREAK FALSE NOT REPEAT
cluded on the disk with the PROMAL
CON FOR NOTHING RETURN
language. Although all of these pieces

36 MAYflUNE
SORAA/ARE REVIEWS
string must be terminated by a byte of the speed of a PROMAL program,
value zero (null). This isn't too bad elimination of checking can create ei
languages have taken the lazy way out PROMAL is a total ther problems or opportunities, de
of some sticky situations by allowing pending on your point of view. It is
GOTO, PROMAL uses other state system, with an also possible to write numbers as
ments for the two situations where a hexidecimal values, which is very use
operating system and
jump is convenient. The first situation ful at times.
is termination of a WHILE or REPEAT an editor included on
loop. A complicated loop may contain Zippity-Doo-Da
expressions or tests that require termi the disk with the If you have ever played with sophis
nation of the loop when satisfied. ticated compilers before, you have ex
PROMAL language.
PROMAL uses a BREAK keyword to perienced that sinking feeling as your
terminate such a loop. terribly involved program using all
The second case is a return to a the mega-features of the compiler
high-level routine from a low-level to pass the error to the upper level grinds through endless computation
subroutine, bypassing any intermedi properly. to a conclusion sometime in the next
ate levels of code. This is often conve until you need to manipulate large ar century. Sometimes, getting more fea
nient if an error condition exists that rays of character strings, which re tures has a price tag that goes beyond
requires termination of those lower quires doing your ow^n housekeeping dollars and cents. Sometimes the
levels. PROMAL has both ESCAPE and or even garbage collection. (Now you compiler takes forever to compile, or
REFUGE statements that dispose of in know where the term comes from!) the compiled program seems to oper
termediate level pointers and local On the other hand, variables can be ate on half-bit words.
variables to restore context at the up placed anywhere in memory, and I am glad to tell you that you won't
per level of routines. In other lan range and type checking is not per get that feeling with PROMAL. When
guages, extensive testing of errors formed. However, although it adds to it comes to speed, PROMAL does very
would have to be performed after
Table 2. PROMAL Operators
each call at each level of the routine

Operator Description
Listing 1.
ABS Absolute value
Sieve of Eratosthenes in PROMAL + Addition
— Subtraction or negation
PROGRAM SIEVE
• Multiplication
INCLUDE LIBRARY / Division
% Remainder (mod)
CON WORD SIZE=8190
Exponential
BYTE FLAGS[SIZE] Power
BYTE ITER LOG Log base 10 or base "e"
SQRT Square root
WORD COUNT
WORD I
ARCTAN Arctangent
WORD K COS Cosine
WORD PRIME SIN Sine
TAN Tangent
BEGIN
PUT "10 ITERATIONS",CR < <, > > Left shift, right shift
<, > Relational less than, greater tha
FOR ITER=1 TO 10
< =,
COUNT=0
FOR 1=0 TO SIZE
> = Relational less than or equal, greater than or equal
FLAGS[I]=1 < > Relational not equal
AND Logical AND
FOR 1=0 TO SIZE
OR Logical OR
IF FLAGS[I]
PRIME=I+I+3 XOR Logical exclusive OR
K=I+PRIME NOT Logical complement
0 Address of variable
WHILE K<=SIZE
FLAGS[K]=0 ;FALSE : <, : > Extract low byte, high byte of word or integer type
K=K+PRIME : + Convert to type word
: - Convert to type integer
COUNT=C0UNT+l
:. Convert to type real
OUTPUT n#CITERATION=#I",ITER @< Indirect through pointer to type byte
@ — Indirect through pointer to type integer
@ 4- Indirect through pointer to type word
OUTPUT "#CPRIMES=iI",COUNT
END @. Indirect through pointer to type real

COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 37
SOFIWARE REVIEWS
well. Bruce Carbrey, writer of PRO- to eliminate diagnostic printing when
MAL, provided a comparison of his working on a graphics program, for
Sieve of Eratosthenes benchmark for example. Unfortunately, there is no
program speed and other items. You'll PROMAL is a very way to tie redirection to a particular
find a summary of results in Table 3, device if more than one device is used
comparing ease-of-use factors for five powerful, well for input or output.
popular languages. A full description Commands in the PROMAL execu
supported computer tive are always available and very
of Bruce's tests can be obtained from
Systems Management Associates. I language system. It is powerful. At the core of this power is
have performed many of the bench the ability to independently execute
marks and can say that the speed sophisticated, yet easy commands from disk files. The JOB
command can be used to load in vari
comparisons are quite valid.
to use. Without a doubt
ous different PROMAL programs, exe
Executive Decisions it is one ofthe most cute them, redirect output and input
So far I have discussed only the as necessary, reconfigure memory us
power of PROMAL the language, and significantproductsfor age and peform some disk operations
have said not a word about the PRO
the Commodore 64 (including copying files with auto
MAL operating system, otherwise matic prompts for disk swapping and
known as the "executive." The execu appearing recently automatic creation of a file buffer).
tive is provided to give the PROMAL The full range of executive com
programmer the best possible support mands are shown in Table 4.
for writing and testing PROMAL pro Of course, one of the best things
grams, a subsidiary function. Since special function keys. However, the about the executive is that each PRO
PROMAL is a superior computer lan function keys on the Commodore 64 MAL program is run just like an exec
guage, the logic behind providing a are still well supported by the execu utive command. Programs can be
dedicated operating system seems rea tive. They are defined when the PRO thought of as extensions to the execu
sonable. Somehow, however, I still MAL system is loaded and can be re tive, and can easily be used in that
wish I could use that executive with defined at any time. One of the nice manner because PROMAL produces
my other languages! things about the executive is a com such compact programs that several
We have already seen that the PRO mand buffer that remembers up to can reside in memory. In fact, the ex
MAL language encompasses some of 256 bytes of keyboard entry. If you ecutive will first try to find any com
the best ideas from other languages, make a mistake, just press CONTROL- mand in the built-in command set
while remaining friendly, powerful B and the command reappears for shown in the table, then look for your
and practical. The PROMAL executive your correction. That isn't the only programs in the Commodore 64
is much the same. First the executive nice thing about the executive, either. memory, and finally search whatever
prompts for the current date, then The PROMAL executive borrows an disk is in the disk drive. If the pro
"stamps" each program file with that excellent idea from the OS-9 operat gram is found, the executive will auto
date. The executive maintains an area ing system. The concept is called "re matically load and run it. You don't
of memory as a virtual disk drive, direction," and it provides the facility even need to worry about using up
called the "workspace." Although to make a program expect input or the Commodore 64 memory space
there isn't enough memory on the print output with almost any device with too many programs. If there is
Commodore 64 to emulate an entire attached to your computer. You can not enough memory available to load
disk, the speed provided by the work tell the executive to run a program so and run a program, the executive cre
space makes working on program that it gets its input from a disk file ates enough free memory by dispos
routines extremely easy. You can keep rather than the keyboard. You can ing of some of the old programs.
the text version of the program in the route the output of a program to the Some of the executive commands
workspace, and then compile and ex screen, the printer, a disk file, the are quite helpful, to say the least. This
ecute it from program memory. workspace or even to the "null" de is the only operating system for the
Therefore, both your typed program vice. The null device is a handy way Commodore 64 that I know of that
and the compiled and running pro
gram are immediately available.
Table 3- Benchmark Test Results of
Of course, the main function of the
Sieve of Eratosthenes
executive is to accept and perform
commands entered from the key
Execution Program Size, Compile Minimum
board. In this case, the executive is
Language Time Bytes Time Keystrokes
designed to use many of the keys nor
Commodore BASIC 630 sec. 255 Osec. 9
mally ignored on the Commodore 64
COMAL 490 329 0 9
keyboard, especially the CONTROL
Micro Prod. FORTH 51 181 3.9 23
key. This is to preserve a commonality
ABACUS Zoom PASCAL 55 415 108 66
with versions of PROMAL for other,
SMA PROMAL 30 128 8.5 9
Brand X. machines that don't have

38 MAY/JUNE
SORA/ARE REVIEWS
really has a HELP key (pre-defined as
Table 4. PROMAL Executive Commands
function key seven). This key (or the
command HELP) will display a full
screen of executive command abbre Command Function
COLOR Change the current character or screen color
viations, as well as the special editing
keys. No matter how confused you COPY Copy a file
get about what commands are avail CS Clear the screen

able, or what the function keys do, DATE Change the current date
you can always call up some help. DELETE Delete a PROMAL file
Since the PROMAL system supports
machine language programs, it seems DUMP Display memory in Hexadecimal and ASCII characters

natural that the executive would also EDIT Enter the full screen PROMAL Editor
provide some of the functions of a FILES Display the names and sizes of all or selected files.
machine language monitor. Contents FILL Fill a region of memory with a constant
of memory can be displayed or al FKEY Redefine a function key
tered. Machine language programs
can be loaded and run. The ability to GET Load a PROMAL or machine language program into memory

redirect output is a great aid when ex GO Execute a machine language program

amining memory because it makes it HELP Display a "help" menu fo executive commands and keys
possible, for instance, to send a mem JOB Execute a list of executive commands stored in a file

ory dump to the disk for later exami MAP Display the current memory allocation and loaded program
names
nation or printing. While some of
your favorite monitor commands may
be missing, the simple commands can NOREAL Discard support for REAL data (increases free memory)
be written as short PROMAL programs QUIT Exit to BASIC

and patched in as you need them. RENAME Change the name of a PROMAL file
SET Set memory locations to specified values or characters

But That's Not All... SIZE Display the size of a compiled PROMAL program
The PROMAL editor is a compiled
PROMAL program that is nearly TYPE Display a file of text on the screen, printer, etc.
12,000 bytes in size. The size, believe UNLOAD Remove a PROMAL program from memory

me, is deceptive. 1 have seen a great WS Clear or alter the size of the Workspace
many text editors, some intended just
for writing programs, and this one Systems Management Associates is do sample programs on the PROMAL
does alot. It is a full-screen editor ing an even better job on support than disk. Syntax diagrams of the language
with cursor controls, vertical and hor they did in producing the PROMAL are provided, along with a short tuto
izontal scrolling. The function keys manuals. Purchasers of the PROMAL rial on how to read them! It almost
are defined for the editor in a window system get regular notices of program goes without saying that the manuals
at the bottom of the screen. Function updates, which are easily patched into have a good table of contents and
key seven provides a ubiquitous (for the system. SMA is actively listening index.
PROMAL) help screen of editor com to PROMAL users, and is adding fea In short, I think that PROMAL is a
mands. The editor can be put in either tures to the language to extend its util very powerful, well supported com
type-over or insert mode and has the ity. For example, support for tran puter language system. It is sophisti
ability to perform search and replace. scendental functions was added in cated, yet easy to use. Without a
It can cupy, move, delete, save and re December of 1984. SMA plans to pub doubt it is one of the most significant
call designated blocks. It supports in lish a newsletter in the second quar products for the Commodore 64 ap
dentation levels so that tabs are not ter of 1985 and user groups will be pearing recently. If you cannot try
needed. recognized. PROMAL at a friend's house or at the
While the PROMAL editor is not ex But you find all of that out when dealer, it is possible to purchase a
actly a word processor, it is a very ex you read the manuals. There are three PROMAL demo disk from Systems
cel lent program editor. Many lan manuals in a very nice binder. The Management Associates (3700 Com
guage packages do not provide such a three parts are "Meet PROMAL!" the puter Drive, Raleigh, NC 27609) for
good editor. This one does a very "PROMAL User's Guide," and the 112.50 (including postage and han
good job of helping write PROMAL "PROMAL Language." These provide dling). Considering that the end-user
programs. a solid foundation for exploring the system (which cannot produce stand
PROMAL system. They detail the op alone PROMAL programs) is S49.95,
About PROMAL Support eration of the system and how mem with full credit toward the devel
Probably the best clue to support ory is used. Instructions are provided oper's system (which can), I would
for a software package is the manual for patching machine language into recommend the end-user system over
that comes with the package. I say PROMAL programs. There are exten the demo disk if you are really
"clue" instead of "gauge" because sive examples that coordinate with interested. Q


COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 39
HARDWARE REVIEWS REVIEWED BY TOM BENFORD

Cardco MT/1
Monitor Tuner
Manufacturer: Cardo, Inc.
300 S. Topeka
Wichita, KS 67202

lust about anyone who's ever used a


color monitor will tell you how supe
rior the video image is over a conven
tional television picture. Too bad you
can't get that same sharp, crisp Image
on the screen for watching your favor
ite television shows, right? Wrong.
You can get a superb television pic
ture and make your monitor do dou
ble duty as well, with the Cardco
MT/1 Monitor Tuner. the picture to the monitor, and an au
This unique device allows you to dio-out jacks handle the sound. If
watch television programs on your You can get a superb you're not going the stereo sound
computer monitor when you're not route, just plug one of the audio-outs
busy computing. Not only does it con television picture and into the monitor's audio jack. If you
vert your monitor into a television, do wish to have enhanced sound, the
make your monitor do
but the picture clarity and resolution audio-outs go to the tape or aux-in
is absolutely superb—as good or bet double duty as well, jacks on the stereo. That's it for the
ter than any color television image MT/l's cable connections.
I've ever seen. with the Cardco MT/1 There's one feature about the MT/1
The MT/1 comes complete with that is really the icing on the cake,
Monitor Tuner.
everything you need to convert your which is why I saved it for last. On the
1702 or other monitor into a first-class back of the tuner module there's an
television with wireless remote con AC jack into which you plug your
trol. If that's not enough, check this trolling the volume and turning the monitor's power cord. What's so great
out: the unit is cable ready and it can MT/1 on and off. The back of the re about that, you ask? Well, when you
output multiplex stereo sound as well. mote control module has a conversion cut the power to the tuner, the moni
Of course, to take full advantage of chart on it so you can punch-up your tor's power is cancelled as well—the
this stereo capability, two things are favorite cable channel without having real beauty is that it's handled through
needed: the TV program must be to go through the usual cable box. the remote-control module, com
broadcast or cabled in stereo and a This remote control module is indeed pletely negating the need to get up
stereophonic amplifier is needed. a lazy person's delight—it would and turn the monitor off... pretty
A good example of such a TV pro seem that Cardco left no stone un slick, eh?
gram is MTV, if your cable network turned when it came to useful fea If you're thinking of buying a sec
carries it. By routing the stereo output tures for the MT/1. ond TV, why not consider getting an
from the tuner into your home stereo The tuner itself is color-coordi MT/1 tuner instead? It's a great way to
system, you can enjoy all your favor nated to match the Commodore 1702 use your monitor for regular televi
ite musjc videos in glorious stereo monitor perfectly and the compact sion viewing when you're not com
sound with an excellent picture to unit can be placed atop the monitor. puting with it. That way you can have
match. To say I was impressed with Red LHD indicators let you know what the best of both worlds—superb im
the capabilities and performance of channel you're tuned to and their agery for your computing and an out
the MT/1 is an understatement. large size affords high visibility from standing television picture as well.
The MT/1 is supplied with a nifty virtually anywhere in the room. Infra Oh, yes—let's not forget that wonder
little wireless remote control module. red signals from the remote unit han ful wireless remote control and stereo
This module is powered by two AAA dle the channel-changing chores in sound capability, too. Congratulations
cells and they should last well over a grand style and they're not affected to Cardco on a superb piece of hard
year with normal usage, in addition to by room light (or lack of it). ware that performs behond all expec
changing channels with the unit, you Hooking up the MT/1 is a simple tations. I have no reservations about
can also "glide" up or down the chan matter: one jack on back of the unit recommending the MT/1 and only the
nels to quick-scan what's on the tube. accepts input from either an antenna highest praise for it. Suggested retail
Controls are also provided for con- or cable signal, a video-out jack sends price is S199. Q

40 MAY/JUNE
Total -
telecommunications

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Modem auto dial-auto


answer modem

Advanced telecommunications
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Automates connections and
log-on sequences

Electronic Mail
Official Airline Guide
Catalog Shopping
Info Movie Reviews
UPI world news and sports
Stock quotations
Journals and magazines
Over 60 Popular Data in all career arenas
Bases and Services
with no subscription Teleconferencing
fee. And much more!

Limited time offer.


TOTAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS
800-22LEARN or 800-44LEARN ir, California TeleLearning Systems. Inc.
505 Beach Street
For Commodore 64®
1 gtdl Telecommunk aiion> and The Info Cenivr ate ttJd'.-marKs of JeleLeainmy Syslems. lr>c..
San Francisco, California 94133
Commodore 64 is a registered Irailumarh ol Commr.doie Electronics. Lid 415/928-2800

Circle Reader Service No. 31


BOOK REVIEWS RHVIl-WKD BY AL W1LLEN

Programming
Your
Commodore
64 in BASIC
Author: Mario J. Eisenbacher
Publisher: Spectrum
Prentice-Hall
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
07632

Jtrogramming Your Commodore 64


in BASIC is fundamentally a tutorial chapter where different computer done. (I firmly believe that well de
which aids the student-reader in be programming examples are de signed practice exercises—and docu
coming a BASIC programmer via a se scribed, listed and explained. mented answers—are very important
ries of highly structured instructional Besides the seven programming lev to a self-instructing manual of this
descriptions and subsequent exer els, this book also contains lesson re kind.)
cises. Each progressive chapter or views, practice exercises, "interest In fact, when the author is good, he
"level" is harder than the preceding stimulators" (undocumented program is very, very good. His explanation of
one and builds upon the more elemen listings) and appendices. The index is nested loops, for an example, is ter
tary concepts. quite good for fast reference and rific. I also liked his "User Formulas"
Level 1 deals with getting ac retrieval. included in the book's appendix.
quainted with the 64 keyboard layout, There were many things which I One thing that bothered me about
"getting started" procedures, PRINT like about this book. I feel that the au the book was its lack of clarification
statement tips and tricks, using colors, thor has the potential of becoming a and misuse of generalization. The au
the TAB/SPC functions, the INPUT premiere teacher of computer science, thor frequently presents his com
function and computer-generated specifically on the Commodore 64 ments as absolute truth—a program
prompts. Level 2 teaches the vari system, through his writings. Al ming dogma—when in reality, the
ous mathematical operators/symbols, though pedantic at times, he demon comment should have been qualified
operational priorities, assigning nu strates throughout this book his com with specific conditions of validity.
meric variables, simple loops (FOR/ mand of the subject and love for the For example, if I wrote that "all birds
NEXT), conditional statements, and 64 in general. fly," I would be in error. There are
flowcharts. The author's step-by-step program some species of birds (penguins)
Level 3 shows readers how they can ming directions are clear and easy to which do not fly, newborn birds have
use the 64 to generate random num follow. I especially like the editorial to learn to fly, birds with broken
bers, the INT function, such mathe treatment of important programming wings can't fly and dead birds are per
matical functions as ABS, SGN. SQR, techniques, as graphically highlighted manently grounded.
time control using TI and TIS, the within a special border. In this way, the author often makes
GET statement, setting up DATA state Programming Your Commodore statements which might be accepted
ments, reading/restoring that data and 64 in BASIC is easy to read—I studied as 100% fact by a novice programmer.
creating data arrays (DIM. statement). the entire book in three hours—be Last but not least, why do some
Level 4, a very short chapter, deals cause the author treats his readers as publishing companies fail to use the
with computer terminology, an intro friends. We are supplied the secrets of computer symbol for the number zero
duction to binary math and 64 periph his experience in an informal tone of (0)? Don't they realize that their type
erals. Level 5 teaches readers alphanu voice. I've been professionally pro set zeros often look like the letter
meric strings, string manipulation and gramming for seven years now and I "O"? Another way to confuse
Boolean logic (AND, OR). learned a few new tricks by reading readers.
Level 6 introduces the GOSUB/RE- this book. In short, the author is al I feel that this book is for those nov
TURN branch statements, PEEK and ways encouraging to his readers. ice users who have had the opportu
POKE, memory maps, simple graphic The best section in this book is the nity to experience their Commodore
displays, how to control bits using treatment of Boolean logic. The au 64 for a few weeks and provides the
logic, advanced display modes, in thor's explanation of AND and OR. as perfect bridge between beginner and
cluding sprites and multi-color bit well as bit manipulation using these intermediate computer knowledge.
mapping, sound production using the two logical expressions, is among the Programming Your Commodore 64
SID chip and combining sound and best I've seen. Likewise, summary re in BASIC is a step in the right direc
sprites. Level 7 is the "applications" views and practice exercises are well tion for all concerned. Q

42 MAYflUNE
BOOK REVIEWS REVIEWED BY JAMBS CHASSE

Learning
duces recursion, which is where
LOGO really shines. Recursion is the
ability of something to call back on it
Commodore / don 9t hesitate to self, much like pulling oneself up by
one's shoestrings. This is a strange

64 LOGO predict that this concept and certainly hard to grasp at


first. The author, however, cuts the
book will become a
Together fluff and gets to examples
clearly explain how recursive proce
which

LOGO classic. It can dures are written and used.


Author: Kenneth Goldberg
Publisher: Microsoft Press easily be adapted Sprites are dealt with in Chapters 11
and 12. Everything needed to create
10700 Northrup Way
Bellevue, WA 98009 to a classroom and use sprites in LOGO is covered.
Numerous examples are provided as
environment and to how to use, create, save and use a
When I first purchased my Com sprite.
modore 64, I noticed on the store will most assuredly Chapters 13 and 14 deal with the
shelves the title LOGO. At the time, mathematical side of LOGO and ex
the only concept I had of LOGO was
find its niche with plain how the mathematical opera
that it had something to do with a
addicted LOGO tions of LOGO are used and imple
mented in program mode. List
stylized turtle moving around on a
computer screen. Since I was a neo users. processing, which is a LOGO ability
phyte at computing, I naturally chose to work with words and sentences, is
BASIC, the built-in language of the 64. covered in Chapters 15 and 16. The
But I would occasionally come across author differentiates clearly between
LOGO in my reading and wonder of learning by building complex struc the ability to work with words and
what it was all about. Eventually I tures out of basic ones. The concept the ability to perform list processing.
broke down and bought the Commo of modular programming is also ad In essence, a list can be a word or
dore LOGO cartridge. dressed. Modular programming can group of words which can make up a
The LOGO package came with a be used as an invaluable introduction sentence. LOGO can act on these sen
well written manual. Somehow, how to higher level languages such as tences. Amazing things can be
ever, I felt the manual was not ori Pascal. achieved with this capability and it is
ented toward ground-floor beginners. The second chapter gives a full de easily a separate art form in itself.
I combed the bookstores looking for a scription of how to get LOGO run To cap off this exceptional book,
book that would help .me digest what ning using the computer, disk and Goldberg covers the 64's unique mu
LOGO was really all about. Need I say software. No loose ends here. Chap sic capability. LOGO 64 hxs built-in
the search was a long one. ters 3 and 4 deal specifically with the music commands and these are ex
Finally, I found Kenneth Goldberg's basic LOGO commands required to plained and supported with ample
book, Learning Commodore 64 deal with programming in LOGO samples.
LOGO Together. Goldberg's book was such as DRAW, NODRAW, PENUP and All in all, Learning Commodore 64
a LOGO delight. Here was a book that PENDOWN. LOGO Together is truly a superb
truly served the needs of the begin The real programming power of learning product. I don't hesitate to
ner. His book is well structured, well LOGO begins with Chapter 6. Here predict that this book will become a
written and, most important, well or the author provides ample description LOGO classic. It can easily be adapted
ganized. He takes the beginner step by of what procedures are and how they to a classroom environment and will
step through LOGO, from the funda are constructed. He explains how to most assuredly find its niche with ad
mentals to the complex, and does a use, write, modify, save, load and dicted LOGO users. The author took a
superb job of it. print procedures. Chapter 7 goes into conscientious attitude in assembling
The book begins by giving a short more detailed discussion of what pro his material and the end result is a
history of why LOGO was developed, cedures really are and what they can smooth-flowing narrative with very
what its uses are, and what need it sat do. It should not escape the observant few gaps. This is the way introduc
isfies. A "How to Use This Book" is reader of these chapters that LOGO'S tory books on specific fields of
provided, along with a list of the hard ability to create procedures can itself knowledge should be written.
ware and software that will be re be used to construct a newT language. If you are struggling with LOGO
quired. He doesn't leave the user in Chapters 8 and 9 provide more ex and desire a good introductory book
the dark. tensive examples and explanations. on the subject, are an educator search
The first chapter discusses the lan Variables and their use in procedures ing for an exceptional text, or even an
guage itself. Here the author explains are explained; so is parameter passing intermediate user who wants to
that LOGO is an excellent learning (that is, passing one value in a variable sharpen his skills, then Goldberg's
tool, which reinforces the processes to another variable). Chapter 10 intro book is definitely for you.

COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 43
COMMODORE 64
COMPUTER AND SOFTWARE SUPER AUTO com
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139
oo OO
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I (See aver 100 coupon items in our catalog}
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time! Converts your Commodore 64 to 80 COLUMNS For Commodore 64 and Vic 20 computers. Lets you use
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ULTIMATE FOR PROFESSIONAL Word Processing,
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DISPLAYS JO or 80 COLUMNS IN COLOR or black ond
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Circle Reader Service No. 21
FANTASTIC PRINTER
$
24 95
SALE!! $24 95

Commodore 64
■U 40 And 80 Column Printers Up To 100 Characters Per Second & Full Graphics Capability
ir Upper And Lower Case v; Advanced Thermal Technology For Quiet Operation

3100 Alphacom 42-80 CPS 40 Column Printer


Print out listings with full computer character
sets (interface required, see below). Print in
upper and lower case. Comes with a roll of
paper and all power adapters needed. Perfect
for a spare printer or program lister. List $99.00.
Sale $24.95.

40 Column Extra Paper LIST SALE


3103 25 Meter Rolls Blue S9.95 53.00
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3106 25 Meter Rolls Blue (2 perpkg.) $19.95 $5.95
3107 25 Meter Rolls Black (2 perpkg.) $19.95 $5.95

3150 Alphacom 81-100 CPS 80 Column Printer


Now you can have a printer for the cost of a
large box of paper. This printer prints in upper
and lower case with true lower descenders.
Comes with 1 roll of paper and power adapter.
With the intelligent interfaces (sold below) you
can do Ascii graphics as well as Commodore
graphics. Plus you can do underlining and
expanded modes. Print out pictures, program
listings, word processing pages, etc. Perfect for
the student or homeowner.
List $799.00. Sale $39.95.
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3101 Intelligent Commodore Interface — Allows you to


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SUPER BUY
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Single Sided — Double Density (flip $14 00


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Floppy Disk Filer


Everyone Needs a Floppy Disk Secretary
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The Floppy Disk Filer is an inexpensive hard plastic Fliptop case that will allow for easy filing, and protect
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Circle Reader Service No. 21


FANTASTIC COMPUTER PRINTER SALE!!!

COM-STAR T/F
Tractor
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• Lowest Priced, Best Quality, Tractor-Friction Printers in the U.S.A.


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prints 8H" x 11" standard size single sheet PLUS + PRINTER plus 16%" carriage This Super Hi^h Speed Corn-Star +
stationery or continuous feed computer and more powerful electronics Business Printer has all the features of the
paper. Bi-directional, impact dot matrix. components to handle large ledger 10" COM-STAR + PRINTER with HIGH
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10X COM-STAR PLUS + Printer $199 151/z" COM-STAR PLUS + H.S. RED HOT BUSINESS PRINTER at an
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plus a 10" carriage, 120-140 CPS, 9 x 9 dot 15%" Carriage and more powerful $699.00. Sale $349.00.
matrix with double strike capability for 18 electronic components to handle larger
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standard, italic, block graphics & special
PRINTER $199.00 machines in one — just a flick of the
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"JUKI" Superb letter quality daisy wheel
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"BEST BUY" BY CONSUMERS DIGEST parallel or RS232 serial port built in
Centronics parallel cr RS232 serial port
BUYERS GUIDE, JANUARY 1985! List (Specify). List $399.00. $349.00.
built in! (Specify). List $299.00. Sale
$499.00. Sale $199.00.
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• 15 Day Free Trial — 1 Year Immediate Replacement Warranty

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Print Example ABCDEFWIJKU1N0P0RBTUVWXYZ 1 234BA7I

Circle'Reader Service No. 21


PROGRAMMERS' TIPS BY CYNDIE MERTEN

The Game of "Life"simulates the


Life rise and decline of
for the VIC 20 and generations ofor
Commodore 64 ganisms in a popu
lation. The simu
W henever computers and mathe
matics meet art, there is sure to be
lated organisms
mutual fascination. One such meeting
of the minds is contained in the game
form patterns on the
of "Life." The game was invented in "culture disk" of the
the early 1970's by John Horton Con-
way, a mathematician at the Univer computer screen.
sity of Cambridge. It was further ex
plored by Martin Gardner in
Scientific American's Mathematical in 4, or oscillate as in 5. Some pat ing, growing community.
Games column in October 1970 and terns oscillate with periods greater Conway developed complicated
February 1971. than two. For example, the pattern in procedures for playing the game on a
"Life" simulates the rise and de Figure 2 takes eight generations to re checkerboard. However, it is fairly
cline of generations of organisms in a turn to the original pattern and re straightforward to write a computer
population. The simulated organisms peat. Known as the "figure eight," it program to keep track of the genera
form patterns on the "culture disk" of was discovered by Simon Norton. tions and display the board. Although
the computer screen. One can sit and The rules for the game are so simple Conway always assumed an endless
watch them develop for hours in an that one cannot imagine the complex board, the programs for the Commo
intriguing evolution. ity and sensitivity of the patterns the dore 64 and VIC 20 discussed here
Conway began playing the game us organisms form. During one genera use a finite board the size of the com
ing a large checkerboard for his mini-' tion, the colony can be perceived as puter screen.

universe. Each square of the board ready to die out completely, and then,
was either occupied by an organism (a several generations later, be a thriv- Program Description
checker) or empty. Each square has There are two versions of the pro
eight neighboring squares (those next Figure 1. Generating Patterns gram for each machine. The first ver
to it and those diagonal to it). After from Three Organisms sion starts with a random pattern.
you set up any desired starting pat This can result in marvelous patterns
Example
tern, the configuration of the board in Genera! ion
after several generations. The second
NO.
the next generation is determined by 0 1 2 version allows the user to input the
three simple rules: starting pattern. The player uses the
1. Any checker surrounded by I cursor keys to move around on the
I .:
two or three neighboring checkers 1
screen, the asterisk key to put up a liv
survives. ing cell, the space bar to put up an
2. Four or more neighbors dooms a empty cell, or RETURN to start the
checker because of overpopulation (it generations developing. The only dif
is removed). On the other hand, hav 2 1
ference between the two versions is
ing no neighbors or only one leads to the addition of lines 30 through 160
death from isolation. and the removal of line 200 in the
3. An empty cell with exactly three user-input version.
neighbors has a checker born into it. 3 1 '*
Line 10 sets up pointers to a work
A single organism dies on the next area (W), which is used to store the
generation from isolation. Similarly, number of neighbors for each cell and
any pair of organisms will die in one u LE color RAM (C). In addition, line 10
generation. 4 ■ ■ colors the background and border
Five examples of the results starting black. Line 20 reads a machine lan
with groups of three are illustrated in guage routine, which is described be
Figure 1. These groups of three reveal low and puts it in memory.
! C sc 1 1 ■

all the possible fates of patterns on a 1 i In the user-input version, line 30


finite board. Organisms can die as in fills the screen with black circles, sets
examples 1, 2 and 3, become stable as the cell color (CC) to white and initial-

48 MAYOUNE
PROGRAMMERS' TIPS
izes where the cursor is (K) and what and going directly to 310 preserves
Figure 2. An Oscillator with
color is under the cursor (S). Line 40 the current situation. If you wish to
Period 8
reads the keyboard and flashes the experiment with slightly different
cursor. Lines 50 through 120 act on rules, line 280 could be changed to go
the input by handling cursor keys and different places depending on the
placing or removing organisms. The number of neighbors found. Finally,
subroutine in lines 150 and 160 moves lines 1000 through 1090 contain the
the cursor. machine language subroutine.
In the random-pattern version, line Commodore 64 users will find that
200 fills the screen with circles the time required between genera
Figure 3 - Evolution of a Heart to
equally likely to be black or white and tions is greater for them than for VIC
starts the cell color (CC) at white. a Honey Farm 20 users. This is because the number
Line 210 clears the work area and of cells on the screen is nearly dou
increments the cell color. Line 220 bled on the 64. However, 64 users

calls the machine language subrou will be able to experiment with larger
tine. This routine looks at each cell on patterns than on the VIC, so there are
the screen, decides how many neigh also advantages.
bors it has and records that number in HEART Figure 3 shows a pattern I call the
the work area. The same could be "heart," and its result after 17 genera
done with a couple of BASIC state tions, the "honey farm." The honey
ments, but the program would run ex farm consists of four stable figures
tremely slowly. known as beehives. The patterns of
Lines 270 through 310 use the in each generation can be beautiful and
formation stored in the work area to surprising. Using a similar program, I
put up the next screen. In line 270 the once generated many generations of a
location of the current cell on the large "X." The 27th generation be
screen is calculated. Then, in 280 the came the basis for a beautiful woven
number of neighbors that cell has is tapestry (The 27th Generation of
used to decide whether the cell lives "X," by Katherine Merten). I wish you
or dies in the next generation. Line many hours of creative enjoyment of
290 is for birth, line 300 is for death "Life." E
HONEY FARM

64 Input :CC=CC+1:IF CO15 THEN CC=ltMBWK


10 W=51968:C=55296:POKE 53280,0 220 SYS 49152'BFMY
:P0KE 53281,0'EEYF 270 FOR 1=1 TO 25:FOR J=l TO 40
20 FOR K=49152 TO 49249:READ M :M=C+(I-1)*40+J-l'MUKP
:P0KE K,M:NEXT'GSUF 280 ON PEEK(W+I*42+J)+1 GOTO 300,300,
30 FOR K=0 TO 999:POKE 1024+K,81 310,29 0,300,300,300,300,300'HSKQ
:P0KE C+K,0:NEXT:CC=1:K=0:S=0* LFJM 290 POKE M,CC:G0T0 310'CILH
40 GET A$:IF A$=""THEN A-PEEK(C+K) 300 POKE M,0'BDNX
:POKE C+K,N0T(A AND l)AND(A OR 310 NEXT J,I:G0T0 210'CHAA
1)'NWFN 1000 DATA 169,39,133,253,169,0,133,
50 IF A$=CHR$(42)THEN S=1:D=1 254,169,216'BLJA
:GOSUB 150'HPLI 1010 DATA 133,255,169,0,141,36,192,
60 IF A$=CHR$(13)THEN POKE C+K,S 169,203,141'BLTB
:GOTO 210'HOEJ 1020 DATA 37,192,160,0,177,254,41,15,
70 IF A$=CHR$(29)THEN D=l 240,11'BIQB
:GOSUB 150'GMEJ 1030 DATA 160,7,190,90,192,254,17,17,
80 IF A$=CHR$(157)THEN D=-l 136,16'BIGC
:GOSUB 150'HNTL 1040 DATA 247,238,36,192,208,3,238,37,
90 IF A$=CHR$(17)THEN D=40 192,198'BKUE
:G0SUB 150'GNCL 1050 DATA 253,16,18,169,39,133,253,24,
100 IF AS=CHR$(145)THEN D=-40 173,36'BJGF
:G0SUB 150'HORC 1060 DATA 192,105,2,141,36,192,144,3,
110 IF A$=CHR$(32)THEN S=0:D=1 238,37'BIYF
:G0SUB 150'HPJD 1070 DATA 192,230,254,208,2,230,255,
120 GOTO 40'BCLW 165,254,201'BMLH
150 POKE C+K,S:K=K+D:IF K>999 OR K<0 1080 DATA 232,208,195,165,255,201,219,
THEN K=K-D'LSEL 208,189,96'BNPI
160 S=PEEK(C+K):RETURNfEGYF 1090 DATA 0,1,2,42,44,84,85,86'BUTG
210 FOR K=0 TO 1133:POKE W+K,0:NEXT Continued next page

COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 49
PROGRAMMERS' TIPS
VIC Input
220 SYS 49152'BFMY
10 W=7080:C=38400:POKE 36879,8 270 FOR 1=1 TO 25:FOR J=l TO 40
20 FOR K=6982 TO 7079:READ M:POKE K,M :M=C+(I-1)*40+J-l'MUKP
:NEXT 280 ON PEEK(W+I*42+J)+1 GOTO 300,300,
30 FOR K=0 TO 505:POKE 7680+K,81 310,290,300,300,300,300,300'HSKQ
:POKE C+K,0:NEXT:CC=1:K=0:S=0 290 POKE M,CC:GOTO 310'CILH
40 GET AS:IF A$=""THEN A=PEEK(C+K) 300 POKE M,0'BDNX
:POKE C+K,NOT(A AND 1)AND(A OR 1) 310 NEXT J,I:GOTO 210'CHAA
50 IF A$=CHR$(42)THEN S=1:D=1 1000 DATA 169,39,133,253,169,0,133,
:GOSUB 150 254,169,216'BLJA
60 IF A$=CHR$(13)THEN POKE C+K,S 1010 DATA 133,255,169,0,141,36,192,
:GOTO 210 169,203,141'BLTB
70 IF A$=CHR$(29)THEN D=1:GOSUB 150 1020 DATA 37,192,160,0,177,254,41,15,
80 IF AS=CHRS{157)THEN D«-1:GOSUB 150 240,11'BIQB
90 IF A$=CHR${17)THEN D=22:GOSUB 150 1030 DATA 160,7,190,90,192,254,17,17,
100 IP A$=CHR$(145)THEN D=-22 136,16'BIGC
:GOSUB 150 1040 DATA 247,238,36,192,208,3,238,37,
llfl IF A$=CHR$(32)THEN S=0:D=1 192,198'BKUE
:GOSUB 150 1050 DATA 253,16,18,169,39,133,253,24,
120 GOTO 40 173,36'BJGF
150 POKE C+K,S:K=K+D:IF K>505 OR K<0 1060 DATA 192,105,2,141,36,192,144,3,
THEN K=K-D 238,37'BIYF
160 S=PEEK(C+K):RETURN 1070 DATA 192,230,254,208,2,230,255,
210 FOR K=0 TO 599:POKE W+K,0:NEXT 165,254,201'BMLH
:COCC+1:IF CC>7 THEN CC=1 1080 DATA 232,208,195,165,255,201,219,
220 SYS 6982 208,189,96'BNPI
270 FOR 1=1 TO 23:FOR J=l TO 22 1090 DATA 0,1,2,42,44,84,85,86'BUTG
:M=C+(I-1)*22+J-l
280 ON PEEK(W+I*24+J)+1 GOTO 300,300, VIC Random
310,290,300,300,300,300,300 10 W=7080:C=38400:POKE 36879,8
290 POKE M,CC:GOTO 310 20 FOR K=6982 TO 7079:READ M:POKE K,M
300 POKE M,0 :NEXT
310 NEXT J,I:GOTO 210 200 FOR K=0 TO 505:POKE 7680+K,81
1000 DATA 169,21,133,253,169,0,133, :POKE C+K,INT{RND(1)*2):NEXT:CC=1
254,169,150 210 FOR K=0 TO 599:POKE W+K,0:NEXT
1010 DATA 133,255,169,168,141,106,27, :CC=CC+1:IF CC>7 THEN CC=1
169,27,141 220 SYS 6982
1020 DATA 107,27,160,0,177,254,41,7, 270 FOR 1*1 TO 23:FOR J=l TO 22
240,11 :M=*C+(I-1)*22+J-l
1030 DATA 160,7,190,160,27,254,17,17, 280 ON PEEK(W+I*24+J)+1 GOTO 300,300,
136,16 310,29 0,300,300,300,30 0,300
1040 DATA 247,238,106,27,208,3,238, 290 POKE M,CC:GOTO 310
107,27,198 300 POKE M,0
1050 DATA 253,16,18,169,21,133,253,24, 310 NEXT J,I:GOTO 210
173,106 1000 DATA 169,21,133,253,169,0,133,
1060 DATA 27,105,2,141,106,27,144,3, 254,169,150
238,107 1010 DATA 133,255,169,168,141,106,27,
1070 DATA 27,230,254,208,2,230,255, 169,27,141
165,254,201 1020 DATA 107,27,160,0,177,254,41,7,
1080 DATA 250,208,195,165,255,201,151, 240,11
208,189,96 1030 DATA 160,7,190,160,27,254,17,17,
1090 DATA 0,1,2,24,26,48,49,50 136,16
1040 DATA 247,238,106,27,208,3,238,
64 Random 107,27,198
10 W=51968:C=55296:POKE 53280,0 1050 DATA 253,16,18,169,21,133,253,24,
:POKE 53281,0'EEYF 173,106
20 FOR K=49152 TO 49249:READ M 1060 DATA 27,105,2,141,106,27,144,3,
:POKE K,M:NEXT'GSUF 238,107
200 FOR K=0 TO 999:POKE 1024+K,81 1070 DATA 27,230,254,208,2,230,255,
:POKE C+K,INT(RND(1)*2):NEXT 165,254,201
:CC=1'MELJ 1080 DATA 250,208,195,165,255,201,151,
210 FOR K=0 TO 1133:POKE W+K,0:NEXT 208,189,96
:CC-CC+1:IF CO15 THEN CC-1'MBWK 1090 DATA 0,1,2,24,26,48,49,50 END

50 MAY0LJNE
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Circle Reader Service No. 14 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 51


TECHNICAL TIPS BY DAN RUSTIN

The $10
Keyboard
Kneeboard
Relieve the clutter at
your computer
workspace with a
simple sliding shelf.

in a simpler age, when the


typewriter and the index file your joystick, drawing tablet, depth—or area the shelf will slide
abounded, a level desktop was about mouse or other smallish input out—can vary depending upon the
all one needed to accommodate the device, thus eliminating the depth of your desktop. Keep in mind,
paraphernalia of the day's activities. need to shunt the keyboard to however, that the deeper you make it,
Suddenly, with the advent of the another part of a crowded desk the more stress your braces will have
computer and its attendant keyboard, when you want to work with a to handle. If it's too deep, the shelf
drive, monitor, storage library, different controller directly in will tilt and the braces will loosen.
printer, interface, joystick, mouse, front of you. Picture a center drawer—the further
drawing tablet and overlays, the once- 4. It permits farsighted people to out you pull it, the less stability it has.
neat desktop has come to resemble the back off a few inches from the Maximum depth should be 18
aftermath of the Battle of Austerlitz. monitor when using the key inches; a perfect depth is 14 inches.
Many new computerists solve their board, joystick or other (The Commodore 64 keyboard itself
shrinking space problem simply by controller. is only eight inches, front to back.)
buying a new piece of furniture de 5. Most important, it virtually dou At your lumberyard, pick up a piece
signed to accept all the components. bles the work area directly in of 3/-*-inch common pine, cut to the
However, there are still a few un front of you when you're seated measurements determined (width of
daunted souls loyal to their comfort at the computer. kneehole X depth of shelf). At your
able old workspaces, and others who Equally convenient, the Kneeboard hardware store, ask for four one-inch
believe that the way to lick a problem unobtrusively slides away under your and two 3/i-inch corner braces.
is not simply to throw money at it. desktop, just like a center drawer, (These are "L" shaped metal objects
For these intrepid individuals, we when not in use. So it provides addi with screw holes in each leg.)
herewith submit the S10 Keyboard tional space only when you need it. When you get your shelf home,
Kneeboard, a simple, inexpensive When you don't need it, it's neatly treat it immediately so it won't warp.
way to help alleviate some of the nested out of the way. Sand it for smoothness and stain,
workspace clutter problem. The Kneeboard is primarily de paint or varnish it. Polyurethane is a
The Kneeboard is a sliding shelf signed for wooden desks or workta- good finish since it protects against
which installs under your desktop, in bles that have a kneehole—that is, nicks and scratches. Your shelf is go
the place normally occupied by the supports on either side with a cavity ing to see a lot of action sliding in and
center drawer of the office desk. for the knees. To the inside of these out under your desk.
As simple as it is to install, the side supports, we will afix braces to Installation is simple, but should be
$10 Keyboard Kneeboard actually hold up our shelf. For tables without done with care and accuracy. If you
will perform at least five important kneehole-style supports, adaptations don't leave enough room for the shelf
functions: can be made by installing the braces to glide easily, it will bind. Too much
1. It will allow you to tilt your key on the underside of the desktop. In play will cause wobble. And we don't
board, making it easier to enter this case, a different type of bracket want binding or wobbling shelves be
data, especially the numeric- will be required, but the theory and, neath our keyboards, do we?
kind. hopefully, the result, will be the same. The corner braces are installed hor
2. It will lower your typing surface All right, you cluttered-up comput izontal plane up, vertical legs pointing
about one inch, which relieves erists, grab your tape measures and down. The vertical sides are screwed
strain for a lot of people who let's go to work. into the supports on each side of the
are uncomfortable working at a First, carefully measure the knee- kneehole. The Kneeboard will then
higher keyboard. hole's width, left to right. Our shelf ride on the horizontal plane like a
3. It provides a comfortable waist- will fit precisely into the space be baker's tray sliding into an oven.
high surface on which to rest tween the vertical uprights. The Continued on page IN

52 MAY/JUNE
TECHNICAL TIPS BY SHLOMO GINSBUKG

Home terms ofxa in equation (2), then x, can Solution


also be expressed in terms of x^ alone
University
One of the simplest and most effi
x, = 10(3000 -x,)/ll cient direct-solution methods is the
Now we use the expressions for x> Gauss elimination (named after the
On Matrix Algebra in equation (4b) and x, in equation (5) mathematical genius Carl Friedrich
and Computer in the first equation (1): Gauss). The method is basically a sys
150 X 10[(3000-x,)/ll] + tematic elimination process which
Arrays, Part 2 120(3000-Xj)/11 + (6) continually reduces the size of the sys
220x, = 500000 tem, to finally produce one equation
An this article we will deal with the which can be solved for x5 with a single unknown. The al
solution of systems of linear equa x< = 800 units/day gorithm can be demonstrated on the
tions. We shall begin with a problem Substituting this value in equation (4b) general system ("*) (or (8)), and the fol
which demonstrates a simple case of we get: lowing numerical example:
three coupled linear equations. x, = 200 units/day 2x, + x. + xt = 8
Suppose that a computer manufac And finally, from equation (2): 3x, - 2x; + x, = 3 (9)
turer can ship only 3(H>0 units every x, = 2000 units/day 4x, — Xj + x; = 6
day, including computers, monitors Let us assume that a,, =£ 0. The first
and disk drives. The company's policy Matrix Formulation step is division of the first equation of
is to provide dealers with a number of In many cases, however, we have (")by a,,, resulting in equation 10.below
computers which is ten times the all system coefficients nonzero, unlike and for the special case (9)
number of monitors. The cost of a the system (1) which has two zeros in
x, Tx< = 4 (11)
computer is S150, a monitor is sold the second equation. Also, the system
for S120 and the disk drive costs of equations may be large, making the Next, we multiply the new (or mod
S220. The company aims at a daily manual solution a tedious, or even im ified) first equation (10) by 112) below,
gross income of 1500,000. How possible effort. Thus, we need to use a which for the case of (9) results in
many units of each kind should the computer to solve the problem. (a, =3)
company produce every day? For example, we can express a gen
The first step is a mathematical for eral system of equations as shown in
3Xl + lXl + |Xj = 12 (13)
mulation of the problem. Let us de (7) below.
note the number of computers to be Applied to equation (1) this would Now we subtract equation (12)
manufactured daily as x,, the number mean a,, = 150, aia = 120. and a|t from the second equation of (7), elim
of monitors as x. and that of drives Xt. = 220, aJ( = 0, etc. Using the rules of inating x, as shown in (13a) below.
The first equation states thai the total matrix multiplication discussed in We can denote the coefficients of the
number x, + x. + x, = 3000 units/ Fart 1 (January/February), we can ex last equation as follows:
day. The second equation expresses press the system (7) in the form
a&Xj + aiVx, + ... + a:,Vx,, = tag*(14)
the company's policy, i.e., the number A x = b (8)
where the superscript (1) denotes the
of computers is ten times the number where A is the (n X m) matrix with co
first cycle of the solution procedure.
of monitors, or x, = 10x. units/day. Fi efficients a,, x is a (n X 1) vector of the
For our special case we get
nally, the gross daily income is 150x, unknowns x,, and b is the (n X 1) vec
+ 120x, + 220x, '= S500.000. We tor of constants b, (the elements on 3x, = 12
the right hand side of equation (7)).
T
now write the three equations in the
following form:
150x, + 120x, + 220x( = 500000 a,,x, a,,x, a,,x, alMx,, = b, 3x,-2x,+ x. = 3 fI5)
x, - 10x2 - 0x( = 0 (1) a,,x, a,,x. a,,x, a^x,, = b.
x, + x, + x, = 3000
For a small size problem, such as
the system of equations (1), the solu (7) Now we operate on the
tion process is quite simple. For exam a.x. + ... + a^x,, = b, third equation of (7) the
ple, the second equation allows us to same way we did on the
express x, as
Continued next page
x, = lOx, (2)
We now substitute for x, in the third , + ... + aMllxo = bn
equation to obtain
lx, + a,./a,,x, + ...+ aln/a,,xn = b,/aM(10)
10x, + x, + x, = 3000 (3)
which is equivalent to a,, a,, x, + a., (a,;/aM)x, + ... + a,, (a^/a^x,, = a., (b,/aM) 02)
1 lx2 + X3 = 3000 (4a)
x, = (3000 -x,)/11 (4b) a,,x, + a,,x. + ... + a.,,x,, = b,
Since x, is expressed in terms of x, a,,x, + a.^a.Va.Jx, + ... + a,, (a,,,/aM)xn = a-.OVa,.) (13a)
in equation (4b), and x, is given in [a,, - a.,(ai;/an)] x, + ... + [a,,, - a,, (a,,Ai)K = bt - a., (b./a,,)

COMMODORE MICROCOMPITI-RS 53
"ECHNICALTIPS
j j The Program
second equation, that is, eliminate x, xt + 2X2 + 2X? ~ ^ ^^ Tne program "Gauss" is designed
from it by multiplying equation (10) J. J£ to solve a system of linear equations
by a,,, and subtracting the result from and it includes the option for line in-
the third equation of (7). For our spe x = 4 (21) terchange. The program indicates
cial case we get (a,, = 4) The third equation is the solution whether there is no unique solution. It
for x should be noted that we use arrays A
a ^4 4-x?
<*x, -t- -x, + _ 4 x 4 _ !g
Backsubstituting that result in (18) (the original coefficient matrix) and B
we «et (the right hand side of equation (7) or
~4x, - x2 + x, = 6 (16)
x _ !§. _ i/7X = 2 (8)) to store the modified coefficients
3x, + x, = 10
during the elimination process. This
The process is repeated for the Backsubstitution of both x2 and x, in results in memory conservation, but
third equation, fourth, etc. For the (11) resultsui tne o^gi^ vaiues are [ost
special case, we have n — 1 = 2 equa x, = 4 - Vzx2 - V2X, - 1 it snou]d be mentioned that for
tions to be subtracted from the modi More generally, for the system of n smal, size systems the program works
fied first equation, so the last opera equations, the form of the system af- quite fast) bm for lafge systems some
tion in equations (16) ends the first ter (n 1) steps is modifications are necessary. After get-
cycle. Since we "got rid" of x,, we x, + u,,x, + u,,Xj + ... + u,^ = v, Eing fajnjiiai- wjtn tne prOgram the
now have a reduced system of (n — 1) x, + u2Jx, + ... + u^nX,, = va user can introduce changes to en-
equations with (n — 1) unknowns, x,, xs + ... + u,nxn = v3 hance it. For example, variables for
(K+l) and (N-l) should be defined
The new system can be processed
and placed in the corresponding FOR
by the same procedure which was ap
■_■■■■ statements. The counters in NEXT
plied to the original system. That is, ^ - v" statements (e.g., NEXT K) should be
we divide the first equation of the where we use u's and v's to denote the remOved. Statements should be con-
new (n — 1) system by the new coeffi new coefficients that result from the catenated to save space
cient of x,, then multiply the result by operations performed on the equa
the coefficient of x, in the second tions during the elimination process. Examples
equation of the (n — 1) system and After obtaining this form, we need to It is suggested that the three follow-
eliminate x, from it, then proceed use the backsubstitution to obtain xn.l, ing examples be solved manually and
with the third, fourth, etc., eliminat x^i,..., x,, x,. verified by running the program:
ing x, completely. The result will be a Now we need to tackle one last 1) 2x, + x2 + 2x, = 10
(n — 2) system. We repeat the process problem, the possibility of a zero 2x, + x, + 3x, = 17
with the (n — 2) system, to obtain an coefficent by which we are supposed (x, = — 5/3, x, = — 2/3, x, = 7; a line
(n — 3) system, and so on. After (n — 1) to divide an equation. For example, interchange is required)
steps we eliminate all x's except x,,. suppose that au = 0. In this case, we 2) Xi + x, + x? = 2
The last equation so obtained will be cannot divide the first equation of (7), Ox, + x, + Ox, = 2
of the form to obtain equation (10). The same ap- Ox, + x, + Ox, = 2
^nn Xn ~ Dn \l ' ) plies to any coefficient a^ of a reduced (x, + x} = 0 is an infinite set of solu-
To see that, we proceed with our system obtained by eliminating some tions, x2 = 2)
special case, equation (9), as follows. unknowns. 3) x, + x2 + x, = 1
Our (n — 1) system consists of equa For example, if in equation (15) we ' 2x, + 2x2 + 2x, = 4
tions (15) and (16) with unknowns x, would have zero instead of 7/2 as the Ox, + 0x2 + x, = 3
and x,. We divide equation (15) by coefficient of xz, we could not possi- (no solution),
a22 = 7/2 to obtain bly divide it by zero. But we could in
terchange equation (15) and (16), References
18 (18)
since the former has a nonzero coeffi- Ayres, F., Jr., Matrices, Schaum's
1 * 7
cient(=3)forx,. Outline Series, McGraw-Hill, 1962.—
Now we multiply the result by
This is exactly what we need to do Excellent for the novice. Contains
a1,1,1 = 3 to obtain
in the general case. That is, if we en- many examples,
counter a zero coefficient of X; which Fox, L., An Introduction to Nu-
3x2 (19)
is supposed to be a denominator of an merical Linear Algebra, Oxford Uni-

We subtract this equation from equa


equation, we search for a line that has versity Press, 1964.—Excellent for the
tion (16) and get a nonzero coefficient of X;. This line is more advanced reader,
interchanged with the current line, Ralston, A., and Rabinowitz, P., A
i _ -J6 (20) and the process continues as before. First Course in Numerical Analysis,
7*3 - 7
Failure to produce candidate coeffi- McGraw-Hill, 1978.—Chapter nine
After dividing equation (20) by the co cients for all unknowns indicates that deals with systems of linear equa-
efficient — 4/7 we obtain the system does not have a unique so- tions. This excellent book discussees
x, = 4 (21) lution (it might not have any solution many other topics of importance to
Our operations on the (n = 3) sys at all, or it may have an infinite num- the computer hobbyist, as well as the
tem of equation (9) resulted in ber of solutions). professional. Q

54 MAYtfUNE
TECHNICAL TIPS
GAUSS : REM NO NEED FOR INTERCHANGE1FJII
10 REM ***********************BWRB 220 REM * INTERCHANGE ROWS'BQSD
11 REM * PROGRAM GAUSS, VERSION I, 230 FOR J=(K+1) TO N1EGEC
BY SHLOMO GINSBURG, MAY 1984'BWJL 240 IF ABS(A(J,K))>.000001 THEN 260
12 REM * THIS SOLVES A SYSTEM OF N : REM FOUND THE ROW FOR
LINEAR EQUATIONS WITH N INTERCHANGE'FTFO
UNKNOWNS'BYLO 250 GOTO 350: REM KEEP LOOKING FOR
13 REM * IT NOTIFIES THE USER WHEN ROW'CVBI
THERE IS NO SOLUTION'BOEM 260 FOR L=K TO N: REM INTERCHANGE ROW
14 REM * VARIABLES:'BLOE J WITH ROW K - A'S'EGKN
15 REM * N = NUMBER OF 270 T=A(K,L)'BHPF
EQUATIONS1BUPI 280 A{K,L)=A(J,L) 'BMPH
16 REM * A(I,J) = ELEMENTS OF THE 290 A(J,L)=T'BHOH
COEFFICIENT MATRIX I,J=1,2,..., 300 NEXT L'BBFW
N'BBAQ 310 T=B(K): REM INTERCHANGE B'S'CUTE
17 REM * B(I) = ELEMENTS OF THE 320 B(K)=B(J)'BIIB
RIGHT HAND SIDE (CONSTANTS)'BSMQ 330 tf(J)=T'BFBB
18 REM * K = STEP INDICATOR (A 340 GOTO 390'BDLC
TOTAL OF N-l STEPS IS 350 NEXT J'BBDC
REQUIRED)'BTCR 360 PRINT "[DOWN,RVS,RED,SPACE15]
19 REM * R = DIAGONAL ELEMENT BY NO SOLUTION • [SPACE12]'"BAOK
WHICH EQUATIONS ARE DIVIDED1BTPT 370 GOTO 700'BDGF
20 REM * T = TEMPORARY STORAGE 380 REM * DIVIDING ROW BY DIAGONAL
FOR ROW INTERCHANGE'BLPJ ELEMENT A(K,K)'BKEP
21 REM **********************'BWRD 390 R=A(K,K)'BHMI
22 REM *'BBJA 400 FOR J={K+1) TO N'EGEB
23 REM *'BBJB 410 A(K,J)=A(K,J)/R'CNLD
24 POKE 53280,11:POKE 53281,0'CQLG 420 NEXT J'BBDA
25 PRINT"[CLEAR,RVS,GREEN,SPACE5] 430 B(K)=B(K)/R'CJIE
A SYSTEM OF N LINEAR EQUATIONS 440 REM * ELIMINATION OF X{K) FROM
[SPACE5]n;'BBOO ROWS K+l, K+2, ... , N'BOOM
26 PRINT"[SPACE12]GAUSS ELIMINATION 450 FOR I=(K+1) TO N1EGDG
[SPACE11,RVOFF]■'BAWM 460 R=A(I,K)'BHKG
30 REM * BEGINNING OF PROGRAM - 470 FOR J=(K+1) TO N'EGEI
INPUT'BAEG 480 A(I,J)=A(I,J)-R*A(K,J)'DTEM
40 INPUT " [YELLOW]NUMBER OF 490 NEXT J'BBDH
EQUATIONS ([BLUE]N[YELLOW])";N'BCFI 500 B{I)=B(I)-R*B(K)'DNPD
50 DIM A(N,N),B(N)fBLLD 510 NEXT I'BBCA
60 PRINT"[DOWN2] INPUT THE 520 NEXT K: REM END OF STEPS'CMTF
COEFFICIENTS OF [RED]A[YELLOW] 530 REM * LAST EQUATION FOR A(N,
"'BAEK N)'BWWI
70 FOR 1=1 TO N'DDIF 540 IF ABS{A(N,N))>.000001 THEN
80 FOR J=l TO N'DDJG 570'ESVJ
90 PRINT "[DOWN,SPACE2]A("I","J")"; 550 PRINT "[DOWN,RVS,RED,SPACE14]NO
•BDVH [SPACE2]SOLUTION •[SPACE12]"'BAOL
100 INPUT "";A(I,J)'BHRW 560 GOTO 700'BDGG
110 NEXT J:NEXT I'CDIW 570 B(N)=B(N)/A(N,N)'COWK
120 PRINT"[DOWN2] INPUT THE 580 REM * BACKSUBSTITUTION'BRJM
COEFFICIENTS OF [L. RED]B[YELLOW] 590 FOR 1=1 TO (N-l)'EGDL
"•BAWG 6 00 K=N-I'CDMC
130 FOR 1=1 TO N'DDIA 610 FOR J={K+1) TO N'EGEE
140 PRINT "[DOWN,SPACE2]B("I")";'BCEB 620 B(K)=B(K)-A(K,J)*B(J)'DSTH
150 INPUT B(I)'BEVB 630 NEXT J:NEXT I'CDIE
160 NEXT I'BBCB 640 PRINT"[CLEAR,D0WN2,RVS,GREEN,
170 IF N=l THEN 540: REM SINGLE SPACE17]RESULTS[SPACE16]"'BAPL
EQUATION'EULJ 650 FOR 1=1 TO N'DDIH
180 FOR K=l TO N-l: REM STEP 660 PRINT"[DOWN,SPACE2]
COUNTER1FQLK TOUCH ANY KEY TO CONTINUE"'BASN
190 R=A{K,K)'BHMG 670 PRINT"[DOWN,SPACE3]X("I")
200 REM * CHECK FOR ZERO DIAGONAL. B{I)'BGPK
INSTEAD OF ZERO WE USE 680 GET A$:IF A$="M THEN 680'EINM
1/1000000'BYSJ 690 NEXT I'BBCJ
210 IF ABS(R)>.000001 THEN 390 700 END'BACB ^jjip.

COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 55
TECHNICAL TIPS BY MARK ZIMMI-RMANN

Random
Thoughts:
under the wave in the time plot. The
power carried at zero frequency will

This month, well be vanish only if a wave is equally posi


A Rainbow ofNoise tive and negative. The third example
exploring the different with the sine wave shows a case of
that happening.
l\ rainbow is a spectrum. Light spectra that come up in Next, look for where the "bumps"
bends when it goes through drops of random and non- are in the frequency plot, and notice
water, and the different frequencies how fast the power falls off as you go
bend different amounts. That simple random systems ofall to high frequencies. The bumps in the
result has led to a mini-industry, spec- power distribution tell you where
troscopy. From a study of spectra,
sorts: music, traffic most of the "action" is in the wave.
you can tell the composition of the jams, earthquakes and The square waves in the first example
stars as well as the make-up of tiny have a big bump at low frequencies
flecks of dust here on earth. The same more. (because of the area under the
principles apply to noise, random squares) and then have "echoes" of
fluctuations. This month, we'll be ex that bump at multiples of the fre
ploring the different spectra that the answer, without having to labori quency given by the spacing between
come up in random and non-random ously solve the equations. the squares. Musically, those "echoes"
systems of all sorts: music, traffic in the power plot are called harmon
jams, earthquakes and more. Fourier Instincts ics. Square waves have sharp edges
There are several important things and lots of energy in their high-fre
Frequency Analysis to note about the graphs in Figure 1. quency harmonics.
First, we need to learn a little of the First, the power curves on the right The triangular wave shown in the
language of spectroscopy. The key have been plotted only for positive second plot also has a lot of low-fre
idea is frequency analysis. It's one of numbers and show only positive val quency energy due to its nonzero
those obvious (after you've seen it), ues. That makes sense. In ordinary area. It has bumps at higher frequen
brilliant concepts that has tremen life, "negative frequencies" and "neg cies too, but they die off a lot faster
dously far-reaching implications. Fre ative power levels" don't occur. than the square waves' did. That's be
quency analysis is sometimes called (There are exceptions in mathematics, cause the triangular wave doesn't
"Fourier Analysis," after the French in quantum mechanics and in science have any abrupt "jumps" in its graph.
mathematician and friend of Napo fiction!) It takes a lot of high-frequency energy
leon, Jean-Bap t is te-Joseph Fourier Second, look at the behavior of the to make a wave jump suddenly! The
who developed the theory in the early power curves near zero frequency, at abrupt corners in the triangle do take
1800's. To see what frequency analy the low end of the spectrum. The some high frequencies to define, but
sis is all about, take a look at the pairs zero-frequency behavior tells you not nearly as much as a jump discon
of graphs in Figure 1. something about how much area is tinuity would.
This figure shows some sketches of
waves, plotted versus time on the left. Figure 1. Sample Power Spectra
To the right of each time plot, there's
a sketch of what the frequency analy
sis of that wave gives for the power
distribution. The term "power distri
bution" is very general. It could mean
the actual energy in the waves (if
they're electrical currents or ocean
waves), or it could mean the mathe
matical analog of the power if the
waves aren't physical.
These sketches aren't meant to be
arithmetically precise (though don't
hesitate to write if I've made a gross
error in drawing them). Rather, the
time-frequency pairs will help us de
velop some instincts about frequency
analysis. Developing good instincts is
the key to progress in any field of sci
ence. The goal is to be able to "guess"
-time — frequency >

56 MAY/|UNE
TECHNICAL TIPS
The smooth sine waves in the third result of taking many tiny, unpredicta taken. As the number of steps goes to
example don't have any zero-fre ble steps and adding them up. (Mathe infinity, odds are that the positive and
quency energy, because they have matically, this process is called "inte negative parts of the walk will NOT
equal amounts of plus and minus in gration," and the random walk is the cancel each other out after all. Medi
their wave. The sine waves' energy is "integral" of the random number gen tate on that; I'll return to the subject
concentrated in a peak around the erator of the top half of Figure 2. So, in a future column.
fundamental frequency of the wave. now you know some calculus!)
There is a bit of energy in the har Look at the power spectrum of the Pink Noise Everywhere
monics, though, due to the cut-off of random walk. It's a curve that rises A power spectrum analysis can be
the sine wave I sketched out. If the rapidly as you move toward zero fre applied to just about any type of sig
wave went on for many cycles, most quency and contrariwise dies off fast nal. I've already mentioned an appli
of the power would pile up in the fun toward the high frequency end. The cation for testing computer random
damental frequency and the harmon shape of this curve is just l/f\ where number generators; if you want to
ics would go away. "f' stands for "frequency." There's a read the gory mathematical details,
Finally, the really narrow pulse huge amount of power at the low-fre see D. E. Knuth's The Art of Com
shown in the last wave plot of Figure quency end. In another analogy to puter Programming, Volume 2.
1 has a power spectrum that falls off light, this type of signal is called "red Applications outside of the narrow
very slowly with increasing fre noise," since red light is the lowest field of computing are even more
quency. For the pulse I drew, there frequency visible to the human eye. fascinating.
will be "bumps" and "echoes" like You may want to think about why When you listen to a piece of mu
there were for the square waves, but the power spectra in Figure 2 don't sic, you hear the melody moving up
they occur at much higher frequen vanish at the zero-frequency end. and down. This is even clearer if you
cies than are plotted in the figure. If Judging by what we said earlier, if the look at sheet music, as in Figure 3-
the pulse got narrower and higher, the white or red noise signals were This is the theme from J. S. Bach's
power distribution versus frequency equally likely to be positive or nega "The Art of Fugue." (No, Knuth's title
would tend to get flatter and flatter. tive, there should be no power at isn't a coincidence. He's a fan of
That leads us to our next topic ... f=0. Yet the "white noise" power Bach's.) If you take the musical notes
spectrum is flat there and the "red and do a frequency analysis of them,
Noise Spectra: White and noise" power blows up. you'll probably get something be
Red The answer is related to the long- tween the white noise and the red
Frequency analysis as described term drifts that the random signals noise examples of Figure 2. Appropri
above applies directly to the study of generate. As you may recall, "random ately enough, such a spectrum is
noise and other random phenomena. walks" tend to wander off by about called "pink noise."
One just takes the noise signal, what the square root of the number of steps Pink noise is technically referred to
ever it may be, and plots it (like the
graphs on the left of Figure 1). Then Figure 2. Noise Spectra
the same methods of analysis work to
transform that into a power spec
• *
trum. Figure 2 shows a couple of ex
amples of noisy signals. * * *

The first example could be the out


put of a typical random-number gen
erator, set up to produce completely
chaotic numbers between + 1 and
— 1. You can see how the numbers
plotted jump all over the place. On
the average, such a random-number
generator will have a flat frequency
spectrum, as the power plot at the up
per right shows. (This "spectral test"
is, in fact, the most powerful tech
nique known for checking out ran
dom number programs on computer!)
A signal like this one is called "white
— time frequency —^
noise," since it's made of equal
amounts of all frequencies, just as
Figure 3. Sheet Music
white light is made of equal amounts
of all pure colors.
The bottom half of Figure 2 shows a
"random walk" like the one we dis
cussed in this column last July. It's the

COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 57
TECHNICAL TIPS
as "I/f noise" (pronounced "one over time. The power spectrum may look care of this magazine.
eff'). As far as music goes, it's much like white noise or something else at The project is to develop a con
more interesting to listen to than ran the higher frequencies. But when ob trolled random sound-production
dom walks of notes—a random walk servations continue, long term drifts program. (You may think of this as
sounds like a dull variety of Gregorian or fluctuations always seem to give "music" generation, if your program
chant to our ears. On the other hand, the spectrum a I/f profile near the is good enough.) I did some work on
pink noise is also more aesthetically zero frequency end. This is still a this many years ago on my old 8K
pleasing than while noise. (Modern great mystery. Researchers have some Commodore PET. But the PET's
rock music is approaching white noise theories, but there doesn't seem to be sound-generating facilities were prim
more and more as the years go by—is any way to link together all these di itive compared to what can be done
this significant?) verse areas where 1/f noise emerges. on the 64 and other new-generation
Pink noise doesn't occur just in a computers. Your program might al
musical context. It's virtually every Plans and Projects low you to use white, red or pink
where, if you look closely enough. We'll return to noise and spectral noise to control the tone patterns you
People have found pink noise in fre theory in future issues of Commo output. You might experiment with
quency analyses of tree ring thick dore Microcomputers. I plan to ex different waveforms: pulse, square,
nesses, the stock market, high-preci plore these subjects further than space triangular, sinusoidal, etc., and deter
sion clocks, the floods of the Nile, the allows this month. In particular, I mine the power spectrum of those
noise in amplifier circuits and hun want to talk about filtering in terms of waves. You might try to use interrupts
dreds of other places. Seismic noise- frequency analysis. Filtering, in the and machine language to allow your
grows like 1/f at low frequencies. Cat most general sense of the word, has computer to whistle for you while you
astrophic traffic jams develop in a applications in information transmis work, in a sort of time-sharing mode.
similar pattern. Take statistics on the sion, signal processing, image en As you can see. the project is a
insulin intake of diabetics over the hancement and lots more. rather open-ended task! Good luck.
years—you'll see pink noise! But meanwhile, I have a project (ac Let me know how you do. Readers
Pink noise is ubiquitous. It seems to tually, several projects) to suggest for who wish to correspond with me
show up whenever you look at se you to work on. If you make some electronically can send mail to me on
quences of data over long periods of progress on them, please write me, CompuServe or the ArpaNet. Q

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Circle Reader Service No. 16


58 MAWJINE Circle Reader Service No. 4
SUPERPET USERS ONLY BY DICK IUKNGS

zip codes, sex, age, occupation, etc.).


SuperPET Creating a mail list I assume further that you won't take
the time or money to print and mail
program poses several
Potpourri notices of expiration with the usual
problems. How, for return envelopes but prefer to have
the expiration warning appear on the
An the January/February issue, we instance, do you keep mail label itself, like this:
promised to follow up on mail list e:6-12-85 Membership Expired
problems in the next issue—and
personal notes—like
Margaret Forgetful
didn't. This issue, we keep the prom phone numbers—on 22222 Delinquent Avenue
ise. On the way we peer at some dan Fifth Notice, Arkansas 33333
gers in Boolean expressions and the list and yet not
discuss how to use the powerful You must modify DOALL's input
print the notes to
but sometimes confusing GUESS . . . section to ask if you want to print ex
ADMIT. .. ENDGUESS statement labels? And how can piration notices on labels. If the an
found in all SuperPET languages, in swer is yes, you must input the month
cluding assembly. you do massive dele and year after which memberships ex
Mail lists pose several problems we
tions when people's pire, and set a variable, "warning%,"
didn't cover before. We've had a num to 1. If you do this, the changes to
ber of inquiries like this: "How do memberships expire? DOALL in Listings I and 2 will hide
you keep personal notes—like phone your private notes on the list and print
numbers—on mail lists and yet not
Here's how to take expiration warnings on all labels for
print the notes to labels?" It's a good care of those problems. lapsing members.
question.
You may keep all the notes you A Digression on Booleans
need, on as many lines you need, right As you can see, there's no limit to In Listing 2, "proc warn" uses a
in your mail list—so long as you mark where the notes are put, or how many long Boolean statement. Having shed
each "note" line with a special sym notes you make on any particular en a few buckets of blood over misused
bol. I use the bar " !" in the examples try. You will print labels fastest if the Booleans, I'm compelled to comment
below. None of the "note" lines will "no-print" bar is the first character on on them. Every Boolean statement
print to printer if you make a few a line, but it can be anywhere on the must clearly yield a true or false an
changes to DOALL (published in the line, since we use "idx" to locate the swer, as the following one does:
January /February issue) to ignore the bars. if variable% or second variable%
lines marked by " !" below: Program DOALL, as listed in the Here, whatever follows the IF will ex
January /February issue, is easily mod ecute if either variable is greater than
e; 12-3-86 ified so it will not print such lines. See zero. But—what happens to a com
! 203-441-8888 Listing I. pound Boolean, like the next one?
Ms. Honeychile Honeycutt The secret is absurdly simple. if variable and second_variable or
7700 Fauntleroy Drive When we encounter a line containing third—variable
Dullsville, Kansas 23456 a bar, we simply subtract one from Be informed that it will run without
! Makes collect calls at 3 a.m. i%, the loop counter, so that the line an error signal, but it will never oper
Insomniac is overwritten by the next line taken ate as expected. A true or false answer
from disk, whether null or text. We is impossible. Which of the forms be
e: 11-2-85 print only the lines not marked by a low do we really mean? (Expressions
John Baymes Popper bar. Neither PASCAL nor FORTRAN within parentheses are evaluated
! Nickname: Bang will allow you to change the value of first.)
1900 Avenue Road, Suite 200 a loop counter (too darn many prissy if (variable and secondsvariable) or
! Just off the Airport Exit on rules, say we) but microBASIC will. third—variable
Bayeau Road if variable and (second_variable or
Busytown, Ontario third_variable)
Canada O5O 4ZI Coping with Expirations and Compound Booleans must be set
! 555-1212-3333 Deletions off within parentheses to show how
One of the major problems with all the expression is to be parsed. The
Terrible temper!! mail lists is massive deletion of entries two forms above are entirely differ
e: 12-12-84 (e.g., those no longer active in a ent. The only compound Booleans
Absalom O. Fitts group). It seems easiest for our pur which will run properly without pa
4567 Execrable Road poses to do this by date of expiration, rentheses contain OR's or AND's only,
Tantrum, Oklahoma 33333 kept on the first line of every entry. I as in:
No phone. Mad at Phone Co.! have simplified that line so it's only a ifworxoryorzthen.. .
date (without the usual gibberish on Our second warning on Booleans

COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 59
SUPERPET USERS ONLY
concerns integer variables. A real (not depends upon the format of your mail appear several times on your mail list
integer) variable such as that below list and how you use it, so I'll merely also to appear on your sorted list
will execute code following the IF at demonstrate the problems you'll have many times? (Some organizations may
any time the variable equals zero. An to solve by listing a few names: get five copies; that means five mail
integer variable in the same form will labels.) I screen out multiple entries by
almost always fail! Name Lines Name Lines comparing the previous "firstname
if not variable... (IF is exe from List Convertedfor and lastname" with the next entry
cuted if variable equals zero) Sort and drop any duplicate.
if not variable% . . . (IF is not ex Dr. Dextrous F. Surgeon,
ecuted if variable% equals zero) Surgeon, Sr. Dextrous F., Sr. GUESS ... ADMIT....
Terry Peterson, of El Cerrito, Cali Bro. James Paul McGinty, James ENDGUESS
fornia, told us why: microBASIC op McGinty Paul One structured form—the GUESS
erates bitwise on integer variables Mr. Prosper H. Just. Prosper H., . . . ADMIT. . . ENDGUESS—will
used with Boolcans. It doesn't simply Just, III Ill come in mighty handy when you
test whether or not they are equal to MAGAZINE! MAGAZINE! write your "make a sortable list" pro
zero. A "not variable%" makes every Prof. Dr. August Bosch, August, Jr. gram, as I show in Listing 3- If you
bit of the result the opposite of the Bosch, Jr. don't know how GUESS . . .
bits within "variable%". Thus, zero Your program obviously must cope ENDGUESS works, check the expla
becomes minus one and one becomes with suffixes such as Jr. and III, title nation in Figure 1 before you look at
minus two. If we set x% to two and prefixes such as Dr. or Bro., single Listing 3:
y% to eight, the result of "x% and names, such as MAGAZINE!, and, de If any GUESS is right, or any AD
y%" is zero! spite them, must get the last name MIT condition is accepted, execution
Use integer variables in Boolean ex first. Do vou want those names which jumps to the statement following
pressions with care! The one below,
taken from Listing 2, will work okay Listing 1. Changes to DOALL to Hide Notes Marked by " !" and for Printing
because we compare values, but do Notice of Expiration
not operate directly on the variables
with AND's, OR's, or NOT's, and have 2E5 loop
270 foundlX=0 : found2Z=0 1 Set search string flags to zero.
parsed with parentheses:
275 for iX-0 to 7
if exp_year% (= year% and < exp_ 280 linput ttZB, bareS
month% <=month% or exp_ ZS5 if io_status then eof_flagX=oneX
Z90 if eof_flagX then quit
year% <year%)
Z3S if bare$="" then quit
* 29G if idx(bareS,"!") i Bar indicates data not to be printed.
To Make Up a New Mail List > 237 iX=iX-oneX i Reset lX to overwrite the line.
• Z98 else
As memberships expire you must, 300 if idxtbareS, searchlS) then foundlX=oneX
of course, delete names and addresses 30S if idxtbareS, search?S) then found2X=oneX
* 30E if iX = 0 and uarmngl
from the list itself. It's simple enough; ' If ue uant notice of expiration,
• 307 call warn i Parse the first line for date and year.
amend "proc warn" in Listing 2 so • 308 else
that it sets a flag which won't allow 310 list$(ii)=bare$4CR$
' 311 enriif
any lapsed entry to be copied to a
• 312 endi f
new disk file, but will require that any 315 next lX
current entry be so copied. Such a
Changes to DOALL, as published in January/February, are marked by
copy program, which transfers only
Line numbers match those oforiginal program except at '
good entries to a new disk file, is easy
to write. Be sure it dates the new mail Listing 2. A Procedure to Determine and Print Expiration Notices on Mail
list file! You should keep the old lists, Labels
for surely as the sun rises, somebody 1 li!W proc warn

will write or call and say you made a 1130 longX=len(bareS)


1200 dashX-idxlbare$,"-")-oneX
mistake. ! Find first dash
1210 exp_nonthX=value(bareSI3-dashX)) ! Get Month of expiration
Having coped with expiration no 1Z20 exp_yearX=value( bare$( longl-oneX-longX)) ! Get year of expiration
tices and massive changes to a mail 1230 if exp_yearX <= year! and <exp_pionthl ( = fionthX or exp_yearX ( yearX)
1Z40 liatS(0)=bareS + " MEMBERSHIP
list, we face one more problem: creat EXPIRED! + CRS
1ZS0 else
ing an alphabetically sorted list of the 12B0 list$(0>=bare$+CRS 1 No, this one Is paid up.
members. We can break this down 1278 endif
1ZB0 endproc
into two smaller problems: getting a
list of names which we can sort (Sarah The variables "month%" and "year% " are input by the user to select the
Pidgeon isn't sortable, but Pidgeon, month and year on which memberships expire. Assume they are
Sarah is!) and sorting the sortable list month = 5, year — 85.
itself.
The sample expiration date shown at right Sample <iate: e. 6 -1-85
Any program written to create a
will aid in following the procedure above: Characterpositions-, 12345678
sortable list of names, last name first.

60 may/iune
SUPERPET USERS ONLY
Figure 1. How GUESS .. . ENDGUESS Works

ENDGUESS. There's an inverse form GUESS Test for condition


of GUESS . . . ENDGUESS in which Jump —< Quit if condition is NOT met
you QUIT if the test condition is met. on QUIT Code if condition IS met. Optional >— Jump to
It's equally useful. to ADMIT ADMIT statement
GUESS . . . ENDGUESS is a bit hard —> Test for another condition following
to follow at first, but soon becomes a Jump —< Quit if condition is NOT met ENDGUESS
powerful tool. Keep in mind two on QUIT Code if condition IS met. Optional >— when any
rules: 1) any QUIT requires that the to ADMIT ADMIT guess is
next ADMIT be executed; 2) any cor —> Default code to run if neither true.
rect guess (always indicated by a fail previous condition is met. Optional
ure to QUIT), executes the code for ENDGUESS
that condition and then jumps execu
tion to the statement following
ENDGUESS. With this background, Listing 3.An Example of GUESS. . .ADMIT.'. .ENDGUESS in Screening Names
see how GUESS . . . ENDGUESS works 240 enddX=len(bS> I I substitute b$ for naneS to get room for
when we must deal with those pesky Z45 guess ! comments, flssume b$-"Ms. Good Example"
250 tl=idx<b$,■ Prof. Dr.') ! Character count: 12345
prefixing titles (Dr., Ms., etc.) in
255 if tX then quit
Listing 3- 260 uX=idx<bS, ' Mr.' ) ! finy titles in the string?
Once we have made a sortable list 2ES vX=idx(bS, ' Dr.')
Z70 <jX=idx(bS, ' Ms. ' >
of names from our mail list, our only 275 xX=idx<b$,' Mrs.1)
remaining problem is sorting it. Sort 111 yX=idxtb$,■ Bro-1)

ing on SuperPET is a subject in itself, 290 zX=id*<b$,' Prof.')


285 if uX or vX or uX or kX or yX or zX then quit ! Yes, so ADMIT...
which I'll try to cover next issue. For Z90 admit

further information on the SuperPET, 295 if tX then bS=bSUl:enddm | Shoot the Prof. Dr.
300 If uX or vX or ul then bS=bS(5:enddX> 1 Scratch Dr., Mr. or Ms.
and on the International SuperPET Us
305 if xX or y5 then bS=b$(6:enddX> 1 Divorce the Mrs., Bro.
ers Group, write me at P.O. Box 411, 319 if zX then bS=bS(7:enddX> 1 Retire the Prof.
Hatteras,NC 27943. Q 315 endguess

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Circle Reader Service No. 15 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 6l


64 USERS ONLY BY ROBERT E. KUPFHR

Net Worth
Statement
for the
Commodore
64
JT or some people, calculating a net
worth statement is put on the same
level as going to the dentist or figuring
out your tax returns. The truth is that
having such a statement and analyzing
it carefully can often be a very useful
tool. In developing a good financial
plan, it's important to know where
you're at now before you can make
plans for the future. A systematic cal
culation of your net worth is a good
first step toward getting control of
your financial life. A net worth state
ment can be a help in setting specific
goals. For example, perhaps you
should start an investment or savings
plan or buy a home instead of contin
uing to pay rent.
Before you use the program, you
should consider just what it is that you
want to find out. Literally, net worth
is what you could get in cash for your
assets minus your liabilities at a given After the usual screen clearing and First enter a brief description of the
point in time. Usually this point in title display, the user is prompted to asset, then type a comma followed by
time is the present. But you could also enter the name and address of the per the dollar amount. If you have less
use a net worth statement to find out son for whom the statement is being than ten categories, or none at all,
what your estimated worth would be created. If you will be using the pro simply enter a comma followed by a
at retirement, if a relative leaves you gram for personal use only, you could zero. The program will sense the en
their fortune or what your estate set these variables to a constant or, if try and move on to the next routine.
would be worth to your survivors. In you desire, omit them entirely. If you The program will then calculate your
essence, there are a multitude of choose to omit them, then be sure to total assets.
things that a net worth statement can delete lines 840-860, also. The program will then move on to
provide you with when you plug in The program will then begin to dis the liability section. The first input
the appropriate figures. play the data statements and prompt sequence is user-defined and works
When getting together the figures you to enter a dollar amount for each exactly like the user-defined section
for your statement, be sure to use the category. The first three categories are for assets. This first section should
market value of the asset instead of its your current or liquid assets. If a cate contain all the loans and debts that
replacement cost. What something is gory is displayed in which there is no are due in less than a year or what
worth if just the right buyer is found amount to be entered, then enter a are considered to be your current
will probably bring substantially less zero and the printout will not display liabilities.
if an immediate sale is needed. that category. After this section, the program will
To use the net worth program, sim After the program displays all of the display some pre-defined categories.
ply load from tape or disk and run it. pre-defined categories, you are As before, if no amount is to be en
The program makes extensive use of prompted to list all your other cash tered then enter a zero and it won't be
loops, data and input statements. The value assets. This routine allows the printed out on paper. The last section
calculations involve simple addition user to define his or her own catego is user-defined and is for any other
and subtraction. ries up to a maximum of ten entries. longterm debts. The program will

62 MAYflUNE
64 USERS ONLN
then calculate your total liabilities and tine to calculate your solvency. A ratio
move on to the printing routine. of 1.00 or more indicates that your as
The printing routine starts at line sets will cover your liabilities. Many
830 with the opening of a channel to lenders prefer that this ratio be based
your printer. Lines 840-860 will cen A systematic on your current assets and current lia
ter the name and address on a stan bilities. For this calculation, change
dard sheet of paper. The data state
calculation ofyour line 1600 to read:SR = A/Ll.
ments are then restored and then the
net worth is a good At the end of the printing routine,
program begins to print out the cate output will return to the screen. You
gories along with the amounts that first step toward will be asked if you would like an
you have previously entered for each other copy of the statement you just
one. Lines 940, 1000, etc. insure that getting control of printed. If your answer is yes, be sure
the amount that is printed will be ex that your printer is positioned at the
tended to two decimal places. Thus yourfinancial life. beginning of a new sheet of paper in
S10000 will be printed as S 10000.00. order to avoid having the next copy
Lines 950, 1010, etc. will suppress printed on the same sheet that the first
the printing of any category with a copy ended on. If your answer is no
zero value. Lines 960, 1020, etc. cal ing report. to the additional copy prompt, you
culate the length of each string and Your total assets and liabilities are will then be asked if you want to cal
each dollar amount and format the printed at the end of their appropriate culate another statement. If your an
printing so that the columns are sections and your net worth is calcu swer is yes, then the variables will be
aligned by their decimal point. This lated and printed at the end of the re cleared and the program will begin
will give you a very professional-look- port. In addition, I've included a rou again. Q

Net Worth +B(7)+B(8)+B(9)+B(10)'KSBR


100 POKE 53280/l:POKE 53281,1 360 PRINT CHR$(147):PRINTfDGGG
:POKE 646,6'DVYA 370 PRINT"LIST OTHER CASH VALUE
110 PRINT CHR$(147):F0R X=1 TO 9:PRINT ASSETS.":PRINTVCBUN
:NEXT'HLYC 380 PRINT"ENTER ITEM NAME <C0MMA>
120 PRINT TAB(10);"NET WORTH AMOUNT.":PRINT1CB00
STATEMENT"'CEEE 390 PRINT"USE [RVS]COMMA[RV0FF] [RVS]
130 PRINT TAB(10) " - 0[RVOFF] TO EXIT.":PRINT'CBSN
"'CDWD 400 Z=0:FOR X=l TO 10'EHEC
140 FOR T=l TO 1000:NEXT'EHQC 410 PRINT"ITEM #";X;1BDVB
150 ::'ACPA 420 INPUT C$(X),C(X)'BKWC
160 PRINT CHR$(147):PRINT'DGGE 430 IF C(X)=0 THEN GOTO 450'EIIF
170 INPUT"NAME";N$:PRINT'CEQF 440 Z=Z+1:NEXT'DECE
180 INPUT"STREET ADDRESS";E$ 450 C1=C(1)+C(2)+C(3)+C(4)+C(5)+C(6)
:PRINT'CEGJ +C(7)+C(8)+C(9)+C{10)'KSMS
190 PRINT*CITY & STATE (DO NOT USE 460 TA=A1+A2+C1'DISH
COMMA AFTER"'BAMN 470 ::'ACPF
200 INPUT"CITY)";U$'BDJX 480 PRINT CHR$(147):PRINT'DGGJ
210 DIM D$(38)'BGTX 490 PRINT TAB(10)"*** LIABILITIES
220 PRINT CHR$(147):PRINT ***"'CDLN
:PRINT TAB(13);"*** ASSETS 500 PRINT TAB (10)" "
***"'FLUG :PRINT'DEDF
230 PRINT TAB (13) ;" " ■ CE 510 PRINT-LIST LOANS/DEBTS DUE IN
KD LESS THAN A ¥EAR"'BAKL
240 PRINT1BACA 520 PRINT"ENTER ITEM NAME <COMMA>
250 PRINT"ENTER AMOUNT OF:":PRINT1CBSG AMOUNT.":PRINT'CBOK
260 FOR X=l TO 3'DDVE 530 PRINT"USE [RVS]C0MMA[RV0FF] [RVS]
270 GOSUB 1690:INPUT A(X):NEXT1DKSG 0[RVOFF] TO EXIT-'^PRINT'CBSJ
280 A=A(1)+A(2)+A{3)'DNVI 540 V=0:FOR X=l TO 10'EHAH
290 PRINT:PRINT"ENTER VALUE 0F:M 550 PRINT"ITEM #";X;'BDVG
:PRINT'DCKL 560 INPUT L$(X),L(X)'BKPH
300 FOR X=4 TO 10'DEUY 570 IF L(X)=0 THEN GOTO 590'EIWK
310 GOSUB 1690:INPUT A(X):NEXT1DKSB 580 V=V+1:NEXT'DETJ
320 A1=A+A(4)+A(5)+A(6)+A(7)+A(8)+A(9) 590 L1=L(1)+L(2)+L(3)+L(4)+L(5)+L(6)
+A(10)'IHBK +L(7)+L(8)+L(9)+L(10)'KSLX
330 FOR X=l TO 10'DERC 600 PRINT CHR$(147):PRINT'DGGD
340 GOSUB 1690:INPUT B(X):NEXT1DKTE 610 PRINT"ENTER REMAINING BALANCE FOR
350 A2=B(1)+B(2)+B(3)+B(4)+B(5)+B(6) : " : PRINT ' CBKK Continued next page

COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 63
64 USERS ONLY
620 FOR X=l TO 10'DERE 1080 NEXT'BAEB
630 GOSUB 1690:INPUT G(X):NEXT1DKYG 1090 PRINT#4'BBDC
640 G1=G(1)+G(2)+G(3)+G{4)+G(5)+G(6) 1100 PRINT#4:Q$ = " " ' CEXW
+G(7)+G(8)+G(9)+G(10)'KSGT 1110 PRINT#4/TAB(70-LEN(Q$));Q$'EMPA
6 50 FOR X-l TO 3'DDVH 1120 PRINT#4,TAB(70-LEN(Q$));Q$'EMPB
660 GOSUB 1690:INPUT F(X):NEXTfDKXJ 1130 TA$="TOTAL ASSETS"'BDLB
670 F1=F(1)+F(2)+F(3)'DOPL 1140 I$=STR$(INT(TA))+"."+RIGHT3(STR$
630 PRINT1BACI (TA*1C)0) ,2) ' ITBH
690 PRINT"ENTER UNPAID TAXES FOR :" 1150 PRINT|4,TAB(5);TA$;
:PRINT'CBDQ TAB(65-LEN(TA$)-LEN(I$));I$*HYUI
700 FOR X=l TO 4'DDWD 1160 PRINT#4:PRINTft4'CDJB
710 GOSUB 1690:INPUT T(X):NEXT'DKMF 1170 PRINT#4fTAB(30);"*** LIABILITIES
720 T1=T(1)+T(2)+T(3)+T(4)'ESVJ ***MfCGRH
730 PRINT CHR$(147):PRINT'DGGH 1180 PRINT#4fTAB(30);"
740 PRINT"LIST BALANCES FOR OTHER "'CGDH
LONG TERM LOANS."'BAHQ 1190 PRINT#4'B3DD
750 PRINT"ENTER ITEM NAME <COMMA> 1200 IF V=0 THEN 1250'DGyX
AMOUNT.":PRINT1CBOP 1210 FOR J=l TO V'DDRX
760 W=0:FOR X=l TO 10'EHBL 1220 I$=STR$(INT(L(J)))+"."+RIGHT$
770 PRINT"ITEM »";X;'BDVK (STR$(L(J)*100),2)'IXJH
780 INPUT H$(X),H(X)'BKHL 1230 PRINT#4,TAB(5);L$(J);
790 IF H(X)=0 THEN GOTO 810'EINO TAB(65-LEN(L5(J))-LEN(I$));
800 W=W+1:NEXT'DEVE I$'HDDI
810 H1=H(1)+H(2)+H(3)+H(4)+H(5)+H(6) 1240 NEXT'BAEY
+H(7)+H(8)+H(9)+H(10)'KSRS 1250 FOR X=l TO 10:READ D$'EHID
820 TL=L1+G1+F1+T1+H1'FMYK 1260 IS=STR$(INT(G(X)))+"."+RIGHT$
830 OPEN 4,4'BDAG (STR$(G(X)*100),2)■IXCL
840 PRINT&4,TAB(INT(80-LEN(N$)) / 2) ; 1270 IF VAL(I$)=0 THEN 1290'EJXG
N$'GPNM 1280 PRINT#4,TAB(5);D$;
850 PRINTjJ4,TAB(INT(80-LEN(E$) )/2) ; TAB(65~LEN(D$)-LEN(I$));IS'HWJM
ES'GPUN 1290 NEXT'BAEE
860 PRINT#4,TAB(INT(80-LEN(U$)) / 2); 1300 FOR X=l TO 3:READ D$'EGMY
US'GPCO 1310 I$=STR$(INT(F(X)))+"."+RIGHT$
870 PRINT#4:PRINTS4:PRINTS4IDFPL (STR$(F(X)*100),2)'IXAH
880 RESTORE'BAOK 1320 IF VAL(I$)=0 THEN 1340'EJTC
890 PRINT#4,TAB(32);"*** ASSETS 1330 PRINT#4,TAB(5);D$;
***"'CGBQ TAB(65-LEN(D$)-LEN(I$));I$'HWJI
900 PRINT#4,TAB(32) ;"- - 1340 NEXT'BAEA
CGGH 1350 FOR X=l TO 4:READ DS'EGNE
910 PRINT#4'BBDE 1360 I$=STR$(INT(T(X)))+"."+RIGHT$
920 FOR X=l TO 10'DERH (STR$(T(X)*100),2)'IXDM
930 READ DS'BCNG 1370 IF VAL(I$)=0 THEN 1400'EJQH
940 I$=STR$(INT(A(X)))+"."+RIGHTS 1380 PRINT#4,TAB(5);D$;
(STR$(A(X)*100),2) 'IXPK TAB(65-LEN(D$)-LEN(IS));IS'HWJN
950 IF VAL(I$)=0 THEN 970'EIEM 1390 NEXT'BAEF
960 PRINT#4,TAB<5);D$;TAB(65-LEN(D$) 1400 IF W=0 THEN 1440'DGBA
-LEN(I$));I$'HWJS 1410 FOR J=l TO W'DDSA
970 NEXT'BAEK 1420 I$=STR$(INT(H(J)))+"."+RIGHT$
980 FOR X=l TO 10'DERN (STR$(H(J)*100),2)'IXBJ
990 READ D$'BCNM 1430 PRINT#4,TAB(S);H$(J);
1000 I$=STR$(INT(B(X)))+"."+RIGHT$ TAB(65-LEN(H$(J))-LEN(I$));
(STR$(B(X)*100),2)'IXRD I$'HDUK
1010 IF VAL(I$)=0 THEN 1030'EJPX 1440 NEXT'BAEB
1020 PRINT#4,TAB(5);D$; 1450 PRINT#4:PRINT$4'CDJD
TAB(65-LEN(D$)-LEN(I$));IS'HWJE 1460
1030 NEXT'BAEV 1470 PRINT#4,TAB(70-LEN(Q$));Q$'EMPJ
1040 IF Z=0 THEN 1100*DGWA 1480 PRINT#4/TAB(70-LEN(QS));Q$'EMPK
1050 FOR J=l TO Z'DDVA 1490 TLS="TOTAL LIABILITIES"'BDJM
1060 I$=STR5(INT(C{J)))+"."+RIGHT$ 1500 I$=STR$(INT(TL))+"."+RIGHTS(STR$
(STR$(C(J)*100),2)'IXQJ (TL*100),2)'ITXH
1070 PRINT#4,TAB(5);C$(J); 1510 PRINT#4,TAB(5);TL$;
TAB (.65-LEN (C$(J) )-LEN(I$) ) ; TAB(65-LEN(TL$)-LEN(IS));1$'HYRI
IS'HDKK 1520 PRINT#4'BBDA

64
64 USERS ONLY MOW TO AVOID
1530
154 0
NW$="NET WORTH":NW=TA-TL'DKRI
IS=STR$(INT(NW))+"."+RIGHT$(STR$
(NW*100),2)'ITIL
BECOMING A
) NOSAUR.
1550 PRINT#4,TAB(5);NW$;
TAB(6 5-LEN(NW$)-LEN(I$));I$'HYCM
1560 QS=" "'BCRG
1570 PRINTI4,TAB(70-LEN(Q$));Q$'EMPK
If dinosaurs had kept up with their rapidly changing tf
world, you might have a pet bronto today. (It's
1580 PRINT#4,TAB(70-LEN(Q$));Q$'EMPL
probably just as well they didn't, since they
1590 PRINT#4:PRINT84ICDJI wouldn't fit into a small imported car anyway.)
1600 SR=TA/TL:SR=(INT(SR*1000+.5)) The point is, if you don't want to get left
/1000'HAXJ behind today, you need a computer with
1610 PRINT»4,TAB(5)"SOLVENCY RATIO the latest software and accessories.
IS";SR'CHGH Noquestion about it.
1620 PRINT#4:CLOSE 4'CDRC The only question is. "where
1630 PRINT CHR$(147)iPRINT1DGGF do I buy it?"
1635 INPUT"ANOTHER COPY";ZZ$'BEPM
Ah! We thought you'd never
ask. Computer Warehouse, of
1640 IF LEFTS(ZZ$,1)="Y"THEN 830'EKNI
course. Nice guys, great
1645 INPUT"ANOTHER STATEMENT";ZZ$'BEQO
prices. Give us a call today.
1650 IF LEFT$(ZZ$,l)=ttN"THEN 1670'ELDJ We'll get your shipment
1660 CLR:GOTO 160'CEUG out bronto-
1670 PRINT CHR$(147):PRINT:PRINT:PRINT er, pronto.
:PRINT"THANK YOU.":END'HKDP
1680 ::'ACPH
MONITORS
1690 READ D$(X):PRINT D$(X);'CMHL
Commodore 1702 $209.95
1700 RETURN'BAQA Panasonic 1300D MODEMS
1710 ::'ACPB (RGB-Composite) S239.00 Westridge Aulomodem $69.95
Gorilla (green) $ 79.00 MPP1064 S79.95
1720 REM ** DATA FOR ASSETS **'BRLH S 89.00
Gorilla (amber) Total Telecommunication $69.95
17 30 DATA CASH ON HAND, Modem 300 by
PRINTERS
CASH IN CHECKING ACCT., Commodore S89.95
Commodore 1526/802 S209.00
CASH IN SAVINGS ACCT.'BYHR Commodore 803 S169.00
PRINTER INTERFACES
1740 DATA SAVINGS BONDS,REAL ESTATE, Panasonic 1090 $239.00
Cardco B S39.95
Gemini 10X $249.00
CASH VALUE OF INSURANCE'BTVR Cardco G+ $69.95
Gemini 15X $369.00
TYMAC Connection S79.95
1750 DATA STOCKS,BONDS, Delta 10 S 399.00
TURBO GT $69.95
Power Type (Daisy
AUTOMOBILE (S)'BBNM AXIOM Interface $79.95
Wheel) S369.00
1760 DATA PENSIONS,ANNUITIES, Radix 10 $499.00
SOFTWARE
PATENTS & ROYALTIES'BLAQ ELITE 5 CD (Daisy Wheel)
Flight Simulator II $36.95
Direct connect for
1765 DATA EQUITY IN BUSINESS Commodore S299.00
Super Base 64 S64.95
Paper Clip (w/spell) S79.95
VENTURES'BYBS AXIOM CD 550 $259.00
Multiplan by Microsoft S69.95
1770 DATA COLLECTIONS,JEWELRY FURS, Star SG10 $269.00
Word Pro 3 Plus $39.95
Okidata82,83.84.92.93 CALL
FURNITURE,MACHINERY & TOOLS'BYTV Koala Touch Tablet S69.95
Okimate 10 Color
Tax Advantage S69.95
1780 DATA CLOTHING & PERSONAL EFFECTS, Printer S199.00
Wriie Now (Cardco) S39.95
Panasonic 1091 $299.00
HOBBY EQUIPMENT,PROFIT Masterlronic Disk Game
DISK DRIVES (C64) $ 7.99
SHARING1BDAX
Commodore 1541 $199.00 Full line of software in stock.
1790 ::'ACPJ
Rana 1000 $199.00
1800 REM ** DATA FOR LIABILITIES Indus GT $299.00 DISKETTES
MSD Single Drive $299.00 Computer Warehouse
**'BWXH ss/dd $14.95
MSD Dual Drive $529.00
1810 DATA HOME MORTGAGE, Datacassettes $ 29.95 Elephant ss/sd $13.95
OTHER REAL ESTATE, Elephant ss/dd S16.95
ACCESSORIES Maxell MD1 S18.95
AUTOMOBILE LOAN (S), We carry a full line of covers. Maxell MD2D $24.95
FURNITURE'BGQS ribbons, storage cases, surge SKC ss/sd $13.95
1820 DATA APPLIANCE LOAN (S), suppressors and cables. SKC ss/dd S16.95
Power Packs $29.95 ■Prices per box of 10
PERSONAL LOAN (S), We carry a lull line of Commodore Hardware and Software.
EDUCATION LOAN (S)'BYJQ

COMPUTER
1830 DATA DEBTS TO INDIVDUALS'BRNJ
1840 DATA MEDICAL BILLS,DENTAL BILLS,
RENT,UTILITIES,ALIMONY,FEDERAL,
STATE1BLJW

WAREHOUSE
1850 DATA LOCAL,INVESTMENTS'BRVL END

CO

(in FL)305-274-3680 ; 1-800-372-0214


7222 S.W. 117th Avenue, Miami, FL 33183
Add 3% tor snipping and handling charges Ad prices reflect 3°.. cash discoun!
Credit card orders should add 3% Prices subject to cnangewilhoul notice

COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 65
THE
certainly couldn't use properly, which
broke their arms with clumsy crank-
starters. They got stuck in the mud
with their new cars and had to be
pulled out by laughing horses and
those equally merry turnip farmers.
Get a horse, buddy, haw haw haw.

ELECTRONIC
In the 1920s, American sociologists
Robert and Helen Lynd ran around
seeking new life and new informa
tion, and what they found out was
that a lot of people would rather drive
than eat. One woman owned a car,

COTTAGE
but had no bathroom. She had her pri
orities. The whole nation went wacko
for wheels. It was a new technology,
and we were all in love with the bells
and whistles.
Auto hysteria has died down nota
bly after decades of use, with some

AND THE
exceptions, like those of you out there
who own hot cars (you know who
you are). We take for granted the bil
lions of miles of sleek black freeway
built to handle jillions of cars per
hours, and expect to get where we're

SOFTWARE
going without having to be rescued by
a horse. But once upon a time, gas sta
tions were few and far between, the
roads better suited for travel by camel.
As roadways bloomed we expanded,
delighted to be able to zip from one
hamlet to another.
"So what's all this about comput
ers? You said you were going to talk
about computers," you yawn. Well,
there's a new technology in our hands
and we're head over heels for the bells
and whistles. Some people would
Whether we like to admit it or not, the rather compute than eat—or sleep.
But after the hysteria dies down, and
microcomputers we use today are the Model T's we begin to take these new machines

ofcomputing, whose real impact is yet to be for granted, how will they have al
ready changed our lives?
felt. What will ultimately determine their Joseph Cassius, a Memphis psychol
ogist with his own radio call-in show,
impact is how well (or badly) we build the cautions against computer "mania."
Software Highway. There can be problems with isolation,
avoiding contact with humans. The

H
BY KHiL STUART person becomes like a computer,
avoiding feelings. There are also those
.enry Ford's invention of the enough to remember. It made us into visual problems associated with star
ingenious and solid Model T automo- one nation on wheels, indivisible, ing at computer screens. Some people
bile eventually turned rural, bucolic with fast-food joints and jump-starts use computers now as a brain substi
America into a veritable pretzel of in- for all. No longer were there two sep- tute, and, just like with video games,
stant mobility, and it hasn't been the anue and distinct societies: the iso- you can have stress but no adequate
same for us since. lated farmers rooting around in the physical release. You even see com
Today, the little home computer is turnips, and the crowded, rowdy ur- puter workaholics, too," he points
un-bending that pretzel, but at the banites, never the twain to meet, out.

same time is sneakily twisting our Now, everyone lives everywhere, or, But Jonathan V. Post, author of
lives around in a different way. Maybe depending on your point of view, Computer Futures says, "Using com
right back to where it used to be be they really live nowhere at all. puters can help make you into a gener
fore Ford. Back in the good old days, Ameri alise It doesn't force you to become a
"So what did the car do to us any cans would go into debt to buy expen- specialist. They can be used by either
way?" you ask, few of you being old sive cars they didn't really need and left- or right-brain types. It helps cou-

66 MAY/JL'NE
pie the two hemispheres, and bring Can it be that we're all just waiting
humans a little closer to the Renais for that reliable, cheap, any-color-
sance ideal."
At Emory University in
long-as-it's-black home computer that
Daniel Kegan, a Chicago psycholo Georgia, robots hooked won't get stuck in the mud, for the
gist, adds another angle. "Computers next step in human evolution? Let's
are like any other tool. The more you into personal comput take that analogy one step farther.
understand them, the more you can
ers "say ouch" when Can roads be likened to software? I'm
use them," he says. "There's lots of talking about the Software Highway
unrealized potential here." dental students get too that could change our lives as dramati
Which only means there are as cally as those miles of blacktop did—
many different views on what com
rough, helping them de except in the opposite way. Instead of
puters will do to us as there are differ velop the right touch taking us out of our homes, it will put
ent computer formats. Nevertheless, us back in them. America won't need
there's no denying that microcomput without having to tor to go anywhere in cars once this new
ers can do a lot and much of it is genu Highway rolls by. Everything will
inely helpful. Cassius points out that
ture humans. come to you, right in the comfort and
using them can give you better hand- safety of your own home.
eye coordination and immediate con that the jargon-lovers, like automotive Service Systems Technology (Cali
tact with information. "The realm of gear-heads, are a little insecure and fornia) offers TINA International Mes
how one utilizes computers is limit want to feet as if they're part of a sage Service, for instance, which can
less," he says. And you have only to mystic society that only the elite can be used to exchange messages or arti
glance at computer services like The enter. cles or scribbles on personal comput
Source and CompuServe to see what This may explain why John Bear's ers worldwide—costing five percent
he means: stock market reports, book, Computer Wimp is one of B. of what Telex costs at 20 times the
news, weather, games, humor, thrills, Dalton bookstore's best sellers about speed. CompuServe offers all sorts of
romance—they're all there. In fact. computers. It's a great read for anyone video banking by personal computer.
there's much more than any one per feeling the least bit intimidated by jar 24 hours a day, via local phone call
son could use. gon, lack of standardization and as and modem. The Source allows you
But don't touch that dial. There is a sorted other evils. to trade stocks with your home com
computer museum in Boston, on Mu When it comes to the question of puter. And "smart" credit cards con
seum Wharf. Automatech Industries standardization, Bear feels the situa taining a microprocessor (already
(South California) features "sewbots," tion is getting worse, not better. "The popular in France) could be sneaking
robots controlled by microprocessors Japanese have their MSX standardiza into your wallet here soon.
which sew pocket facings. {Will this tion system, and when I was in Great If staying home is a necessity rather
lead to robot designerware—House Britain, they were all saying, "Well, than a desire, then a computer can lie
Of Robby?) At Emory University in what are you Americans doing about a lifeline to the rest of humanity. Dr.
Georgia, robots hooked into personal it?' But compatibility stuff doesn't David Rabin, an cndocrinologist at
computers "say ouch" when dental work perfectly. Even if it's 99% effec Nashville's Vanderbilt University, con
students get too rough, helping them tive, how would you like to have tinued his writing and lab work on a
develop the right touch without hav wolves at your door, with the door specially-designed computer, even
ing to torture humans. Yale-New Ha only 99% closed?" though he was almost completely par
ven Hospital and the University of He is not optimistic about ever hav alyzed by Lou Gehrig's disease. The
Connecticut are medical facilities that ing the kind of sweeping standardiza machine could be operated by one
have developed video games to edu tion for computers that there is for, mechanical switch, which Rabin used
cate child patients about asthma and say, long-playing records. "We'll get with his left eyebrow. He could scan
diabetes. CAT scans and NMR (nuclear standardization only when companies the computer's 1,300-word vocabu
magnetic resonance) imaging both get together, and that doesn't seem lary, switch from alphabet to word
use our friend the computer, and one likely," he says. "There's too much mode, and start and stop it. With this
day long-distance computer consul resistance by consumers to switching set-up, a printer and a voice synthe
tants may reduce medical costs. A Los machines. They already have their sizer, Rabin worked on his last book,
Angeles judge, Lester E. Olson, uses a computers—so why? It's also too easy To Provide Safe Passage, until his
computer for record keeping. You get for anyone to start up a computer death in October. 1984. at age 50.
the picture. Micros are all over the business in their garage. It's not like Using the Software Highway, we
place. tooling up for a refrigerator company may, ironically, come full circle, back
Now, some people are almost as where you have to conform to certain to working where we live—only now
gleeful as those bygone farmers were standards." we won't all be rooting up turnips.
over wedged-in cars when they hear a Cheer up, though. Bear points to Some of us will be doing scientific
sad story about a crucial program the dim past of the automotive indus work, or company bookkeeping, or
dumped, lost forever in some elec try. "That's where cars are a good designing. But speaking of turnips,
tronic Twilight Zone. They're analogy to computers. It took 25 to the farmer who once laughed at the
annoyed by the avalanche of com 30 years for car manufacturers to sort auto now has his own computer mag
puter jargon, by the lack of compati out where the steering wheel would azine. The Farm Computer Neivs. Ed
bility among different computers, go, what kind of fuel cars would use, itor Gary Vincent says, "Farmers use
software, honks and tweets. whether they'd be steam- or electric- computers for all the general pur
RAM.ROM.BIT.BYTE. Some suspect powered." poses, like book and record keeping.

68 MAYflUNE
The uniqueness comes from the pro micros." He also foresees more mem
fession of farming. There's software ory for your dollar: "A megabyte for a
designed for special agricultural
"Smart" credit cards buck," he predicts.
uses." containing a micropro But what about Big Brother? While
He also notes that computer auto Post thinks that the existence of a na
mation of farms, while not yet com cessor (alreadypopular tional data bank would need careful
mon, is on its way. "Larger dairy legislation, he also feels that free in
farms have totally automated cow
in France) could be formation fosters a free society. Oth
feeding systems using a cow necklace sneaking into your ers are not so happy with the idea of
with transponder, which triggers computer data about your bank ac
feeding when the cow steps in her wallet here soon. count, habits and vices floating
stall," he says. Now in research: ways around out there. Says psychologist
to monitor milk production and the Cassius, "It's going to affect how we
cow's health, using the same sorts of good citizens?" There, there. Staying control people—how the government
collars. down on the farm for the rest of your controls people."
The Software Highway could bring life might not be so bad. Think of all Rampant computerization certainly
a whole new meaning to things like the gas you'll save, all the crowded could also mean bizarre social
industrial espionage. Who's going to shopping malls you'll skip, once the changes that we can't predict, yet.
bother putting on a cloak and dagger Software Highway has been poured. Who would have thought, for in
just to creep into the den and flip on It won't be scary. You already shop by stance, that the innocent little Tin Liz
the computer? Takes the fun right out television for such indispensables as zie would contribute to sending our
of it. Vandalism will be a lot neater, the Slash 'N' Mash Kitchen Imple divorce rates to the moon, our kids
too. What tyke needs to smash win ment, and "Sea Chanty Hits" sung by off to live in distant towns, or give us
dows and spray-paint graffiti on your Sailor Willie and The Earth Worm the Bi-coastal Kind of Guy?
car when he can empty your bank ac Choir. Radio was the automobile's These days we still have all sorts of
count and leave you flapping in the handmaiden. TV will serve the com social interactions at work. Will
breeze at the touch of a few buttons. puter. Maybe you can even shop for working at home rob us of that? Will
No kids going to risk getting laughed computers by computer. singles bars then boom, at last giving
at for being old-fashioned enough to And getting that computer gives you a use for that mood ring you
go out and bust things up. Heck, that's you the key. Author Post, who has never threw out?
hokey. That's for Wally and The Beav. worked with NASA, feels that by cen Think. A remote system, linking
The young thug of tomorrow will not tury's end, 12% of the Gross National you to virtually any person or any ser
ride a getaway vehicle with wheels Product will be in computers. "By vice in the world. All at your finger
when a daisy wheel will do. 1999, a billion people will have some tips, from technical specs for elec
"Well, that's just dandy for hood access to computer resources," he tronic circuits to recipes for
lums," you sneer. "But what about us says. "This can only happen through gingerbread. But no touching. Contact
without contact.
"We're entering a period of

FUTURE FLASH!
change," says Cassius, "and we might
be in for a rude awakening. It could
lead to a backlash—an expansion of
NEW GROUP LINKS ELECTRONIC humanism and religion, causing the
brain to become devalued, like the hu

COTTAGES THROUGHOUT THE man arm was after the Industrial Rev
olution, because the people who lack

WORLD computer experience could feel inade


quate."
Robert Mittman of California's In
Xn January of this year, a new organization was formed to support the stitute for the Future, sees a potential
growing number of people who work in their homes with personal comput fragmentation of society into the
ers. Called the Association of Electronic Cottagers (AEC), the group provides computer literate and the computer il

business services to both at-home entrepreneurs and "telecommuters" (com literate. (Aha. A new class of snobbery

pany employees who work at home). is born.) That could occur, he thinks,
Members of the group can obtain marketing assistance and business con if not all colleges and schools have
sultation, access up-to-the-minute news about developments affecting their equal access to computers. "Beverly
interests, and use on-line bulletin boards, electronic conferences and private Hills might have computers in each

data bases. Aspiring cottagers can get help finding work at home and assis classroom," he says. "Watts might
tance in setting up a computer-based business. not."
According to an AEC news release, electronic cottagers are already mobi But face it. Every kid you know
lizing to protect their right to work at home by opposing AFL/CIO efforts to loves computers. They live and

ban telecommuting. breathe computers. Being unplugged

If you are interested in the AEC, write for free information: Association of so they can't commit War Games is
Electronic Cottagers, 677 Canyon Crest Drive, Sierra Madrc, California their most feared punishment.
91024. Q Or is it? Maybe. Engineer Howard
Continued on page 115

COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 69
INTERACTIVE
nolds, Indiana Jones, or even Linda
Lovelace. As you ponder the possibili
ties, Hollywood is doing the same
thing. Interactive motion pictures are
coming.
Interactive Television

ENTERTAINMENT
Hollywood may get beaten to the
punch by interactive television, which
is showing its first signs of life. Last
year we saw Scene of the Crime, a
murder mystery in which viewers
were challenged to figure out who
dunnit. HBO produced Braingames,
an educational series that created puz
No longer willyou be at the mercy ofthepeople zles, memory tests and other interac
who create books, movies and TV shows. tive games for children. Nightwatch
(CBS) and The New Tech Times (PBS)
Thanks to home computers, we are beginning encouraged their viewers to interact
with the shows through national in
to gain control ofthese media—to participate
formation networks like The Source
in their creation. This is notpie-in-the-sky and CompuServe. One night David
Letterman had his studio audience
conjecture. It's happening. vote on which opening theme song
they'd prefer and his show opened
with the theme from Bonanza!
BY DAN GUTMAN
The age of genuinely interactive tel
evision hasn't really started, but it's
t used to be that you could sit puter can store thousands of pieces of on the way. Television sets are getting
down in front of the boob tube and data and retrieve them instantly, that smarter. Already we're starting to see
watch a ball game, like a beached means we can interact with the me TV's that allow you to break the
whale with a beer in its hand. It dia. Do you know what that means? screen into several "windows" in or
wasn't long ago that you could curl up We're not just talking about playing der to watch more than one channel
with a good book or lie back and en Zork here. It means we are no longer at the same time. Intermetall, a West
joy a good movie without lifting a fin just passive observers! We can play a German subsidiary of ITT, is produc
ger. Well, it's starting to look like part in the creative process. We all ing microchips that will put computer
those good old days are coming to an will get the same stimulus, but each of brains into regular television sets. Ac
end. There's a silent revolution creep us will mold it in a different way. We cording to a recent article in Discover
ing around—the interactive revolu can have two-way communication magazine, this will allow us to control
tion. Literature is becoming interac with books, films, videos and televi slow motion, freeze-frames, zooms
tive. Movies are becoming interactive. sion. This is a dramatic change in the and instant replays. Can you imagine
Television is becoming interactive. history of entertainment. what it would be like to watch a foot
There's going to be a dramatic change ball game when you're choosing all
in the way we entertain ourselves, and Interactive Motion Pictures the camera angles and directing the
we can thank—or blame—the When the interactive arcade game show yourself? Can you imagine an
computer. Dragon's Lair came out a few years exercise show in which different peo
Reading and watching TV and mov ago, everybody saw it as the succes ple receive different exercises de
ies have always been passive experi sor to PacMan. But it was more than pending on what they weigh? Can
ences. You don't have to do anything. that. History will remember Dragon s you imagine watching a golf tourna
You just sit there and get entertained. Lair the same way it remembers Al ment and selecting which player you
It doesn't take much effort, you don't Jolson and The Jazz Singer. While want to follow around the course? It
have any input and everybody has playing Dragon's Lair, we were will happen. You'll even be able to
been pretty happy with this arrange watching a motion picture and we choose which commercials you'll see.
ment. When you watch a movie, for were interacting with it. That had The technology for interactive tele
instance, you just sit back and absorb never been done before! You didn't vision is here, but economics is slow
the pictures and sounds that the direc just sit back and watch the movie, you ing it down. Last February, computer
tor has selected to wash over your actually played apart in it. And every pioneer Nolan Bushnell announced a
senses. You can close your eyes or move you made influenced the plot of stab at it—ACTV (as in "active"). It's a
walk out of the theater, of course, but the film. small box that attaches to a television
that won't have any effect on what Dragon's Lair was a cartoon, but set and does much the same thing as
happens on the screen. You're pretty the same thing can be done with pho the Intermetall chips. ACTV hasn't
much helpless. tographic motion pictures. Instead of gotten off the ground yet. The punch
But not for long. Microprocessors interacting with Dirk the Daring, we may have to come from the television
are changing everything. If a com could be interacting with Burt Rey manufacturers themselves. Sony is

COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 71
making a new set with an attached You can even have a conversation
keyboard and on-screen calendar and with characters that exist only in fic
memo pad. Once these companies tion. Imagine if Mark Twain had been
start putting real computers into their able to write an interactive Huck Finn.
sets, interactive television won't be }anyou imagine What would you ask Huck, Jim, Becky
far behind. or Aunt Polly? If you thought curling
Home video is also going interac what it would be like to up with a good book was engrossing,
tive. Parker Brothers recently released wait until you sink your teeth into a
watch afootball game good interactive book.
Clue: The VCR Mystery Game. Arm
chair criminologists get to watch a when you 're choosing Unfortunately, there aren't many
crime in progress and figure out the good interactive books—yet. Most of
motive, where the weapons are and all the camera angles the first efforts have been written by
who committed the crime. Science computer programmers, not writers.
and directing the show Trolls with axes and Dungeons &
Digest magazine's Dr. Crypton devel
oped a video puzzle titled Treasure. yourself? Can you Dragons have their cult following, but
Somewhere in the United States he has leave most of the population with
hidden a statue of a horse that's worth imagine an exercise drooping eyelids. As a result, the cur
rent crop of text adventures rely more
half a million dollars. The videotape show in which different
contains all the clues to find it, but it's on solving word puzzles than on plot
still out there somewhere. people receive different and character development. It will
Video cassette recorders are a take a few big names to jump in—the
means of interaction in themselves.
exercises depending on Micheners, the Puzos, the Stephen
We no longer have to watch a TV what they weigh? Kings—before interactive literature
show or movie when ABC decides to really takes off.
broadcast it. We can watch it any time But that's happening. As you might
we'd like, thank you. It's another ex expect, the science fiction writers
ample of how the person who is being have been the first to embrace this
entertained is taking more active con new technology. Telarium (a division
trol over the entertainment. We like of Spinnaker Software) has lined up
the idea of having control over our tel heavyweights Robert Heinlein, Ray
evision sets. Bradbury, Arthur C. Clarke, Michael
It won't all happen overnight, but Crichton and Alan Dean Foster to turn
interactive television will have enor .some of their successful books into in
mous impact on sports, education and teractive adventure games. Epyx has
even voting. Do you remember when released Isaac Asimov's Robots of
Eddie Murphy asked us to call up Sat Dawn on disk at the same time it sits
urday Night Live and vote on whether on the New York Times Bestseller
or not Larry the Lobster should be List. Infocom has teamed up with
boiled on the air? Millions of people Douglas Adams, who wrote the phe
called in to cast a ballot. Perhaps nomenally successful Hitchhiker's
someday we'll vote for President the Guide to the Galaxy, to make that
same way. (Incidentally, Larry was Interactive books may never have classic book interactive. Some of these
boiled.) the complexity of a regular novel. The authors worked on the interactive
novelist almost has it easy. He or she translations themselves, others just
Interactive Literature only has to come up with one out lent their names and book titles.
The success of Infocom's all-text come for every situation in the book. Like movies and television, interac
games (Zork, Deadline, Suspect, etc.) On the other hand, an interactive nov tive literature is coming. The fact that
has shown that literature is well suited elist has to have a response for every book publishing giant Simon & Schus
to an interactive format. The Infocom possible statement a reader might ter is distributing the interactive
"interactive fiction" is just like read type on that keyboard at any time Hitchhiker's in book stores should
ing a regular book, and it's nothing during the story. There simply isn't make other authors sit up and take no
like it at all. Both use words to create enough memory in a floppy disk (or a tice. When the non-science fiction
characters and stories, but traditional writer's brain) to create interactive fic writers go interactive, watch out! I'd
books (as we learned in school) have a tion that has the depth of a novel. be willing to bet that if Stepehn King
well defined beginning, middle and But interactive books can do some wrote his next book as an interactive
end. The story takes the reader from things regular books can't. You read novel—and only as an interactive
point A to point II the same way this the story dynamically. You can go novel—millions of people would run
sentence has taken you from "The" to wherever you want and manipulate out and buy a computer just so they
the period at the end of this word. A objects along the way. Your actions in could read it. That's what it will take
traditional book manipulates the fluence how the story progresses. to fill American homes with comput
reader. An interactive book lets the Things may happen even if you do ers—a piece of software that is com
reader manipulate it. It's up to you to nothing. For instance, if you don't sit pelling enough to give people a rea
decide whether a character looks be down on the couch at the beginning son to buy one.
hind the rock, puts the key in the door of Infocom's The Witness, you'll get Interactive literature is growing in
or takes the left fork in the road. shot and the game will be over. all directions. Groups of people are
72 MAY/IUNE
hooking their computers together What's wrong with sitting in front of
over telephone lines. Twenty-five the boob tube watching a football
people in Texas recently collaborated game like a beached whale with a beer
on a Gothic novel. A bunch of people- in its hand and letting ABC pick the
in New Jersey are writing an ongoing low will this new camera angles?
soap opera. In this new medium, the How will this new interaction
rules of literature are different. Au interaction change art? change art? When you interact with a
thors can create characters and take book, television show or motion pic
the story anywhere they'd like it to
When you interact with ture, aren't you taking away some of
go—just as long as they don't kill off a book, television show the control from the writers and di
anybody else's characters. rectors? Does Stephen King or Steven
In the 1400's, Gutenberg put letters or motion picture, Spielberg want us to decide what will
on individual blocks of wood so they happen to their characters? Maybe
aren 'tyou taking away
could be moved around and printed they'd rather make those decisions
on a printing press, instead of written some of the control without our help.
by hand. This revolutionized litera What if this new interactive enter
ture—it took it away from the priests from the writers and tainment kills off the passive enter
and elite and gave it to the masses. To tainment we know and love? Remem
directors? Does Stephen
day, a bunch of housewives can get to ber what happened to silent movies
gether, write a book on their com King or Steven when talkies were invented? Remem
puter screens and have it read by ber what happened to monaural rec
100,000 CompuServe subscribers the
Spielberg want us to de ords where stereo was invented? Will
same day. Isn't this just as startling as cide what will happen our enormous body of books be taken


the invention of movable type? The out of libraries and put behind display
computer is the electronic printing to their characters? cases in museums? Will we someday
press of the future. look upon Casablanca as a primitive
film? Will our children find books and
The Interactive Future movies from "the good old days" to
If it all sounds a little overblown, it be boring, because they can't interact
is. Today's interactive literature is still with them?
in the cave-drawing stage. Sure, we As Douglas Adams says, "Don't
can turn Romeo andJuliet into an ad panic!" Silent movies and mono rec
venture game, but it will probably ords are no more, but keep this in
play like... mind—radio didn't kill off books,
Computer: Romeo, Romeo, where movies didn't kill off radio, television
fore art tbou, Romeo? didn't kill off movies, and computers
You: I'm right there, below the bal probably won't kill off television (in
cony, throw down the rope.' fact, computers are making television
Computer: You do not see any rope more advanced than ever before).
here. Each new medium has given us a new
Really chokes you up, doesn't it? way to entertain ourselves, but we
Today's all-text games boast a vocabu War II" in the encyclopedia and not still enjoy all the old ways.
lary of as many as 1,000 words. So only read about it, but see films of it as Our grandparents saw the birth of
does your average two year-old child. well. You could take a simulated drive radio and motion pictures. Our par
But there's another revolution brew around any city in the world. ents saw the birth of television. If
ing that will allow interactivity to take It will be a few years until compact you're over 25, you've already seen
a quantum leap over what we have discs are regularly used for computer the birth of high fidelity—stereo
today. storage, but it's going to happen. Do sound, sophisticated audio systems,
At the Winter Consumer Electron you remember when electronic calcu the Walkman and the compact disk
ics Show in Las Vegas recently, a com lators were big, expensive and hard to player.
pany called Denon demonstrated a find? Now they're as thin as credit Now we're seeing the birth of this
new method of computer data storage- cards and practically given away for interactive machine—the computer.
using compact discs—those same free. It's not even ten years old yet. At the
discs that are revolutionizing the way same age, motion pictures were first
we listen to music. These "CD-ROMs" The Birth of a New Medium discovering close-ups, panning and
store the equivalent of 500 to 1,000 Any new kind of technology has its other techniques that seem so elemen
floppy disks—275.000 pages of text drawbacks. Do we really want to go tary today. If computers evolve the
or high-resolution graphics on a five- blind reading books displayed on way motion pictures have evolved
inch disk! green phosphor monitors? Will this from The Great Train Robbery to Re
Imagine the possibilities of interac new human-computer interaction turn of the Jedi. it won't be long be
tion. It would make Dragon s Lair eliminate the need for human-human fore we'll be able to walk right
look like Pong! You could put all the interaction? How will we plug in our through the screen. Qjj
books in the library on a couple of computers to read our interactive
disks, including both still and motion books on a subway or bus? And what
pictures. You could look up "World if we don't want to interact, anyway?

COMMODORE M1CROCOMPTTERS 73
w ith so many hardware and
software graphics packages on the
Videographics
For lack of a better name, I've
patible and interactive products in the
future now that the ice has been bro
market for the Commodore 64, it's coined the term "videographics" to ken. But for now, let's take a look at
hard to decide which is right for you. describe the combination of compo what you can do with a setup such as
More often than not, a software pack nents reviewed here. While there are mine.
age will work with only one type of several hardware/software options
graphics tablet, light pen or other con that can be used, my system consists Computereyes
trol device. Moreover, you usually of these items: With Computereyes, Digital Vision
can't even display a friend's creations Commodore 64 system has done an excellent job of perfect
on your system if he or she used a dif Computereyes Video Acquisition ing a digital video interface for the
ferent brand of software. To make the System Commodore 64. The compact unit is
choice even more difficult, the range Hitachi VK-C500 Color Video only slightly larger than a pack of cig
of features and capabilities varies a Camera arettes and plugs into the user port of
great deal from one manufacturer to Flexidraw Interactive Light Pen and the computer. The interface has two
another. The computer graphics Software adjustment knobs on the left side.
scene, for the most part, is an elec Flexifont Interactive Penware One is for controlling the brightness
tronic Tower of Babel, with each Other optional equipment that may of the image, while the other adjusts
brand of software and hardware be used with these products are as the synchronization signal from the
speaking its own language. follows: video source. The right side of the
That's why it's good to see a depar With Computereyes: box has an RCA-type jack for input of
ture from the norm in this muddy KoalaPad {from Koala Tech the video signal.
pool of graphics products. Two of the nologies) System software for the unit is sup
manufacturers whose products are Doodle! (from City Software) plied on disk. Additional software for
covered here have decided that it is Cardco Super Utility Programs Doodle! compatibility is also available
better to be compatible with other (from Cardco) from Digital Vision to custom-confi
popular graphics products than to The Print Shop (from gure it to these products.
stand alone. While being compatible Broderbund) Computereyes allows you a great
has its advantages, being interactive With Flexidraw/Pen ware: deal of flexibility for using a video
with other products is even better. In Micron Eye Digitizing Camera source. You can use a video camera,
teractivity allows you to combine the (from Micron Technologies) vidcocassette recorder or videodisc
best features of all the components, U.S. Commodore Users' Group player for input. Setting everything up
rather than having to settle for a less- Flexidraw Symbol Libraries takes only a few minutes and the pro
than-perfect compromise. Finally, Batteries Included Word Proces cedure is simple, With the power off,
we've entered the age of video sor, PaperClip the Computereyes module is inserted
graphics. I'm sure we'll be seeing more com into the computer and the video cable

Create original graphics on your


Commodore 64 using a digitizing
camera and a lightpen.
BY TOM HliNTORD

-■:■■■-, \- ■

I
7* MAY/JUNE ■ ■ : \m mm mm I mm ~
■■■■.■:■ :-^pH«aEsfiBgWB iici£* jarfc£s
from the camera, recorder or disc Adjust Sync Save to Disk enclosed in a hollow barrel, the Flexi
player is inserted into the module. Brightness Load from draw lightpen has a mini circuit board
Turn the computer on, make sure the Disk contained inside the barrel. This cir
video source is turned on, put the sys Normal Capture Catalog cuitry enables the pen to operate in
tem's disk in the drive and boot it up. Four-Level Capture Exit real time. (Most lightpens have a slight
The next thing to do is adjust the Eight-Level Capture amount of lag in response time be
sync of the video signal by selecting "Catalog" provides you with a di tween your movements and the re
this option from the menu. This is a rectory of the disk's contents, another sulting screen image.) The Flexidraw
necessary adjustment, since there is handy feature to have on board a pro pen keeps up with your hand and it is
considerable variance in NTSC "stan gram. Normal capture allows you to extremely sensitive—definitely the
dard" video signals. Sync adjustment acquire a high-contrast image and most sensitive lightpen I've ever used.
is easily accomplished by following takes about six seconds. Four-level The lightpen connects to control port
the on-screen directions. The sync capture introduces shades of gray into #1 on the 64 and the software (or
knob is turned either to the left or the the image by performing four scans; it penware, as it is called) is supplied on
right, as indicated on the screen, until takes about 25 seconds to perform a disk. After booting the disk, the main
the "in sync" message appears. four-level capture. An eight-level cap title page asks you to select a program
Then you adjust the brightness, also ture is the result of eight individual from the following choices:
by selecting from the menu. The sys scans taking about 50 seconds total. Flexidraw
tem will perform a scan every six sec An eight-level image is the highest Pen Palette
onds and you may adjust the bright quality, with varying gray values. The Transgraph
ness control during these scans until results of an eight-level capture are Sprite Editor
an acceptable image is displayed. comparable to the computer images Sprite Animator
That's all there is to setting up the obtained at "computer portrait" Display Picture
system. booths in amusement parks. Which Follow me!
Before we get into acquiring the ac capture level you choose is largely a Menu choices are selected by touch
tual video images, let me interject this matter of your choice as is what kind ing the lightpen to the screen next to
thought. I love menu-driven pro of subject you wish to digitize; the the appropriate program, which then
grams, provided that their selections results are great with all levels. loads itself automatically.
are complete and easy to understand. Flexidraw is the drawing utility
Digital Vision has done a superb job Flexidraw program itself. Several features—in
with their menu and they've even in Inkwell Systems has the absolute cluding the ability to flip, invert, ro
cluded a help option that concisely creme de la cretne of lightpens and tate and shade your creations—make
explains each menu selection. Here's impressive software to go with it. Un this the best lightpen graphics pro
what the menu includes: like other pens that simply contain a gram I've seen to date. Additionally,
Help View Current Image diode connected to a couple of w'ires two separate screens, or "pages," are

M SYSTEM FOR COMMODORfc 64


provided so that you may hold two idraw Hghtpen, you select or de-select The Fiexidrair disk also contains
images in memory simultaneously. boxes within a grid that will comprise several high-resolution images created
You can also split the screens or com your sprite. These creations may be with the lightpen and software, as
bine them to create large works of art. filed on disk for incorporating into well as a short animated sequence ti
Flexidraw supports virtually every your work at a later time, or they may tled "Halloween." that demonstrates
popular dot-matrix printer and printer be animated using Sprite Animator. the capabilities of Sprite Editor and
interface. Sprite Animator allows you to link Sprite Animator. Another nice touch is
The Pen Palette program allows you your sprite files together to create an the inclusion of several symbol li
to add color to your drawings and is animated sequence. Additionally, braries for schematics, architectural
most impressive. You can combine sprite data may be listed to the printer design, music, math and science.
colors on 23 palettes and incorporate for reference or analysis. The real crowning feature, though,
them into your drawing or sketch. Display Picture allows you to view is the inclusion of a tutorial package-
Provisions have also been included for your completed works in their en on the disk, which takes you through
saving your works with or without tirety without the palette or drawing the procedures and practices of using
color to disk, retrieval of your crea icon menu on the screen. You may Pen Palette. This "short course" is in
tions and a disk directory, in addition also dump the image to your line teractive with the user and you "learn
to color-printer options. Pen Palette printer using this option. by doing." All factors considered, the
will print out your work on several Follow Me! is a bonus extra that's Flexidraw lightpen and penware are
color printers, including the Okimate included on the Flexidraw disk. It's a in a class by themselves.
10 and Diablo InkJet. variation of Simon, the popular elec I used Flexidraw version 4.0 while
Transgraph is a picture transmission tronic sequence matching game. In researching this article and found it to
system that allows you to send this version, you watch the random be a superb hardware/software com
"packed" or "unpacked" pictures, re patterns of four colored squares, then bination. Sherry Kuzara, president of
ceive picture files over your modem repeat the patterns with the Hghtpen. Inkwell Systems, advised me that
and format new disks. "Packed" pic As long as you continue to correctly Flexidraw version 5-0 will incorpo
tures are digitized in a highly com repeat the patterns, you can continue rate several image-acquisition utilities
pacted format: they take up less space playing. A wrong guess ends the that will work interactively with the
on the disk and they transmit much game. Each successive round in Computcrcyes digitizer. Flexidraw
faster than the "unpacked" variety. creases the complexity of the pattern, version 5.0 should be available by the
However, there is a price to be paid so a good memory proves helpful. time you read this.
for this code economy. Packed pic Flexidraw also allows you to load
tures are very susceptible to "noise" two alphabetic fonts and one symbol Flexifont
on phone lines. For most applications, library font and retain them in mem Inkwell Systems has also developed
the "unpacked" transmission mode, ory. These fonts and symbols may be Flexifont, an interactive lightpen font-
while taking a bit longer, is the safest used within your drawing to add de and-character-generating software
way to go. scriptive text or labelling. Another package. This disk allows the user to
Sprite Editor is, as the name implies, outstanding feature of the program is download specific character fonts
a sprite creation utility. Using the Ftex- "scratchpad." which allows you to from disk, create original fonts, alter
copy a portion of your work and ro or edit them and even "capture" fonts
tate, invert or replicate it elsewhere from other sources. These fonts may
on vour workscreen. be used to add text to creations com-
Computereyes al
lows you a great
deal offlexibilityfor
using a video source.
You can use a video
camera, videocas-
sette recorder or
videodisc player
for input.

76 MAY/IL'XE
posed with Flexidraw. It should be the camera. My objective was to cap ing the font called "boldface" in ex
noted that Flexifont is not an indepen ture an acceptable image, though panded mode, I typed in "Commo
dent program; it must be used in con somewhat rough, so I could "touch it dore Computers." using the cursor
junction with the Flexidraw driver up" with the Flexidraw equipment. controls to position the text. Next, I
software. I should also mention here that the selected the "Type Set1' font in nor
Several options are supported with people at Digital Vision recommend mal mode to enter the labelling. I then
Flexifont, including the ability to ex using a black-and-white video camera loaded in the "Italics" font and pro
pand and alter the appearance of the for best results, although I used a ceeded to enter the credit at the bot
fonts themselves. The disk includes a color video camera, and I'm entirely tom of the videographic. When I felt
large selection of "Flexifonts" and satisfied with the results I've obtained satisfied with the placement and over
normal fonts. Flexifonts are large, of with it. I've also found that black-and- all look, I saved this image to disk,
ten ornate character sets that are ideal white subjects produce the crispest calling it "LOGO 3."
for headings or titles. The normal images (the Commodore logo was That's all there is to it—a completed
fonts are smaller and lend themselves blue and red). color videograph, from start to finish,
well to adding descriptive text or la The next step was to load the Flexi in slightly less than two hours. Of
bels to illustrations. draw penware. Once the program course, the image of the logo could
was loaded and the lightpen plugged have been created entirely with the
Creating Videographics in, I loaded the digital image file and lightpen, but since I'm not artistically
I decided the best way to illustrate proceeded to smooth out the rough inclined, using the "captured" video
the interactivity of Computereyes spots with the lightpen. The "zoom" image was the best (and fastest) way
with Flexidrcnv was to describe, step- feature of the software really proved to go on this project.
by-step, the actual procedures I used itself here, allowing me to enlarge Additionally, both Computereyes
to create the images shown here. portions of the screen to see the small and Flexidraw will work to some de
I chose the Commodore logo for details. In zoom mode, I selectively gree with other products on the mar
the first subject. I took a two-color turned the dots on or off to smooth ket. Images captured with Computer-
line-art logo from a press release, out the corners and other areas of the eyes or created with Flexidraw may
mounted it on white paper and image. I also worked on the radius of be viewed by using the "get screen"
pinned it to the wall. I then set up the the curve in the "C." This procedure function of Broderbund's The Print
video camera on a tripod, connected took about 25 minutes. I found out Shop. Images contained on Cardco's
it to the Computereyes module and that once you "get the hang" of using Super Utility Programs disk may be
adjusted the sync and brightness con this sensitive lightpen you can do viewed with either Flexidraw or
trols. When I got an acceptable image, quick touch-ups in just a few minutes. Computereyes as well. I've also in
I "captured" and stored the digital in Next, I exited Flexidraw and en cluded a variety of images captured
formation on disk in "unpacked" tered Pen Palette to add some color to with Computereyes as well as several
mode. I named this file "LOGO 1." the image. After experimenting with of the Flexidraw sample images to
It's important to note that I pur several color combinations, I finally give you a better idea of the capabili
posely settled for an image that was settled on my choices and I saved this ties of these products. After examin
somewhat "rough." I could have got image to disk, calling it "LOGO 2." ing the results, I'm sure you'll agree
ten a much crisper image by fine tun I then re-entered Flexidraw and in that the F/e-Y/rfrazWComputereyes
ing the brightness control on the mod serted the Flexifont disk to load two products do comprise the ultimate in
ule and the contrast/lens controls on fonts into the Flexidraw svstem. Us interactive videographics! Q

Image Digitized with Computereyes


Modi-f ied/Colored with JF lexidraw
Text Added with Flexifont _
c bv Tom

c:OM.MODORE MICROCOMPITKRS 77
Now you can gain access to a new world of

v r id
ideodisc players have been
around for quite a few years. But until
"live" information using your Commodore
computer to control a videodiscplayer. The
recently they have not had the success opportunitiesfor thefuture have only begun to
enjoyed by video cassette recorders
be explored.

THE
(VCR's). What has changed that? A
simple interface that lets you use a
computer to control a videodisc
player—specifically a Pioneer laser
disc. This control has turned the vi
deodisc/computer into an unbeatable
educational tool.

INTERACTIVE
Let me give you a hypothetical situ
ation representing what can and is be
ing done right now thanks to the mar
riage of computers and videodiscs.
The technology is here, it's being ap
plied and the benefits arc immeasur

VIDEODISC
able to the end user.
John is a student enrolled in an art
appreciation course with an assign
ment to do a paper about the French
painter Gauguin. In the campus li
brary's audio/visual section, he looks
up an interactive laserdisc on

REVOLUTION
Gauguin, gets the disk from the librar
ian, and sits down in one of the
nooks. Before him on the countertop
is a Commodore 64, a 1541 disk drive,
a Pioneer laserdisc player and a color
monitor. These components are tied
BY TOM BliNl'OKD
together through an interface box,
and a port on the interface has a joy
stick connected to it. to zoom-in on a particular area of one was able to access it at a pace that was
John inserts the laserdisc into the of the paintings. The computer/laser comfortable for him. He's also elimi
player, inserts a software disk into the disc system responds instantly, pro nated the need to read several books
1541 and proceeds to boot his pro viding him with an extreme dose-up on Gauguin and a trip to the museum
grams. A title screen appears on the view. He studies the brush strokes and to eyeball only one of the paintings.
monitor, "The Life and Works of palette-knife textures, takes some From the school library he's been able
Gauguin." A menu window at the more notes, then resumes his scan. to see them all and inspect them more
lower portion of the monitor screen John then observes that the later closely than any museum curator
advises him that the joystick will con paintings done during this "savage" would allow.
trol all scanning functions, both for period differ radically from the earlier In another hypothetical example,
ward or reverse, single-frame, slow, works. He switches back to the bio let's say that you'd like to find out
normal or high-speed viewing and graphical portion and finds out that more about Rome—you've never
other control functions. The action Gauguin had tried to commit suicide been there, but you're considering a
button of the joystick calls additional by taking arsenic after an episode of vacation there. From your neighbor
menu windows and is used to finalize unrequited love. John makes notes on hood library (or travel agent, for that
choices along the way. this as well, and continues on in this matter!) you borrow an interactive la
John decides to start with some bio fashion using the joystick to find the serdisc entitled "Rome—Past and
graphical information on Gauguin. He images and information he feels perti Present." From your livingroom, you
zips past the information on his ado nent for his course assignment. get a cinema verite tour of the city.
lescence and stops at Gauguin's early Within the next half-hour he has Your point of view is that of a person
works, taking some notes. Moving enough information to complete his walking down a quaint cobblestone
ahead, again in high-speed scan report, so he goes back to the dorm to street with shops to the left and right.
mode, he pauses at the selection of transcribe his notes. You decide you'd like to examine the
works done while the painter was re In the short space of one hour he wares of a goldsmith, and by moving
siding in Tahiti, known as his "sav has acquired enough information your joystick to the left, you enter the
age" period. about Gauguin and his paintings to re shop and are greeted by the shop
He examines the paintings, decides ceive an "A" in the course. More im owner.

he'd like to get a closer look, and di portantly, he has comprehended the The possible applications are virtu
rects the cursor arrow via the joystick information and retained it, since he ally limitless. As a third example, let's
Continuedon page II~
78 MAY/JUNE
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E STEUEBECK:
BY TIM ONOSKO

,rom a suite of offices and work


rooms in the basement of Berkeley,
California's stately and elegant Clare-
mom Hotel. Steve Beck leads a group
of engineers and designers in an en
terprise called Beck-Tech, which he
founded in 1978. The company's cli
Renaissance Man
ents have ranged from toy companies
(hand-held games for Colcco, Lake
side and GAF while that craze lasted)
of the Future
to Magaux Controls, for which Beck
and company created an energy man
agement system now used extensively
Stephen Beck is involved with personal
by corporations including the Safe- computers, machine control by
way chain of supermarkets. Along the
way, Beck-Tech has developed com microprocessors, electronic visual art,
puter-aided instruction systems for
commercial software and human perception.
the Standard Oil Corporation and
contributed special effects for the Ken He's created special effectsfor thefilm Altered
Russel film Altered States.
Many of Beck's interests began as a
States and is the inventor ofa visual device
boy. growing up in Illinois. Like so called the Phosphotron.
many of the kids of the post-war baby
boom, he was fascinated by television
and built play TV cameras out of wax
paper tubes and shoe boxes. Years
later, at the University of Illinois, he
would study electrical engineering
and computer science with a special
interest in video.
Also during his boyhood, he dis
covered that he could produce scintil
lating colors and patterns by pressing
on his eyelids while he lay in bed
waiting for sleep. In the late 60s Beck
would develop the first direct elec
tronic video synthesizer in an attempt
to recreate these inner visions on a TV
screen. Another of his developments,
an electronic device he calls the Phos-
photron. can directly produce such
light effects by electrically stimulating
the eye's production of organic photo-
chemicals known as phosphenes.
In 1970, Beck joined San Francis
co's Experimental Television Center,
which was funded by PBS to produce
new video works for the network. Beck al his Video Weaving console He has also created Video Weaving software on cartridge for the

While associated with the Center as Commodore 64 that allows users to create these colorful tapestries.

an artist in residence, he gained a rep based on the programming of warps developments remain waiting for new
utation as a pioneer of computer and wefts. Many of his video pieces generations of hardware and refine
graphics and new images, and his have recently been assembled into a ments of software techniques. Mean
work joined the collections of major series of videocassettes called Illumi while, his shop is busily creating com
international art museums. One piece, nated Music, how being sold to the mercial work.
titled "Union." won a major prize in home video market. Although they joined the video
the Prix Italia television competition. It is no surprise that Beck is in game business somewhat late, Beck-
Among Beck's video work is a se tensely interested in the future and Tech's line of Commodore 64 pro
ries of Video Weavings—experimen the possibilities for new applications grams for Sega are among the best ar
tal works that express his interest of electronics and computer technol cade game conversions for home
in traditional hand loom weaving— ogy, although many of his ideas and machines. The group's disk versions

80 MAY0CNE
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understand how computers can help


them in their daily life in more ways
than playing games and being
entertained."
One of these ways, Beck feels, is
in showing how a computer can
be useful in controlling home
environments.
"We've developed a product that
can be used with a personal computer
in the home to apply many of the
technologies we've developed for
commercial and industrial energy
management. With it, you might
achieve a ten to twenty percent reduc-

"I think it's important


that developers like us
come out of the gate
with more meaningful,
more significant
products."

tion in the cost of electrical energy to


heat and cool your home. If you live
in a part of the country where it's not
unusual to spend S300 to S400 every
of Congo Bongo and Tapper, for in All of Beck-Tech's developments for month to heat or cool your home you
stance, feature excellent cartoon-style personal computers only serve to might save ten percent or about S40
animation. Breakdance, another stimulate Beck's ideas for the future of per month for five months. That's a
Beck-Tech game published by Hpyx home computing, although he thinks couple hundred dollars every year,
(for whom the group has ;ilso de that the computer industry must con which should more than justify buy
signed Nine-to-Five typing) is high tinue to work hard to show people ing a peripheral and control modules
lighted by a creative free-form "video why they need a machine. to implement such a system."
choreography" mode. "I think the industry in general has "It's not just black-box magic," he
Beck thinks the Commodore 64 to demonstrate to the public at large emphasizes. "There are real things
fills the need for a relatively inexpen that there is more that can be done that can be done in the home—things
sive and yet powerful appliance-type with a personal computer than play like time scheduling, duty cycling, de
computer. And the mammoth in games, process words and run spread mand control, adaptive control—that
stalled base of these machines has sheets," he says. "Those applications can easily produce real savings."
created the first true mass market for have sold to a certain share of the Another area that Beck feels is
sophisticated software. Though Beck- market, but things have reached a pla worth investigating is the use of per
Tech has had success selling games to teau. 1 think it's important that devel sonal computers in health care and
this market, Beck is thinking and opers like us come out of the gate medicine.
planning other kinds of creative with more meaningful, more signifi "Obviously the costs of medical
products. cant products so that people can care and treatment are skyrocketing

COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 81
and it's a major problem facing our so blood chemistry or perform urinaly- of his engineering colleagues, and
ciety," he says thoughtfully. "To the sis through some simple sensing appa feels that the popularity of modems
extent that a computer can memorize ratus. One use for such a device for home computers only begins to
large amounts of data and build up a would be the electronic equivalent of hint at the terrific opportunities.
health trend profile, I see products the early pregnancy test kits now be "Some of the new technologies of
that deal in limited ways with interfac ing sold by pharmaceutical houses. transmitting data over FM radio sub-
ing a person to a computer. I think a "We're actually developing a re carriers," he reminds us, "literally-
computer that can develop a day-to lated product right now," Beck adds. mean that you'll be able to pluck in
day medical profile of an individual "We call it Electronic Computerized formation and software out of thin
on a floppy disk can be useful in both Birth Control and it will allow a cou air."
treatment and diagnosis by a doctor ple to determine fertility cycles in a For electronic publishing, he has yet
who has access to that disk. In other woman to either achieve or avoid another idea. "A pet idea of mine that
words, when you go into the doctor's pregnancy." I've been wanting to implement for
office, you go in with that disk. The Naturally, Beck is as interested in many years is an electronic version of
doctor can have much better informa the world of communications as anv TV Guide. This way, instead of flip-
tion about who you arc and what you
do and how your vital signs vary from
day to day."
To facilitate this, Beck envisions
Phosphotron
health peripherals to use with per
sonal computers and, eventually, the
development of monitors that could
Lets You"See"
with Your
"I think a computer
that can develop a day- Eyes Closed
to-day medicalprofHe
JMaybe one of the most unusual,
ofan individual on a yet promising, scientific develop
ments to come from Beck-Tech is the
floppy disk can be use Phosphotron, a device that electron

ful in both treatment ically creates the illusion of light in


side the human eye. Even in its
and diagnosis by a doc present, primitive form, it demon
strates enormous potential.
tor who has access to The Phosphotron—the name is a
that disk." combination of the ureek words for
light and electricity—works by stim
ulating the production of naturally
be worn all day by outpatients and occurring photochemicals in the
post-operative patients, connected to eye, called pbospbenes. You can see
a pocket-sized computer. Doctors the effects of phosphenes if you rub
could then call the portable units us your eyes in the dark. The patterns
ing a telephone and modem to access of light and color that you perceive
the data. "It's within the scope of the are actually due to phosphene pro
technology to assume that this can duction. Phosphenes are also me
and will happen," he says. chanically stimulated when some
Steve Beck demonstrates his Phosphotron, which stimulates
One obvious application of per one is struck sharply on the head
the eyes electronically to create the illusion of light.
sonal computers would be to provide and claims to "see stars."
a preliminary diagnosis, before an in There is some dispute in medical circles as to exactly where in the eye
dividual consults a doctor. "The clas phosphenes are actually produced and what part of the eye/brain system
sic program, Eliza," says Beck, "indi they actually affect. But the existence and effects of phosphenes have been
cates how, even without capabilities known by physiologists and neurologists for a very long time.
for real artificial intelligence, you can Steve Beck, as a boy, was fascinated by the effects of phosphenes, long
have a pseudo-scientific dialog with before he knew what they were. In college, at the University of Illinois, Beck
someone and acquire certain informa came across an article in Scientific America about German research into
tion." Eliza, created in the 1960's, phosphenes, which at long last explained the phenomenon he was already
was originally designed to simulate a familiar with. The Germans, it seems, applied minute, modulated electrical
conversation with a psychoanalyst, currents to the face, in the region of the eyes. In short time, Beck had
but had no diagnostic power itself. fashioned his own electronic device for phosphene experimentation—some
Also on his list of diagnostic tools electronic circuitry and a pair of electrodes—a prototype of today's
are computer peripherals that could Phosphotron.
take your temperature, analyze your

82 MAY/JUNE
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ping through the pages of the maga times and on the correct channel. controlling the energy consumption
zine, you simply call it up on your "All of these communications op in your home or using the computer
home screen. Then when you see a tions, of course," he cautions, "lead for health care or communications
program you want to watch, you us deeper and deeper into a situation means that your computer is tied up
could just push a button and it would where a 'big brother' could exist. So I doing just that one task. Will the next
automatically enter into the program think we should want to step back and generation of machines, which in
ming memory of your home VCR. So take a socio-political stance and say cludes Commodore's forthcoming
time-shifting would become a much 'this is all neat stuff, and it appears to Amiga "supermicro," be enough to
more straightforward matter. Or let's be great, but there are all sorts of handle several jobs simultaneously?
say you enter a certain set of interests other implications here.'" "The indications are that they
into your computer and it scans your Beck also points out that because should," he thinks. "The next prob
digital TV Guide to find programs the present generation of personal lem that the industry has to address is
that match those interests. It could computers can do only one thing at a multitasking and concurrency. Cer
give you a printout or menu or even time, many of his ideas will have to tainly going to machines with faster
program the TV to come on that those wait for the next machines. For now, CPU's and more memory suggests
that the possibility is there in the hard
ware. Now whether the software is
"That was about 1968," recalls Beck. "I had a simple battery-operated
circuit and a waveform generator. It was powered by a couple of D cells. I
had to take precautions, because anytime you introduce currents into the One ofBeck's hopesfor
body you must to be very, very careful. It was clear that by confining the
currents up in the eye area I wouldn't run the risk of cardio-pulminary ar thefuture is that com
rest, which you would get with the current running through the heart.
puters may one day
Don't forget, the nerve signals in the body are very, very weak signals—
millivolt asnd milliamp—so a battery at 1.5 volts with a 100 milliamp-hour help people become
capability applied in the right place can probably harm you and stop your
heart," he cautions and urges that no one try to recreate his experiments
more creative Just as
without close supervision. they've made them
"At that time, I was working with television and my video synthesizer on
non-objective imagery," he says. "At the same time, since the idea of using moreproductive.
video and synthesizers was tangible and available to almost anyone, the next
thought was; Why not eliminate the screen entirely?"
The German researchers had been using rectangular pulses, but Beck was up to snuff is another matter. I don't
using other waveforms. He could create pulses, ramps, and triangular waves, think you need a VAX (a minicom
and by running the triangles through a filter, he could do a kind of parabolic, puter with the capabilities of a small
sine wave-type of signal. The modulated currents (in the microramp range) mainframe), but I think you just need
are then applied to the area around the eyes by contact electrodes. The result the architecture of the machine to be
was that Beck could produce a variety of abstract light effects that could be designed to recognize that multitask
seen with the eyes closed. ing and concurrency are very impor
Present models of the Phosphotron consist of a small box which contains tant issues moving into the next gen
the electronic circuits (mainly CMOS ICs), the necessary controls for varying eration. You don't necessarily need
the effect, and an input so that the box can be controlled by sound (for doing the power of a VAX, but you need the
phosphene demonstrations in time to music). There is also a pair of light- architecture."
tight silver goggles with built-in electrodes that fit on each side of the head, A new class of smart peripherals is
directly behind and slightly above the eyes and below and in front of the also necessary to achieve all of Beck's
temples. Up to a dozen pairs of these goggles can be wired to the box, in goals. He thinks designers must real
series, for multiple viewing. ize that you can't do everything with
So what do you see when Beck turns his Phosphotron on? Mainly patterns one CPU. Peripherals for home con
of white light that seem to eminate from the corners of the eyes, the regions trol will have to handle high-level
closest to where the electrodes contact the skin. By adjusting the device, functions in their own right, thus
however, Beck can produce directional effects—a rippling wave, a pulsating keeping the computer's CPU from
spot—and many subjects have reported the perception of colors, once having to do every little detail of
adapted to the dark. Beck is also at work on refining the electrodes and every little task.
hopes to next experiment with an array of electrodes, each computer-con "I see this happening with the de
trolled to produce distinct shapes and, eventually, completely formed char velopment of co-processors like nu
acters. The blue-sky future offers the possibility of full video—television meric or text co-processors or I/O co
without a screen. But Beck stresses that the device is presently in the "dot- processors. Or give me two or three
and-dash" stage. eight-bit microprocessors in the same
Following early press reports about the Phosphotron, Beck has been package and I can probably exceed
plagued by requests to sell the device, and he is considering marketing a the power of a single 16-bit machine."
model that will be controlled by an inexpensive personal computer. The He also notes that if today's inexpen
questions of product liabilities, he says, are—as one would expect—quite sive eight-bit personal computers be
elaborate and may be difficult to settle. come cheap enough, you could dedi-
Continued next page
COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 83
fornia, manufacturer of looms.
"Well, it's an interesting niche," he
says of his personal efforts to comput
erize the weaving industry. "There
are certain fundamental and historical
connections between the technology
of weaving and the technology of
computers—specifically the Jacquard
loom and the use of punch cards. In
spite of what people may think, much
of the work in this area has been quite
primitive. You can design the patterns
on the screen but the loom still has to
be programmed manually."
And, of course, there's an estab
lished textile industry—one of the
oldest industries in the U.S.—which is
not particularly interested in chang
ing. Ironically, it knows it must auto
mate to stay competitive in the world
market, hut is unwilling to make the
Steve Beck's computer image tilled "Union" won a major prize in the Prix Italia television investment, claims Beck.
competition. "On the home and personal level,"
cate as many as you wanted to tasks says Beck, "it's a different—but simi
like energy management and security. lar—situation. There's a resistance on
One of Beck's hopes for the future "When we get aflat- the part of many weavers. They like
is that computers may one day help the idea that they are very low-tech.
people become more creative, just as
screen, wall-mounted Only a few welcome the idea of tak
they've made them more productive. TV, then I hope people ing the burden out of programming
"There's the old story that you can the warps and wefts and shuttles by
sit a monkey down at a typewriter will have less trouble hand."
and eventually it will type something Of course, all talk of the future of
of significance," he jokes. "And obvi
making the conceptual
personal computers must acknowl
ously writing is one creative activity jump between classical edge the big question: Is there a fu
suitable to personal computers. But, I ture for personal computers at all?
think one application that could be and computer art." Will they fade—a passing fad like the
good for writers, pending an advance video game? Or will they last and be
in artificial intelligence techniques, is come part of the popular culture?
a case where the computer could as mounted TV. then I hope people will "Oh. I think they will definitely
sist you in the creative process itself. have less trouble making the concep last," says Beck, without hesitation.
"When we create something, we tual jump between classical and com "What we have now are Model T's.
kind of haul it around with us and puter art. Then the distinction be And I think they will follow the same
then we might store it in the subcon tween the technology and the content progression as the automobile indus
scious or the unconscious. Later, will vanish, and people will once try. After all, the computer is the men
things come back, from time to time. again be involved with the meaning tal equivalent of the automobile. It al
If there were some way we could bet and significance of the message rather lows you to travel to all these different
ter understand this process and, per than the technology used to display places on a mental and intellectual
haps, have a dialog with the computer the image." level, just like the automobile lets us
to assist the process itself, then we An aesthetic endeavor that Beck travel on a physical level. Looking at
could apply it on many different lev feels close to is the process of weav today's children, they've never lived
els—to the visual as well as the literal, ing, as typified by his Video Weaving in a time when there weren't personal
written word." experimental pieces. He has already computers, just like other generations
Graphics programs have become adapted the idea to the Commodore never knew a time without automo
the equivalent of word processors to 64. The product is cartridge-based biles. And just like the car industry in
visual artists. Does Beck think we software that allows the user to create troduces new models with more
will come to a time when people are colorful, tapestry-like designs and power or new features, new comput
painting pictures on a computer in then animate them. The movements ers will offer new improved models
stead of canvas? are not random, however, but are con and better cost performance.
"I think we're already there," he trolled via a simple interface between "The industry will respond to the
says with enthusiasm. But he thinks a home stereo system and the Com issues and needs and mature into
that the general public needs to adapt modore 64's joystick ports. And, in more meaningful and useful applica
to the concept of electronic art. the same vein. Beck is working on a tions. But it's going to take lots of hit-
"When we get a flat-screen, wall- computer interface with a Chico. Cali and-miss and experimentation." Q

84 MAY/JUNE
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Teletel:
accessed.

Telecommunications for the The primary incentive behind the


PTT's initiative is the recent dramatic

Non-Computerist rise in telephone use in France—five


fold between 1970 and 1983—and the
accompanying burden placed on
printed annuaries (directories). In

1
1982, a full-time staff of 600 was em
ployed in turning 38,000 tons of pa
per into 23 million phone books pro
viding 18,980,000 listings. In the
,1 2 same year, 5,380,000 listings

1
4 5 changed. In France, as in the United
,■■—" |C— 7 R States, printed directories arc ineffi
cient and obsolete, as is the cumber
■1

.* o some practice of "calling the opera


• + w

1 _L JL _ I - . ? tor." With Teletel's annuaire


electronique. each person can be his
Z E R T Y U I O
or her own directory operator. The
S D 1■ Q H J K I need for professional operators is
*
minimized, and, if the PTT's plan is


W X C V B N
realized, printed directories may be
Esc banished entirely to the past by the
early 1990's.
Type in the name PROUST, city
wmmm PARIS, first name MARCEL, enter it,
and a name, phone number and ad
dress in the 12th arrondissement ap
pears. Want every establishment in
hile most people watch America
France's innovative Paris with "American" in it? Type
and Japan for the newest computer AMERICAN and PARIS, enter it and 90
trends, a significant revolution is oc telecommunications listings are called up. Or every movie
curring elsewhere. It is a new French theater on the Champs Elysees? It pro
Revolution called Teletel—"un nou-
system is becoming a vides 20. Or perhaps you need the
veau moyen de communication" (a common household number of the marvelous patisserie
new means of communication), ac on the rue de Paris in Boulogne-Bil-
cording to a publicity flyer from the item, allowing access to lancourt, but you don't know its name
PTT (Postes, Telecommunications et or exact street number. Type PATISSE
Telediffusion), France's national com
banking, phone and RIE, BOULOGNE-BILLANCOURT
munications agency. postal information, and RUE DE PARIS and moments later
The Teletel revolution is not so a single complete entry appears.
much a technological advance as a shopping services and The minitel is an extremely user
great leap forward socially—a leap in friendly computer—so much so that
local information
the use of technology. The system, de Gerard Plet, head of minitel distribu
veloped by the PTT, could revolution bulletin boards—all tion in the region of Picardie, north of
ize computer use and change an entire Paris—where Teletel first appeared
nation's attitude toward computers,
with a simple device publicly—classes the minitel as a dif
for Teletel is an effort by the French
called "minitel." ferent sort of equipment: "One of our
to put interactive computers into first missions was to dissipate fears.
every corner of their nation. Some people thought that the minitel
Those computers are called mini- down in front, exposing a nine-inch was a computer or that one must be
tels, 10" X 9-3M" X 8" modem black-and-white monitor. The design well versed in computer knowledge
units manufactured by Telic for the is crisp, simple and unintimidating. to work with it." There are no com
PTT. Telephone users simply plug Customers turn on their minitel. puter languages to learn, nor even op
their regular phones (rotary or digital) dial the access number on their eration codes. No computer training
into the back of the minitel, plug in phone, wait for the proper tone, tap or facility is required to use it. Most
the unit's electric cord, then plug it di an access code if necessary, tap the services use menu systems that lead
rectly into the country's telephone Connexion key and hang up their users step by step toward the desired
system. The clavier (keyboard) folds phone. Teletel service has been information.

86 MAY([UNE
TELECOMMUNICATION C
The laws permitting the develop
ment of Teletel were passed in 1970
(further laws governing what services
Teletel may offer were passed be
tween then and late 1982). In Novem
ber,1980, a study commission con
vened, and on July 9, 1981, PTT
minister Louis Mexandeau officially
inaugurated the "Teletel 3V" study in
three areas near Paris—Velizy, Ver
sailles and the Val de Bievre. Through
the end of 1982, 2,500 volunteer fam
ilies used a prototype Teletel system
offering 190 services, ranging from a
media service, banking, and transpor
tation information, to message cen
ters, energy counseling and school
studies.
February 1983 was the watershed
date for Teletel, when Ille-et-Vilaine,
a department in the region of Bre-
tagne (Brittany) opened its public elec
tronic directory and general Teletel OENISEBONEAU

service. With it came the distribution


of minitels to telephone customers. Teletel. Along with being able to ac
Within a year, directories were com cess the bank's service using the mini
pleted for three regions—Bretagne, tel, customers have potential access to
Picardie, and Ille-de-France (in which all other services.
Paris is located). By November, 1984, Also, current owners of many
six of France's 22 regions had Teletel brands of personal computers, start
electronic directories. The Teletel rev ing in late 1984 and early 1985, can
olution had truly begun! buy the interface hardware and soft
The distribution of minitels to con ware that permit them to use Teletel.
sumers is a more gradual process, re Were the Teletel system only used
sulting from manufacturing limits and as a telephone directory service, it
PTT bureaucracy. In June, 1984, the would likely be valuable enough. But
PTT had given out about 200,000 even the basic service provided by the
minitels; at the end of the year, PTT goes beyond that, providing
600,000 minitels—still a small num guidance in making calls (both do
ber in a nation of 55 million people. mestic and foreign), phone rates,
The momentum is increasing, how postal codes and rates and a minitel
ever. The PTT projects it will distrib usage guide. Beyond that, by the end
ute three million by the end of 1986 of 1984 there were more than 500
and service will be established in Teletel services, with new ones ap
every region by 1987. In the mean pearing almost daily: numerous
time, minitels restricted to directory banks, including France's three larg
use can be used free of charge in present distribution areas may get the est; a Teletel-delivered school (pres
every post office in regions with Te equipment for an additional 70 francs ently rated as not up to its potential);
letel directories. per month. consumer services; TV stations, news
What makes this project even more The PTT, although the guiding papers, and magazines, including an
impressive is that the basic minitel force behind Teletel, is not the only abstract service for numerous publica
costs nothing to customers invited to minitel source, however. Many banks, tions and an electronic version of the
get a unit, except the forfeiture of the in particular, as inducement for cus indispensible Pariscope, the weekly
annual printed directory and the time tomers, offer free minitels for opening guide to Paris cultural events; a shop
needed to pick it up at a teleboutiqiie an account—a far more attractive in pers' catalog and buying service; mu
and get an introductory demonstra ducement than American banks' of nicipal information services and bul
tion. Those wishing the more ad fers of toaster ovens and clock radios. letin boards provided by cities;
vanced "minitel 10" model, with a For people not yet offered free mini message centers; and even a pari-mu-
built-in phone and 20-phone-number tels by the PTT or unwilling to pay tuel guide (no betting—just results
memory, pay 50 francs (S5.5O) extra the fee, these bank premiums provide and calendars). And, of course, there
per month. Customers outside the another way to enter the world of is a Teletel Guide and Magazine.

COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 87
WHPUTER T'SHIRTS
FOR HOME, SCHOOL, AND OFFICE' TELECOMMUNICATIONS
consumers will surely have a greater
selection of minitel models of increas
ing capability, facility and practicality.
What does this French develop
ment suggest for America? Is the Tele
Many banks offer tel system viable in the United States?
Technologically, the United States is

"aae <n U.S.*.


free minitelsfor fully able to reproduce the French sys
tem, even though its telephone net
TheULTIM ATE Software'
Command mslani a11en!>oni opening an account. work is many times larger than
AMUSTlof all computer lovers'
France's. The French, in fact, tend to
BRIGHT GREEN (LCD) LETTERS
CUSTOW SILKSCREENED ON 50'SO BLEND criticize themselves for being techno
- HIGH TECH DESIGN' - logical followers, not leaders, trailing
Five popular style* 10 chooM <«yr
Order Today! Only S8 95 ppd America and Japan. What they lack in
select Shirti. and Coa* betow technological superiority, however,
PEEK i POKE rojjwti.w*) Pink t; Blu. «■
TAKE A BYTE OUT Of UE HP) ]Grwn M Guy »S RM tG ' they make up for in enthusiastic,
Many services are free beyond the imaginative applications that stand at
HAPPINESS IS A PftOGfiAU THA T WORKS ft)
cost of the phone call; others require the avant-garde. The Teletel is an ex
COMPUTERS fS) SIZES S-M-L-XL
cur
subscriptions or accounts. cellent example.
Sfwi* Colon Sit r Storit Coton The year 1984 also brought the Te But if a system like France's Teletel
Uh idtMinnit itiHI ll wnury

COMPUTER NOVELTY CORP •MO9I letel revolution to the National Assem is to be realized in the United States,
PO BOX 2964 •» r?33 bly, where PTT minister Mcxandeau its future may depend more on politi
FBEEPORT. TEXAS 77541
Enclose J8 95 opd f*c* TX R« 6* In inaugurated a system in which orders cal and economic structures than
NAME. of the day, proposed legislation, nomi technology. The French system has
nations and reports became available been greatly aided, if not made possi
*DD«ESS.
via minitels in each of the 105 depu ble, by the French phone system's be
CITY ties' offices. Voting by minitel has not ing nationalized. This permits a well
yet been instituted. channelled, standardized effort from
Circle Reader Service No. 8 To American computer owners the start. The recent trend toward de
who use a modem to access computer regulation and anti-trust coupled with
BLJFTUUflRE services, to anyone familiar with the an American free-enterprise system in
possibilities afforded by computers, which several different systems com
COMMODORE 64" Teletel may not seem unusually im pete for pre-eminence (as with video
35 PROGRAMS (DISK) pressive. Compared with most home cassette systems) make the climate
or $12.95 computer set-ups, the minitel is de questionable for smooth, swift imple
26 PROGRAMS (TAPE)
signed simply and operates slowly. It mentation of a Teletel-like system.
COMMODORE 16<m is saddled with keys requiring firm The technological success of the

26 PROGRAMS (DISK)
pressure, has no disk drive, and its ap PTT project is nearly unanimously
or $14.95 plications presently are wide-ranging praised, even with its initial bugs {ac
20 PROGRAMS (TAPE) but unsurprising. cess phone lines that fill too quickly;
COMMODORE PLUS 4* However, it is not its depth that is the time needed to get any informa
striking but its potential breadth of tion, which almost always goes well
30 PROGRAMS (DISK)
scope and availability. Teletel isn't beyond the basic two-minute billing
or $15.95
25 PROGRAMS (TAPE) merely for those who have taken their period, causing phone bills to mount
own initiative first to buy a personal swiftly). At the same time, some peo
FOR ALL ORDERS
computer then invest in a modem. It's ple express doubt and concern. "The
add $2.00 shipping & handling
(foreign, except Canada-53.00) for everyone who owns a telephone. directory service is free now and
Within a decade most French citizens owning a minitel is free and volun
selected public domain programs
will have swift, easy access to a vast tary," a French friend notes. "But the
GAMES, UTILITIES,
treasure of basic, everyday informa PTT is a monopoly, after all. What
BUSINESS, EDUCATION,
tion and services. happens in a few years, when then:
GRAPHICS, & MUSIC For the future, a peripheral jack is are no longer any printed directories
(DOCUMENTATION INCLUDED) built into the back of the minitel to and everyone must have a minitel and
send check or money order to link it up with printers, other personal use the electronic directory? Will we
computers, etc. Today's minitels are have to pay to have minitels, and will
SMADA SOFTWARE
first- and second-generation units. it suddenly cost 75 centimes or a
P.O. BOX 1382 The minitel 1, the only model avail franc every time one calls the direc
Bellevue, NE. 68005 able in February, 1983, has been de tory?" These arc real concerns that
FOR MORE INFORMATION. WRITE DIRECT veloped and improved. Already there must be addressed if any system like
OR CIRCLE READER SERVICE NUMBER is the minitel 10 and color minitels are Teletel is to be truly workable and
COMMODORE 64. 16. and PLUS 4
■re trademark! of Commodora Electronics Ltd being made, hi years to come, French widely accepted. Q
Circle Reader Service No. 25
88 MAY/Il'NE
Sky Travel shouldn't cross before coming to it.

Challenge: Part 3 7b. Bear left his heart there.

8. Betsy says, "Jim, go in and get my pen, and don't


worry about the bear."
An the last issue of Commodore Microcomputers, we 8a. Betsy is THE Betsy. Her husband has been knighted.
posed a challenge to users of Sky Travel, Commodore's 8b. Not a nice place to visit (nothing to see but white), nor
astronomy program for the Commodore 64. The authors would you want to live there (too cold).
of the program have placed 11 different undocumented
9. Bear goes 200 steps north, 200 steps east, 200 steps
"tokens" within the software, If you can figure out, first,
south, and 200 steps west. What color is the bear?
what it is you're looking for, and second, each of the 11
9a. Bear would be better off if he were a camel.
different sets of coordinates, and you then place yourself
9b. Tell bear "turn right, peer amid the wall, look for an
there during the right lime period and look in the right
opening."
direction, you will see each of the 11 different items. For
instance, if you figure out that the Washington Monument 10. Bear has party, gets plastered in style.
is one of the tokens, you would put yourself at the coordi 10a.Plaster is dehydrated calcium sulfate.
nates for Washington, D.C. after the year 1884 in order to lOb.I fell off this tower once.
see it on your screen. (Sorry, that's not one of them, but
11. The bear may be gentle, but he's still pretty big, so
you get the idea.)
watch out!
We began in our last issue with a set of extremely diffi lla. Green witch casts spell on bear by saying bong, bong!
cult clues, then offered an easier set in the April/May
lib.Bear can't see what time it is, too foggy here.
Commodore Power/Play. Here we include both of those
sets of clues plus the final—and easiest—set. If you still While you tear your hair out trying to solve these, we
can't figure them out. look on page 120 for the answers. hope that you will learn some geography and astronomy.
Good luck! Answers on f)g. 120
CLUES
1. An alert person should have no trouble finding the
bear.
la. The "Alert" person likely resides in an igloo, TYPING TUTOR + WORD INVADERS
lb. Bear looks due east, sees green land. Learn to use your keyboard quickly and
properly. TYPING TUTOR starts with the
2. Stated empirically, if the bear really exists, he gets top 'home keys' and automatically evaluates
billing. your typing performance, introducing you
to new keys in many gradual steps as your
2a. When bear reaches top billing, he detects the odor of skills develop. WORD INVADERS puts real
gorilla. excitement into your touch typing practice
2b. The bear also loves large apples. while reinforcing proper typing techniques.
"This is the best typing tutor we have seen yet; •*••+"
3. See an angry bear, not one but two, on tour, climb INFO-64

high, higher, highest with no visible means of "Best typing tutor I've seen — Better than Mastertype"
Microcomputer Courseware Evaluation
support.
"WORD INVADERS is fantastic"
3a. Away it gives "two on tour." Editors of Consumer Guide
3b. Not far away is Niagara Falls. NEW! Commodore Plus/4 or 16 Tape $21.95 Disk $24.95
Commodore 64 Tape S21.95 Disk $24.95
4. Hungry bear, but a half-wit, looks for hamburgers, is VIC 20 (unexpanded) Tape $21.95
disappointed, but we're not, are we?
4a. The bear sees half of a familiar looking landmark in IFR (FLIGHT SIMULATOR)
the distance. Put yourself in the pilot's seat! This pro
4b. Think of a billion hamburgers. gram provides a very challenging, realistic
simulation of flying under Instrument Flight
5. Guilty bear is fugitive, is chased by Canadian police Rules (IFR) in a single engine light plane.
force. Realistic instrumentation and aircraft per
formance. Plenty of thrills for pilots and
5a. The bear may be in Canada, but the "Mountic" is not. non-pilots alike.
5b. I'm sorry, "fugitive" should have been spelled "It is tremendous fun." Compute's Gazette
"fujitive." "It's a great program, and as a pilot I found it to be very
realistic. My brother, a current commercial pilot and a
6. How do you expect to find the bear if you are looking former Air Force flight instructor with over 3,500 hours in
military and civilian aircraft was also quite impressed."
for a mosque?
Private Pilot
6a. Look for a mosque—how would you do that?
NEW! Commodore Plus/4 or 16 Tape or Disk S29.95
6b. Nyet, nyet—stop looking for a mosque. Commodore 64 Tape or Disk $29.95
VIC 20 (unexpanded) Cartridge $39.95
7. Don't cross this one off, because, although suspense-
ful, you have to wait until the bear comes to it.
ACADEfflV - Slipping and handiing Si .00 per

SOFW/4RE - order. CA residents add 6% lax.


7a. Bear finds gold by figuring out what it is that he
P.O. Box 6277 San Rafael, CA 94903 (415) 499-0850

Circle Reader Service No. 1 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 89


WHY THE COMMODORE 64 ISN'T
A CLASS BY ITSELF.
At Commodore, we think it's easier for school children to learn
about a computer by using it rather than by waiting to use it.
So, we sell'the Commodore 64™ at about half the cost of
comparable computers.
With the money you save on the Commodore 64, you can afford
the things you'll really need: more Commodore 64's.
In fact you can create a powerful but economical "Local
Network" with 8 computers sharing one disc drive.
The Commodore 64 features: 64K memory, 66 key typewriter-
style keyboard, 16 color high resolution graphics, 9 octave music
synthesizer and 3-dimensional sprites.
And the same commitment we make to hardware, we're making
to software. We have highly rated Logo and PILOT programs.
Much of the well recognized MECC™ courseware and the Edufun™
Series from Milliken will soon be available. There are hundreds of other
programs, including a wealth of public domain software for the
Commodore 64. Our newest additions are 30 early learning programs
from Midwest Software.
So you see, the all purpose Commodore 64 really is in a class
by itself.
For further information on the Commodore 64 and our 250
Educational Resource Centers, contact your nearest Commodore
Education Dealer.

t commodore
COMPUTERS
Commodore Business Machines Inc.. P.O. Box 500M. Conshohocken. PA 19428. Canada-3370 Pharmacy Awnue, Agmcourt, Out. Can. M1W2K4
Edufun and MECC are trademarks of Miliiken Publishing Company and Minnesota Educational Computing Consortium respectively.
64 USERS ONLY BY M. W. CAPRIO

A Printing ever you are offered a program that


claims to work with a printer. That is:

Disassembler will it work without modification on

DISDUMP is a special- your unit? Owners of Star Gemini

for the
printers receive an emphatic yes to
purpose disassembler. that question and can skip the next
two paragraphs. (That is their reward
Commodore Its real purpose is to for choosing the same printer that I

produceprinted copies have.) The rest of you have a little

64 of machine language
extra work to do before you start
typing.
Rather than provide specific in
routines.
JLhis article is primarily for the ma structions for just a few other printers,
chine language programmer and de I will explain what each of the printer
scribes a disassembler that can dump instructions in the program must ac
its output to the printer. I've named complish. Then, regardless of the
the program DISDUMP and you can printer you are using, you will need
use it to disassemble and print out any ceed to perform the disassembly ac only to turn to your owner's manual,
region of memory. Using it to print cording to these specifications. find the instructions that your unit
copies of your machine language pro The sample run illustrates the use must be given to accomplish the same
grams will make editing and debug of DISDUMP to print out the ROM actions and replace mine with yours.
ging them much easier. And when a routine that executes BASIC'S RE This approach may create a little more
program at last ascends to its final STORE command. In this sample, it work for everyone, but it allows the
form, you will welcome the sense of was not necessary to first load a sepa program to be modified to suit virtu
security that having a hard copy of it rate machine language program since ally every printer that may be out
on file can bring. the routine being disassembled is a there.
But being able to generate hard cop permanent resident of BASIC ROM. The printer is first awakened by
ies of your programs is only one use Because of its length, keying in DIS program line 450. It is here that a
for a printing disassembler. Another— DUMP will be more than just a trivial channel is first opened to the printer.
and perhaps an even more important task. I feel compelled, therefore, to Then, on the same line, CMD4 directs
application—is to be able to get apprise you of its limitations before the computer's output to it. These are
printed copies of the 64's BASIC ROM. going any further, You need that in BASIC commands and arc not unique
Along with an annotated memory formation before you can reasonably to any particular printer model.
map, like Mapping the Commodore decide whether or not to invest the Line 460 is where your work really
64, by Sheldon Leemon, having hard time it will require to make DISDUMP begins. When this line is executed, it
copies of the ROM subroutines is an a part of your program library. clears the current horizontal tab set
asset as you study them to discover As you can see, the program is writ tings and sets new tabs at columns 7,
how they may be called upon by your ten in BASIC. It uses BASIC RAM from 13. 16, 19 and 23. Replace line 460
own programs. In this capacity, DIS 2048 to 12287 and is not compatible with the instruction that your
DUMP becomes an important aid for with machine language programs that printer's manual tells you to use to
the ongoing self-education of the ma overlap this region of memory. Then do the same thing. If you need more
chine language programmer. too, because DISDUMP is written in program lines, you can insert them,
DISDUMP is a special-purpose dis BASIC, it is somewhat slower than dis assigning line numbers from 460
assembler. Although you may direct assemblers written in machine lan through 469.
its output to the screen if you wish, its guage. However, I have not found this Next look at lines 920 to 950. It is
real purpose is to produce printed to be a significant problem at all and here that the printing is actually done.
copies of machine language routines. am quite comfortable with its speed. Each time CHRS(9) appears on these
As such, it is intended to augment, If these points have not dissuaded lines, it directs the print head to move
rather than to replace, the disas you, it is time to go on to the detailed to the next horizontal tab location.
sembler that is already included in the information you will need in order to The tabs will, of course, be the ones
machine language monitor you are get DISDUMP up and running in your that you set back on line 460. Replace
using. system. my CHRS(9)'s with the instruction
To use DISDUMP, simply load your Space limitations make it impos that your printer requires to accom
machine language program, then load sible to provide a line-by-line discus plish the same end and your editing is
DISDUMP and run. It will ask you to sion of the entire program and force complete. Line 2700 simply closes the
provide the decimal values of the me to concentrate only on those channel to the printer.
starting and ending addresses of the points that are directly pertinent to On line 170, the top of BASIC RAM
machine language routine, will ask if getting DISDUMP to work for you. is set to 12287 (S2FFF,hexadecimal) so
you want the output to go to the The first of these is to deal with that that the variables stored by DISDUMP
printer or to the screen, and will pro- big question that you must ask when will not overwrite a machine lan-

92 MAY/IUNE
64 USERS ONLY
guagc program located above this ad^ possible left free of DISDUMP's inter- here, but it can be reset to its default
dress. This was included so there- ference. After the program run is value by simply switching the com
would be as much continuous RAM as ^complete, the top of RAM remains set puter off and back on again. Q

DISDUMP 460 PRINT CHR$(27)"D"CHR$(7)CHR$(13)


100 REM **********************BVBY CHR$(16)CHRS(19)CHRS(23)CHR$(0)' IBOO
110 REM ** DISDUMP **'BLBY 470 NW=S:GOSUB 610:SS$=S$'DNSK
120 REM ** M.W. CAPRIO **'BOTA 480 ML=PEEK(S)'CFBI
150 REM ** 24 NOVEMBER 84 **'BQCE 490 GOSUB 6901BDSI
160 REM **********************BVBF 500 IF N>0 THEN GOSUB 750'EFMC
170 POKE 55,255:POKE 56,47 510 GOSUB 8701BDSB
:POKE 643,255:POKE 644,47:CLR'FDXK 520 OPS=V$'BFNC
180 POKE 53280,14:P0KE 53281,12 530 IF N=0 THEN 570'DFDE
:PRINT"[GRAY1]"'DSWI 540 FOR 1=1 TO N'DDIF
190 REM ** TITLE PAGE **tBNNH 550 ML=AD(I):GOSUB 870;AD$(I)=V$'DUUK
200 PRINT"[CLEAR,D0WN9]"'BAWW 560 NEXT I'BBCF
210 PRINT TAB(12)"[RVS,SPACE16,RVOFF] 570 IF HD$="Y"THEN GOSUB 910
"•CDIB :GOTO 590'FKRL
220 PRINT TAB(12)M[RVS,SPACE5]DISDUMP 580 GOSUB 10301BEFI
[SPACE4,RVOFF]"'CDTD 590 IF S=>E+1 THEN 2700'FHIM
230 PRINT TAB(12)"[RVS,SPACE16,RVOFF] 600 N=0:S=S+1:C=C+1:AD$(1)=""
"'CDID :ADS(2)=MII:G0T0 470'IDSL
240 PRINT TAB(12)"[RVS] 610 REM ** CONVERT S TO HEX **'BRAG
PROGRAM BY MWC [RVOFF]"'CDVG 620 S$="":SS=INT(NN/4096)
250 PRINT TAB(12)B[RVS,SPACE16,RVOFF] :S$=S$+F$(SS)'GYSL
"'CDIF 630 Fl=NN-SS*4096fDKXH
260 FOR 1=1 TO 1500:NEXT I'EICG 640 SS=INT(Fl/256):SS=S$+F$(SS)'FUEM
270 DIM F$(16)'BGRE 650 F2=F1-SS*256'DJIJ
280 F$(0)="0":F$(1)="1":F$(2) ="2" 660 SS=INT(F2/16):S$=S$+F$(SS)'FTGN
:F$(3)="3":F$(4)="4":FS(5)="5" 670 F3=F2-SS*16:S$=S$+F$(F3)'FTPO
:F$(6)=M6"'HQOS 680 RETURN1BAQI
290 F$(7)=n7":F$(8)="8":F$(9)=119" 690 REM ** READ DATA **'BMIM
:F$(10) ="A" :F$(11)="B"'FGNP 700 RESTORE:FOR 1=1 TO 151'EGXE
295 F$(12)="C":F$(13)="D"'CNYO 710 READ OP,CD$,N,SF$'BMUF
300 F$(14)=llE":F$(15)=tlF"'CNHB 720 IF 0P=ML THEN I=151'EIXH
310 REM ** MAIN PROGRAM **'BPPC 730 NEXT I'BBCE
320 PRINT"[CLEAR] THIS PROGRAM WILL 740 RETURN'BAQF
READ THE CONTENTS OF"'BAFK 750 REM ** READ ADDITIONAL DATA**'BWTM
330 PRINT" MEMORY AND[SPACE2] 760 FOR 1=1 TO N'DDIJ
OUTPUT THE OBJECT CODE AND"■BASK 770 S=S-t»l'CDAK
340 PRINT" THE ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE 780 AD(I)=PEEK(S)'CIEM
SOURCE CODE THAT"'BACM 790 NEXT I'BBCK
350 PRINT" IT FINDS IN THE LOCATIONS 800 IF N=l THEN 820'DFCE
YOU REQUEST."'BAIN 810 T=AD(1):AD(1)=AD(2):AD(2)=T'DYEK
360 INPUT"[D0WN2]DO YOU WANT A 820 IF LEFT$(CD$,1)<>"B"THEN 860'FKBJ
HARDCOPY (Y OR N)";HD$'BEKM 830 IF AD(1)>127 THEN NN=S-(255-AD{1))
370 INPUT"[DOWN2]STARTING ADDRESS :GOTO 850'HAGO
(DECIMAL)";S'BCMM 840 NN=S+AD(1)+1'DJTK
380 INPUT"[SPACE2,DOWN2] 850 GOSUB 610:D$=S$'CINJ
ENDING ADDRESS (DECIMAL)";E:E=E-1 860 RETURN1BAQI
:IF E+1>=S THEN 410'INYT 870 REM ** CONVERT DEC TO HEX **'BTV0
390 PRINT" [DOWN]THE ENDING ADDRESS 880 VS="":F=INT(ML/16):V$=V$+F$(F)'GUFS
MUST BE HIGH-"'BALP 890 F1=ML-F*16:VS=V$+FS(F1)'FSES
400 PRINT" ER THAN THE STARTING 900 R£TURN'BAQD
ADDRESS.":FOR 1=1 TO 2000:NEXT I 910 REM ** OUTPUT TO PRINTER **'BTNJ
;GOTO 310'GNLM 920 PRINT C CHR$(9);SSS;CHR$(9);OPS;
410 INPUT"[DOWN2,SPACE14] 'DRVK
ARE YOU SURE";C$'BDCF 930 IF AD$(2)=""THEN PRINT CHR$(9);
420 IF LEFT$(C$,1)<>"Y"THEN 310'FJVF ADS(l);CHR$(9);AD$(2);
430 PRINT"[CLEAR]WORKING . . . "'BACF :GOTO 9501HHNQ
440 IF LEFT$(HDS,1)<>"Y"THEN 470'FKBH 940 PRINT CHR$(9);AD$(2);CHR$(9);
450 OPEN 4,4:CMD 4'CFLF AD$ (1) ; ' DWAN Continued next page

COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 93
64 USERS ONLY
950 PRINT CHR$(9);CDS;'CILL 1530 DATA 61, "AND $" ,2,",X"'BGOE
960 IF N=0 THEN PRINT:GOTO 1020'FHDN 1540 DATA 62,"ROL $" ,2,",X'"BGQF
970 IF N=l AND LEFTS(CD$, 1550 DATA 64,"RTItl ,0 ," "'BGDF
1)="B"THEN PRINT D$:GOTO 1020'IQYS 1560 DATA 65,"EOR ($ ",1,",X)"'BGTH
980 FOR 1=1 TO N'DDIN 1570 DATA 6 9,"E OR $" , 1," ■■BGTH
990 PRINT AD$(I);' BHXO 1580 DATA 70,"LSR$" ,1," '"BGWI
1000 NEXT I'BBCS 1590 DATA 72,"PHA"
,0 , " "'BGFJ
1010 PRINT SFS'BDKU 1600 DATA 73,"EOR #s ",1," "'BGUC
1020 RETURN1BAQU 1610 DATA 74,"LSR" ,0 p■ »■BGGC
1030 REM ** OUTPUT TO SCREEN **'BSNB 1620 DATA 76,"JMP $" ,2," ■'BGTD
1040 CC=CC+1'CFCY 1630 DATA 77,"EOR $« ,2," "'BGTE
1050 PRINT C;TAB{6)SS$;TAB(13)OP$;'DPAD 1640 DATA 78,"LSRS" ,2, BGBG
1060 IF AD$(2)=M11THEN PRINT 1650 DATA 8 0,"BVC $n , 1," "'BGBG
TAB(16)AD$(1);:G0TO 1080'GVFG 1660 DATA 81,"EOR ($ ",1,"),Y"*BGSI
1070 PRINT TAB(16)AD$(2); 1670 DATA 85,"EOR $" ,1,",X"'BGNJ
TAB(19)AD$(1);'DUGF 1680 DATA 86,"LSR $• ,1,",X"'BGAK
1080 PRINT TAB{23)CD$;'CHAD 1690 DATA 88,"CLI" ,0 ," "'BGLK
1090 IF N=0 THEN PRINT:GOTO 1150'FHHG 1700 DATA 89,"EOR $« ,2,",Y"'BGTD
1100 IF N=l AND LEFTS(CDS, 1710 DATA 93,"EOR $" ,2,",X*"BGNE
1)="B"THEN PRINT D$:GOTO 1150'IQDC 1720 DATA 9 4,"LSR $" ,2,M,X-IBGAF
1110 FOR 1=1 TO N'DDIW 1730 DATA 96,"RTS" ,0 , " "•BGSF
1120 PRINT ADS(I);'BHXX 1740 DATA 97,"ADC ($ ",1,",X)"'BGTH
1130 NEXT I'BBCW 1750 DATA 101,"ADC $ ",1, BHYH
1140 PRINT SFS'BDKY 1760 DATA 102,"ROR s " , 1," "■BHMJ
It
1150 IF CCO20 THEN 1180'EIVD 1770 DATA 10 4,"PLA 1 0, BHDJ
1160 PRINT"[SPACE7]PRESS [RVS]RETURN 1780 DATA 105,"ADC # $",1," MIBHIL
II
[RVOFF] TO CONTINUE.":CC=0fCEQK 1790 DATA 106,"ROR 1 0," "'BHCL
1170 GET C$:IF C$OCHR$ (13) THEN 1170 ' GNGH 1800 DATA 108,"JMP ( $",2,") '"BHIE
1180 RETURN1BAQC 1810 DATA 109,"ADC s ",2," "'BHDF
1190 DATA 0,"BRK",0, BFEF 1820 DATA 110,"ROR ",2," "'BHMG
1200 DATA 1,"ORA ($",1,",X)"'BFHX 1830 DATA s 'M,
112,"BVS BHFH
1210 DATA 5,"ORA $",1," '"BFHX 1840 DATA 113,"ADC ( S-,1,11) ,Y"'BHHI
1220 DATA 6,"ASL S", 1 , " "'BFGY 1850 DATA 117,"ADC s "fl,",X"'BHCj
1230 DATA 8,"PHP",0," "'BFVA 1860 DATA 118,"ROR $ ",l,"fX"'BHVK
DATA 9,"0RA #$",1," "'BFWB
H
1240 1870 DATA 120,"SEI 1 0," "'BHFK
1250 DATA 10,"ASL",0, BGEC 1880 DATA 121,"ADC % ",2,",YnlBHYM
1260 DATA 13f"0RA $",2," "•BGFD 1890 DATA 125,"ADC $ ",2,",X"'BHCN
1270 DATA 14,"ASL #$",1," "'BGJF 1900 DATA 126,"ROR $ n,2,",X"'BHVF
1280 DATA 16,"BPL $",1, BGDF 1910 DATA 129,"STA ( $",1,",X)"'BHUG
1290 DATA 17,"0RA ($",1,") ,Y"'BGNH 1920 DATA 132,"STY $ ",1, BHDH
1300 DATA 21,"0RA S",l.".X"'BGYY 1930 DATA 133,"STA $ ",1," "'BHFI
1310 DATA 22,"ASL $",1,",X"'BGXA 1940 DATA 134,"STX % ",1," "'BHEJ
1320 DATA 24f"CLC",0," "'BGUA
N
1950 DATA 136,"DEY 1 0," "'BHNJ
1330 DATA 25,"ORA $",2,",Y"'BGFC 1960 DATA 138,"TXA
n
t 0," "'BHBK
1340 DATA 29,"ORA $",2,",X"■BGID 1970 DATA 140,"STY $ ",2," '"BHDM
1350 DATA 30,"ASL S",2,",XBlaGXE 1980 DATA 141,"STA $ ",2," "'BHFN
1360 DATA 32/"JSR $",2," "'BGTE 1990 DATA 142,"STX $ n,2," "'BHEO
1370 DATA 33,"AND ( $",1,",X)"'BGUG 2000 DATA 144,"BCC $ ",1," "'BHBW
1380 DATA 36,"BIT $",1," "'BGGG 2010 DATA 14 5,"STA ( $",1,"),Y"'BHTX
1390 DATA 37,"AND S",l," "'BGUH 2020 DATA 14 8,"STY $ " ,l,",X"fBHMY
1400 DATA 38,"ROL $",1, BGWY 2030 DATA 149,"STA $ n,l,",X'"BHOA
1410 DATA 40f"PLP",0," "'BGTA 2040 DATA 150,"STX $ ",l,",Yir'BHFB
1420 DATA 41,"AND #$",1, BGBB 2050 DATA 152,"TYA
It
1 0," "'BHXB
1430 DATA 42,"ROL",0," "'BGWC 2060 DATA 153,"STA $ "^^^"'BHLD
1440 DATA 44,"BIT $",2, BGGD 2070 DATA 154,"TXS
n
t 0," "'BHRD
1450 DATA 45,"AND $n,2," "'BGUE 2080 DATA 157,"STA $ ",2,",X"'BHOF
1460 DATA 46f"ROL S",2, BGWF 2090 DATA 160,"LDY 1 $",1," "'BHRG
1470 DATA 48,"BMI $",1, BGCG 2100 DATA 161,"LDA ( $",1,",X)"'BHSX
1480 DATA 49,"AND ($",1,"),Y"'BGDI 2110 DATA 16 2,"LDX # S",l," "'BHSY
1490 DATA 53,"AND S",1,",X"'BGOJ 2120 DATA 16 4,"LDY $ ",1," "'BHKA
1500 DATA 54,"ROL $",1,",X"'BGQB 2130 DATA 165,"LDA $ ",1," "'BHNB
1510 DATA 56,"SEC",0," "■BGJB 2140 DATA 166,"LDX $ ",1," "'BHLC
1520 DATA 57,"AND $",2," "'BGXC 2150 DATA 168,"TAY
t
0," "'BHFC
t

94 MAY/JUNE
64 USERS ONiY
2160 DATA 169,"LDA #$" ,1," "'BHCE 2450 DATA 214,"DEC $n,1,",X"'BHEG
2170 DATA 170,"TAX" ,0, ■ "'BHWE 2460 DATA 216,"CLD",0," "'BHWG
2180 DATA 172,"LDY S", 2," "'BHKG 2470 DATA 217,"CMP $",2,",Y"'BHEI
2190 DATA 173,"LDA S", 2," "'BHNH 2480 DATA 221,"CMP $",2,",X"'BHXJ
2200 DATA 174,"LDX $", 2," "'BHLY 2490 DATA 222,"DEC $",2,",X"'BHEK
2210 DATA 176,"BCS $", 1," "'BHWA 2500 DATA 224,"CPX #$M,1," "'BHUC
2220 DATA 17 7,"LDA ($"■,1,"),Y"'BHBB 2510 DATA 225,"SBC ($",1,n,X)"■BHBD
2230 DATA 180,"LDY $", 1,",X"'BHKC 2520 DATA 228,"CPX $",1," "'BHNE
2240 DATA 181,"LDA $", 1,",X"'BHMD 2530 DATA 229,"SBC S",l," M1BHVF
2250 DATA 182,"LDX $", 1,",Y"fBHME 2540 DATA 230,"INC $",1," "'BHPG
2260 DATA 184,"CLV" ,0, BHTE 2550 DATA 232,MINX",0," "'BHXG
2270 DATA 18 5,"LDA $", 2,",Y"'BHSG 2560 DATA 233,"SBC #$w,l," "'BHBI
2280 DATA 186,"TSX" ,0, BHWG 2570 DATA 234,"NOP",0," niBHXI
2290 DATA 188,"LDY $", 2,",X"'BHTI 2580 DATA 236,"CPX $",2," "•BHNK
2300 DATA 189,"LDA $", 2,",X"'BHVA 2590 DATA 237,"SBC $",2," °'BHVL
2310 DATA 192,"CPY #$" ,1," "'BHAB 2600 DATA 238,"INC $",2," "'BHYD
2320 DATA 193,"CMP ($" ,1,",X)"'BHNC 2610 DATA 240,"BEQ $",1," "'BHOE
2330 DATA 196,"CPY $", 1," "'BHSD 2620 DATA 241,"SBC ($M,1,"),Y "'BHHF
2340 DATA 197,"CMP $'\ 1," '"BHHE 2630 DATA 245,"SBC $",1,",X1" BHUG
2350 DATA 198,"DEC $", 1," "'BHOF 2640 DATA 246,"INC $",1,",XH'BHXH
2360 DATA 200,"INY" 11 "'BHTF 2650 DATA 248,"SED",0," rtlBHLH
2370 DATA 201,"CMP #$" ,1," "'BHEH 2660 DATA 249,"SBC $",2,",Y1" BHBJ
2380 DATA 202,"DEX" n '"BHGH 2670 DATA 253,"SBC $",2,",X"'BHUK
2390 DATA 204,"CPY V f 2,"
- "'BHJJ 2680 DATA 254,"INC $",2,n,X"'BHXL
2400 DATA 205,"CMP $",2," "'BHYB 2690 DATA 2,"???",0," "'BFWL
2410 DATA 206,"DEC 2, BHFC 2700 IF LEFT$(HD$,1)="Y"THEN PRINT#4
2420 DATA 208,"BNE 1," "'BHPD :CLOSE 4'GKLH
2430 DATA 209,"CMP ',1,") ,Y'"BHME 2710 PRINT"[DOWN]COMPLETE."'BAHF
2440 DATA 213,"CMP l,",X"tBHXF 27 20 END'BACD EHD

CARTRIDGE-MAKER-64
Create your own COMMODORE-64™ Video game and program cartridges.
Follow the simple and easy screen instructions to:
• Copy your BASIC or ASSEMBLER • Copy your cartridge to diskette or
programs to cartridge cassette
• Copy from cartridge to cartridge • Erase and reuse cartridges

CARTRIDGE-MAKER-64 $129.00
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CARTRIDGE-64 (16K) $ 25.00
CARTRIDGE-MAKER Kit S 189.00
Includes: CARTRIDGE-MAKER-64
CARTRIDGE-ERASER and 1 Bbrk
CARTRIDGES (16K each)
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CARTRIDGE-64 (16K each) $115.00

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' CARTRIDGE-MAKER-64 & CARTRIDGE-64
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Circle Reader Service No. 10 COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 95


64 USERS ONLY BY JOHN MELCETICH

ARAS.CALC— >
k>
r 4 *"*

An Adjustable Rate V
»T < 7
r * v a tA'Jt. V^A A "
Amortization < \ '4
< 7
f < „
< A
* ± £- ^
^rV%J*-*A
^ +i < \* •* »

I At ^ " , V ^ A '-V^
Schedulefor the r^ t* <. ' l.

Commodore 64 ir
i 11Hi
A J A
I
Until recently, a borrower seeking a » ' la 3

loan generally amortized the loan at a 7 < v s


4 r *- 4 <
fixed interest rate over a fixed period v i- t ^^i

of time. However, during the recent CA */


"I ^r v


inflationary period, lenders suffered * *" T i. *
financial losses on longterm loans that
had been written at fixed interest rates T ■»**;*
significantly lower than the current
rates—and in some instances lower 'TV V
than their cost of funds. As a result,
loans with adjustable interest rates 7
have gained widespread acceptance.
The adjustment is based on the behav
ior of a selected index. To protect the
consumer, the loan agreement may in
clude a limitation on how much the
interest rate can increase over a cer
tain time interval and a limitation on
how much the interest rate can in
crease over the term of the loan.
To entice borrowers to accept such
an adjustable-rate loan, the lender
usually sets the initial interest rate sig rower were to repay S700 per month,
nificantly lower than that of a fixed- the loan would be repaid in 21 years,
rate loan of the same duration. Adjust five months at a total interest cost of
able-rate loans are proving very 5111,-452.37. If the borrower were to
popular with borrowers, especially pay S750 per month, the loan would
home buyers. be paid off in \6 years, seven months
However, in the event of an in with a total interest cost of
crease in the interest rate, the bor 180,255.03. Quite a difference!
rower may find that monthly pay
Prudent borrowers will
ments escalate sharply. As a result,
want to projectpossible Using the Program
prudent borrowers will want to pro The program ARAS.CALC was writ
ject possible future payments based futurepayments based ten to help me investigate amortiza
on possible trends in interest rates. In tion schedules for various types of
particular, the borrower will want to
on possible trends in loans and choose the best options.
consider the worst case, i.e., if the in interest rates. The program is applicable to both
terest rates increase by the maximum fixed-rate and adjustable-rate loans. It
amounts permitted by the loan also provides for various types of pre
contract. payments, which are discussed below.
Further, since adjustable-rate loans When the program is run, the user
generally carry no prepayment pen will be asked to input the following
alty, the borrower may wish to con data. The entry of an item is com
sider what effect there will be on fu pleted by pressing the RETURN key.
ture monthly payments if various 1. Loan amount: For a loan of
types of prepayment options are pur S60,000, enter 60000.
sued. For example, to amortize a loan ment of S663-72. The total interest 2. Term of the loan: Enter the num
of S60,000 over 30 years at an interest cost over the life of the loan is ber of years for repayment of
rate of 13% calls for a monthly pay- S178,939.20. However, if the bor the loan. The maximum term is

96 MAYflCNE
64 USERS ONLY
50 years because of the dimen f6 display current input
sions set in the arrays. Should a data
longer term be needed, the max Ifanyprepayments are f7 print table
imum can be easily altered by f8 exit
making the appropriate change made at the end ofthe The entry of data then follows as pre
in line 10 of the program.
3. Number of years to project: En
loan year, the balance viously discussed.

ter the number of years for must be adjusted by About the Program
which the monthly payments The heart of the program is in lines
are to be projected. This num first subtracting the 300-415, where the financial calcula
ber will necessarily be, at most,
prepayment. Then tions are performed:
the number entered as the term M = monthly payment
of the loan. determine the monthly needed to amortize the
4. Interest rates: For each year to loan
be projected, type in the interest
paymentfor the
B = balance remaining to
rate expressed as a decimal. following year. be paid
That is, for a rate of 107a%, en t = number of months re
ter .10875. If you want a con maining in the term of
stant rate to be maintained from the loan
some year in the projection on monthly payment and if the se r = nominal interest rate
ward, this may be accomplished lected payment in a given year is on an annual basis
by entering a negative number, less than the payment required i = r/12
e.g., — 1. In that case, the previ to amortize the loan, then this v = 1/(1 + i)
ously entered rate will be used latter payment will be used The formula relating these quantities
for all future interest rates in the instead. is
projection. After the computations are com Bi
5. Additional payments: If no pre pleted, a table is printed with four M =
payments are to be made, type columns headed YEAR, RATE, PAY 1 -vl
N. If prepayments are to be MENT and BALANCE. The third The calculation of the current
made, type Y. In the latter case, column contains the monthly pay monthly payment for a given year
the user will be asked to select ment required in the given year to am proceeds as though the current inter
one of four options by typing ortize the loan at the given rate for the est rate were to apply for the remain
the appropriate function key. remainder of the term. If the addi der of the term of the loan. If any pre
The last choice would not be tional payment option is selected, the payments are made at the end of the
used at this time, but is useful additional amount to be paid will be loan year, the balance must be ad
later for the modification of pre printed beneath the required amount. justed by first subtracting the prepay
viously entered data. The The last column contains the balance ment. Then determine the monthly
choices and the corresponding that will still be outstanding at the end payment for the following year.
function keys are as follows: of the given year. If monthly prepayments are made,
fl additions to the Only a portion of the table will ap a different algorithm is used. Given
prescribed monthly pear on the screen at one time. The the initial loan amount, the monthly
payments next portion of the table may be payment for the first year is deter
f3 additional payments to viewed by typing any key. When the mined as above. Each month the total
be made at the end of table has been completely viewed, the payment is first applied to pay any in
each loan year total interest that would be paid dur terest due (product of balance due at
f5 set a total monthly ing the projection period is displayed. the beginning of the month with the
payment interest rate i) and the rest of the pay
f7 no additions to the Modifying the Data ment is applied to reduce the balance
prescribed monthly Next, a menu will be displayed on due. This procedure is then iterated to
payment the screen, which provides the oppor obtain the necessary data for the pro
Once the selection is made, the tunity to modify any of the current jection period,
appropriate amount is entered data and to do another projection. Since we need to round off to two
(without dollar signs) for each The selection is made by typing the decimal places, and the Commodore
year to be projected. The user appropriate function key. The menu is 64 does not support a round off func
may set some of the amounts as follows: tion, the subroutine in lines 650-695
equal to zero. As with the entry f1 loan amount provides this capability. The subrou
of the interest rates, inputting a f2 term of loan tine rounds both 573-872 to 573-87.
negative number will cause all f3 number of years to However, since some lenders always
future amounts to be set equal project round up, you might want to round
to the previous one. If the op f4 interest rates the first number to 573.88, Q
tion is chosen for a set total f5 additional payments Program next page

COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 97
64 USERS ONLY
ARAS.CALC
REM ADJUSTABLE RATE AMORTIZATION : $",-BL(0)'DKTF
SCHEDULE1BJKK 225 PRINT:PRINT SPC(13)"TERM
10 DIM R{S0),MP(50),BL(50),AD(50), :";NY;" YEARS"'DITJ
M$(50),B$(50),DD(50)'BWHG 230 PRINT:PRINT"YEAR[SPACE3]RATE
15 FOR J=0 TO 50: AD(J)=0:NEXT [SPACE5]PAYMENT[SPACE4]
:IA=0'GQIJ BALANCE"'CBXI
25 GOSUB 500:GOSUB 510:GOSUB 520 232 X=MP(J):GOSUB 650:M$<J)=X$'DSYH
:GOSUB 530'EPJI 233 X=BL(J):GOSUB 650:B$(J)=X$'DSDH
30 PRINT:PRINT"WILL THERE BE 235 PRINT J;TAB(6);R{J);TAB(15);"$";
ADDITIONAL PAYMENTS TO"'CBDK M$(J);TAB(26);"$";B$(J)'EGCN
35 PRINT"REDUCE THE PRINCIPAL? (Y=YES; 245 IF IA>0 THEN X=AD(J):GOSUB 650
N=NO)";:INPUT A$'CEAP :PRINT TAB(13);"+ $";XS;C$'HYXP
50 IF A$="Y"THEN GOSUB 570 250 JJ=JJ+1:IF JJ<JT THEN 265'FNMH
:GOTO 70'FIUF 255 JJ=0:GOSUB 780'CHTI
60 IA=0'BDHD 265 NEXT:IF JJ>0 THEN GOSUB 780'FHRL
70 GOSUB 300:GOSUB 200'CHUF 269 PRINT CHR$(147):FOR Q=l TO 5:PRINT
80 PRINT CHR$(147):PRINT"USE FUNCTION :NEXT'HLNR
KEYS TO MODIFY INPUT DATA.niDGKR 270 PRINT"TOTAL INTEREST PAID OVER
85 PRINT:PRINT"[RVS]F1[RVOFF] THE PROJECTION"'BAHO
...LOAN AMOUNT"' CBMP 275 PRINT"PERIOD OF";NM;n YEARS";'BFOO
90 PRINTiPRINT"[RVS]F2[RVOFF] 280 IF J2>0 THEN PRINT" AND";J2;
...TERM OF LOAN"'CBNL ■ MONTHS:";'EIHL
95 PRINT:PRINT"[RVS]F3[RVOFF] 283 X=TL:GOSUB 650'CHMK
...NUMBER OF YEARS TO PROJECT"'CBYU 285 PRINT:PRINT TAB(16)"$";X$'DHWM
100 PRINT:PRINT"[RVS]F4[RVOFF] 290 GOSUB 780'BDSG
INTEREST RATES'"CBBC 295 RETURN* BAQK
105 PRINT:PRINT"[RVS]F5[RVOFF] 300 XB=BL(0):X=XB:TL=0:J1=0:J2=0
...ADDITIONAL PAYMENTS'" CBAI :GOSUB 800lGCFH
110 PRINT:PRINT"[RVS]F6[RVOFF] 302 FOR J=l TO N'DDJB
...DISPLAY CURRENT INPUT 303 AD(J)=DD(J)'BKTC
DATA"'CBRG 305 IR=R{J)/12:IF(IA=0 OR IA=2)THEN
115 PRINT:PRINT"[RVS]F7[RVOFF] X=BL(J-1)'JYJN
...PRINT TABLE"'CBJH 307 GOSUB 450:MP(J)=X'CKLH
120 PRINT:PRINT"[RVS]F8[RVOFF] 310 IF IA-1 THEN 350'DGEB
...EXIT"'CBQB 315 IF IA=3 THEN 410'DGDG
125 GET A$:IF A$-*"THEN 125'EIHG 320 X=X*(1-V"(T-12))/IR:GOSUB 650'HHFH
130 IF A$=CHR$(133)THEN GOSUB 500 330 BL(J)=X-AD(J)'CLDD
:GOTO 80'GNSE 335 IF BL{J)<=0 THEN Jl=J:J=N
135 IF A$=CHR$(137)THEN GOSUB 510 :BL(J)=0'HTWO
:GOSUB 530:GOTO 80'HRSK 340 TL=TL+12*MP{J)+BL{J)-BL(J-1) ' GvvBK
140 IF A$=CHR$(134)THEN GOSUB 520 345 GOTO 395'BDQH
:GOTO 80'GNVF 350 FOR JJ=1 TO 12'DFEE
145 IF AS=CHR$(138)THEN GOSUB 530 355 X=XB*IR:GOSUB 650'DJBL
:GOTO 80'GNBK 360 TL=TL+X:XB=XB-MP(J)+X-AD(J)'GVUM
150 IF A$=CHR${135)THEN GOSUB 570 365 IF XB>0 THEN 390'DGWL
:GOTO 80'GNCG 370 J1=J:J2=JJ'CIOH
155 IF A$=CHR$(139)THEN GOSUB 700 375 XB=XB+AD(J)'CJAM
:GOTO 80'GNBL 380 X=XB*IR:GOSUB 650'DJBJ
160 IF A$=CHR$(136)THEN GOSUB 300 385 TL=TL+X:BL(J)=0:JJ=12:J=N'FUJS
:GOSUB 20 0:GOTO 80'HRII 390 NEXT JJ'BCWH
165 IF A$=CHR$(140)THEN END'FHRK 391 IF J1=0 THEN BL(J)=XB:X=XB'FOAN
170 PRINT:PRINT"INCORRECT KEY TYPED. 395 NEXT'BAEL
TRY AGAIN":GOTO 80'DENM 400 RETURN'BAQX
200 JJ=0:JT=10:IF IA>0 THEN JT=5'GPND 410 IF MP(J)>AD(J)THEN AD(J)=0
201 C$=" MONTHLY":IF IA=2 THEN C$=" :GOTO 350'FUBG
YEARLY"'FIOG 415 AD(J)=AD(J)-MP{J):GOTO 350'DTWK
202 NM=N:IF J1>0 THEN NM=J1'FLRE 450 V=l/(1+IR)'DHWG
205 FOR J=l TO NM:IF JJ>0 THEN232'GLAH 455 T={NY-J+1)*12'EJUM
210 PRINT CHR${147);SPC(12) 460 X=X*IR/(1-V"T)'FJSJ
"ADJUSTABLE RATE"'DJRE 465 GOSUB 650:RETURN'CEOK
215 PRINT SPC(9)"AMORTIZATION 500 PRINT CHR${147):PRINT:PRINT
SCHEDULE"'CCTJ :INPUT"AMOUNT OF LOAN";BL(0)
220 PRINT:PRINT SPC(13)"LOAN AMOUNT :RETURN'GPMJ

98 MAYtfUNE
64 USERS ONLY
510 PRINT CHR$(147):PRINT:PRINT 615 IF IJ>0 THEN 630'DGMJ
:INPUT"TERM OF LOAN IN YEARS",- 620 PRINT"YEARn;J;:INPUT AD(J)'CJIG
NY1FLEL 625 IF AD(J)>=0 THEN 635'EJFL
515 NN=12*NY:RETURN1DHDI 630 IJ=1:AD(J)=AD(J-1)'DPAI
520 PRINT CHR$(147):PRINT:PRINT 635 DD(J)=AD(J):NEXT:RETURN'DMUM
:INPUT"NUMBER OF YEARS TO 640 FOR J=l TO N:AD{J)=0:NEXT
PROJECT";N:RETURN'GLCO :RETURN'GMUK
530 PRINT CHR$(147):PRINT 650 XH=INT(X):XL=100*X-100*XH'GRRN
:PRINT"ENTER INTEREST RATES FOR 655 IF XL>=99.5 THEN XL=O:XH=XH+1
EACH YEAR TO BE"'EHCQ :GOTO 665'ITEU
531 PRINT CHR$(145)"PROJECTED.[SPACE2] 660 IF XL-INT(XL)>=.5 THEN
THE ENTRY OF A NEGATIVE"*CFUO XL=XL+1'INWO
532 PRINT"NUMBER WILL MAINTAIN THE 665 XL$=STR$(INT(XL)):LL=LEN(XL$)-1
LAST RATE FOR"'BARO :XL$=RIGHT$(XL$,LL)'IFGX
533 PRINT"TH£ REST OF THE 670 XH$=STR$(XH)'CHRK
PROJECTION. '"BAOM 675 IF XL=0 THEN XL$="00"
535 IJ=0:FOR J=l TO N'EHDL :GOTO 685'FKYR
540 IF IJ>0 THEN 555'DGSG 680 IF XL<10 THEN XL$="G)"+XL$'FKHO
545 PRINT"YEAR";J;:INPUT R(J)'CIHM 685 X$=XH5+"."+XL$1DIKR
550 IF R(J)>0 THEN 560'DIEH 690 X=VAL(X$)'CFFL
555 R(J)=R(J~1):IJ=1'DNYO 695 RETURN'BAQO
560 NEXT:RETURN'CBXG 700 PRINT CHR$(147);TAB(91J"CURRENT
570 PRINT CHR$(147):PRINT INPUT DATA"'DJSJ
:PRINT"ADDITIONAL PAYMENTS MAY BE 705 PRINT:PRINT"LOAN AMOUNT
MADE MONTHLY"'EHYU : $";BL(0)'CHSM
571 PRINT"OR YEARLY OR MAY. BE 710 PRINT:PRINT"TERM: ";NY;
CANCELED."'BABP " YEARS"'CFAH
575 PRINT"[RVS]Fl[RVOFF] 715 PRINT:PRINT"PROJECTED FOR";N;
...ADDITIONAL MONTHLY PAYMENTS " YEARS""CEOO
DURING"'BABX 717 GOSUB 780'BDSK
576 PRINT SPC(5)"THE YEAR"'CCNP 720 PRINT CHR$(147):PRINT:PRINT
580 PRINT"[RVS]F3[RVOFF] :PRINT"INTEREST RATES:"'FIBM
...ADDITIONAL YEARLY 725 FOR J=l TO N:PRINT R(J),'EJOM
PAYMENTS"'BAOQ 730 IF J=4*INT(J/4)THEN PRINT'HGPJ
583 PRINT"[RVS]F5[RVOFF] 735 NEXT'BAEJ
...SET A TOTAL MONTHLY 737 GOSUB 780'BDSM
PAYMENT"'BAQT 740 IF IA=0 THEN PRINT"NO PREPAYMENTS"
584 PRINT"[RVS]F7[RVOFF] :GOSUB 780'FHPN
...NO ADDITIONAL PAYMENTS"'BAHT 741 IF IA=0 THEN FOR J=1 TO N:AD(J)=0
585 GET A$:IF A$=""THEN 585'EIRQ :DD(J)=0:NEXT:RETURN'KWKR
590 IF A$=CHR$(133)THEN IA=1 745 IF IA=1 THEN PRINT CHRS(147):PRINT
:GOTO 600'GOOO :PRINT'HKUQ
591 IF A$=CHR$(134)THEN IA=2 747 IF IA=1 THEN PRINT-ADDITIONAL
:GOTO 600'GOQP MONTHLY PAYMENTS":GOTO 755'FHFY
592 IF A$=CHR$(136)THEN IA=0 750 IF IA=2 THEN PRINT CHR$(147):PRINT
:GOTO 640'GOUQ :PRINT'HKVM
595 IA=3:PRINT:PRINT"ENTER THE TOTAL 752 IF IA=2 THEN PRINT"ADDITIONAL
DESIRED MONTHLY PAYMENT.'" DFYC YEARLY PAYMENTS":GOTO 755'FHVU
596 PRINT CHR$(145)"IF AMOUNT IS LESS 753 IF IA=3 THEN PRINT CHR$(147):PRINT
THAN THE AMOUNT NEEDED"'CFHC :PRINT:PRINT"TOTAL MONTHLY
597 PRINT CHR$(145)"TO AMORTIZE, PAYMENTS"'ILSW
THE LARGER AMOUNT WILL 8E"'CFYC 755 FOR J=l TO N'DDJN
598 PRINT"USED.":GOTO 601'CELT 757 PRINT DD{J),'BGGO
600 PRINT:PRINT:PRINT"ENTER 760 IF J=4*INT(J/4)THEN PRINT'HGPM
ADDITIONAL AMOUNTS TO BE 765 NEXT:GOSUB 785:RETURN'DFFO
PAID."'DCQL 780 PRINT:PRINT"HIT ANY KEY TO
601 PRINT"THE ENTRY OF A NEGATIVE CONTINUE."'CBKQ
NUMBER WILL"'BATL 785 GET A$:IF A$=""THEN 785'EITS
602 PRINT"MAINTAIN THE LAST AMOUNT 790 RETURN1BAQK
FOR THE REST OFMIBAKN 800 PRINT CHR$(147);TAB(206)
603 PRINT CHRS(145)"THE ■CALCULATIONS BEING
PROJECTION"'CFKJ PERFORMED"'DKIN
610 IJ=0:FOR J=l TO N'EHDF 805 RETURN1BAQH EMO

COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 99
64 USERS ONLY BY DENNIS Dl.OOMHKI.I)

Budget Master TURN without entering a name will


return you to the disk menu.

for the The program records Choose Scratch (S) or Format (F) to
eliminate data from the disk. Scratch
the ideal and real eliminates a selected file, but Format
Commodore expenses each month,
eliminates everything on the disk (in
cluding the Budget Master program).

64 the amount of You should always check to see if the


correct disk is in the drive prior to us
deviationfrom your ing the Format option.
.Dudget Master is a user-friendly To format a disk, you must supply a
ideal budget, and
budget program that helps you man name for the disk (maximum length
age 16 expenses per month. The pro calculates the money of 16 characters) and a unique two-
gram records the ideal and real ex character ID code. A disk name longer
penses each month, the amount of remaining after all the than 16 characters or an ID code of
deviation from your ideal budget, and
budgeted items arepaid. more than two characters will cause
calculates the money remaining after the program to return to the begin
all the budgeted items are paid. Data is ning of the Format option. You will
saved to disk in sequential files that need to enter both the disk name and
can be easily updated. In addition, the mum amount you feel should be spent ID again. To return to the disk menu,
program can create reports of one to each month on these items. The third press RETURN without entering
12 months in length to help track the column (REAL) holds the actual anything.
progress of your budget. amount spent to date for the items and Select I to initialize the drive (put
the fourth column (DIFF.) displays the the disk drive in the same condition as
Main Menu ideal amount minus the real amount. if it were just turned on) or V to vali
The following options are available At the bottom of the screen is the in date a disk. Use RETURN alone to go
from the main program menu: come, ideal balance (income minus from the disk menu to the main pro
C Current budget to screen. the total ideal amount) and the actual gram menu.

D Disk command menu. balance (income minus the total real


E Enter/alter monthly data. amount). Enter/Alter Monthly Data
L Load data file. If the actual balance and the ideal Choosing E from the main menu
P Print current budget. balance are the same, your budget is brings up the same screen display as
R Report generator. right on target. If the actual balance is selection C (without the income and
S Save current budget. larger than the ideal balance, you are balance display) and offers the follow
Q Quit budget program. money ahead. If the ideal balance is ing options:
Selections C, D, E and P branch im larger than the actual balance, you 1. Select an item number from
mediately to the proper routine, but L, have over-spent again! Hit any key to one to 16 for data entry.
Q, R and S first display an "ARE YOU return to the menu. 2. Enter IN to change the
SURE?" prompt which must be an monthly income.
swered "Y" in order to continue. This Disk Command Menu 3. Press RETURN alone for
safety feature is essential because Select D for a menu of disk main menu.
these latter selections change or elimi commands: If you choose to alter an item or
nate data in memory, on disk or both. D Directory. change the income, follow your entry
When first run, Budget Master sets R Rename file. with RETURN. The changes you make
the budget file name to MON-YR and S Scratch file. (other than income) can be only for
income to zero. The real life name and F Format new disk. REAL budget amounts, because the
income will be established by you I Initialize drive. DIFF. column is calculated for you
later. Income is set in the Enter/Alter V Validate disk. and the IDEAL amounts are stored in
section of the program and the file is Selecting D displays the disk direc data statements, which cannot be al
named in the Save portion of the tor}-. Any key will pause the listing tered while the program is running.
program. and any key except RETURN will con If you elect to change an item or the
tinue the listing. The RETURN key, af income, the program will display the
Current Budget to Screen ter pausing, returns you to the disk current value and ask for the new
Selecting C causes the current bud menu. After the entire director}- has amount. If you wish to increase the
get to be displayed on the screen, been listed, any key (including RE current value, type a plus sign and the
with the data organized in four TURN) will return you to the disk amount to be added. If you want to
columns. The left column (ITEM#) menu. decrease the current value, use the mi
contains the items you have decided Selecting R allows you to rename a nus sign and the amount to be sub
should be in your budget. The second file. You must supply a new file name tracted. The program will not accept
column (IDEAL) contains the maxi- and an old file name. Pressing RE amounts without the plus or minus

100 MAYfll'NE
64 USERS ONLY
Quit
sign as the first character. For screen
Choosing Q will quit the budget
formatting purposes, enter whole dol
lar amounts only. If you change your
To customize the budget, program and should only be used
when you are finished working and
mind and no longer want to alter the you change the ITEMS have saved the current budget. If you
current value, press RETURN alone.
should press the RUN/STOP key by
After an entry, the program displays in the budget and alter
mistake during program operation or
the updated budget and asks for the
next item to be altered.
the values of the IDEAL goof and quit the program before sav
ing a budget, do not despair. Type
Print Current Budget amounts. GOTO 100 and press RETURN and
To print a copy of the current bud you will be returned to the main pro
get, select P from the main menu. gram menu with all of your budget
months to be included in the report, a
Prior to printing, you must respond data unharmed. This will not work,
starting month and the year, one to 12
"Y" to the "PRINTER READY?" however, if you have altered a pro
months of data files can be combined
prompt or the printout will be can gram line.
into a single report. Reports can be
celed. After a copy is printed, you
produced on screen or printer. The Program Overview
have the option of reprinting. A re
only limitation is that consecutive Line Function of Code
sponse other than "Y" to the "AN
months must be used in producng a 18-55 Initialization.
OTHER COPY?" prompt will return
report. JAN-84, FEB-84 and MAR- 100-190 Main menu loop.
you to the menu.
84, for example, could be in a three- 200-298 Screen display.
Two copies fit onto the same page if
month report, but APR-84, MAY-83 300-375 Input amounts.
the printer is positioned as close to the
andJUN-85 could not. A year change- 400-498 Print a budget.
top of the paper as possible. If you
is automatic, so DEC-84 andJAN-85 500-530 Save a file.
want copies on different pages, manu
can be in the same report. 600-645 Load a file.
ally advance the printer to the next
When reporting to the screen, the 700-779 Generate reports.
page prior to reprinting,
data is presented in the same format as 798 Clear headers.
Save Current Budget when choosing the C option from the 800 Quit.
Select S from the main menu to save menu. Hit any key and the screen dis 900-910 Clear budget mem
a monthly budget to disk. Prior to sav plays the Report Totals—total income, ory.

ing the file, the file name is displayed total ideal balance and total actual bal 920 Zero report totals.
and you must verify that it is correct. ance of all the months reported. Hit 930-945 "Are you sure?"
Answer "Y" to save the budget file or any key and the next month to be re prompt.
"N" to change the file name (you will ported will be loaded and displayed 950 Calculate the differ
be asked to input a month and year). (unless the last month to be reported ence between the
Budget Master uses the first three let has already been displayed, in which ideal and real
ters of the month and the last two dig case you will be returned to the amounts.
its of the year for the file name. In menu). Attempting to report a non-ex 960 Zero budget totals.
other words, inputting JANUARY and isting file will terminate the report, 970 Calculate budget to
1985 results in the file nameJAN-85. clear memory and return to the tals.
Press RETURN to go back to the main menu. 975 Restore headers.
menu. Printing reports is easy. After the 976 Zero actual and dif
Files are saved with the "Save with program loads the proper file, it asks if ference amounts.
Replace" command, so a file on disk the printer is aligned properly (as 980-991 Establish file name.
with the same name as the one you close to the top of the paper as possi 992-997 Align columns.
are saviig will be eliminated. If you ble). Answer "Y" to print the report. 998-999 Invalid input rou
own an older 1541 disk drive, you Any other response will cause the re tine.
should scratch the old file (see Disk port to terminate and return you to 1010-1080 Evaluate menu selec
Command Menu) prior to saving. the menu. When printing reports, to tion.
tals are not printed until; 1090-1100 Get a single charac
Load Data File a) All months have been reported. ter.
Choose L to load a file from disk.
b) The report is terminated by try 1110-1130 Establish next file
Operation of the Load option is iden
ing to load a non-existent file. name for reports.
tical to Save. You must verify or
c) You respond other than "Y" 2003-2023 Header and ideal
change the file name prior to loading.
to the "PRINTER READY?" budget data.
Attempting to load a file that does not
prompt. 2050-2130 Disk menu loop.
exist will cause current memory to be
If the number of months in a report 2135-2222 Directory.
cleared and you will be returned to
is odd, the printer skips down four 2225-2260 Rename.
the main menu.
lines to print the totals. If the number 2265-2290 Scratch.
Report Generator of months in a report is even, the 2295-2350 Format.
Select R to access the report genera printer advances to the middle of the 2355-2360 Initialize.
tor. By supplying the number of next page before printing the totals. 2365-2370 Validate.

COMMODORE MICROCOMPIITI-KS 101


64 USERS Oi
List lines 2022-2023 to display headers for which they are in
Altering Budget Master the data statements containing tended in lines 2009-2011.
In order to customize the budget, the ideal values that correspond NOTE: Loading a file causes the
you will want to change the ITEMS in to the item headers. budget items and ideal amounts in
the budget and alter the values of the Item headers must be five char screen displays and reports to be the
IDEA1 amounts. These changes are acters in length, including any same as when the file was originally
easy to make because the item headers spaces, as longer or shorter saved.
and ideal budget amounts arc located headers will alter the screen and I sincerely hope you have as much
in data statements. printer formatting. Make sure fun using this program as I had writ
1. List lines 2009-2011 to display the position of the dollar ing it. I also hope that you have better
the data statements for the 16 amounts in 2022-2023 corres luck sticking to your budget than I
budget item headers. ponds with the position of the have sticking to mine! Q

Budget Master
130 PRINT"[D0WN,SPACE8,YELLOW]R
18 PRINT"[CLEAR]":P0KE 53280,0 [L. BLUE]EPORT GENERATOR"'BAYF
:P0KE 53281,0'DQOK 132 PRINT"[DOWN,SPACE8,YELLOW]D
19 PRINT"[D0WN3,GREEN,RVS] [L. BLUE]ISC COMMAND MENUn'BAMH
135 PRINT"[DOWN,SPACE8,YELLOW]Q
******«.'BBNN [L. BLUE]UIT BUDGET PROGRAM"■BAYL
20 PRINT"[RVS]*[SPACE13]BUDGET-MASTER 140 PRINT"[D0WN3,GREEN,RVS,SPACE15]
[SPACE12]*";'BBDG SELECTION?[SPACE15]"'BAUG
21 PRINT"[RVS]**[SPACE17]BY[SPACE17] 150 A=0:GOSUB 1090:GOSUB 1010
**";'BBKF :IF A<1 OR A>8 THEN GOSUB 998
22 PRINT"[RVS]*[SPACE11] :G0T0 100'KYAL
DENNIS BLOOMFIELD[SPACE10]*";'BBTI 155 IF A<4 OR A=7 THEN 180'FHEJ
£* j t *» x w x I r\ v »> f 160 GOSUB 930'BDPC
*****************'■iBAXI 175 IF A$O"Y"THEN 100'EFEK
24 x'ABHC 180 ON A GOSUB 200,300,400,500,600,
26 NI=16'BEAF 700,2050,800'CIIK
27 FL=0:P=0:MC$="JANFEBMARAPRMAYJUNJU 190 FL=0:LC=0:GOTO 100'DLOI
LAUGSEPOCTNOVDECXXX"'DKOV 200 SP$="[SPACE5]":PRINT"[CLEAR,RVS,
28 IN$ = "0":HD$="[HOME,DOWN 21]"'CHCK GREEN,SPACE4]";:FOR DE=0 TO 1
29 BL$="[SPACE40]"'BDYN :PRINT H$(DE);SP$;:NEXT'HXTH
30 DIM I$(NI):F0R DE=0 TO NI:READ A$ 205 PRINT H$(2);:SP$="[SPACE2]"
:I$(DE)=A$:NEXT'HAGI :PRINT SP$;H$(3);"[SPACE4,L. BLUE]
31 DIM H$(3):FOR DE=0 TO 3:READ A$ ":G0SUB 960'EAEK
:H$(DE)=A$:NEXT'HXKI 210 FOR DE=1 TO NI:GOSUB 950'EJPB
32 DIM AM(2,NI):F0R DE=1 TO NIiREAD A 211 IF DE=>10 THEN PRINT"[SPACE3]";
:AM{0,DE)=A:NEXT'HCGL •FFDC
33 212 IF DE<10 THEN PRINT"[SPACE4]";
:NA$=ND$:0F$="":NF$="■'HCGO 'EFJD
35 Ml$="[YELLOW]RETURN FOR MENU 214 PRINT DE;I$(DE);:D=AM(0,DE)
[L. BLUE]HIBDOK :GOSUB 992:PRINT SP$;'EETK
50 PRINT HD$;TAB(8);"[YELLOW] 217 PRINT AM(0,DE);'BJBG
HIT ANY KEY TO CONTINUE"'CHDK 220 FOR R=l TO 2:D=AM(R,DE):GOSUB 992
55 GOSUB 1090'BELH :PRINT SP$;'GWAG
100 P=0:PRINT"[CLEAR,DOWN,GREEN,RVS, 225 IF R=2 THEN 227'DFDG
SPACE17]MENU[SPACE19]";'CEFD 226 PRINT AM(R,DE);:NEXT'CKRH
102 PRINT"[SPACE6]CURRENTLY WORKING ON 227 PRINT AM(R,DE):NEXT:NEXT1DKVI
: ";NA$;"[SPACE6,RVOFF]";'BGQH 228 PRINT"[SPACE4,CMDR Y31,SPACE6]";
105 PRINT"[DOWN,SPACE8,YELLOW]C •BBQF
[L. BLUE]URRENT BUDGET TO 230 PRINT"[SPACE3,GREEN] ";I$(0);"
SCREEN"'BADJ [LEFT,SPACE2]";"BIEC
110 PRINT"[DOWN,SPACE8,YELLOW]E 240 GOSUB 970:D=AM{0,0):GOSUB 992
[L. BLUE]NTER/ALTER MONTHLY :PRINT SPS;'EVIH
DATA"'BANF 250 PRINT AM(0,0);'BIMD
115 PRINT"[DOWN,SPACE8,YELLOW]P 260 FOR R=l TO 2:DE=0:D=AM(R,DE)
[L. BLUEJRINT CURRENT BUDGET1" BAKJ :GOSUB 992:PRINT SP$;'HBJM
120 PRINT"[DOWN,SPACE8,YELLOW]S 265 IF R=2 THEN 267'DFHK
[L. BLUE]AVE CURRENT BUDGETntBAPF 266 PRINT AM(R,DE);rNEXT'CKRL
125 PRINT"[DOWN,SPACE8,YELLOW]L 267 PRINT AM(R,DE):NEXT'CJIM
[L. BLUE]OAD DATA FILE-'BAMI 269 IF FLO0 THEN 298'EGAO

102 MAY/FUNE
64 USERS ONLY
270 PRINT"[DOWN,L. BLUE,SPACE4,RVS] 403 IF A$O"Y"AND P=0 THEN PRINT"
INCOME:"+IN$+" IDEAL BALANCE [DOWN2,RIGHT10,RVS]PRINT-OUT
: n;(IN-AM(0,0))'EPHQ [SPACE2]ABORTED"'HEON
280 PRINT"[SPACE10fRVS]ACTUAL BALANCE 404 IF A$OflY"AND P=>1 THEN PRINT"
:";(IN-AM(1,0))'CMTN [DOWN2,RIGHT10/RVS]
296 PRINT HD5;"[D0WN2,SPACE8,YELLOW, REPORT TERMINATED":RE=NM'JJMQ
RVS]HIT ANY KEY TO CONTINUE 405 FOR DE=1 TO 1000:NEXT:RETURN'FJNH
[L. BLUE]"'BEQV 406 PRINT"[CLEAR]":FOR DE=1 TO NI
297 GOSUB 1090:PRINT HD$;BL$; :GOSUB 950:NEXT:GOSUB 960
:RETURN'DOBQ :GOSUB 970:OPEN 4,4'JXIO
298 RETURN'BAQN 40 7 PRINT#4,S2$;S2$;"[SPACE6]";
300 FL=1:GOSUB 200:PRINT HD$;"[UP, CHR$(14);NA$;CHR$(15);
SPACE4,YELLOW,RVS,SPACE4]RETURN :PRINT#4,CHR$(10)'FHVP
IN , OR ITEM #[SPACE4,L. BLUE] 408 PRINT#4,"[SPACE7]";:FOR R=0 TO 3
"'DMYK :PRINT#4,H$(R);:IF R<>3 THEN
310 N$="":PRINT HD$;:INPUT"[SPACE4] PRINT#4,S2$;'KAIS
ITEM NUMBER'^-NS'DLOF 409 NEXT:PRINTt4,CHRS(13)'DHWK
312 IF N$="IN"THEN GOSUB 360 410 FOR R=l TO 68:PRINT#4,CHR$(163);
:GOTO 30OfFJGF :NEXT'GOMF
313 IF N$=""THEN 350'DFMD 411 FOR R=l TO 3:PRINT#4:NEXT'FGDE
314 N=VAL(N$)'CFKE 412 S2$="[SPACE8]"'BDPD
315 IF N>NI OR N<1 THEN GOSUB 998 413 FOR DE=1 TO NI'DFOF
:GOTO 310'HMFK 415 IF DE<10 THEN PRINT#4,"[SPACE3]";
320 PRINT HD$;"[UP2,GREEN,SPACE4] •EHWI
THE CURRENT VALUE OF H;I$(N); 416 IF DE=>10 THEN PRINT*4,"[SPACE2]";
" = ";AM(1,N)'BTCL 'FHQJ
325 PRINT"[SPACE4,YELLOW,RVS,SPACE2] 4 20 PRINT#4,DE;"-";IS(DB);'BNQD
RETURN, MENU,[SPACE2] 425 FOR R=0 TO 2:D=AM(R,DE)
+ OR - AMOUNT [L. BLUE]" :GOSUB 992'FRMM
:PRINT BL$'CEOP 430 PRINT#4,S2$+SPS;'CJBE
330 Z$="":INPUT"[UP2,SPACE4] 432 IF R=3 THEN PRINT#4,"[SPACE2]";
NEW AMOUNT[SPACE3]";Z$'CGVH ' EFTG
331 IF Z$=""THEN 300'DFTD 435 PRINT|4,AM(R,DE);:NEXT:PRINT#4
332 IF Z$="M"THEN 350'DFVF :NEXT'EPAL
333 O$=LEFT${Z$,1)'CIYG 440 PRINT#4:PRINT#4:FOR R=l TO 68
334 IF 0$<>"+"AND 0$<>"-"THEN 320'HHAK :PRINT#4,CHR$(16 3);:NEXT'ISYK
335 M$=RIGHT$(Z$,LEN(Z$)-1) 442 GOSUB 960:PRINT#4:PRINT#4,"
:M=VAL(M$)'GSVN [SPACE5]";I$(0);" ";'DQTJ
336 IF O$="-"THEN AM(1,N)=AM(1, 445 GOSUB 970:FOR R=0 TO 2:DE=0
N)-M'FRQN :D=AM(R,DE):GOSUB 992'HAYR
337 IF O$="+"THEN AM (1,N)=AM(1, 450 PRINT#4,S2$+SP$;'CJBG
N)+M'FRNO 452 IF R=3 THEN PRINT#4,"[SPACE2]";
340 GOTO 300'BDCC 'EFTI
350 PRINT"[GREEN]":RETURN'CBBD 455 PRINT#4,AM(R,DE);:NEXT:PRINT#4'DOSM
360 PRINT HD$;"[SPACE4] 460 PRINT#4:PRINT*4,1< [SPACE18]
CURRENT INCOME IS: ";IN'BHYK INCOME "; 'CFBN
365 INPUT"[SPACE4]NEW INCOME";IN$'BEAM 462 D=IN:GOSUB 992:PRINT#4,SP$;D1DPLL
366 IF IN$=""THEN RETURN'EDTM 465 PRINT#4,"[SPACE18]IDEAL BALANCE
367 O$=LEFT$(IN$,1)'CJKN [SPACE2] "; 'BDRR
368 IF 0$<>n+"AND 0$<>"-"THEN PRINT 467 D=(IN~AM(0,0)):GOSUB 992
HDS;"[DOWN]";BL$;"[UP] :PRINT#4,SP$;D'EYOS
:GOTO 365'JSLV 470 PRINT#4,"[SPACE18]ACTUAL BALANCE
369 M$=RIGHT$<IN$,LEN(IN$)-1) ";'BDCN

370
:M=VAL(M$)'GURU
IF O$ = "-itTHEN IN=IN-M'FHRJ
\ 472 D=(IN-AM(1,0)):GOSUB
:PRINT#4,SP$;D'EYPO
992

371 IF O$="+"THEN IN=IN+M'FHOK 474 IF P>0 THEN 496'DFGM


375 IN$=STR$(IN):RETURN'DIYM 475 PRINT"[DOWN2,RIGHT10]
400 S2$ = "[SPACE11]":LC=LC+3 2'DKLD ANOTHER COPY? (Y)"'BAVQ
401 PRINT"[CLEAR,DOWN5,RIGHT10,YELLOW, 478 GOSUB 1090:IF A$O"Y"THEN 496'FKLS
RVS]PRINTER READY? (Y)"'BANH 488 IF LO32 THEN LC=0:FOR R=l TO 2
402 PRINT"[RIGHT8,RVS]ANY OTHER KEY :PRINT#4:NEXTfJOHW
TO ABORT":GOSUB 1090 490 PRINT#4:CLOSE 4:PRINT"[CLEAR]"
:IF A$="Y"THEN 406'FLEM Continued next page

COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 103


64 USERS ONLY
:FOR DE-1 TO 1000:NEXT 700 PRINT"[CLEAR,D0WN4,RIGHT4]";M1$
:GOTO 400'IRXP :PRINT"[DOWN,RIGHT4,YELLOW,RVS]P
495 IF LO32 THEN LC=0:FOR R=l TO 2 [RVOFF]RINTER OR [YELLOW,RVS]S
:PRINT#4:N£XT:GOTO 497'KSEW [RVOFF]CREEN?"'CFGM
496 IF LO32 THEN LC=0'EHVR 701 GOSUB 1090:IF A$=CHR$(13)THEN
497 PRIWT#4:CL0SE 4'CDRP RETURN'GLCH
498 RETURN1BAQP 702 IF A$O"P"AND A$O"S"THEN GOSUB
500 PRINT"[CLEAR,L. BLUE,D0WN4,RIGHT4] 998:PRINT"[CLEAR,DOWN6,YELLOW,
";M1$'BERC RIGHT6]";:GOTO 700'KNDO
501 PRINT"[DOWN2,RIGHT4]FILE TO SAVE 703 GOSUB 920'BDOF
: [YELLOW]";NAS:PRINT"[L. BLUE, 705 PRINT"[DOWN3,RIGHT4,YELLOW]
DOWN2,RIGHT4]FILENAME OK? STARTING":GOSUB 981
(Y-N)"'CFEM :IF NA$=ND$THEN RETURN'GLIP
502 GOSUB 1090:IF A$=CHR$(13)THEN 710 INPUT"[DOWN,RIGHT4,YELLOW]
RETURN'GLCG NUMBER OF MONTHS TO REPORT";NM
503 IF A$O"Y"THEN GOSUB 980 :IF NM=0 THEN RETURN'FHPP
:GOTO 500'GJSH 711 IF NM>12 THEN 700'DHTG
507 PRINT"[DOWN2,RIGHT4]SAVING 715 IF A$="P"THEN 750'DFDK
: [YELLOW]";NAS'BEDK 720 FOR RE=1 TO NM:GOSUB 798
510 OPEN 15,8,15'BHAB :PRINT"[CLEAR,DOWN5,RIGHT4]"
511 OPEN 2,8,2,"@0:n+NA$+",S,W"'DJUG :GOSUB 606'GOJL
515 PRINT(t2,IN$'BFBG 725 PRINT"[CLEAR,DOWN5,RIGHT6,GREEN,
516 FOR DE=0 TO NI'DFNJ RVS]REPORT FOR MONTH OF
517 PRINT#2,I$(DE)'BIKJ : [YELLOW]n;NAS;"[L. BLUE]"
518 NEXT'BAEI :FOR DE=1 TO 2000:NEXT'FOFW
520 FOR DE=0 TO NI'DFNE 726 IF E2$="OK"THEN 730'DGFM
521 FOR R=0 TO 2'DDNE 727 IF E2$O"0K"THEN PRINT" [DOWN,
522 PRINT#2,AM(R,DE)'BKTF RIGHT6,YELLOW]";NA$;" ";E2$'FMBR
523 NEXT'BAEE 728 PRINT"[DOWN,RIGHT6]
524 NEXT'BAEF REPORT TERMINATED[L. BLUE]"
530 FL=FL+1:GOSUB 630:RETURN'EKQG :GOSUB 900:GOTO 742'DIVU
600 PRINT"[CLEAR,L. BLUE,DOWN4,RIGHT4] 730 GOSUB 200:YI=YI+IN:Y1=Y1+(IN-AM(0,
";M1S'BERD 0)):Y2=Y2+(IN-AM(1,0))'JRBT
601 PRINT"[DOWN2,RIGHT4]FILE TO LOAD 735 PRINT"[CLEAR,DOWN5,RIGHT7]
: [YELLOW]";NA$:PRINT"[L. BLUE, REPORT TOTALS TO:[YELLOW] ";NA$;"
DOWN2,RIGHT4]FILENAME OK? [L. BLUE]"'BFYS
(Y-N)"'CFON 739 DE=0:PRINT"[DOWN2,RIGHT7]
602 GOSUB 1090:IF A$=CHR$(13)THEN INCOME TOTAL[SPACE5,YELLOW]";:D=YI
RETURN'GLCH :GOSUB 993:PRINT SP$;YI'FUTB
603 IF A$O"Y"THEN GOSUB 980 740 PRINT"[DOWN,RIGHT7,L. BLUE]
:GOTO 600'GJTI IDEAL BAL. TOTAL [YELLOW]";:D=Y1
606 PRINT"[DOWN2,RIGHT4]LOADING :GOSUB 992:PRINT SP$;Y1'EQMR
: [YELLOW] ",-NA$'BECL 741 PRINT"[DOWN,RIGHT7,L. BLUE]
610 OPEN 15,8,15'BHAC ACTUAL BAL. TOTAL[YELLOW]";:D=Y2
611 OPEN 2,8,2,"0:"+NA$+",S,R"'DJAH :GOSUB 992:PRINT SP$;Y2'EQYS
615 INPUT#2,IN$'BFGH 742 IF E2$="OK"THEN 745'DGLK
616 IN=VAL(IN$)'CHAK 744 FOR DE=1 TO 2000:NEXT:RETURN'FJON
617 FOR DE=0 TO NI'DFNL 745 GOSUB 296'BDUL
618 INPUT82,I${DE)'BIPL 746 IF RE=NM THEN 749'DHKO
619 NEXT'BAEK 747 GOSUB 1110'BEEN
620 FOR DE=0 TO NI'DFNF 748 NEXT:RETURN'CBXO
621 FOR R=0 TO 2'DDNF 749 NEXT:RETURNrCBXP
622 INPUT#2,AM(R,DE)' BKYG 750 FOR RE=1 TO NM:P=P+1
623 NEXT'BAEF :GOSUB 798'GNQN
624 NEXT'BAEG 753 PRINT"[CLEAR,DOWN5,RIGHT4]■
630 INPUT#15,E1$,E2$,E3$,E4$'BSIH :GOSUB 606'CENM
635 PRINT"[SPACE4]";E1$;" ";E2$;M "; 754 IF E2$O"0K"THEN 756'EGKO
E3S;" ";E4$;" ":FOR DE=1 TO 700 755 GOTO 760'BDMM
:NEXT'FDCR 756 PRINT"[CLEAR,DOWN5,RVS]";NA$;" ";
636 IF E2$O"0K"AND P= 0 AND FL=0 THEN E2$;"—REPORT TERMINATED"'BKQV
GOSUB 900'JLVR 757 OPEN 4,4:PRINT84:PRINT#4
640 CLOSE 2'BBJE :PRINT#4'EJSR
645 CLOSE 15,8,15:RETURN(CIUL 758 PRINTS 4,"[SPACE14]";NA$;" ";E2$;

104 MAY/Il'NE
64 USERS ONLY
"-REPORT TERMINATED"'BMGY 3JTHEN 986'IXRY
759 CLOSE 4,4:GOTO 765'CHCR 984 NEXT'BAEP
760 GOSUB 400:IF A$O"Y"AND RE=NM AND 985 GOSUB 998::GOTO 980'CIMS
P=NM THEN 765'JQXR 986 Y$="":INPUT"[RIGHT4]YEARH;Y$
761 YI=YI+IN:Y1=Y1+<IN~AM(0,0)) :IF Y$=""THEN 990'FMOY
:Y2=Y2+(IN-AM(1,0))'INMW 987 YR$=RIGHT$(Y$,2)'CJRV
763 GOSUB 1110'BEEL 988 NA$=NA$+CH$+CHR$(45)+YR$■FQVB
764 NEXT'BAEL 990 IF NA$=""THEN NA$=ND$'EJCQ
765 OPEN 4,4: IF A$O"YMTHEN 768'FJCR 991 RETURN1BAQN
766 IP LC=0 THEN FOR DE=l TO 25 992 IF ABS(D)<10 THEN SP$="[SPACE5]"
:PRINT#4:NEXT:GOTO 768'JPVV :RETURN'GJNU
767 IF LC=32 THEN FOR DE=1 TO 4 993 IF ABS(D)<100 THEN SP$="[SPACE4]"
:PRINT#4:NEXT'ILTV :RETURN'GKEV
768 PRINT#4,"[SPACE27]REPORT TOTALS" 994 IF ABS(D)<1000 THEN SP$="[SPACE3]"
:PRINT#4'CEKY :RETURN'GLUW
770 PRINT#4,"[SPACE21]INCOME TOTAL 995 IF ABS(D)<10000 THEN SP$="[SPACE2]
[SPACE5,YELLOW]";:D=YI ":RETURN'GMLX
:GOSUB 992'DLJT 996 IF ABS(D)<100000 THEN SP$=" "
771 PRINT#4,SPS;YI'BIFL :RETURN'GNCY
772 PRINT#4,"[SPACE21]IDEAL BAL. 997 SP$="":RETURN'CEOV
TOTAL [YELLOW]";:D=Y1 998 PRINT HD$;"[SPACE4,YELLOW,RVS]
:GOSUB 992'DLDV INVALID INPUT, PLEASE DO AGAIN!
773 PRINT#4,SP$;Y1'BIGN [L. BLUE]":FOR DE=1 TO 1500
775 PRINT#4,"[SPACE21]ACTUAL BAL. :NEXT'FNAK
TOTAL[YELLOW]";:D=Y2 999 PRINT HD$;BL$:RETURN'CIDX
:GOSUB 992'DLIA 1010 IP A$="C"THEN A=1'EEBW
776 PRINTS4,SP$;Y2'BIHQ 1020 IF A$="E"THEN A=2'EEEX
111 PRINT#4'BBDP 1030 IF A$="P"THEN A=3'EEQY
778 CLOSE 4'BBLQ 1040 IF A$="S"THEN A=4'EEUA
779 RETURN1BAQR 1050 IF A$="L"THEN A=5'EEOB
798 FOR DE=0 TO NI:I$(DE)=no:NEXT 1060 IF A$="R"THEN A=6'EEVC
:GOSUB 960:GOSUB 970:RETURN1IWUC 1070 IF A$="D"THEN A=7'EEID
800 PRINT"[CLEAR,L. BLUE]":END'CBEE 1075 IF AS="Q"THEN A=8'EEWI
900 GOSUB 976:GOSUB 975:DE=0:IN$="0" 1080 RETURN'BAQB
: IN=0'FTGK 1090 GET A$:IF A$=""THEN 1090'EJHG
910 GOSUB 950:NA$=ND$:RETURN'DLVI 1100 RETURN'BAQT
920 YI=0:Y1=0:Y2=0:RETURN'EMCK 1110 FOR DE-1 TO 34 STEP 3'EGLX
930 PRINT"[SPACE11,YELLOW,RVS] 1115 IF CH$=MIDS(MC$,DE,
ARE YOU SURE?(Y)[UP]" 3)THEN NA$=(MID$(MC$,DE+3,
:FOR DE=1 TO 300:NEXT'FIKR 3))+"-"+YR$'JHKN
935 PRINT"[SPACE27,UP]■ 1120 NEXT:CH$=LEFT$(NA$,3)
:FOR DE=1 TO 300:NEXT'FIOT :IF CH$O"XXX"THEN RETURN'IPUF
940 GET AS:IF AS=n"THEN 930'EILL 1125 IF CH$="XXX"THEN CH$="JAN"
945 RETURN1BAQM :Y=VAL{RIGHTS(NA$#2))'HRVL
950 AM(2,DE)=AM(0,DE)-AM{1,DE) 1127 IF CH$="XXX"THEN NA$="":NY=Y+1
:RETURN'DAPP :Y$=STR$(NY)'ISNN
960 FOR R=0 TO 2:AM(R,0)=0:NEXT 1130 YR$=RIGHT$(Y$,2):NA$=CHS+"-"+YR$
:RETURN'GOIP :RETURN'GUUF
970 FOR R=0 TO 2:FOR DE=1 TO NI 2003 DATA"TOTALS"'BAUY
:AM(R,0)=AM(R,0)+AM(R,DE):NEXT 2009 DATA"RENT ","FOOD ","CAR[SPACE2]
:NEXT:RETURN'LKTY ","PHONE","UTIL.","GAS[SPACE2]
975 RESTORE:FOR DE=0 TO NI:READ A$ lltBFVM
:I$(DE)=A$:NEXT:RETURN1IUVY 2010 DATA"STOR.","LOANC","WASH ",
976 FOR R=l TO 2:FOR DE=0 TO NI "LIFED","LIFEC","CARIN",
:AM(R,DE)=0:NEXT:NEXT:RETURN'KWVC "C-TV "'BGEG
980 PRINT"[CLEAR,D0WN8,RIGHT4,YELLOW] 2011 DATA"CLO. ","MISC.","SAVE "'BCNA
RETURN TO ESCAPE[L. BLUE]"'BADS 2016 DATA"ITEM#","IDEAL","REAL ",
981 NA$="":M$="":INPUT"[YELLOW,DOWN, "DIFF."'BDKH
RIGHT4]MONTH NAME";M$ 2022 DATA 565,425,220,25,30,80,0,
:IF M$=""THEN 990'GQGX 50'BABD
982 CH$=LEFT$(M$,3)'CJXQ 2023 DATA 0,26,25,55,0,100,100,150'BYIE

983 FOR DE=1 TO 34 STEP 3 2050 A=0:PRINT"[CLEAR,GREEN,RVS]";BL$;


: IF CH$=MID$(MC$,DE, Continued next page

COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 105


64 USERS ONLY
■[SPACE143 DISC 0PTI0NS[SPACE14]"; 2222 RETURN'BAQA
BL$'CMAK 2225 PRINT"[CLEAR,DOWN5,RIGHT4] " ;
2055 PRINT"[D0WN2,RV0FF]n;TAB(13);" M1$'BEKF
[YELLOW]D[L. BLUE]IRECTORY"fCFKK 2228 OF5=fl":INPUT"[DOWN3,RIGHT4]
2060 PRINT TAB(13);"[YELLOW]R[L. BLUE] OLD FILENAME";OF$'CIQN
ENAME FILE"'CENG 2229 IF OF$=<tMTHEN 2260'DHCK
2065 PRINT TAB(13);"[YELLOW]S[L. BLUE] 2230 NF$="":INPUT"[DOWN,RIGHT4]
CRATCH FILE"'CETL NEW FILENAME";NF$'CIVF
2070 PRINT TAB(13);"[YELLOW]F[L. BLUE] 2235 IF NF$=""THEN 2260'DHBH
ORMAT DISK"'CEQH 2240 OPEN 15,8,15:PRINT#15,"R0
2075 PRINT TAB(13);"[YELLOW]I[L. BLUE] : "+NF$+"="+OF$'FRCH
NITIALIZE DRIVE"' CEQN 2245 INPUT#15,E1$,E2$,E3S,E4$'BSIJ
2077 PRINT TAB(13);"[YELLOW]V[L. BLUE] 2250 PRINT"[DOWN,RIGHT4,Y£LLOW,RVS]";
ALIDATE DISK"'CEWO El$;" ";E2S;" ";E3$;" ";E4$;"
2080 PRINT TAB(13);"[DOWN]";M1$'CIQE [RVOFF]":FOR DE=1 TO 1000
2082 PRINT"[DOWN2,GREEN,RVS]";BL$;" :NEXT'FEEM
[SPACE15]SELECTION?[SPACE15]"; 2255 CLOSE 15,8,15'BHBH
BL$'BJYN 2260 RETURN'BAQC
2085 GOSUB 1090'BELI 2265 GOSUB 930:IF A$O"Y"THEN
2090 IF A$="D"THEN A=1'EECG 2290'FKHM
2095 IF A$="R"THEN A=2'EERL 2268 PRINT"[CLEAR,DOWN5,RIGHT4]";
2100 IF A$="S"THEN A=3'EETX Ml$fBEKM
2105 IF A$="F"THEN A=4'EEHD 2270 OF$="":INPUT"[DOWN3,RIGHT4]
2110 IF A$="I"THEN A=5'EELY FILENAME TO SCRATCH";OF$'CICM
2112 IF A$="V"THEN A=6'EEAB 2275 IF OF$=""THEN 2290'DHFL
2115 IF A$=CHR$(13)THEN RETURN1FGHF 2280 OPEN 15,8,15:PRINT#15,"S0
2120 IF A<1 OR A>6 THEN 2050'FIUB :"+OF$'DOEJ
2125 ON A GOSUB 2135,2225,2265,2295, 2285 GOSUB 2245'BEOK
2355,2365'CFRJ 2290 RETURN'BAQF
2130 GOTO 2050'BEEY 2295 GOSUB 930:IF A$O"Y"THEN
2135 PRINT"[CLEAR,D0WN3,RIGHT3,YELLOW] 2350'FKEP
ANY KEY TO PAUSE/RESTART LISTING 2298 PRINT"[CLEAR,DOWN5,RIGHT4]";
[L. BLUE]":PRINT:OPEN 1,8,0, MIS'BEKP
"$0niDIMS 2300 PRINT"[DOWN2,RIGHT4]
2140 GET#1,A$,B$'BIYB INPUT DISC NAME (16 CHAR.
2145 GET#l,A$,B$'bIYG MAX)"'BAPF
2150 GET#1,A$,B$'BIYC 2302 OF$="H:INPUT"[DOWN,RIGHT4]NAME
2155 C=0'BCLG : ";OF$'CIJE
2160 IF A$O""THEN C=ASC(A$)'GHHG 2312 IF LEN(OF$)>16 THEN GOSUB 998
2165 IF B$OM"THEN C=C+ASC(B$) :GOTO 2298'GPEG
*256'ILNN 2325 IF OF$=""THEN 2350'DHCH
2167 IF C<10 THEN PRINT" ";'EEYL 2330 PRINT"[DOWN,RIGHT4]
2170 PRINT"[SPACE7]";MID$(STR$(C), 2) ; INPUT DISC ID CODE (2 CHAR.
TAB(4);"[SPACE2]";'ENRI MAX)"'BAIJ
2175 GET#1,B$:IF STO0 THEN 2215'FNWM 2331 NF$="":INPUT"[DOWN,RIGHT4]ID CODE
2180 IF B$OCHR$(34)THEN 2175'FKXI : ";NF$'CIBG
2185 GET#1,B$:IF B$OCHR$ ( 34 ) THEN 2332 IF LEN(NF$)>2 THEN GOSUB 998
PRINT B$;:GOTO
2185'IUJR :G0TO 2298'GOAI
2190 GETS1,B$:IF BS=CHR$(32)THEN 2335 IF NF$=""THEN 2350'DHBI
2190'FQIK 2340 OPEN 15,8,15:PRINT#15,"N0
2195 PRINT TAB(28);:CS=""1DHRM :"+OF$+","+NF$'FRGI
2200 C$=C$+B$:GET#1,B$: IF B$O""THEN 2345 GOSUB 2245'BEOH
2200'HTYE 2350 RETURN1BAQC
2205 PRINT LEFT$(C$,3)'CGTD 2355 PRINT"[CLEAR,DOWN5,RIGHT11]
2206 GET A$:IF A$O"MTHEN PRINT INITIALIZING DRIVE"'BAVO
:PRINT"[RIGHT7]";M1S'HKDJ 2360 OPEN 15,8,15:PRINT#15,"I0:"
2208 IF A$<>nilTHEN GOSUB 1090 :PRINT"[RIGHT7]";:GOSUB 2245
:IF A$=CHR$(13)THEN 2220'JRXN :RETURN'FTXL
2210 IF ST=0 THEN 2145'DHJA 2365 PRINT"[CLEAR,DOWN5,RIGHT11]
2215 PRINT"[LEFT]BLOCKS FREE"'BAOG VALIDATING DISC'BATO
2220 CLOSE lsIP A$=CHRS(13)THEN 2370 OPEN 15,8,15:PRINTifl5,"V0:n
2222'FMBD :PRINT"[RIGHT7]";:GOSUB 2245
2221 PRINT:GOSUB 296'CEBB : RETURN'FTLM .jjjj|

106 MAY/IUNE
HOW TO ENTER PROGRAMS IN COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS
The programs which appear in this TURN. This will list line 270 to the from data statements, then the prob
magazine have been run, tested and screen. Look for any non-obvious lem is somewhere in the data state
checked for bugs and errors. After a mistakes like a zero in place of an O ments. Check the data statements for
program is tested, it is printed on a or vice-versa. Check for semicolons missing commas or other typos.
letter quality printer with some and colons reversed and extra or If the variable is not coming from
formatting changes. This listing is missing parenthesis. All of these data statements, then the problem
then photographed directly and things will cause a syntax error. will be a little harder to find. Check
printed in the magazine. Using this There is only one time a syntax each line that contains the variable
method ensures the most error-free error will tell you the 'wrong' line to for typing mistakes.
program listings possible. look at. If the line the syntax error OUT OF DATA ERROR
Whenever you see a word inside refers to has a function call (i.e., FN This error message is always re
brackets, such as [DOWN], the word A(3)), the syntax error may be in the lated to the data statements in a pro
represents a keystroke or series of line that defines the function, rather gram. If this error occurs, it means
keystrokes on the keyboard. The than the line named in the error that tile program has run out of data
word [DOWN] would be entered by message. Look for a line near the items before it was supposed to. It is
pressing the cursor-down key. If beginning of the program (usually) usually caused by a problem or typo
multiple keystrokes are required, the that has DEF FN A(X) in it with an in the data statements. Check first to
number will directly follow the equation following it. Look for a typo see if you have left out a whole line
word. For example, [D0WN4] would in the equation part of this definition. of data. Next, check for missing com
mean to press the cursor-down key mas between numbers. Reading data
ILLEGAL QUANTITY ERROR
four times. If there are multiple from a page of a magazine can be a
This is another common error
words within one set of brackets, en strain on the brain, so use a ruler or a
message. This can also be caused by
ter the keystrokes directly after one piece of paper or anything else to
a typing error, but it is a little harder
another. For example, [DOWN, help you keep track of where you are
to find. Once again, list the line num
RIGHT 2] would mean to press the as you enter the data.
ber that the error message refers to.
cursor-down key once and then the
There is probably a poke statement OTHER PROBLEMS
cursor-right key twice.
on this line. If there is, then the error It is important to remember that
In addition to these graphic sym
is referring to what is trying to be the 64 and the PET/CBM computers
bols, the keyboard graphics are all
poked. A number must be in the will only accept a line up to 80 char
represented by a word and a letter.
range of zero to 255 to be poke-able. acters long. The VIC 20 will accept a
The word is either SHFT or CMD and
For example, the statement POKE line up to 88 characters long. Some
represents the SHIFT key or the
1024.260 would produce an illegal times you will find a line in a pro
Commodore key. The letter is one of
quantity error because 260 is greater gram that runs over this number of
the letters on the keyboard. The
than 255. characters. This is not a mistake in
combination [SHFT E] would be en
Most often, the value being poked the listing. Sometimes programmers
tered by holding down the SHIFT
is a variable (A,X...). This error is tell get so carried away crunching pro
key and pressing the E. A number
ing you that this variable is out of grams that they use abbreviated com
following the letter tells you how
range. If the variable is being read mands to get more than 80 (or 88)
many times to type the letter. For
example, [SHFT A4.CMD B3] would
CHART OF SPECIAL CHARACTER COMMANDS
mean to hold the SHIFT key and
press the A four times, then hold H"(HOME)" =UNSHIFTED CLR/ HOME U ■■[PURPLE]--CONTROL 5
down the Commodore key and press 0 "IGREENf =CONTROL6
Q ■ |CLEAR1" - SHIFTED CLR/HOME ■|F2|" =
the B three times.
01 -[DOWN!1'-CURSOR DOWN 3 "1BLUE1"= CONTROL 7
The chart on this page tells you the
n "|UP]" = CURSOR UP Sj "[YELLOW]" = CONTROL 8
keys to press for any word or words
Q ■|PJGHT|" = CURSOR RIGHT ] "[ORANGE!" = COMMODORE 1
inside brackets. Refer to this chart
|1 ■■[LEFT!1' =CURSOR LEFT P "[BR0WN|" = C0MM0D0RE2
whenever you aren't sure what keys "[F6|"-F6

to press. The little graphic next to Fj "[RVS!" = CONTROL 9 R-IL RED!" -COMMODORE 3
each keystroke shows you what you B "[RVOF7I "=CONTROL0 PI "iGRAYU11 = COMMODORE 4 I}

will see on the screen. El "1BLACK]"=CONTRCL1 |3 -[GRAY21" =COMMODORE 5 jf] "[POUND!" = ENGLISH
[1 ■|WHITE1'-=CONTROL2 ij'lL GREEN1"= COMMODORE 6 POUND
SYNTAX ERROR
This is by far the most common H "jRED]" = CONTROL 3 H "(L BLUE1" = COMMODORE 7 1 = PI SYMBOL

error encountered while entering a fl ■[CYAN]"-CONTROL4 ■■[GRAY31" =COMMODORE 8 fliT-= UP ARROW


program. Usually (sorry folks) this GRAPHIC SYMBOLS WILL BE REPRESENTED AS EITHER THE LETTERS
means that you have typed some SHFT (SHIFT) AND A KEY ("[SHFT QrSHFT J.SHFT D,SHFT S]"} OR THE
thing incorrectly on the line the syn LETTERS CMDR (COMMODORE) AND A KEY C'[CMDR Q.CMDR
tax error refers to. If you get the G.COMDR Y,CMDR H]"). IF A SYMBOL IS REPEATED, THE NUMBER OF
message "?Synrax Error Break In Line REPITITIONS WILL BE DIRECTLY AFTER THE KEY AND BEFORE THE
270", type LIST 270 and press RE COMMA ("[SPACE3,SHFT S4.CMDR M2J").

COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 107


characters on one line. You can enter
these lines by abbreviating the com
How to Use the Magazine Entry Program
mands when you enter the line. The
abbreviations for BASIC commands The Magazine Entry Program on IMPORTANT
are on pages 133-134 of the VIC 20 page 123 is a machine language pro
If the Magazine Entry Program
user guide and 130-131 of the Com gram that will assist you in entering
sees a mistake on a line, it does not
modore 64 user's guide. the programs in this magazine cor
enter that line into memory. This
If you type a line that is longer rectly. It is for use with the Commo
makes it impossible to enter a line
than 80 (or 88) characters, the com dore 64 only and was written by
incorrectly.
puter will act as if everything is ok, Mark Robin using the TEA Editor/As
until you press RETURN. Then, a syn sembler. Once the program is in Error Messages and What
tax error will be displayed. place, it works its magic without you They Mean
THE PROGRAM WONT RUN!! having to do anything else. The pro There are six error messages that
This is the hardest of problems to gram will not let you enter a line if the Magazine Entry Program uses.
resolve; no error message is dis there is a typing mistake on it, and Here they are, along with what they
played, but the program just doesn't better yet,'it identifies the kind of mean and how to fix them.
run. This can be caused by many error for you. NO CHECKSUM: This means that
small mistakes typing a program in. Getting Started you forgot to enter the apostrophe
First check that the program was Type in the Magazine Entry Pro and the four letters at the end of the
written for the computer you are gram carefully and save it as you go line. Move the cursor to the end of
using. Check to see if you have left along (just in case). Once the whole the line you just typed and enter the
out any lines of the program. Check program is typed in, save it again on checksum.
each line of the program for typos or tape or disk. Now RUN the program. QUOTE: This means that you for
missing parts. Finally, press the The word POKING will appear on got (or added) a quote mark some
RUN/STOP key while the program is the top of the screen with a number. where in the line. Check the line in
'running'. Write down the line the The number will increment from the magazine and correct the quote.
program broke at and try to follow 49152 up to 50052,and just lets you PARENTHESIS: This means that
the program backwards from this know that the program is running. If you forgot (or added) a parenthesis
point, looking for problems. everything is ok, the program will somewhere in the line. Check the
finish running and end. Then type line in the magazine again and cor
IF ALL ELSE FAILS
NEW. If there is a problem with the rect the parenthesis.
You've come to the end of your
data statements, the program will tell KEYWORD: This means that you
rope. You can't get the program to
you where to look to find the prob have either forgotten a command or
run and you can't find any errors in
lem. spelled one of the BASIC keywords
your typing. What do you do? As al
Once the program has run, it is in (GOTO, PRINT.) incorrectly. Check
ways, we suggest that you Cry a local
memory ready to go. To activate the the line in the magazine again and
user group for help. In a group of
program, type SYS49152 and press check your spelling.
even just a dozen members, some
RETURN. When the READY prompt is # OF CHARACTERS: This means
one is bound to have typed in the
displayed, type TEST and press RE that you have either entered extra
same program.
TURN. You are now ready to enter characters or missed some charac
If you do get a working copy, be
the programs from the magazine. ters. Check the line in the magazine
sure to compare it to your own ver
Typing the Programs again. This error message will also
sion so that you can learn from your
All the program listings in this occur if you misspell a BASIC com
errors and increase you understand
magazine that are for the 64 have an mand, but create another keyword in
ing of programming.
apostrophe followed by four letters doing so. For example, if you mis
If you live in the country, don't
at the end of the line (i.e., 'ACDF). spell PRINT as PRONT, the 64 sees the
have a local user group, or you sim
The apostrophe and letters should be letter P and R, the BASIC keyword
ply can't get any help, write to us. If
entered along with the rest of the ON and then the letter T. Because it
you do write to us, include the fol
line. This is a checksum that the Mag sees the keyword ON, it thinks
lowing information about the pro
azine Entry Program uses. you've got too many characters, in
gram you are having problems with:
Enter the line and the letters at die stead of a simple misspelling. Check
The name of the program
end and then press RETURN, just as spelling of BASIC commands if you
The issue of the magazine it was in
you normally would. can't find anything else wrong.
The computer you are using
If the line is entered correctly7, a UNIDENTIFIED: This means
Any error messages and the line
bell is sounded and the line is en that you have either made a simple
numbers
tered into the computer's memory spelling error, you typed the wrong
Anything displayed on the screen
(without the characters at the end). line number, or you typed the
A printout of your listing (if
If a mistake was made while enter checksum incorrectly. Spelling er
possible)
ing the line, a noise is sounded and rors could be the wrong number of
Send your questions to: an error message is displayed. Read spaces inside quotes, a variable
Commodore Microcomputers the error message, then press any spelled wrong, or a word mispelled.
1200 Wilson Drive key to erase the message and correct Check the line in the magazine again
West Chester, PA 19380 the line. and correct die mistake. C
ATTN: Program Problem C

108 MAY/JUNE
Magazine Entry Program

1 PRINT " [CLEAR]POKING-"; 1050 DATA 41, 52, 45,4E,54,48,45,53


5 P=49152 :REM $C0fl0 1051 DATA 49,53,00,C8,Bl,7A,DfJ,FB
10 READ A$:IF AS="END"THEN 80 1052 DATA 84,FD,CO,09,10,03,40,07
20 L=AS.C(MID$(A$, 2,1) ) 1053 DATA C1,88,88,88,88,88,B1,7A
30 H=ASC(MID$(A$,1,1)) 1054 DATA C9,27,D0,13,A9,00,91,7A
40 L=L-48 :IF L>9 THEN L=L-7 1055 DATA C8,A2,O0,B1,7A,9D,3C,0 3
50 H=H-48 :IF H>9 THEN H=H-7 1056 DATA C8,E8,E0,04,D0,F5,60,4C
60 PRINT" [H0ME,RIGHT12]"P; 1057 DATA F2,C2,A0,fl0,B9,00,02,99
70 B=H*16+L:POKE P,B:T=T+B:P=P+1 1058 DATA 4 0,0 3,F0,F2,C8,Dfl,F5,A0
:GOTO 10 1059 DATA O0,B9,40,O3,FO,E8,99,03
80 IF TO 103233 THEN PRINT"MISTAKE IN 1060 DATA 02,C8,Dfl,F5,20,D7,Cl,4C
DATA - -> CHECK DATA STATEMENTS" :END 1061 DATA 56,C2,A0,0B,A9,O0,99,03
90 PRINT"DONE":END 1062 DATA CU,8D,30,0 3,88,10PF7,A9
100C DATA 40,23,00,00,00,00,00,08 1063 DATA 80,85,02,20,IB,03, A(l,00
1001 DATA 00,00,00,00,00,00,00,0D 1064 DATA 20, 9B,Cl,20,CA,01,20,31
1002 DATA 00,58,01,5E,01,66,01,76 1065 DATA C2,E6,7A,E6,7B,20,7C,A5
1003 DATA C1,83,C1,8F,C1,EA,EA,EA 106G DATA A0,O0,2O,AF,C0,F0,CD,24
1004 DATA 4C,8 3,C0,A2,05,BD,1D,C0 1067 DATA 02,FO,06,2S,D7,CO,4C,12
1005 DATA 95,73,CA,10,F8,60,A0,02 1068 DATA C2,C9,22,D0,O6,20,BC,C0
1006 DATA B9,00,02,D9,3C,C1,D0,0B 1069 DATA 4C,12,C2,20fE7,CO,4C,12
1007 DATA 88,10,F5,A9,01,8D,10,C0 1070 DATA C2,A0,0 0,B9,00,0 2,2O,A3
1008 DATA 40,IF,01,60,A0,03,B9,00 1071 DATA C0,C8,90,0A,18,6D,G9,C0
1009 DATA 02,D9,38,C1,D0,E0,88,10 1072 DATA 3D,09,C0,4C,33,C2,88,A2
1010 DATA F5,A9,00,8D,10,C0,4C,1F 1073 DATA 00,B9,00,02,9D,00,02,F0
1011 DATA C1,60,A0,03,B9,O0,02,D9 1074 DATA 04,E8,08,DO,F4,60,18,AD
1012 DATA 34,C1,D0,E0,88,10,F5,A0 1075 DATA 0B,C0,69,41,8D,0B,CO,38
1013 DATA 05,B9,A2,E3,99,73,00,88 1076 DATA AD,OC,CO,E9,19,90,06,8D
1014 DATA 10,F7,A9,00,8D,18,D4,4C 1077 DATA 00,00,40,60,C2,AD,00,CO
1015 DATA 1F,C1,E6,7A,D0,0 2,E6,7B 1078 DATA 69,41,8D,0C,C0,AD,05,Ce
1016 DATA 4C,79,00,A5,9D,F0,F3,A5 1079 DATA 6D,37,C0,48,AD,£)6,C0,6D
1017 DATA 7A,C9,FF,D0,ED,A5,7B,C9 1080 DATA 08,C0,8D,0E,C0,68,6D,0A
1018 DATA 01,D0,E7,20,5A,C0,AD,00 1081 DATA C0,8D,aD,C0,AD,0E,C0,6D
1019 DATA 02,20,A3,C0,9 0,DC,A0,0 0 1082 DATA 09,C0,8D,OE,C0,38,E9,19
1020 DATA 40,EA,01,09,30,30,06,09 1083 DATA 90,06,8D,0E,CO,4C,96,C2
1021 DATA 3A,10,02,38,60,18,60,08 1084 DATA AD,0E,C0,69,41,8D,0E,C0
1022 DATA B1,7A,C9,20,D0,03,C8,D0 1085 DATA AD,f)D,C0,E9,19,90,05,8D
1023 DATA F7,B1,7A,60,18,C8,B1,7A 1086 DATA 0D,C0,4C,AB,C2,AD,0D,CO
1024 DATA F0,35,C9,22,F0,F5,5D,O5 1087 DATA 69,41,8D,OD,C0,A0,01,AD
1025 DATA C0,8D,05,C0,AD,06,C0,6 9 1088 DATA 0B,C0,CD,3C,03,D0,20,C8
1026 DATA 0 0,8D,06,C0,4C,BD,CO,18 1089 DATA AD,0C,Cfl,CD,3D,03,00,17
1027 DATA 6D,07,C0,8D,07,C0,90,03 1090 DATA C8,AD,0D,C0,CD,3E,03,D0
1028 DATA EE,08,C0,EE,0B,C0,60,18 1091 DATA 0E,AD,0E,C0,CD,3F,O3,D0
1029 DATA 6D,0A,C0,8D,0A,C0,9 0,0 3 1092 DATA O6,20,6 4,C3,4C,7A,C0,AD
1030 DATA EE,09,C0,EE,0C,C0,60,0A 1093 DATA 10,00,00,11,98,48,68,4C
1031 DATA A8,B9,11,C0,85,FB,B9,12 1094 DATA F7,C0,AD,1O,C0,F0,01,60
1032 DATA C0,8 5,FC,A0,0 0,A9,12,20 1095 DATA A9,04f4C,F7,C0,A4,FD,A9
1033 DATA D2,FF,B1,FB/F0,06,20,D2 1096 DATA 27,91,7A,A2,00,C8,BD,OB
1034 DATA FF,C8,D0,F6,20,54,C3,20 1097 DATA C0',91,7A,C8,E8,E0,0 4,D0
1035 DATA 7E,C3,20,E4,FF,FO,FB,A0 1098 DATA F5,A9,00,91,7A,20,6 4,03
1036 DATA 1B,B9,3F,C1,20,D2,FF,88 1099 DATA 4C,7A,C0,A0,0O,B9,O0,O2
1037 DATA 10,F7,68,68,A9,00,8D,00 1100 DATA F0,11,09,20,DO,03,EE,03
1038 DATA 02,4C,74,A4,4B,49,4C,4C 1101 DATA CO,C9,29,D0,0 3,EE,04,C0
1039 DATA 54,45,53,54,41,44,44,91 1102 DATA C8,D0,EA,AD,0 3,C0,CD,0 4
1040 DATA 91,00,20,20,20,20,20,20 1103 DATA CO,D0,01,6O,A9,O5,4C,F7
1041 DATA 20,20,20,20,20,20,20,20 1104 DATA C0,A9,2O,8D,0O,D4,SD,ai
1042 DATA 20,20,20,20,20,20,91,0D 1105 DATA D4,A9,09,8D,0 5,D4,A9,flF
1043 DATA 51,55,4F,54,45,00,4B,45 1105 DATA 8D,18,D4,6 0,20,41,C3,A9
1044 DATA 59757,4F,52,44,00,23,20 1107 DATA 81,20,77,C3,A9,8O,2O,77
1045 DATA 4F,46,20,43,48,41,52,41 1103 DATA C3,40,71,03,20,41,03,A9
10 46 DATA 43,54,45,52,53,00,55,4E 11(59 DATA 11, 20,77,C3,A9,10,20,77
1047 DATA 49,44,45,4E,54,49,46,49 1110 DATA C3 A9 00 3D 04 D4 60 3D
1048 DATA 45,44,00,4E,4F,20,43,48 1111 DATA O4,D4,A2,7fi,A0,nS,8i3,DO
1049 DATA 45,43,4B,53,55,4D,00,5O 1112 DATA FD,CA,D0,FA,6O,END

CONLMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 109


USER GROUPS
Commodore user groups nations idc and around the world proi Ide invaluable ;!-■ sistance to ( ommodore computerlsts. If you arc looking
for people who share your computing interests oril you need help getting started with your computer, contact the group near you.
1 !ii> Usi Is compiled from groups who responded to isurvej conducted by Pete Baczor, ( ommodore's user group coordinator. If you
would like your group i<> appear here, or If you need Infi rmation about < pmmodore's user group support, contact Pete :ii Commodore
Business Machines, uuuw Uson Drive, Wcsi < hester, PA 19380.

ALABAMA Geneva Bowlin C64 Users Group Danbury Lakeland

Birmingham Davis Street—72032 Gerry Fnedenci Fairfield County Commodoie Randall Lipham

Birmingham Commodore 501-329-3415 11614 Red Dog R^ad—95S59 UserGp PO Box 912—33840

Computer Club PusseUville 916-265-6532 Kenneth H Hottes B13-666-16S2

Harry Jones RuGsellvUle Commodoie O|ai PO Box212—06810 Gawsville


4845 Avenue V Lot 7-B—35208 203-797-0076 GawsviHe Commodore
Users Group 64/20 Club
205-923-9260 Bob Btazeal Gieg Bums East Hartiord Users Gioup

401 S Arlington Dr —72801 215 N Fulton St—93023 Haitlord County Commodoie M Drew Hurley
Enterprise
Wiiegrass Micro-Computer 501-967-1868 805-646-0617 UserGp P.O. Box 14716—32604

Society R Curtiss 904-462-3128


Oxnard
CALIFORNIA P.O. Box 8553—06018
William H. Brown CIVIC 64 Jacksonville
109 Key Bend Rd.—36330 Altaloma Nathan Okum Enfield UNF Commodore Computer
205-347-7564 Cactus Communicator 120 W Magnolia Ave.—93030 Northern CT Commodore Club Hub
P O Box 1277—91701 805-985-8150 Mike Levesque Jay S Huebner
Mobile
714-865-4816 University of Noun Florida—
Commodore Club oi Mobile Pasadena 3 Maible St —06082
Arcadia 203-745-8209 32216
Tom Wyatt P C A.C.C
Pasadena Commodore 304-646-2729
3868-H Rue Maison—36608 Brian Klo'.z Hampton
205-343-1178 Computer Club 1135 Coronet Ave—91107 Commodore East Computer Lutz
Ernie McDonald 213-351-8198 Users Group VIC/64 Heartland Users—Tampa
Pinson
PO Box 1163—91006 Ernest Julian Tom Keough
Commodore Ch±—South San Carlos
81B-904-0607 165 B S Bigelow Rd —06247 14806 Morning Dr —33549
William J Freeman Peninsula Commodore
P.O. Box 324—35126 Auburn Users Group 203-455-0108 813-977-2016
205-854-0650 Auburn Commodore Timothy Avery Mystic MacDiIl. AFB
Computer Club 543 Old County Ed —94070 C64 Users Group of New London South Tampa Commodore 64
Scottsboro
PatSuub 415-595-2497 A Estes Users Gtoup
Scottsboro C-64 Users' Gioup
11210 Mua Loma Dr —95603 57 Fishtown Ln —C6355 Ronald S Clement
Richard Radon San Francisco
916-823-7095 736F Second Dr—33621
Rt. 5. Box 255—35768 PET on the AIR Smmfad
205-574-1830 Baldwin Park Bola Lowe Stamford Commodore
B13-840-O682
Cal Poly Commodoie Users 525 Crestlume Dr —9413Z Users Group Miami
ALASKA Group
415-681-7520 Stan Czernel Miami 2064
Calgary David Dietiel PO Box 1337—O6902 Jim Luftman
San Ysidro
Calgary Commodore 14617W Ramona Blvd —91706 203-325-4381 12911 SW 49th St —33175
South Bay Commodore 64
Users Group 818-960-9906 305-226-1185
Users Group Stratford
Lloyd Norman BellOowei Jose M Gallego Commodore User Group o( North Miami Beach
810 Canneld Wey SW—T2W 1K1 Club 64 P O. Box 3193—52073 Stratford Commodore Educators User
403-281-2772 Robert Johnson 619-420-5887 Dan Kern-Ekins Group—North
Anchorage 14944 Bayou Ave —90706 PO Box 1213—06497 Robert Figueroa
Santa Mana
Alaska 84 Commodore Chatswonh 203-336-1981 16330 NE 2nd Ave.—33162
Central Coast Co.-nmodcre
Computer Club San Fernando Valley 305-944-5548
User Gioup West Haven
Doug Gannon Commodoie Ubbis Group Gilbert F. Vela U oi New Haven Microcomputer Ocala
P O Box 6043—99502 Tom Lynch 4237 Plumeria Ct —93455 Club Tri-County Commodoie
907-248-3451 21208 Nashville—91311 805-937-4174 M. McConeghy Users Group
Ketchikan 818-709-4736 U of New Haven. 300 Orange Don Vandervenier
Santa Monica
First City Users Group Clovis Ave —06516 PO Box 1151—32671
Commodore 64 West
Jim Llanos Fresno 64 Users 304-629-1220
Don Campbell DELAWARE
PO Box6002—99901 Greg Edwards P.O Box 406—9C406-G406 Orlando
907-225-5695 091 W 9th #203—93612 Felton
213-828-9308 Central Florida Commodoie
Sitka 209-297-7093 Diamond State Useis Group
Users Gioup
Santa Rosa Michael Butler
Sitka Commodore Users Gioup Concord Thurman Lawson
Santa Rosa Commodore 64 P O Box 892—19943
Dennis Lanham Diablo Valley Commodore P O Box 7326—32854
Useis Group 302-284-4495
PO. Box 2204—99835 Users Group 305-886-0390
Garry Palmer
907-747-3491 Dean Steichen Newark
333 E Robtes Ave.—95407-7925 Palm Harbor
P O Box 27155—94520 Newark Commodore Users
ARIZONA 707-584-7009 Suncoast 64s
Gioup
Costa Mesa Stockton Curtis J Miller
Chandler Bob Taylor
C Tech Users oi Orange County Stockton Commodore
2419 US 19 North—33563
Arizona VIC St 64 Users 210 DursoDr—19711
R Stevenson Users Gioup 813-7B5-1036
Thomas Monson 302-737-46B6
P O Box 1497—92626 Rita McCann Panama City
904 W Marlboro Cir—85224
Cupertino 2929 Calariva Dr —95204 FLORIDA Bay Commodore Users Gioup
602-963-6149
PUG of Silicon Valley 209-948-5890 Avon Park Doug Schipall
Globe
Marvin Vander Kool CHIPS Users Group PO Box 3187—32401
Gila Hackers COLORADO
22355 Rancho Ventura—95014 Gerald Klimczak 904-785-2314
Paul R. Machula Aspen
408-446-1936 P O. Box 3063—33825 Pensacola
Rt 1. Box 34—B5501 Rocky Mountain Commodore
Danvllla 813-452-2304 Commodore Advantage
602-425-7260 Club
Danville Uaors Gioup Bradenton Deanna Owens
Phoenix Ray Brooks
KentE Davis Manasota Commodore P.O Box 18490—32523
Phoenix Arizona Commodore PO Box 377—81612
1B5 Front St. Suite 106—94526 Useis Group 904-456-6554
Club 303-923-5037
415-820-1223 Bob Bronson Pensacola
Leslie A. Roberts Uenver
Hollywood 916 E. 35th Ave Dt—33508 Commodoie Users Group oi
P.O. Box 34905—85067
Colorado Commodore Computer
602-265-4296 Hollywood Commodoie 813-747-1785 Pensacola
Club
Users Group Brandon Debbie Johnston
Sierra Vista Royce Mitchell
Martin Blackwell Brandon Users Group P O Box 3533—32506
Thunder Nfouritain Commodore 9400 Elm Ct. #6C78—80221
733 N Hldgewood Blvd.—90038 Paul A Daugherty 904-455-5804
Users Gp 303-427-1309
213-463-B973 108 Anglewood Dr —33511 Plantation
JefiTylet Grand Junction
Liver more 813-6B5-5138 Suburban 64 Users Gioup
P.O. Box 1796—85636 Western Slope Ccmmodore
602-458-0320 PALS Ciearwatet Ken Partridge
Useis Group
Jo Johnson Clearwater Commodore Club 1360 SW B2nd Ter. Apt #625—
Tucson Ralph D 'Andrea
886 South K—94550 Gary B.Gould 33324
Catahna Commodore PO Box4142—81502
415-449-1084 1532 Lemon Street—33516 305-474-6923
Computer Club 303-242-B990
LosOsos 813-442-0770 Sanibel
MikeLaPagka
San Luis Obispo Commodoie CONNECTICUT Cacoa Sarubel Commodore VIC
3371 S Mormon Di —85730
Comp Cl Colchester D-shift-oh Phil Belangei
602-721-7824
Gary Bissell Computer Users Group Mike Schnoke 1119 Periwinkle Box 73—33957
ARKANSAS 1766 9th Street—93402 Liz Ralolowski P.O Box 54B—32922-0548 813-472-3471
Conway
B05-52B-3371 Halls Hill Road—06415 Eaton Park Shalimer
Commodore.'PET Users Club Nevada City 203-267-9501 VIC/64 Heartland User Group— Ft Walton Beach Commodore

110 MAY/JUNE
USER GROUPS
User Group Roberts Smoltch Curtis L Shiffei
Jim Moore Spoon Rivet College. RR #1— P 0. Box 3140—50316
PO. Box 3—32549 61520 515-282-1388
904-651-3737 309-647-2710
Hotted
Tamarac Champaign Capital Complex Commodore George Caswell 413-562-1027
Browa:d Commodore Champaign Urbana Commodore Computer Club
16 Westwood—04074 Wcfc UTi
Users Group Useis Group Doren Hulet 207-883-3362 EM 20/64 Users Group
Lewis Horn Steve Gast PO Box 58—5011B
Wesibiook John Chaplain
PO Box25794—33320 2006 Crescent Di —61821 515-989-0568
Your Commodoie Usats Gioup 36 BuckmanSt—01801
813-726-4390 217-352-9681
Waterloo MiktProdM 617-935-3490
Tavares Elgin Waterloo Area Commodoie Club P.O Box 611—04092
Triangle Educational Users Fox Valley Commodoie RickVolker MICHIGAN
207-854-4579
Group Useis Group 945 Lowel—50702 Ann Arbor
John Zeigler Herb Gross 319-232-1062 MARYLAND
Commodore User Group—
P.O Box 326—32778 833 Prospect—60120 Aberdeen U of Mich.
KANSAS
904-343^1499 312-695-1316 COMPUCATS JohnJ. Gannor
Hutchinson Betty Scheulei
Zephyr hill Galesburg School of Pub. Health—
Salt City Commodoie Club
East Pasco Commodore Knox Commodoie Club 680 W BelAii Ave —21001 U of Mich—48109
Wendell D Hinkson 301-272-0472
Usets Group Randy Fox Bay City
P 0. Box 2644—67504
P J. Bryden 195 Olive S; —61401 Baltimore Bay City Users Group
316-662-2392
1836 Sandy Road—34248 309-343-5334 Baltimore Aiea Commodore Jim Gnffin
813-567-6089 Viola
Harvey Uses Group 1013 N. Johnson St.—48706
GEORGIA Commodoie Users Group Michael M Broumbeig
South Suburban V20 Users Club 517-893-1106
of Wichita, Inc 4605 Vogt Ave—21206
Albany Nick Forte Clare
Wall Lounsbery 301-3252156
Albany CBM Amatuer 16409 Emerald—60426 Mid-Michigan Commodore Club
Rt #1,Box 115—67149
Computerist 312-331-4851 Woslinghouse BWI Commodore Virgil Graham
316-545-7460
David L Via Kankakee Usoi Group —48617
PO Box5461—31706 Kankakee Hackers KENTUCKY Lee D li.iuon 517-386-3429
912-436-5596 Bill Brouiile: Bardstown P.O Box 1693—21203
East Detroit
Atlanta RR #2. Box228-H—60901 Commodore Baidstown Usets Woodlawn Commodoie Club Michigan Commodore 64 User
VIC-tims 813-937-1083 Gioup Mike Long Group, Inc.
Earl Dobney Lin coinwood Patrick Kirtley 1712 Aberdeen Rd —21234 Chuck Cieshga
P O Box 457052—32346 C-64 Users Gioup. Inc P 0 Box 165—W004 301-788-4641 PO Box 539—18021
Btunswick David W. Tamkin 502-348-6360 Fallston 313-773-6302
Golden Isles Commodore Users PO Box46464—60646 Bowling Gieen Harfoid County Commodoie Madison Heights
Richard L Young 312-583-4629 Bowling Green Commodoie Useis Group Slipped Disk, Inc.
135 Sherwood Forest Cir — Monmouth Useis Gioup Kim Lloyd J, Moskow
31520 Western Illinois Commodoie Doug Skinner P.O. Box 209—21047 31044 John R—48071
College Park Users Group PO Box20214—42102 301-B79-3583 313-583-9803
Commodore Format Robeit Cokel 502-841-0483 Frederick Midland
Gregory Young 906 W. 6th Ave—61462 Glasgow Frederick Functioneeis Commodoie Computer Club
2804 Camp Creek Pkwy —30337 309-734-5589 Glasgow Commodore Stephen M Jacobson Jack Walley
404-767-2487 Peoria Users Gioup 108 Key Pkwy.—21701 4106 West Man Rd —4B460
Morrow Commodoie Users of Peoria Steve England 301-663-1471 517-836-5133
CCC 64 UG Jeff Martin PO Box 154—42141 Ha getstown Richmond
David Padett 1600 W Deveteux—61614 502-678-3609
Hageistown Users Group COMP
P.O. Box 842—30260 309-692-0230 Henderson Joseph F Rutkowski Bnan Pringle
404-968-4154 Rocklord Commodore Connection 23 Coventry Ln.—21740 7514 Putty Gutt Rd.—48062
Oakwood Rockfoid Area Commodore James Kemp 301-797-972B 313-329-2625
Computer Club 1010 S Elm—42420
NE Georgia Commodore Leonard town Southfiold
Users Group Kalhe Hoyer 502-827-8153 PAX/COM/64 Commodore Computer
Ranndy Shulei 2507 Pelham Rd—61107 LOUISIANA David J Mamblin Enthusiasts
Route #2. Box 226—30566 815-963-8773 240 Jefferson St —20650 Steven Lepsetz
M in
404-534-1142 Scott AFB 301-475-8440 20050 Winchester-^8076
Sixty-Four 'Urn Users' Group
Riverdale Scott Computer Users' Group Elizabeths Hoffman Potomac 313-354-7224
Clayton County C64 Users Group Gilbert D Helland Western Montgomery C64 Watervliei
4317 Stockton St.—70001
Joyce Jay P 0 Box 397—62225 504-831-7950 Users Gioup DAB Computer Club
527 Wanelyn Way—30274 61B-746-2732 Jorge Montalvan Dennis Burlington
New Orleans
404-478-7906 Springfield 11209 Tack House Ct —20854 P O. Box 542—59098
Control Data Institute
Stowe Mountain Springfield PET Useis Gioup Xl-983-8199 616-463-5457
KentH Courtney H
Atlanta C64 Users Group Bill Eaidley 6600 Plaza Dr —70127 RockviHo
MINNESOTA
Ronald Lisoski 3116 Concord—62704 504-245-1604 RockvilleVlC/64 Useis Gioup
1767 Big Valley Lane—30083 217-753-85CO Tom Pounds Little Falls
Shreveport
404-981-4253 P.O Box 8805—20856 Heartland Area Compute! Co-op
INDIANA Ark-La-Tex Commodore 64 Club
301-231-7B23 Sam Wall
IDAHO Columbus Bill Walker
2401 RiverwDod Dr —56345
5515 Fairfax Ave —71106 Silver Springs
Coeur d'Alene Columbus Commodore Club 612-632-5511
Fisnk Nicholas 318-636-3611 Montgomery County
Coeut d'Alene Computer Club
Commodoie Soc Redwood Falls
Gary Edwards 11210W Georgetown Rd — Sulphui
Meryle B Pounds Interface
506 Lunceford Ln —83814 47201 Southwest LA Users' Gioup
PO Box6444—20906 Ron Schilling
208-765-3803 812-342-68C5 Fied White
301-946-1564 243 E 2nd St.—56283
Indianapolis 99 Ann—70663
Grangeville 507-637-8381
VIC Indy Club 318-625-5148 Suitland
GrangeviEe HS Computer Gub
Fred Imhausen Edison Commodoie Users Group MISSISSIPPI
Don Kissinger Swartz
William H Han
910 S 'D1 Street—83530 Box 11543. 4812 E Michigan Ouachita Commodoie Club Biloxi
St —46201 4314 Oxfoid Di —20746
208-983-4355 Beckie Walkei Gulf Coast Commodoie Club
N Manchester PO. Box 175—71281 MASSACHUSETTS Mark W Harvey
Idaho Falls
Manchester Commodoie 318-343-8044 4550 W. Beach Blvd —39531
Eagle Rock Commodoie Bedfoid
Users Group 601-74-4084
Computer Club MAINE Raytheon Commodore Users
Jeanie Larson Richard M. Bellows Group Hattiesburg
6060 E 9th Si —46902 Brunswick
P.O. Box 3884—83403-3884 John Rudy Commodoie Computer Club
Y.U G. (Brunswick)
208-529-4738 Teira Haute Raytheon Co —GRA6—017730 Len J Mathias
Peter O'Brien
Western Indiana Commodoie 817-861-0402 Dept ol Poll Sci.—U of Miss —
ILLINOIS 20 Columbia Ave —04011
Users Group 39406-0076
207-725-4580 Foxboro
Belvidere
Dennis C Graham Foxboio Area Commodoie
Heuristics Useis Gioup 912 E Blown Ave.—47803 Oiano MISSOURI
User Group
Chip Downey 812-234-5099 Computer Society of Penobscot
Samuel Knight Cape Girardeau
1303 Nettle #2—61008 An Pete
W. Laiayetie 154 Green St —02035 Heartland Useis Group
101 Crosby Lab. UMO—04469
Bloomington Commodore Owneis of Lafayetie 617-543-4291 Mason Emerson
207-827-4542
Bloomingtcn-Normal Ross IndeLcato Rutland 129 E. Lonmer #7—64701
Commodoie ug Portland 314-334-9462
20 Patrick Lane—47906 The Polyhedral Wizard
Carl Burress 317-743-3410
Southern Maine 20/64
Rob Hodgon Jr. Golden
P 0. Box 1058—61702-1058 Ed Moore
422 Countiyeide Est—01543 MOARK Commodoie Useis
309-828-3783 IOWA 10 Walker Street—04092
Westfield Group
207-B71-0111
Canton Dps Moines
Pioneer Valley VIC/64 Club Marshall B. Turner
Canton Area Comraodoie Commodoie Computer Users of Scarborough P O Box 504—65658
Marvin S Yale
Users Group Iowa YU.G (Scarborough) 34 Bates St —01085 417-271-3293

COMMODORE MICROCOMPUTERS 111


Long Island VIC Society NORTH CAROLINA 503-967-8701

USER GROUPS Lawrence V Steiera


20 Spyglass Lane—11733
516-751-7844
Charlotte
Charlotte C64 Users Group
H. S. Hanks
Portland
NE Portland Commodore
User Group
Great Neck 3717 Flowerneld Rd.—26210 Gary A Thompason
Joplin Belle Mead
Great Neck Commodore 704-552-1094 8759 N.Calvert Ave —97217
Jophn Commodore Computer ACGNJ PET/VIC/CBM Users
Users Group 503-285-4791
Users Group riavelock
Adam Korn
R D Connely Joseph M. Pylka Down East Commodore Portland
30 Grace Ave.—11021 Users Group FGE Co in mod oi« Users Group
422 S. Florida Ave —64801 30 Riverviaw Ter —08502
516-482-54 BO
417-624-5259 201-359-3862 Jim Worthington Richard Turnock
Great Neck 302 Belltown Rd—28532 121 SW Salmon St.—97005
Kansas City Cherry Hill
LIVE 914-447-4601 503-641-4197
Commodore Users Group South Jersey Commodore
A Friedman
of Kansas City Users Group Tryon Prineville
17 Picadilly Road—11023
Salvador Cerda Fred Herman Tryon Commodore 64 Club Central Oregon C64 Users Group
516-482-3932 Robin Michael
P.O Box 36492—64111 P.O. Box 4205—08034 Marvin McCleary
816-252-7628 609-227-7905 Hammonds port P.O. Box 1016—28782 499 N Harwood Ave—97754
Finger Lakes Area Kompuier 704-859-6340 503-447-7062
Liberty Freehold
Experts Sheridan
Northland Amateui Radio FTC.U. NORTH DAKOTA
Terry Lynne Narby
Association John Rinaldi Yamhill County Commodore
86 W. Lake Rd — 14B40 Bismarck
Alan Boyer 150 Srailing Ave —07728 Users Group
607-868-3674 Commodore Club of North
811 Lmdenwood Lane—64068 201-431-4297 Dan Linscheid
Dakota
816-784-4312 ■- Jaberg Route 2, Box 246—97378
Moms Plains James G. Allen
Commodore Freaks 503-843-2625
MaryviUe Morris Aiea Commodore 16067 Reno Dr—58501
Mike West
Commodore PAC Users Group 701-222-1377 PENNSYLVANIA
9111 RailioadSt—13471
Pamela Lucido Robert J Searing
516-336-4858 OHIO Alloona
Horace Mann Learning Center— 51 Femclilf Rd —07S50
Altoona & Martinsburg
64469 201-267-5231 Mt Vemon Biook Park
Ccmmodore Users Group
816-562-4498 FolklUe Terminal Club C.P.U. Connection
Moms Plains Ralph Osmolinski Jr
Ted Corales Burke Frank
Warrensburg N. American Ccmmodore R.D. #4 Box 258—16601
Box 2222-C—10551 P O. Box 42032—54142
Commodore User Group of Teachers Users Group 814-946-0691
Warrensburg Robert J. Searing New Hampton 216-236-8S90
Altoona
Buck Sommerkamp 51FemcliiiRd.—O7950 C-64 Users Group o! Orange Cincinnati
BASIC
P O Box 893—64093 201-267-5231 County Commodore Users of Blue Chip
Dim mi N. Dantos
816-747-2406 Stephen Gerstl Ted Stalets
Mount Holly 1433 13th Ave—16603
Box 238 RD #1—10958 816 Beecher St —45206
MONTANA RCA Commodore Users Group 814-942-9565
914-355-1478 513-961-6582
William Rowe
Missoula Apollo
432 Hemlock Ln —08060 New Platz Maple Heights
Western Montana Commodoie Hackers Elite Club
609-234-7656 Computer Metropolis SE Cleveland Commodore
Usei Group Joe Moore
Eric Dean Crazies Users Group
Ocean View 305 Route 356—15613
Cad White P.O. Box 39—171 Main St — CarlSkala
800 Kensington Ave.—59801 Cape-Atlantic Commodore 412-566-3592
12561 18873 Harlan Dr.—44137
406-728-5124 Users Group
Berwyn
B.J Chadwick Now York 216-581-3099
GE Com64
NEBRASKA 1440 Old Stage Coach Rd.— Now York Commodoie Marion
Edward Davidson
Alliance 08230 Users Group Marion Ohio Commodore
507 Westwind Dr —19312
Alliance Commodore Computer 609-393-6111 Ben Tunkelang Users Group
215-296-3329
380 Riverside Dr 7Q—10025 Richard Munro
Club Ridgewood
Blue Bell
M. Seller INFO 64 New York City V20/CB4 775 Wolfinger Rd.—43302
614-726-2S30 Worldwide Commodore
1629 Boise—69301 Pete Nissely Users Group
Users Group
308-762-6228 16 W. Ridgewood Ave —07432 Ralph Lees Mentor
Dave Walter
Qeiing 201-445-6335 103 Waverly Place—10011 NE Ohio Commodore
PO. Box 337—19422
Plotte Valley Commodore Union City Newark Users Group
215-94B-6542
Users Group Hudson County Commodore Finger Lakes Commodore Ross Black
P.O. Box 718—44062 Clarks Summit
Jim Parks User Group Users Group
216-942-5132 Sctanton Commodore
1720 'O' St.—69341 Dave Westphalen Todd Andrews
Users Group
30B-436-3211 308 Palisade Ave—07087 229 W Union St—14513 Milford
Mark A Davis
Lincoln 201-864-7299 315-331-3266 Clercom-64
PO Box 211—18411
Computer Power Unlimited Wall Township Oswego Dave Skaggs
717-586-9443
Robert Howard Jersey Shore Ccmmodore Oswego Commodore 5771 Observation Ct —45150
Clifton Heights
416 N 27—6B503 Users Group Users Group 513-B31-5684
CH.U.G
402-475-8081 Bob McKinley John R Boronkay New Philadelphia
Kevin J Daly
Omaha 1905 Monmouth Blvd —07728 208 Park Hall—SUNY—13126 Commodore 64 Users Group
PO Box 235—19018
Greater Omaha C64 Users Group 201-542-2113 315-343-6069 Jeff Eklund
215-622-6550
Ken Jirele Wayne Rochester 702 Park Ave. NW—44663
Gteensbuig
2932 Leawood Di —68123 Club 64 Commodore Users Group ol 216-364-6158
Westmoreland Computer
402-592-3254 G Cipolletti Rochester Toledo
Users Club
Hamburg Tpke —07470 PO Box 26614—14626 Commodore Computer
NEVADA Gary Means
201-595-5463 Saratoga Springs Club of Toledo
3021 Ben Venus Dr —15601
Las Vegas Westwood
Adirondack C64 Users Group Jim Cychlen
412-836-2224
Las Vegas Area PET Users Paul W. Horn pas P O Box 8909—53623
Commodore 64 Beginners Club
Group 208 Woodlawn Ave.—12866 419-475-9160 Mo:nsville
Thomas Martin
5130 E. Charleston Blvd —89122 518-584-B960 Lower Bucks Users Group
630 Leigh Ter.—076765 Xenia
'702-453-3544 Don Moyer
201-664-3304 Syracuse Dayton Area Commodore
252 Mansfield Rd—19067
Las Vegas NEW YORK Commodore Computer Club Users Group
215-295-3S91
SOG Commodore Users Group ol Syracuse Charles Tobin
APO New Yoik
Lee Schram P.O. Box 2232—13220 679 Murray Hill Di —45385 Mount Holly Springs
Zweibruecken Commodore
4011 W. Charleston Blvd — 513-372-4077 Eight Squared
Computer Club Tallman
89102 Computer Club of Rockland Andy Skelion
Henry White
702-646-5656 OKLAHOMA P.O. Box 76—17065
Peter Bellin
200th TAMMC, Box 114—09052
P O. Box 233—10992 Muskogee 717-486-3274
06332-6347
NEW HAMPSHIRE 914-357-8941 Muskogee Computer Soc. New Kensington
Bethpage
Rochester Tonawanda Commodore Users Group A-K 64 Users Group
Commodore Computer Club
C-64 USERS 64 Southtowns Users Group Steve Ford Alton Glubish
N Threuisen
PO Box 4022—03867 Michael Leskow 202 S 12th Street—74401 1762 Fairmount St —15068
1111 Stewart Ave—11714
Winchester 504 Somerville—14150 405-683-5290 412-335-9070
516-475-5269
Monadnock Commodoie 64 716-837-5643 Oklahoma City Philadelphia
Bronx
Users Group Tonawanda Greater Oklahoma Boeing Emp Personal
Commodore Microchips
Paul Rule HI Commodore Buflalo Users Group Commodore Club Computer Club
Anthony Sanchez David Newton
RFD #1 Route 10—O3470 Richard P. Hill Alina McNichol
340 E. Mosholu Pkwy.—10458
603-352-6722 199 Dale Di —14150 1401 N. Rockwell—73127 P O. Box 16858 P32-31—19142
Brooklyn 716-695-1026 405-787-1644
HEW JERSEY Brooklyn Commodore Users Pittsburgh
Tribes Hill
OREGON Bettis Commodore Users Group
Bedminsler Group Mohawk Valley Commodore
Albany Bill Campbell
Commodore Users Group Malcolm Jay Gatesman Users Group
1735 E 13th St Apt #7N— Albany Corvallis C64 592 Arbor Lane—15236
J Armstrong William A Nowak
11229 381S Sunson Ave , P O Box Users Group Pittsburgh Commode re Group
AT & T Communi cations Rts 202
718-375-5278 343—12177 Al Rasmus Joel A. Casar
& 206—07921
518-829-7576 2138 Chicago St SE—97321 2015 Gamck Dr —15235
201-446-6132 East Setauket

112 MAY/IUNE
412-371-2882 TEXAS Fairfax
V.U G.O P
Davin Flateau
1931 Rockledge—15212
Austin
Commodore Computer Club
ol Austin
PENTAF
Ron Thomas
9912 Colony Rd.—22030
USER GROUPS
412-322-4662 Roy Holmess Franklin Users Group Faigus
Salona PO Box 49138—78765 Commodore Users of Franklin John F. Slasky Jr. CWDHS Users Group
Cental PA User Group Corpus Christi Bruce Powell Rie. 5 Box 179A—54703 Jerry Rogerson
for Commodore Corpus Christi Commodores 1201 N High St—23851 715-874-5972 155BelsydeSt East—N1M 1Y7
Joseph W CoHman Jim O'Reai 804-562-6823 Green Bay Hamilton
Box 102—17767 P.O Box 6541—78411 Hardy Comm Bay 64 TRACK 64
717-726-4564 512-852-7665 Roanoke Computer Society Richaid F. Luxton Wayne Chapman
West Chester Dallas Larry Weshburn PO Box 1152—54305 491 Kemlworth Ave. N.—