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Acid-base Titration Calculations

Key Concepts
• acid-base reactions involve a proton transfer
• the acid donates a proton to the base
• acid-base reactions are also known as neutralisation reactions

acid + base -----> salt + water

acid A + base B -----> conjugate acid of base B + conjugate base of acid A


(Lowry-Brönsted theory)

• H+ + OH- ------> H2O is the most general neutralisation reaction


• Equivalence point is the point at which the moles of H+ is equal to the moles of
OH-
An indicator is used to show the equivalence point during a titration
• A titration involves the progressive addition of one reactant from a burette
(usually the acid), to a known volume of the other reactant in a conical flask
(usually the base)

Calculations
1. Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction
2. Extract all the relevant information from the question
3. Check that data for consistency, for example, concentrations are usually given in
M or mol L-1 but volumes are often given in mL. You will need to convert the mL
to L for consistency. The easiest way to do this is to multiply the volume in mL x
10-3
4. Calculate the moles of reactant (n) for which you have both the volume(V) and
concentration(M) : n = M x V
5. From the balanced chemical equation find the mole ratio known reactant :
unknown reactant
6. Use the mole ratio to calculate the moles of the unknown reactant
7. From the volume(V) of unknown reactant and its previously calculated moles(n),
calculate its concentration(M): M = n ÷ V
Examples
1. 30 mL of 0.10M NaOH neutralised 25.0mL of hydrochloric acid.
Determine the concentration of the acid
1. Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction
NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) -----> NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)
2. Extract the relevant information from the question:
NaOH V = 30mL , M = 0.10M HCl V = 25.0mL, M = ?
3. Check the data for consistency
NaOH V = 30 x 10-3L , M = 0.10M HCl V = 25.0 x 10-3L,
M=?
4. Calculate moles NaOH
n(NaOH) = M x V = 0.10 x 30 x 10-3 = 3 x 10-3 moles
5. From the balanced chemical equation find the mole ratio
NaOH:HCl
1:1
6. Find moles HCl
NaOH: HCl is 1:1
So n(NaOH) = n(HCl) = 3 x 10-3 moles at the equivalence point
7. Calculate concentration of HCl: M = n ÷ V
n = 3 x 10-3 mol, V = 25.0 x 10-3L
M(HCl) = 3 x 10-3 ÷ 25.0 x 10-3 = 0.12M or 0.12 mol L-1
2. 50mL of 0.2mol L-1 NaOH neutralised 20mL of sulfuric acid.
Determine the concentration of the acid
1. Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction
NaOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq) -----> Na2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l)
2. Extract the relevant information from the question:
NaOH V = 50mL, M = 0.2M H2SO4 V = 20mL, M = ?
3. Check the data for consistency
NaOH V = 50 x 10-3L, M = 0.2M H2SO4 V = 20 x 10-3L, M
=?
4. Calculate moles NaOH
n(NaOH) = M x V = 0.2 x 50 x 10-3 = 0.01 mol
5. From the balanced chemical equation find the mole ratio
NaOH:H2SO4
2:1
6. Find moles H2SO4
NaOH: H2SO4 is 2:1
So n(H2SO4) = ½ x n(NaOH) = ½ x 0.01 = 5 x 10-3 moles H2SO4 at the
equivalence point
7. Calculate concentration of H2SO4: M = n ÷ V
n = 5 x 10-3 mol, V = 20 x 10-3L
M(H2SO4) = 5 x 10 ÷ 20 x 10-3 = 0.25M or 0.25 mol L-1
-3

3. 25.0mL of 0.05M Ba(OH)2 neutralised 40.0mL of nitric acid.


Determine the concentration of the acid.
1. Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction
Ba(OH)2(aq) + 2HNO3(aq) -----> Ba(NO3)2(aq) + 2H2O(l)
2. Extract the relevant information from the question:
Ba(OH)2 V = 25.0mL, M = 0.05M HNO3 V = 40.0mL, M
=?
3. Check the data for consistency
Ba(OH)2 V = 25.0 x 10-3L, M = 0.05M HNO3 V = 40.0 x
-3
10 L, M = ?
4. Calculate moles Ba(OH)2
n = M x V = 0.05 x 25.0 x 10-3 = 1.25 x 10-3 mol
5. From the balanced chemical equation find the mole ratio
Ba(OH)2 : HNO3
1:2
6. Find moles HNO3
Ba(OH)2 : HNO3 is 1 : 2
So n(HNO3) = 2 x n(Ba(OH)2) = 2 x 1.25 x 10-3 = 2.5 x 10-3 mol
7. Calculate concentration of HNO3: M = n ÷ V
n = 2.5 x 10-3moles, V = 40.0 x 10-3L
M = 2.5 x 10-3 ÷ 40.0 x 10-3 = 0.0625M or 0.0625 mol L-1