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#10) American Reform movements between 1820-1860

- Education
a) Horace Mann public school reform (Mass school superintendent)
- Advocated Public education (southern states didn’t have public
school yet [not supportive of taxation to fund them])(Midwest did have public schools)
- This is why its difficult for the south to attract industry
(lower literacy rates)
1) Age Segregation (grades by age)
2) Standardized Curriculums and Textbooks
3) Structured School day (Strict Time schedule)
- To prepare them for the industrial life
4) Teacher training (Normal School)
HS: Women enter teaching profession
- US leads the way in Public Education in the world in the 19th century
a) Levied local property taxes to fund public education
b) Reflects optimism on human nature, people’s ability to improve themselves
-Temperance
a) Female driven movement
- Lyman Beecher the most important temperance advocate
- American Temperance Society
a) In some states it turned into Prohibition (dry county)
- Only the state of Maine did in this era
- This would remain part of the American landscape until it accelerated further in
the late 19th century (18th amendment)
- Great example of grass roots democratic movement (without political party
affiliation)

women’s rights
- Embrace of idea that women are the same as men
- Wanted equal opportunity (Seneca Falls 1846) and equality
- Declaration of Rights and Sentiments
a) Right to vote, own property, initiate divorce, higher
education, minister, end to sex double standard, equal pay
- Would become fundamental marks to achieving later
equality all expressed in it
- Grimke sisters, Soujourner Truth (former slave and womens rights/abolitionist
advocate) Lucy Stone , Elizabeth Stanton, Susan b Anthony
Utopian Experiments
a) Brooke Farm: Established by transcendentalists, believed in potential of all
people Margaret Fuller, Thoureau
b) New Harmony Indiana by British socialist (trying to start socialist
communities)
c) Communes for plural marriage
- Reflective of optimism, can be a model for the rest of the country
Penal Institutions
- With the growth of cities came more crime, Jails were new in this era
a) What should be the nature of a prison?
-about punishment or rehabilitation/reform for productive members of
society to come out of prison
- Dorothea Dix advocated for prison models to improve lives for prisoners so that
they could be productive members of society (also crusaded for mental health reform
[asylums])
- Belief that we can help the mentally ill etc.
- All reforms are examples of Democracy In action (independent of gov’t grass
roots just like the progressive movement and the new left/civil rights movement)
#11) Influence on Development of Democracy
- Jacksonian Democracy 1829-1837
a) Born poor, made his own fortune, The embodiment of the American Dream
- Ambitious, huge ego, supported some reforms
a) Wanted more democracy for white men
- Got rid of property qualification for white men to vote
- Replace spoken ballot with written ballot
- Reform in electoral college (voted by political party, electors are
committed to vote for that person, whoever wins popular vote, those are the electors who
go off to the electoral college)
a) more democratic than having state legislatures choose it,
people have a more direct say
- Rotation in Office (new perspectives to help improve our
responsiveness to the people)
a) Spoils System (critics said you will favor people who
agree with your political affiliation, causes
corruption)
b) Big on Indian Removal
- As cotton economy grew, people were removing Indians on their
own
- Indian Removal Act of 1830 (states could remove Indians of
their own accord)( 5 southern tribes)
a) Cherokee Resistance
- Assimilated to life among whites, but not enough
-Cherokee sued in Supreme Court and got a decision that it
was the federal gov’ts duty to conduct Indian
removal (Jackson then sent US Army down to
remove Indians)
b) Did not support abolition or women’s rights
- Eli Whitney: Invents Cotton Gin
a) More efficient to get seed out of cotton, growing cotton demand due to
booming textile industry (cotton price high)
- Cotton growing profitable, explains fast growth of Georgia
Alabama east Texas and the resistance of the south to abolishing slavery
- Invents interchangeable parts (machine tools would later make this
hugely important for mass production along an assembly line and the American System
of manufacturing)
a) Henry Ford and the Automobile and many things before
- Samuel Slater stole secrets from British about water powered machines in early
textile mills, brought the info to America, helped build the first textile factory in 1790’s
c) Vetoed the National Bank in 1832 (became big issue in election against Clay)
- Saying it was a Monopoly and anti-competitive, catered to elite interests,
not much for the little people
- McCullough v. Maryland had said it was constitutional, he didn’t care,
seen as his embrace of democracy in industrial sector
- Sympathetic to a protective Tariff (South Carolina nullification crisis [on a
protective tariff])
a) Federal law is upheld as supreme in the land, states cant violate it
without a response
- Jackson passes the Force Bill in Congress, sends Army to the border
a) Compromise Tariff was passed
- John Calhoun (jacksons VP) secretly wrote a pamphlet in which he
defended a states rights to overcome the decisions of fed gov’t, The South Carolina
Exposition and Protest
- Government is protecting industries, agricultural and
consumer interests are put at a disadvantage, inconsistent with his embrace of
competition
- He was not very engaged with blacks and womens movements
Second Great Awakening
- Explosion of evangelical Christianity
a) Growth of ministers with congregations from many places in society
(not necessarily trained)
- A cultural democratic movement, started in Kentucky
a) Camp Town Meetings: examples of religious fervor to
listen to preachers and performers
b) The Burned Over District: NY along the canal, looking
for work in these new businesses, a hunger for religious meaning in life alongside the
economic explosion
- The Mormon Faith founded by Joseph Smith,
grew up in Burned Over District ( polygamy was illegal [moved to Utah [Mexico] and
established salt lake
- Charles Finney came from a traditional religious
background, he developed the Doctrine of Perfectionism (live without sin)
Westward Movement
- Jefferson had purchased Louisiana Territory
- Comprise of 1850: Reduced size of Texas
- Mexican Cession: 1/3 of it gained in Mexican War
- 54 40 or Fight, now settle for 49th Parallel
a) Boom to economic opportunity
- Mining and Agricultural
- California with rich lands and trade with pacific thru its harbors
- Oregon’s Timber industry
a) allowed affluence throughout American history thru rich natural
resources
- The Frontier experience for Women: in tandem with set of political
values stated in constitution allowed women to shape American society (building the
farms, fighting the Indians, living proof of woman’s capabilities and makes it harder to
deny the potential of Women)
- Rocky Mountain states were first ones in1870-80’s give women
the right to vote (one reason was to attract settlers)
Adams Onis Treaty: acquisition of Florida and its panhandle
- Spain recognized our acquisition of Louisiana territory and our claim to
pacific in the west
#12) Impact of Expansion on National Unity
1) Missouri Compromise 1820: Application with Missouri entering the union as
a slave state in 1819
a) Unbalanced the states (It would give slave states more weight over free
states)(The whole American System passed in 1816 requires taxation, broad sontruction,
giving the federal gov’t more power, this all didn’t sit well in southern political culture
[tax, tariff]
- Maine enters as a free state, Missouri as a slave state
- Banned slavery north of the 36th parallel
2) Texas gained independence in their war against Mexico
a) Will it enter the Union?
- Jackson said it should not, too divisive an issue
- By 1836, Abolition William Lloyd Garrison The Liberator and Sojourner
Truth was speaking out, The Nat Turner Rebellion 1831 [scared the white south], Gag
Rule passed as a result, Censoring the mail about not distributing abolitionist literature
- Polk ran on expansionist ticket
1) Settle the Oregon Issue (54 40 or Fight)
2) Bring Texas into the Union
3) Acquire California
a) Tyler could not get a bill passed by Congress to admit Texas
- Free Soil sentiment (against EXPANSION of slavery) against
admitting Texas as a slave state (increasing northern
opposition)
- Mexican War was a success under Polk (Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo)
- Compromise of 1850
1) Abolished the Slave Trade in Washington DC
2) A tougher Fugitive Slave Law passed (punish northerners who
support runaways, led to strong opposition in the North with many personal liberty laws
passed to nullify this new fugitive slave act) (most controversial issue)
- Led to Beecher Stowe to write Uncle Toms Cabin
3) California enters the Union as a Free State
- Stunned the south, Northerners and immigrants went to
California overwhelmingly and decided to make it a free state under the Northwest
Ordinance of 1787 procedures
4) Popular Sovereignty will decide slavery in Utah and NM
territory (used for the first time in some new part of the country)
5) Texas reduced in size (a slave state reduced in size, better for
anti slavery interests)
- Kansas Nebraska Act 1854
a) Future of Slavery be decided by Popular Sovereignty (nullified Missouri
compromise)
- Kansas became the battle ground for anti-slavery and pro-slavery
conflicts
- Bleeding Kansas 1856: Guerilla War broke out and continued until civil War
a) John Brown Pottawattamie Creek (slaughtered pro-slavery farmers)
- Lecompton Constitution: trying to e admitted under Buchanan’s
presidency as a pro-slavery state, but they remained a territory until beginning of civil
war when they were admitted as a free state with Lawrence as its capital
#13) Use of legal, religious, economic arguments defending slavery in the South
Legal
- Slavery apologists: John Calhoun and George Fitzhugh
a) 3/5 clause, End of (1808) international slave trade, shows how its legal
under the law
b) People have a right to property (5th Amendment), does not coincide
with the law to take peoples land
- Religion
a) Bible justifies slavery
- Economic
a) Calhoun’s Wage Slavery (factory workers are worse off than slaves,
they can lose their jobs and become homeless, but slaves have a home and are fed, treated
better than northern factory workers)
#14) Manifest Destiny, was it an aggressive expansionism?
- Know what manifest destiny is
- Closely tied to the City upon a hill puritan belief
- Model of Christian Charity (Winthrop)
- Mexican War imperialistic or benevolent?
#15) 1858 Lincoln Statement Reconciled by 1862 Emancipation Proclamation
a) Emancipation Proclamation abolished slavery in parts of the confederacy, freed
no slaves loyal to union in northern states, didn’t advocate equal rights
b) Intentions were to keep the union together
- Lincoln Douglas Debates
a) Makes Lincoln a national figure
- “House Divided Speech” at the beginning of every debate but insisted he
wasn’t an abolitionist
- In 1860, Lincoln got elected as a Free-Soiler (Southerners did not like this, states
seceded at that time (SC first), upper south seceded after Fort Sumter)
a) Fort Sumter: Called for 75,000 volunteers to put down a domestic
insurrection; Upper South States Secede (slower to leave because of stronger economic
ties to northern states)
- War Aim in early stages: To save the Union (black men couldn’t
even join the union army) (both sides think God is on their side)
- Doesn’t want to lose Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, and
Missouri by declaring Abolition as a war aim)
- Seward wanted to make abolition a war aim so that a European
country would not recognize Confederacy
- Wherever the Union went, Blacks went to the Union Army (no black soldiers
fighting for the confederacy), clear indication that blacks wanted to be free
- 1862: Second Confiscation Act: Any slaves behind union lines inside
confederacy were free, and could be put to work for Union Army
- 1863: Emancipation Proclamation: Freed all salves inside confederate
territory, implications that slavery is a war aim and we are going to end this
-allowed blacks to enter union army Inspired by Antietam [Lee’s army of
northern Virginia attack to show the unions inability to defend themselves]
- Deadliest day in American history, first victory for Union in
eastern theater (Union looked strong like they could win the war)
-States Rights and Slavery were the most fundamental causes of Civil War
- Dred Scott Decision 1857 very influential as well (slave conspiracy)
a) Slavery is fundamental cause (it caused States Rights to be an issue because of
abolition question)
SHEET 3
- Most immigration comes from northwest/Central Europe, British Isles Ireland
and Scandinavia
1) 1830’s beyond civil War: German and Scandinavian Immigration in plain
states and Midwest
- WWI sparked anti-sentiment to immigration
- Anti- Irish/Catholic: Know-Nothings Party established (Nativism: hostility to
immigrants)
#1) How did constitutional and social developments amount to a Revolution between
1860 and 1877
Constitutional
1) Emancipation Proclamation allows blacks to join union army
2) Radical Republican Reconstruction (13th 14th and 15th amendment)
-13th Amendment 1865 (Civil War ideals reaching their full realization)
-14th amendment
a) Anyone born in the US is a citizen (Overturns Dred-Scott)
b) Equal Protection, Due Process, and Citizenship Clauses
c) No state shall deny a citizen the right to life, liberty, or property without
due process of law
- Plessy v. Ferguson (separate but equal segregation) consistent
with 14th amendment (law until Topeka Board of Education v. Brown 1954)
- 15th amendment
a) black suffrage, Right to vote shall not be denied on race, creed, color, or
previous involuntary servitude (not for women)
b) Did not deny common disenfranchisements methods like literacy tests
and poll taxes (ended in Voting Rights Act of 1965 [literacy tests] and 24th Amendment
[poll tax] under LBJ)
Freedman’s Bureau (to aid freedmen to integrate into American society)
Social Developments
Share Cropping: describe share cropping (it kinda better than slavery)
- most people did not make money, fell into debt, Crop Lien System
Agriculture devastated after Civil war in south because of fall of cotton
prices cause whites to start share cropping
Political Terrorism: KKK used to prevent ideal of racial equality from getting
traction, Grant passed Force Acts which gave army ability to pursue white terrorism
against black voters
Amnesty Act of 1872: Restored right to vote to all of the white
southerners that had been disenfranchised under Radical Republican Reconstruction
- By 1876, The Democrats are back in power
Compromise of 1876: Ended reconstruction, contested election returns for the
presidency, special committee had a majority of one republican and they chose Hayes
won, Democrats outraged, no longer try to enforce 14/15th amendments in the South, Jim
Crow laws and black disenfranchisement come into place
1896- Plessy v. Ferguson Disenfranchisement methods were upheld as legal
Abolition of Slavery: was still big, even though white south doesn’t embrace it
(sharecropping, an increase of literacy rates for blacks thanks to radical republicans, a
black professional class by 1900, Booker T. Washington)
#3) Economic consequences of Civil War
Agriculture, Transportation, labor, industrialization
- Sharecropping in the South
- Good for the spread of industry and agriculture in the North
a) National Railway Act of 1862: Authorized construction of first
transcontinental railroad
- Workers in factories continue economic growth as a result of meeting war
demands and the profits made during war help the industries grow more to make more
jobs and increase wages
- Industrialization grew as a result of need of material
- South suffers in all these, North good in all these
a) Cotton prices fall and never come back up as high as they were before
civil war (world supply of cotton expands)
b) Destruction of fields and lands
c) Abolition makes all the southern wealth disappear (cant grow and invest
to make economy grow, dependent on foreign investment [which no one would do
because of lack of education and industrialization]
d) South had few railroads and canals/paved roads (anti-taxation
philosophy), after Civil War they couldn’t attract money to build this infrastructure
#4) The reality of the “New South” before WWI
Race relations
a) White Supremacy still widespread (nothing has changed in south)
- Random: TR was the first person to appoint Blacks to his cabinet
b) Illiteracy rates high in the south
Economic
- Barely a money economy (crop-lien/sharecropping_
- Abolition created evaporation of wealth
- No Credit System
Politics
- Monolithically democratic south
Grady Atlanta Constitution and other Southern Newspapers (encouraged
industrialization in the “New South”)
Textile Industry well established in the South instead of the North by this time
Tobacco Industry: smoking became an American habit (Winston Salem)
Steel Industry: Birmingham Alabama Timber Industry
-Still small compared to rest of country, South remained very behind until WWII
#5) How were lives of Plains Indians affected by technology and gov’t actions?
- US army waged war against them and defeated them
- National Railway Act 1862
- The Telegraph, Railroad, Fancier machinery in Mining industry
- Railroad put pressure on Indians by bringing people west faster, allowed
expansion of mining industry
#6) Analyze Impact on American Industrial Worker.

- Textile Industry, Railroad (steel and manufactured things) Oil Petroleum,


Timber, machine tools
- New forms of business organization Carnegie and Rockefeller
a) The Monopoly (Trusts with huge market share, consolidation in
economic life (bad for competition in economic life)(but they are more efficient and can
produce at lower costs) (worried about quality, over-pricing, undue political influence
[lobbyists could influence legislatures]
b) Carnegie: Vertical integration and Cost Analysis (undersell
competitors and gain market share by controlling every part of process)
- Rags to Riches Horatio Alger immigrant type story
c) Rockefeller: Horizontal Integration (buys out competitors or drives
them out of business through Dumping [take losses in a regional market to drive the
others out of business])
-Rockefeller especially causes sentiment Led to Sherman Anti
Trust Act 1890 (conspiracies to restrain trade as illegal)
- Under Wilson, Clayton Anti Trust Act to define it better
Government Action
Immigration
Labor Unions
Tech Changes
Monopoly
Sherman Anti-Trust Act: vague in language in 1890’s its not successful
-1913: Clayton Anti Trust Act during Progressive (Wilson) Era more specific
Pullman Strike: Used by Cleveland to get a court junction order the union
strikers back to work (unsuccessful, sent army)
US vs. EC Knight sugar company: 1st attempt to use Sherman anti trust act,
Court ruled in favor of sugar company (ruled to be not a monopoly)
Northern Securities 1904 (TR): 1st successful use of Sherman Act
Rockefellers Standard Oil: Taft around 1911 and Court splits it up, 2nd time
Woodrow Wilson had a central vision against “New Freedom”
- Economic competition, oversee big businesses to prevent consolidation
Federal Trade Commission: To prevent anti-competitive business practices
Consolidation in business life continued thru the progressive ear and 1920’s to the current
day
Thomas Edison: Helped form field of Research, Inventor of record player, motion
picture, light bulb and getting it into peoples homes
Unions
- Before the civil war, they weren’t powerful and were small
- Waltham and Lowell Mill girls had strikes but no formal unions
- After the Civil War, Unions become significant
a) Not popular in late 1800’s, courts and people (prez) weren’t
sympathetic
- Teddy Roosevelt first president to show sympathy for Unions
- United Mine Workers Strike
-Knights of Labor: Started by Terrence Powderly in 1860’s
- Accepted everybody skilled or not, male/female, white/black
- Wanted to pass bills and legislation to help workers (immigration restriction,
8hour workday bill, injury compensation bill)
a) Bad reputation for being ill disciplined
1-National Railway Strike 1877: Shut down much of railroad system
-Rutherford b. Hayes sent out the Army, violence ensued
- Bad rep for Knights of Labor
2-Haymarket Square Riot 1887: Demonstration in sympathy for a McCormick plant
strike, Someone threw a bomb to the police and killed a bunch of them
- Organizers were Anarcho-socialists, all charged with murder and executed
- (but they were innocent)
- Bad rep for Knights of Labor
3-Homestead Steel Strike: a Carnegie plant strike in Pennsylvania, he wanted to break
the union by firing anyone in the union
- Carnegie hired Pinkerton detectives and “Scabs” (replaced strikers)
- Violence broke out, another bad rep for Knights of Labor
4-1894: Pullman Strike: Went on strike to try to form a union
- One Railway union went on strike in sympathy, affected US Mail
- Cleveland ordered strikers back to work by using Sherman Anti Trust Act
successfully (court injunction)
HS: Sympathy starts to build in favor of unions
In 1911:Triangle Shirtwaist Fire: Lack of safety equipment that a Union kept asking
for, Public is for the Union,
HS: Changes public opinion about Unions
The Wagner Act 1935: Legalized unions right to exist and collective bargaining rights
- Created National Labor Relations board
- Cornerstone of New Deal
Taft-Hartley Act 1947: Checks power of Unions, Gives President power to order
striking Union back to work
Chinese Exclusion Act 1892: One of the only nativist strains of ideas in late 19th century
- Immigration transformed American landscape (Irish, Germans, Polish, Italians)
a) More diverse ethnic and religious landscape (food, music)
Eugene Debbs
- Most important Leader of the American Socialist, Leader of Railway Union who
striked alongside Pullman Strike
- Candidate for the American Presidency up until 1920
- Americans have always been able to work their way up the ladder (socialism doesn’t
take root, we don’t envy rich we aspire to be rich)
Social Darwinism: To explain inequality ( a natural outcome), against gov’t efforts to
help the poor
- William Graham Sumner
- Progressives rejected social Darwinism (how they are different from previous
generation)
Scott Joplin and Ragtime
Ellis Island: Early 20th century to better manage influx of immigrants (NYC)
Cult of Domesticity and Women’s Sphere of Influence: Developed in 1830-40 and
then later 1880-90’s, taken to a new extreme in 1950’s with baby boom generation
- Separate sphere is a recognition of women’s power in the 1840’s (they have
power in the domestic environment)
- in 1960’s Women’s Rights Advocate see sphere as limited instead of progressive
(Sphere=Cult of Domesticity now [limits women])
Tammany Hall and Boss Tweed, Urban Corruption:
- The Urban Machine, big city gov’t dominated by one party (the machine)
a) Paid attention to urban poor, stayed in power
- Boss Tweed is a machine politician in America
- Thomas Nast ridiculed Tweed and focused publics attention on Tammany Hall
that judicial authorities caught Tweed and he was arrested
1) Progressives wanted to end machine politics (urban/suburban educated middle
class voters)
Jane Addams: Settlement House (Hull House in Chicago 1st)
- Became a model for dealing with urban poverty, community centers with
daycare, education, medical care, lawyers (her and her staff lived there among poor)
Jacod Riis Photographer How the Other Half Lives Photojournalism
- Photos of Urban poverty in tenement buildings and alleyways
- Created sympathy for Urban Poverty (he wanted them to get act together)
- contrast with Jane Addams (no sympathy v. [J.Addams] sympathy)
The New Woman: Go out unaccompanied, new fashion styles (no corset, free to move
about)
-Womens Sports Teams start
- This late 19th early 20th century would drive the suffrage movements of 19th
amendment (passed in 1920)
- Eastern states were the last ones to give women the vote
The Gilded Age and Laissez Faire
- Return to Laissez Faire in 20’s and New deal destroys it
- For White Southerners, Sharecropping sucked
a) Cotton prices low, hard to make money growing anything
- Crop-Lien Arrangements
By 1867, Radical Republican Reconstruction forced application of 14th amendment,
blacks start going into sharecropping
-In Midwest and Plain States it was hard to farm as well
a) Overproduction (prices fall), Lived on a gold standard which wasn’t
keeping up with expansion of economy, deflation in late 19th century
- Going out of business, farmers were shrinking between 80’s and
90’s, move to cities looking for work
- Industrial Economy becoming more important (by 1920 its more than half)
-The Grange: Farmers political lobbying organization, fighting for regulation of
railroads
in 1887 there is ICC regulated railroads
- Reagan got rid of it
The Populist Party 1890
-Emerged out of Farmers Alliance trying to get gov’t to expand money supply
- Omaha Platform, by 1894 the Populists were doing so well that the Democratic party
gets nervous, Co-opted their ideas
- Omaha Platform 1890: Against Laissez Faire (wanted gov’t to manage money supply,
nationalizing railroads, wanted an income tax, Federal loans for farmers)
- This is like socialism (income redistribution)
- Rough around the edges, weren’t palatable to sophisticated people
- Urban workers didn’t appreciate this because of rising price levels without wage
increases
-William Jennings Bryan Populist politician nominated for Democrats in 1896 (co-opted
the populists and their money supply free-silver issue, [lost cuz of urban voters]) (“Cross
of Gold Speech”: don’t use only the gold standard [using Christian imagery])
- Free Silver: back money supply with silver and gold, expand it more
- Embraced by progressive movement (direct election income tax, federal reserve system,
Hepburn Act)
-1898-WWI farmers are prospering
Goals of Radical Republican Reconstruction were not realized
African Americans
-All black colleges like Tuskegee Institute were established
-Lynching and Jim Crow 1880-90’s
-Disenfranchisement (Poll Taxes, Literacy Tests, Grandfather Clause)
Booker T. Washington: Leader of Black movement from late 19th to early 20th century,
Educated at Tuskegee Accommodationist,
- The Atlanta Compromise: Separate but one (captures accomodationist)
W. e. b. DuBois: Born Free, Stand up for Black Rights
- Founded NAACP, became important civil rights organization in mid 20th century
a) NAACP settled on strategy to sue in courts to challenge Jim crow
-By after WWII, most blacks adopt this position rather than
accomodationist
Black Nationalism: After King died, young blacks supported Malcolm X, start using
violence
Foreign Policy in early 20 Century
-Spanish American War
- Cuba and Hawaii
- Cleveland wouldn’t annex Hawaii, but didn’t because it wasn’t their will
- McKinley later annexed it before the Spanish American War
-Cuban war for independence
- Journalism Hearst and Pulitzer newspapers
- sympathy calling for intervention
- Teller (no territorial ambitions) and Platt Amendment (withdrew troops but
reserved right to intervene, purchased Guantanamo bay, and conducted foreign policy
-Battleship Maine
- We had forces in the Philippines, defeated their navy there and started the war
until 1904 (guerilla war between philippinos and Americans)
-Set up concentration camps to isolate guerilla fighters
- we need a base to trade with china
- Philippine Government Act 1904 promised eventual independence, but we governed it
with a territorial governor, but it gave them autonomy in legislature and judiciary
Open Door Notes: Chinese spheres of influence for the different countries were
eliminated (US could trade everywhere in China)
#1) America asserts that China is sovereign, Respect Free Trade within Spheres
#2) 1901: Chinese could take back sovereignty, they run the harbors and tend to
them (great victory to American foreign policy)
- Marks beginning of a close relationship to China
Boxer Rebellion: uprising of chinese nationalists to expel all foreigners (we helped put it
down)
-Japanese did not appreciate our domination in Asia
TR Russo Japanese War: Didn’t want japan to get too powerful
San Francisco Board of Education: Segregate asian school children (jim crow for
Asians, Japs go crazy)
-TR is afraid of Japs reaction, tells them to change policy in return Japs limited
immigration into US
Roosevelt (TR) Corollary: Reserve right to intervene in the internal affairs of western
hemisphere in order to maintain standards of civilization
a) Landed our marines in DR to prevent Germany from taking it over
-Chased after Pancho Villa in Mexico
a) Wilson wanted to make latin nations elect good men
Panama Canal: TR acquires rights to canal, great engineering feat,