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when reviewed in terms of natural processes. Humans, like other living creatures are
always interacting with their environment, as well as interaction with the environment
terjadiantar every organism is a process that does not sederhanamelainkan a complex
process. Because the environment in which there are many components is called the
environmental component (Soemarwoto, 1983). Based konsepdasar ecological
knowledge, lingkunganyang component is also referred to dinamakankomponen
ecological environment as each component does not stand alone, but selaluberhubungan
and influence each other either directly or indirectly (Odum, 1993.Makhluk live in
sustaining life requires the other components yangterdapat environment. For example, air
and so they need water to breathe and drink and other necessities. As oxygen is inhaled
by animals dariudara for respiratory, partly beasr derived from plants that do
prosesfotosintesis. Conversely, the carbon dioxide produced from respiration by
hewandigunakan by plants for photosynthesis process. The process of photosynthesis
occur padatumbuhan besides utilizing carbon dioxide, also requires other ingredients
yangdiperlukan by plants to grow and develop the process. As the energy of
radiasimatahari, water and substances formed hara.Suatu community for many species,
some of which akandipengaruhi by the presence or absence of species Another of the
community tersebut.Seringkali two or more species interact. This interaction can be
positive (menguntungkankedua party) or negative (detrimental for one). For this reason
the lab inibertujuan to know the level of closeness (associations) between species 1 and
species 2 denganpengukuran. With These measurements will be known limit interspecific
relationships antaraSpesies 1 with species 2.


Competition is interakksi among individuals that arise due to similarities kebutuhanakan

resources are limited, thus limiting the ability to survive (survival), growth and
reproduction of individuals contender (Begon et al .1990), sedangkanMolles (2002)
kompettisi defined as interaction between individuals that result padapengurangan ability
their lives. Competition can occur between individuals (intraspecific) and among
individuals in the same species or interspecific (Krebs, 2002; Molles, 2002) Competition
can be defined as one form of interaction between plants yangsaling natural resources to
the available land is limited in time and samayang negative impact on growth and yield
one or more spesiestumbuhan. Natural resources, eg water, nutrients, light, CO2,
danruang grow (Kastono, 2005).

The definition of competition as an interaction between two or more individuals if (1)

limited suplaisumber necessary, in conjunction with the request of organisms or (2)
quality varied sources and the demand for high-quality source lebihbanyak.organisme
may compete if each striving to achieve the best sources along the gradient of quality or
if the two individuals trying menempatitempat same simultaneously. Dipersaingkan
sources by individuals is to live and reproduce, for example food, oxygen, and light
(Noughton, 1990).
heoretically, if in a population that consists of two species, it will terjadiinteraksi between
them. Forms of interaction can vary, one satunyaadalah competition. Competition in the
broadest sense aimed at the interaction between duaorganisme that over something
similar. Competition between species merupakansuatu interaction between two or more
populations of species that affect their lives ririskiky pertumbuhannyadan harm. The form
of competition can vary macam.Kecenderungan in the competition gave rise to the
separation of the ecology, species

adjacent or similar and it is known as azaz pengecualiankompetitif (

competitive exclusion principles
) (Ewusie, 1990).

Competition in a community is divided into two, yaituKompetisi resources (resources or

exploitative competition or scramble competition), the competition in exploiting jointly
terbatasInferensi resources (inference competition or contest competition), namely
business search for resources that causes harm to another individual, even though these
resources are not unlimited tersediasecara. Usually this process by spending diiringai
chemical compound (allelochemical) a negative effect on other individuals (Lamberg,
1998; kerbs, 2002; Molles, 2002)

residues (Allelopathy) is the negative effect (inhibit perkecembahan and growth) caused
by a plant on the plant others are nearby melalauipelepasan chemical compounds derived
from secondary metabolism processes (Muller-Dombois & Ellenberg, 1974; Soerianegara
& Indrawan, 1980; Lamberrs, 1998; Muller, 1990 which dikutipoleh Hierro & Callawai,
2003). However, not all residues are negative, there are positive beberapasenyawa
residues either directly or indirectly (Lamberset al. 1998; Kerbs, 2002; Ferguson &
Rathinasabapathi, 2003; Broz & Vivanco, 2006). II.2. Various kinds of
KompetisiKompetisi differentiated into four types, namely: intraspecific competition ie
competition between the same organism in an equal land. Interspecific competition that is
competition between organisms of different species that sama.Intraplant dalamlahan
competition ie competition between plant organs, such as inter organvegetatif or
vegetative organs versus generative organs in one body tanamanInterplant competition ie
competition between two different plants or bersamaanspesiesnya (can also occur in intra
and interplant competition). (Kastono, 2005) II.3.