Content Outline for Physical Sciences Section of the MCAT

ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE AND PERIODIC TABLE A. Electronic Structure 1. Orbital structure of hydrogen atom, principal quantum number n, number of electrons per orbital 2. Ground state, excited states 3. Absorption and emission spectra 4. Quantum numbers l, m, s, and number of electrons per orbital 5. Common names and geometric shapes for orbitals s, p, d 6. Conventional notation for electronic structure 7. Bohr atom 8. Effective nuclear charge B. The Periodic Table: Classification of Elements into Groups by Electronic Structure; Physical and Chemical Properties of Elements 1. Alkali metals 2. Alkaline earth metals 3. Halogens 4. Noble gases 5. Transition metals 6. Representative elements 7. Metals and nonmetals 8. Oxygen group C. The Periodic Table: Variations of Chemical Properties with Group and Row 1. Electronic structure a. representative elements b. noble gases c. transition metals 2. Valence electrons 3. First and second ionization energies a. definition b. prediction from electronic structure for elements in different groups or rows 4. Electron affinity a. definition b. variations with group and row 5. Electronegativity a. definition b. comparative values for some representative elements and important groups 6. Electron shells and the sizes of atoms

BONDING A. The Ionic Bond (Electrostatic Forces Between Ions) 1. Electrostatic energy q1q2/r 2. Electrostatic energy lattice energy 3. Electrostatic force q1q2/r2 B. The Covalent Bond 1. Sigma and pi bonds a. hybrid orbitals (sp3, sp2, sp, and respective geometries) b. valence shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory, predictions of shapes of molecules (e.g., NH3, H2O, CO2) 2. Lewis electron dot formulas a. resonance structures b. formal charge c. Lewis acids and bases 3. Partial ionic character a. role of electronegativity in determining charge distribution b. dipole moment PHASES AND PHASE EQUILIBRIA A. Gas Phase 1. Absolute temperature, K 2. Pressure, simple mercury barometer 3. Molar volume at 0°C and 1 atm = 22.4 L/mol 4. Ideal gas a. definition b. ideal gas law (PV = nRT) i. Boyle¶s law ii. Charles¶s law iii. Avogadro¶s law 4. Kinetic theory of gases 5. Deviation of real-gas behavior from ideal gas law a. qualitative b. quantitative (van der Waals equation) 6. Partial pressure, mole fraction 7. Dalton¶s law relating partial pressure to composition B. Intermolecular Forces 1. Hydrogen bonding 2. Dipole interactions 3. London dispersion forces

Free energy G 7. melting point. conventions for writing chemical equations b. specific heat capacity (specific heat capacity of water = 4. common oxidizing and reducing agents b. Spontaneous reactions and Gº . Description of reactions by chemical equations a. heat capacity. freezing point depression ( Tf= Kfm) d. Freezing point. Colloids 6. state function 2. Molecular weight 2.´ relative entropy for gas. boiling point elevation ( Tb= Kbm) c. Phase changes. enthalpy H. theoretical yields THERMODYNAMICS AND THERMOCHEMISTRY A. disproportionation reactions c. Endothermic and exothermic reactions a. Phase Equilibria 1. vapor pressure lowering (Raoult¶s law) b.184 J/g·K) 5. Avogadro¶s number 6. limiting reactants d. and crystal states 6. Oxidation number a. boiling point. Molality 4. redox titration 8.C. Henry¶s law STOICHIOMETRY 1. standard heats of reaction and formation b. condensation point 3. phase diagrams 2. Empirical formula versus molecular formula 3. Entropy as a measure of ³disorder. Thermodynamic system. Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions: Thermochemistry 1. osmotic pressure 5. Hess¶s law of heat summation 3. Metric units commonly used in the context of chemistry 4. Definition of density 7. Mole concept. liquid. balancing equations including redox equations c. Colligative properties a. Measurement of heat changes (calorimetry). Description of composition by percent mass 5. Bond dissociation energy as related to heats of formation 4.

NH4+. formulas.molarity) 2. H for the reaction b. Catalysts. Dependence of reaction rate on temperature a. Kinetic control versus thermodynamic control of a reaction 6. e. Solubility 1. activated complex or transition state ii. radiation) 7. Second law (concept of entropy) 5. Thermodynamics 1. PV diagram (work done = area under or enclosed by curve) RATE PROCESSES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS: KINETICS AND EQUILIBRIUM 1. dependence of reaction rate on concentrations of reactants a. Units of concentration (e. enzyme catalysis 7. phosphate. application of Le Châtelier¶s principle 8. SO42±. heat of vaporization 8. activation energy i.g. Complex ions and solubility 6. chemical. Heat of fusion. Equilibrium in reversible chemical reactions a. conservation of energy) 3. Arrhenius equation 5. interpretation of energy profiles showing energies of reactants and products. and thermal energy units 4. the equilibrium expression 3. Solubility product constant.B. activation energy. Zeroth law (concept of temperature) 2. Temperature scales. reaction order 3. First law ( E = q + w. convection. Reaction rates 2. Anion. PO43±. sulfate) 2. Rate law. ammonium.g. cation (common names. the equilibrium constant c. electrical. the hydronium ion B. Complex ion formation 5. Common-ion effect. conversions 6.. Ions in Solution 1. law of mass action b. Relationship of the equilibrium constant and Gº SOLUTION CHEMISTRY A. Heat transfer (conduction. its use in laboratory separations 4.. and charges for familiar ions. Hydration. Rate-determining step 4. Solubility and pH . Equivalence of mechanical. rate constant b.

Indicators 2. reduction potentials. electron flow. Neutralization 3.. pH definition. electrolytes d. cell potential c.ACIDS AND BASES A. e. electrolysis b. Acid±Base Equilibria 1. Brønsted±Lowry definition of acids and bases 2. its approximate value (Kw = [H3O+][OH±] = 10±14 at 25°C) b.g. Titration 1. dissociation of weak acids and bases with or without added salt b. Weak acids and bases (common examples. half-reactions b. pH of pure water 3. influence on titration curves B. oxidation and reduction at the electrodes 2. direction of electron flow . Galvanic (voltaic) cell a.g. Conjugate acids and bases 4. benzoic) a. Electrolytic cell a. Ionization of water a. nitric. definition. calculation of pH of solutions of weak acids or bases 6.. Interpretation of titration curves ELECTROCHEMISTRY 1. Strong acids and bases (common examples. cathode c. Faraday¶s law relating amount of elements deposited (or gas liberated) at an electrode to current e. sulfuric) 5. hydrolysis of salts of weak acids or bases c. anode. Kw. e. Buffers a. acetic. concepts (common buffer systems) b. Equilibrium constants Kaand Kb (pKa and pKb) 7.

Vector addition 4. Friction (static and kinetic) 11. velocity (average and instantaneous) 5. Vectors. lever arms 7. units 2. Conservation of linear momentum 4. Speed. components 3. GRAVITATION 1. Torques. Law of gravitation (F = ±Gm1m2/r2) 7. Newton¶s third law (forces equal and opposite) 5. Analysis of forces acting on an object 5. Dimensions (length or distance. Translational equilibrium ( Fi = 0) 3. Momentum 1. Concept of force. Elastic collisions 5. Impulse = Ft 3. Freely falling bodies FORCE AND MOTION. Acceleration 6.PHYSICS TRANSLATIONAL MOTION 1. Motion on an inclined plane 12. Newton¶s first law (inertia) 3. Inelastic collisions . Equilibrium 1. Momentum = mv 2. Analysis of pulley systems 13. Rotational equilibrium ( i= 0) 4. Newton¶s second law (F = ma) 4. Uniform circular motion 8. Weightlessness B. Force EQUILIBRIUM AND MOMENTUM A. time) 2. Center of mass 2. Centripetal force (F = ±mv2/r) 9. Concept of a field 6. Weight 10. Newton¶s first law (inertia) 6.

sign conventions 2. liquids. interference. Power. Conservative forces 5. Motion of a pendulum 6. Phase 3. log scale) 4. Kinetic energy (KE = mv2/2. Simple harmonic motion. gravitational. Wavelength. Wave Characteristics 1. Potential energy a. units) 2. Standing waves (nodes. Periodic Motion 1. frequency 2. Work±energy theorem 5. Resonance 6. wave speed 3. Beat frequencies 8. displacement as a sinusoidal function of time 5. Attenuation . and gases 3. Derived units. General periodic motion (velocity. Amplitude and intensity 4. units WAVES AND PERIODIC MOTION A. gravitational. Work 1. Power B. Production of sound 2. Path independence of work done in gravitational field 3. Conservation of energy 4. period. Refraction and general nature of diffraction SOUND 1. Intensity of sound (decibel units. Energy 1. local (PE = mgh) b. Hooke¶s law (F = ±kx) 4. wave addition 5. frequency. Superposition of waves. Transverse and longitudinal waves 2. Relative speed of sound in solids. general (PE = ±GmM/r) 3. Amplitude. amplitude) B.WORK AND ENERGY A. spring (PE = kx2/2) c. Mechanical advantage 4. antinodes) 7.

Harmonics 9. pressure versus depth (P = gh) 4. Solids 1. Charges. charge conservation 2. Coulomb¶s law (F = kq1q2/r2. sign conventions) 4. behavior in electric field c. Density 2. specific gravity 2. Concept of turbulence at high velocities 7. potential due to dipole . Electric field a. conductors. Equipotential lines 7. Hydrostatic pressure a. Ultra sound FLUIDS AND SOLIDS A. Electrostatics 1. Resonance in pipes and strings 8. Bernoulli¶s equation B. Insulators 3. absolute potential at point in space 6. Compression ELECTROSTATICS AND ELECTROMAGNETISM A. Elastic properties (elementary properties) 3.5. Continuity equation (Av = constant) 6. Shear 6. Pitch 7. definition of dipole b. Density. Electric dipole a. reflection of sound from a moving object) 6. Pascal¶s law b. Potential difference. Elastic limit 4. field lines b. Thermal expansion coefficient 5. Poiseuille flow (viscosity) 5. field due to charge distribution 5. Archimedes¶ principle (buoyancy) 3. Surface tension 8. Fluids 1. Doppler effect (moving sound source or observer.

capacitors in parallel e. units) 2. Battery. Properties of electromagnetic radiation (general properties only) a. UV. Terminal potential. Definition of the magnetic field B 2. Electromagnetic Radiation (Light) 1. Young¶s double-slit experiment . Discharge of a capacitor through a resistor 7. Current (I = Q/ t. Alternating Currents and Reactive Circuits 1. Circuit Elements 1. voltage 3. sign conventions. energy of charged capacitor c. radiation velocity equals constant c in vacuo b. X-rays. dielectrics 6. Power in circuits (P = VI. Magnetism 1. electromotive force. P = I2R) C. Ohm¶s law (I = V/R) b. radiation consists of oscillating electric and magnetic fields that are mutually perpendicular to each other and to the propagation direction 2. Gauss¶s law B. Existence and direction of force on charge moving in magnetic field C. etc. Concept of interference. Classification of electromagnetic spectrum (radio. Conductivity theory B. Light (Electromagnetic Radiation) 1. resistors in series c. Resistance a.8. internal resistance of battery 4. Electrostatic induction 9.) ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT ELEMENTS A. infrared. Root-mean-square current 2. resistors in parallel d. Capacitance a. resistivity ( = RA/L) 5. Circuits 1. concept of parallel-plate capacitor b. Root-mean-square voltage LIGHT AND GEOMETRICAL OPTICS A. capacitors in series d.

Optical instruments ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE A. focal length b. focal length b. Thin lenses a. energy liberated. stability. Geometrical Optics 1. Refraction. isotopes 3. General nature of fusion 7. mirror curvature. Atomic Nucleus 1. semilog plots) 5. color a. real and virtual images 6. Doppler effect (moving light source or observer) 6. real and virtual images d. Reflection from plane surface (angle of incidence equals angle of reflection) 2. Ray tracing 9. Emission spectrum of hydrogen (Bohr model) 2. protons. atomic weight 2. Nuclear forces 4. X-ray diffraction 4. use of formula (1/p) + (1/q) = 1/f with sign conventions c. use of formula (1/p) + (1/q) = 1/f with sign conventions c. diopters e. Neutrons. Mass deficit. Atomic number. .2. exponential decay. Conditions for total internal reflection 5. Snell¶s law (n1sin1 = n2sin2) 3. Other diffraction phenomena. Combination of lenses 8. Atomic Structure and Spectra 1. calculation of energy emitted or absorbed when an electron changes energy levels B. lasers B. Dispersion (change of index of refraction with wavelength) 4. Thin films. Visual spectrum. converging and diverging lenses. half-life. Polarization of light 5. diffraction grating. quantized energy levels for electrons b. . Spherical mirrors a. binding energy . energy b. Radioactive decay ( . lens aberration 7. Atomic energy levels a. General nature of fission 6. lens strength. radius. refractive index n. single-slit diffraction 3.

DNA Structure and Function 1. Feedback inhibition 2. DNA polymerase. concept of complementarity 4. Hybridization 3. Mechanism of replication (separation of strands. Enzyme Structure and Function 1. Repair of DNA 1. primer required) 2. Repair of mutations D. Basic Metabolism 1. Double-helix structure 2.Content Outline for Biological Science Section of the MCAT BIOLOGY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: ENZYMES AND METABOLISM A. Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation (substrates and products. Competitive inhibition 3. Substrates and enzyme specificity B. Repair during replication 2. DNA composition (purine and pyrimidine bases. general features of the pathway) 3. Metabolism of fats and proteins MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: DNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS DNA Structure and Function A. Noncompetitive inhibition C. specific coupling of free nucleic acids. Control of Enzyme Activity 1. Recombinant DNA Techniques 1. Restriction enzymes 2. substrates and products) 2. Function of enzymes in catalyzing biological reactions 2. deoxyribose. PCR . Krebs cycle (substrates and products. phosphate) 3. Base-pairing specificity. Function in transmission of genetic information B. Glycolysis (anaerobic and aerobic. general features of the pathway) 4. Gene cloning 4. DNA Replication 1. Semiconservative nature of replication C. Reduction of activation energy 3.

codon sequences) B. oncogenes. General aspects of life cycle B. Virus Structure 1. Role and structure of ribosomes MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: EUKARYOTES A. tumor suppressor genes 4. Roles of mRNA. Genomic content (RNA or DNA) 5. Genetic Code 1. 5 cap.. Codon±anticodon relationship. Cancer as a failure of normal cellular controls. promoters. Transcription 1. Fungi 1. DNA binding proteins. Typical information flow (DNA RNA protein) 2. exons) MICROBIOLOGY A. poly-A tail) 2.Protein Synthesis A. Mechanism of transcription (RNA polymerase. tRNA and rRNA composition and structure (e.g. primer not required) C. and rRNA. Control of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes 1. tRNA. centromeres B. General characteristics 2. General structural characteristics (nucleic acid and protein. Structural aspects of typical bacteriophage 4. degenerate code 3. Eukaryotic Chromosome Organization 1. Chromosomal proteins 2. Telomeres. mRNA composition and structure (RNA nucleotides. Size relative to bacteria and eukaryotic cells . RNA nucleotides) 3. Lack of organelles and nucleus 3. basic concept of splicing (introns. RNA base-pairing specificity 2. Translation 1. enveloped and nonenveloped) 2. transcription factors 3. Posttranscriptional control. Transcription regulation 2. Initiation and termination codons (function. Missense and nonsense codons 4.

Flagellar propulsion E. nuclear pores B. coupling of transcription and translation GENERALIZED EUKARYOTIC CELL A. Lack of typical eukaryotic organelles 3. rough (RER) and smooth (SER) b. extragenomic DNA. self-replication. Lysosomes (vesicles containing hydrolytic enzymes) 3. Mitochondria a. Presence of cell wall 5. RER (transmembrane proteins) . spirilli (spiral-shaped). inner and outer membrane 2. High degree of genetic adaptability. storage of genetic information) 3. transfer of genetic material by viruses D. archaebacteria 4. Prokaryotic Cell: Genetics 1. Exponential growth 4. Generalized phage and animal virus life cycles a. Reproduction by fission 2. site of ATP production b. Endoplasmic reticulum a. Membrane-bound Organelles 1. presence of organelles. Existence of plasmids. Transformation (incorporation into bacterial genome of DNA fragments from external medium) 3. have own DNA and ribosomes c. Retrovirus life cycle. Existence of anaerobic and aerobic variants F. mitotic division) 2. transfer by conjugation 2. Viral Life Cycle 1. Major classifications: bacilli (rod-shaped). Prokaryotic Cell: Growth and Physiology 1. Self-replicating biological units that must reproduce within specific host cell 2. Regulation of gene expression. Nucleus and Other Defining Characteristics 1. use of host synthetic mechanisms to replicate viral components c. integration into host DNA. Transduction. acquisition of antibiotic resistance 3. penetration of cell membrane or cell wall. eubacteria. Nuclear envelope. entry of viral material b. Lack of nuclear membrane and mitotic apparatus 2. attachment to host cell. Prokaryotic Cell: Bacteria Structure 1. Nucleolus (location. reverse transcriptase 4. self-assembly and release of new viral particles 3. Nucleus (compartmentalization.C. Defining characteristics (membrane-bound nucleus. RER (site of ribosomes) c. cocci (spherical). function) 4. role in membrane biosynthesis: SER (lipids).

Passive and active transport 5. Sodium±potassium pump 7. telophase) 2. role in packaging. Phases of cell cycle (G0. Composition and function of eukaryotic cilia and flagella 6.M) 4. second messengers 8. Golgi apparatus (general structure. anaphase. and modification of glycoprotein carbohydrates) C. RER (role in biosynthesis of transmembrane and secreted proteins that cotranslationally targeted to RER by signal sequence) 4. asters. kinetochores c.d. chromatids. Membrane potential 9. General function in cell support and movement 2. desmosomes D. microtubule organizing centers E. Cell Cycle and Mitosis 1. Apoptosis (Programmed Cell Death) . Osmosis 4. cell signaling pathways. fluid mosaic model 3. Cell±cell communication (general concepts of cellular adhesion) a. Interphase and mitosis (prophase. Mitotic structures and processes a. Protein and lipid components. General function in cell containment 2. Plasma Membrane 1. Exocytosis and endocytosis 10. Centrioles. Intermediate filaments (role in support) 5. spindles b. secretion. Microfilaments (composition. tight junctions c. metaphase. centrioles. nuclear membrane breakdown and reorganization d. Microtubules (composition. role in support and transport) 4. role in cleavage and contractility) 3. mechanisms of chromosome movement 3. G1. centromeres. Membrane receptors. G2. Cytoskeleton 1. S. gap junctions b. Growth arrest F. Membrane channels 6.

locations. Endocrine System: Hormones 1. products) 4. Cell body (site of nucleus and organelles) 2. cross bridges. fatigue d. Function of endocrine system (specific chemical control at cell. Dendrites (structure.SPECIALIZED EUKARYOTIC CELLS AND TISSUES A. and organ levels) 2. stratified epithelium) 2. Resting potential (electrochemical gradient) 9. frequency of firing) B. insulation of axon 5. Organization of contractile elements (actin and myosin filaments. Major types of hormones B. extracellular matrix) NERVOUS AND ENDOCRINE SYSTEMS A. Muscle Cell/Contractile 1. propagation between cells without resistance loss 8. Excitatory and inhibitory nerve fibers (summation. Axon (structure. Calcium regulation of contraction. Connective tissue cells (major tissues and cell types. transmitter molecules b. Action potential a. hormone 3. Major endocrine glands (names. Abundant mitochondria in red muscle cells (ATP source) 2. Specificity of hormones (target tissue) 4. H zone²general structure only) 5. synaptic knobs c. Endothelial cells 3. sarcoplasmic reticulum 4. Epithelial cells (cell types. sliding filament model) 3. Sarcomeres ( I and A bands. Presence of troponin and tropomyosin C. fiber types. loose versus dense. Synapse (site of impulse propagation between cells) 7. threshold. all-or-none b. Endocrine System: Mechanisms of Hormone Action 1. M and Z lines. Nodes of Ranvier (role in propagation of nerve impulse along axon) 6. Cellular mechanisms of hormone action 2. sodium±potassium pump 10. Nerve Cell/Neural 1. Other Specialized Cell Types 1. Definitions of endocrine gland. simple epithelium. Myelin sheath. Transport of hormones (bloodstream) 3. function) 3. oligodendrocytes. tissue. function) 4. Integration with nervous system (feedback control) . Schwann cells. Synaptic activity a.

Olfaction. function) 4. blood cells b. antagonistic control) 5. Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems (functions. Arterial and venous systems (arteries. clotting mechanisms. Four-chambered heart (structure. mechanism of heat exchange 8. pressure and flow characteristics 7. hematocrit b. removal of metabolic waste) 2. bone marrow) c. Nervous System: Structure and Function 1. Vision a. Systolic and diastolic pressure 5. taste 3. Functions (circulation of oxygen. ions. visual image processing CIRCULATORY. roles of spinal cord.C. reflex arc. Composition of blood a. high-level control and integration of body systems b. brain c. erythrocyte production and destruction (spleen. nutrients. coagulation. LYMPHATIC. Major functions a. sensory input d. Role in thermoregulation 3. response to external influences c. effects on flexor and extensor muscles b. oxygen affinity . ear structure b. and fluids. regulation of plasma volume d. Circulatory System 1. Hearing a. hemoglobin. eye structure c. venules. integrative and cognitive abilities 2. Reflexes a. Sensor and effector neurons 4. feedback loop. plasma. mechanism of hearing 4. role of liver in production of clotting factors 9. proprioceptive and somatic sensors 2. veins) a. light receptors b. Pulmonary and systemic circulation 6. chemicals. efferent control D. oxygen content c. arterioles. Nervous System: Sensory Reception and Processing 1. AND IMMUNE SYSTEMS A. Organization of vertebrate nervous system 3. Skin. mechanisms of gas and solute exchange b. structural and functional differences b. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transport by blood a. hormones. Capillary beds a.

Pancreas . T lymphocytes c. vitamin storage c. Ingestion a. Lymphatic System 1. Bile a. natural killer cells. Liver a. Composition of lymph (similarity to blood plasma. storage in gallbladder b. Tissues a. roles in blood glucose regulation. roles in nutrient metabolism. production of bile b. lymph nodes 3. production of digestive enzymes. Digestive System 1. Cells and their basic functions a. thymus d. Source of lymph (diffusion from capillaries by differential pressure) 4. Major functions a. plasma cells 2. protection by mucus against self-destruction c. site of digestion d. equalization of fluid distribution b. dendritic cells b. return of materials to the blood 2. saliva as lubrication and source of enzymes b. macrophages. structure (gross) 4. function 5. Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Systems 1. transport of proteins and large glycerides c. Structure of antibody molecule 6. Basic aspects of innate immunity and inflammatory response 4. Mechanism of stimulation by antigen. mast cells. esophagus (transport function) 2. Lymph nodes (activation of lymphocytes) C. Details of oxygen transport: biochemical characteristics of hemoglobin a. spleen c. neutrophils. storage and churning of food b. epiglottal action c. pharynx (function in swallowing) d. B lymphocytes.10. modification of oxygen affinity B. structure (gross) 3. detoxification d. Concepts of antigen and antibody 5. gastric juice. substances transported) 3. antigen presentation DIGESTIVE AND EXCRETORY SYSTEMS A. Stomach a. low pH. bone marrow b.

secretion and reabsorption of solutes c. peripheral circulatory assistance c. transport of enzymes to small intestine c. cortex b. Excretory System 1. Functions a. mobility b. glomerular filtration b. countercurrent multiplier mechanism (basic function) 5. absorption of food molecules and water b. loop of Henle e. neutralization of stomach acid e. bacterial flora c. removal of soluble nitrogenous waste 2. production of enzymes. bicarbonate b. Formation of urine a. Kidney structure a. proximal tubule d. site of digestion d. feces) 9. distal tube f. Nephron structure a. Storage and elimination (ureter. production of enzymes. structure (gross) 6. glomerulus b. osmoregulation c. acid±base balance d. thermoregulation (shivering reflex) . urethra) MUSCLE AND SKELETAL SYSTEMS A. concentration of urine d. sphincter muscle b. support.a. Rectum (storage and elimination of waste. Bowman¶s capsule c. structure (gross) 8. Muscular control a. Muscle System 1. function and structure of villi c. structure (anatomic subdivisions) 7. Large intestine a. absorption of water b. Small intestine a. blood pressure b. medulla 3. peristalsis B. bladder. collecting duct 4. Roles in homeostasis a.

voluntary and involuntary muscles d. General structure and function a. resiliency and surface tension effects . endoskeleton versus exoskeleton 3. Skeletal System 1. Skeletal structure a. specialization of bone types. joint structures c. and cardiac muscle. differential pressure b. structures b. sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation B. bone growth (osteoblasts. motor end plates c. striated versus nonstriated 3. structural rigidity and support b. physical protection 2. motor neurons b. Functions a. diaphragm. Bone structure a. osteoclasts) RESPIRATORY SYSTEM A. Structural characteristics of skeletal. rib cage. thermoregulation b. Breathing mechanisms a. tendons 5. calcium storage c. function) 4.2. Nervous control a. Ligaments. gas exchange. particulate matter 2. neuromuscular junctions. calcium±protein matrix b. Respiratory System 1. smooth. protection against disease. Cartilage (structure.

differences in morphology c. Skin System 1. hair b. Embryogenesis 1. Gene regulation in development . first cell movements ii. erectile musculature b. fertilization b. Developmental Mechanisms 1. Functions in thermoregulation a. neurulation 2. hair. determination b. relative contribution to next generation 4. Cell communication in development 3. vasoconstriction and vasodilation in surface capillaries 3. disease organisms 4. relative impermeability to water REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM AND DEVELOPMENT A. formation of primary germ layers (endoderm. Cell specialization a. Reproductive sequence (fertilization. differences between male and female structures 2. calluses. gastrulation i. Reproductive System 1. protection against abrasion. ectoderm) e. tissue types 2. Ovum and sperm a. fat layer for insulation c. gonads b. nails. Major structures arising out of primary germ layers C. differentiation c. cleavage c. sweat glands. mesoderm. Physical protection a. implantation. blastula formation d. Structure a. Gametogenesis by meiosis 3. Male and female reproductive structures and their functions a. genitalia c. tissue types (epithelial. location in dermis d. Functions in homeostasis and osmoregulation 2. cell types. layer differentiation. birth) B. development. differences in formation b. Stages of early development (order and general features of each) a.SKIN SYSTEM A. connective) b.

Locus 4. translocation) d. general concept of mutation b. linkage c. Mendelian Concepts 1. Significance of meiosis 2. relationship of mutagens to carcinogens C. mitochondrial inheritance 5. Homozygosity and heterozygosity 6. cytoplasmic inheritance. base substitution. Analytic Methods 1.4. and F2 generations) . penetrance. chromosomal rearrangements (inversion. Segregation of genes a. Complete dominance 9. Hardy±Weinberg principle 2. very few genes on Y chromosome b. Mutation a. multiple) 5. independent assortment b. concepts of parental. pedigree analysis) 2. Recessiveness 8. transcription error. F1. Gene pool B. types of mutations (random. insertion. Important differences between meiosis and mitosis 3. leakage. double crossovers 4. advantageous versus deleterious mutation e. Incomplete dominance. Testcross (backcross. Sex-linked characteristics a. Wild type 7. Allele (single. sex determination c. deletion. translation error. probability calculations. expressivity 11. recombination d. Meiosis and Genetic Variability 1. frameshift) c. Programmed cell death GENETICS A. inborn errors of metabolism f. Gene 3. Codominance 10. single crossovers e. Phenotype and genotype (definitions.

brachial arches c. Evolution 1. Natural selection a. and convergent evolution j. parallel. Origin of life B. symbiotic relationships i. fitness concept b. inbreeding g. Speciation a.EVOLUTION A. outbreeding h. Comparative Anatomy 1. polymorphism c. concepts of ecological niche. adaptation and specialization d. Chordate features a. Evolutionary time as measured by gradual random changes in genome 5. concept of population growth through competition f. pharangeal pouches. dorsal nerve cord 2. concepts of natural and group selection d. commensalism iii. evolutionary success as increase in percent representation in the gene pool of the next generation 2. competition e. Vertebrate phylogeny (vertebrate classes and relations to each other) . Relationship between ontogeny and phylogeny 4. mutualism 3. parasitism ii. divergent. definition of species b. bottlenecks. genetic drift i. selection by differential reproduction c. notochord b.

Polarization of light. effect of structural changes on absorption 3. Delocalized electrons and resonance in ions and molecules B..g. Absorption Spectroscopy 1. Molecular ion peak C. recognizing common characteristic group absorptions. cis and trans isomers) c. NH3. H2O. conventions for writing R and S forms b. Absolute and relative configuration a. Stereochemistry of Covalently Bonded Molecules 1. conventions for writing E and Z forms 4. absorption in visible region yielding complementary color b. Multiple Bonding 1. Mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) 2. enantiomers. Infrared region a. Mass Spectrometry 1.g. -electron and nonbonding electron transitions b.ORGANIC CHEMISTRY THE COVALENT BOND A. and their respective geometries) 2. constitutional isomers b. equivalent protons 2. stereoisomers (e. Racemic mixtures. predictions of shapes of molecules (e. Its effect on bond length and bond energies 2. fingerprint region 2. Valence shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory. Sigma and Pi Bonds 1. Visible region a. Structural formulas 4. intramolecular vibrations and rotations b. Rigidity in molecular structure C. Protons in a magnetic field. Hybrid orbitals (sp3. separation of enantiomers MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND SPECTRA A.. conformational isomers 2. sp2. Spin±spin splitting . CO2) 3. specific rotation 3. Isomers a. 1H NMR Spectroscopy 1. sp. diastereomers. conjugated systems B. Ultraviolet region a.

pinacol rearrangement in polyhydroxyalcohols. preparation of mesylates and tosylates g. depending on alcohol and derived alkyl halide) b. Paper chromatography 3. chain reaction mechanism. bicyclic molecules OXYGEN-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS A. physical properties 2.SEPARATIONS AND PURIFICATIONS A. Alkanes 1. combustion b. stability of free radicals. esterification h. hydrogen bonding b. Description a. Distillation C. nomenclature b. synthetic uses d. ring strain in cyclic compounds c. substitution reactions with halogens. Important reactions a. inhibition b. Important reactions a. Alcohols 1. Chromatography (Basic Principles Involved in Separation Process) 1. Gas±liquid chromatography 2. 3. General principles a. protection of alcohols e. effect of chain branching on physical properties . reactions with SOCl2 and PBr3 f. oxidation c. acidity of alcohols compared to other classes of oxygen-containing compounds c. Thin-layer chromatography D. substitution reactions (SN1 or SN2. inorganic esters 3. Recrystallization (Solvent Choice from Solubility Data) HYDROCARBONS A. etc. physical properties 2. General principles a. nomenclature b. Extraction (Distribution of Solute Between Two Immiscible Solvents) B. Description a.

nucleophilic attack ii. Description a. decarboxylation iv. enamine b. dimerization c. Grignard reagents 3. íunsaturated carbonyl compounds. imine. Important reactions a. aldol condensation iii. substitution reactions 3. Wolff±Kishner reaction g. hemiacetal ii. haloform reactions ii. reactions at position i. their resonance structures C. keto±enol tautomerism e. esterification b. acidity of hydrogens. resonance stability of carboxylate anion . General principles a. 1. halogenation ii. . steric hindrance b. carbanions c. reactions at adjacent positions i. Description a. acetal. General principles a. hydrogen bonding b. inductive effect of substituents e. effect of substituents on reactivity of C=O. organometallic reagents f. nomenclature b. nomenclature b. acidity of the carboxyl group d. carboxyl group reactions i.3-dicarbonyl compounds. reduction iii.B. Aldehydes and Ketones 1. physical properties and solubility 2. nucleophilic addition reactions at C=O bond i. Carboxylic Acids 1. physical properties 2. internal hydrogen bonding d. oxidation c. Important reactions a.

Strain (e. transesterification e. General principles a. Description a. nucleophilic substitution c. Anhydrides. General principles a. nomenclature 2. steric effects c. stabilization of adjacent carbocations c. physical properties 2. Hofmann elimination 3. nomenclature b. Acid Derivatives (Acid Chlorides. preparation of acid derivatives b. physical properties 2. Description a. electronic effects d. Important reactions a. -lactams) E. General principles a. Description a. hydrolysis of fats and glycerides (saponification) f. Important reactions a. basicity b. hydrolysis of amides 3. decarboxylation b. alkylation d.. reaction with nitrous acid c. keto±enol tautomerism AMINES 1. amide formation b. acidity of hydrogens in íketo esters b.g. Hofmann rearrangement d. Amides. Esters) 1. effect of substituents on basicity of aromatic amines . relative reactivity of acid derivatives b. Important reactions a. acetoacetic ester synthesis 3.D. nomenclature b. stereochemistry. Keto Acids and Esters 1.

Wittig reaction . General principles a. free fatty acids D. Lipids 1. Important reactions a. Description a. classification i. peptide linkage b. esters) 2. triacylglycerols d. hydrolysis 3. amino acids classified as dipolar ions c. classification.BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES A. Description. Description a. epimers and anomers 2. Important reactions a. terpenes c. Reactions of monosaccharides B. absolute configurations c. Carbohydrates 1. a absolute configuration(s) b. structure of phosphoric acids (anhydrides. hydrophobic or hydrophilic 2. structure a. 2º structure of proteins C. acidic or basic ii. Phosphorus Compounds 1. 1º structure of proteins b. common names b. Hydrolysis of the glycoside linkage 3. steroids b. nomenclature. cyclic structure and conformations of hexoses d. Description a. Amino Acids and Proteins 1.

H. Distinguish between supported and unsupported claims F. Judge the bearing of new evidence on conclusions presented in the passage. Identify the background knowledge contained in the passage or question that is relevant to a particular interpretation. C. . models. II. Identify stated or unstated assumptions contained in the passage. Judge the credibility of a source. or claim. Identify a general theory or model based on given information. Determine the implications of conclusions or results for real-world situations E. Recognize methods or results that would challenge hypotheses. Identify the reasons or evidence offered in support of a thesis. Recognize plausible alternative hypotheses or solutions. G. Application A. B. Recognize appropriate questions of clarification. IV: Incorporation of new information A. Identify the probable cause of a particular event or result based on information presented. B. Identify the Central concern or thesis of the passage. F. Determine. explanations. D. Judge the relevance of information to an argument or claim. F. Judge the soundness of an argument or a step of reasoning presented in the passage. Identify comparative relationships among ideas or pieces of information contained in the passage. Evaluation A. the meaning of significant terminology or vocabulary used in the passage. III. E. B. conclusion. Recognize an accurate paraphrase of complex information presented in the passage. C. Determine how a conclusion from the passage can be modified to be made consistent with additional information. C. D. Appraise the strength of the evidence for a generalization. Use given information to solve a specified problem. Comprehension A. and conclusions. D. from context. Judge whether a conclusion follows necessarily from the reasons given in the passage. E. C. B. Recognize the scope of application of hypothesis. Predict a result on the basis of passage content and specific facts about a hypothetical situation. D.MCAT Verbal Reasoning Skills I. or theories given in the passage.