Content Outline for Physical Sciences Section of the MCAT

GENERAL CHEMISTRY
ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE AND PERIODIC TABLE A. Electronic Structure 1. Orbital structure of hydrogen atom, principal quantum number n, number of electrons per orbital 2. Ground state, excited states 3. Absorption and emission spectra 4. Quantum numbers l, m, s, and number of electrons per orbital 5. Common names and geometric shapes for orbitals s, p, d 6. Conventional notation for electronic structure 7. Bohr atom 8. Effective nuclear charge B. The Periodic Table: Classification of Elements into Groups by Electronic Structure; Physical and Chemical Properties of Elements 1. Alkali metals 2. Alkaline earth metals 3. Halogens 4. Noble gases 5. Transition metals 6. Representative elements 7. Metals and nonmetals 8. Oxygen group C. The Periodic Table: Variations of Chemical Properties with Group and Row 1. Electronic structure a. representative elements b. noble gases c. transition metals 2. Valence electrons 3. First and second ionization energies a. definition b. prediction from electronic structure for elements in different groups or rows 4. Electron affinity a. definition b. variations with group and row 5. Electronegativity a. definition b. comparative values for some representative elements and important groups 6. Electron shells and the sizes of atoms

BONDING A. The Ionic Bond (Electrostatic Forces Between Ions) 1. Electrostatic energy q1q2/r 2. Electrostatic energy lattice energy 3. Electrostatic force q1q2/r2 B. The Covalent Bond 1. Sigma and pi bonds a. hybrid orbitals (sp3, sp2, sp, and respective geometries) b. valence shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory, predictions of shapes of molecules (e.g., NH3, H2O, CO2) 2. Lewis electron dot formulas a. resonance structures b. formal charge c. Lewis acids and bases 3. Partial ionic character a. role of electronegativity in determining charge distribution b. dipole moment PHASES AND PHASE EQUILIBRIA A. Gas Phase 1. Absolute temperature, K 2. Pressure, simple mercury barometer 3. Molar volume at 0°C and 1 atm = 22.4 L/mol 4. Ideal gas a. definition b. ideal gas law (PV = nRT) i. Boyle¶s law ii. Charles¶s law iii. Avogadro¶s law 4. Kinetic theory of gases 5. Deviation of real-gas behavior from ideal gas law a. qualitative b. quantitative (van der Waals equation) 6. Partial pressure, mole fraction 7. Dalton¶s law relating partial pressure to composition B. Intermolecular Forces 1. Hydrogen bonding 2. Dipole interactions 3. London dispersion forces

redox titration 8. Bond dissociation energy as related to heats of formation 4.C. freezing point depression ( Tf= Kfm) d. Colligative properties a. Molality 4. Entropy as a measure of ³disorder. osmotic pressure 5. liquid. boiling point. Endothermic and exothermic reactions a.184 J/g·K) 5. Phase changes. Avogadro¶s number 6. Mole concept. Henry¶s law STOICHIOMETRY 1. boiling point elevation ( Tb= Kbm) c. Measurement of heat changes (calorimetry). Hess¶s law of heat summation 3. conventions for writing chemical equations b. Free energy G 7. melting point. common oxidizing and reducing agents b. Definition of density 7. enthalpy H. Freezing point. Phase Equilibria 1. balancing equations including redox equations c. standard heats of reaction and formation b. Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions: Thermochemistry 1. and crystal states 6.´ relative entropy for gas. theoretical yields THERMODYNAMICS AND THERMOCHEMISTRY A. Molecular weight 2. Thermodynamic system. Metric units commonly used in the context of chemistry 4. disproportionation reactions c. condensation point 3. specific heat capacity (specific heat capacity of water = 4. Empirical formula versus molecular formula 3. vapor pressure lowering (Raoult¶s law) b. Oxidation number a. state function 2. Description of reactions by chemical equations a. heat capacity. phase diagrams 2. limiting reactants d. Spontaneous reactions and Gº . Description of composition by percent mass 5. Colloids 6.

NH4+. dependence of reaction rate on concentrations of reactants a. phosphate. Solubility 1. the equilibrium expression 3. activated complex or transition state ii. the hydronium ion B. Catalysts. conservation of energy) 3. First law ( E = q + w. Relationship of the equilibrium constant and Gº SOLUTION CHEMISTRY A. ammonium. electrical. Solubility and pH . and charges for familiar ions.g.. Arrhenius equation 5. rate constant b. Hydration. PO43±.molarity) 2. Solubility product constant.. activation energy. Equilibrium in reversible chemical reactions a. convection. Common-ion effect. application of Le Châtelier¶s principle 8. Heat of fusion.g. Complex ion formation 5. reaction order 3. Complex ions and solubility 6.B. sulfate) 2. Equivalence of mechanical. the equilibrium constant c. H for the reaction b. interpretation of energy profiles showing energies of reactants and products. Second law (concept of entropy) 5. Temperature scales. Anion. PV diagram (work done = area under or enclosed by curve) RATE PROCESSES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS: KINETICS AND EQUILIBRIUM 1. SO42±. Heat transfer (conduction. chemical. conversions 6. Zeroth law (concept of temperature) 2. enzyme catalysis 7. radiation) 7. formulas. Thermodynamics 1. and thermal energy units 4. its use in laboratory separations 4. Kinetic control versus thermodynamic control of a reaction 6. cation (common names. heat of vaporization 8. Dependence of reaction rate on temperature a. Units of concentration (e. Reaction rates 2. Rate law. activation energy i. law of mass action b. Ions in Solution 1. e. Rate-determining step 4.

pH of pure water 3. Galvanic (voltaic) cell a. nitric. Brønsted±Lowry definition of acids and bases 2. acetic. cell potential c. Electrolytic cell a.g. half-reactions b. Interpretation of titration curves ELECTROCHEMISTRY 1. cathode c. electron flow. Faraday¶s law relating amount of elements deposited (or gas liberated) at an electrode to current e.. pH definition. electrolytes d. calculation of pH of solutions of weak acids or bases 6. oxidation and reduction at the electrodes 2. electrolysis b. sulfuric) 5. Titration 1. Weak acids and bases (common examples. concepts (common buffer systems) b. influence on titration curves B. Strong acids and bases (common examples..ACIDS AND BASES A. Equilibrium constants Kaand Kb (pKa and pKb) 7. anode. Ionization of water a. Neutralization 3. Kw. e. Acid±Base Equilibria 1. benzoic) a. dissociation of weak acids and bases with or without added salt b. direction of electron flow . reduction potentials. Indicators 2. Buffers a. e.g. hydrolysis of salts of weak acids or bases c. definition. Conjugate acids and bases 4. its approximate value (Kw = [H3O+][OH±] = 10±14 at 25°C) b.

Momentum 1. Conservation of linear momentum 4. Centripetal force (F = ±mv2/r) 9. Vectors. Impulse = Ft 3. Equilibrium 1. Concept of force. Translational equilibrium ( Fi = 0) 3. Analysis of pulley systems 13. Rotational equilibrium ( i= 0) 4. Momentum = mv 2. lever arms 7. Weight 10. Newton¶s second law (F = ma) 4. Friction (static and kinetic) 11. Motion on an inclined plane 12. units 2. Freely falling bodies FORCE AND MOTION. Newton¶s first law (inertia) 3. Weightlessness B. Uniform circular motion 8. Concept of a field 6. Acceleration 6. Speed. Newton¶s first law (inertia) 6. Force EQUILIBRIUM AND MOMENTUM A. velocity (average and instantaneous) 5. GRAVITATION 1. Dimensions (length or distance. time) 2. Law of gravitation (F = ±Gm1m2/r2) 7. Torques. Newton¶s third law (forces equal and opposite) 5. components 3.PHYSICS TRANSLATIONAL MOTION 1. Center of mass 2. Inelastic collisions . Analysis of forces acting on an object 5. Vector addition 4. Elastic collisions 5.

Intensity of sound (decibel units. Work±energy theorem 5. Attenuation . Motion of a pendulum 6. log scale) 4. Kinetic energy (KE = mv2/2. Simple harmonic motion. spring (PE = kx2/2) c. Derived units. Conservation of energy 4. units WAVES AND PERIODIC MOTION A. Periodic Motion 1. Potential energy a. antinodes) 7. Production of sound 2. Hooke¶s law (F = ±kx) 4. units) 2. Transverse and longitudinal waves 2. Wave Characteristics 1. gravitational. gravitational. Conservative forces 5. wave addition 5.WORK AND ENERGY A. liquids. frequency. Amplitude and intensity 4. Path independence of work done in gravitational field 3. frequency 2. Energy 1. General periodic motion (velocity. interference. displacement as a sinusoidal function of time 5. general (PE = ±GmM/r) 3. Refraction and general nature of diffraction SOUND 1. Relative speed of sound in solids. period. Standing waves (nodes. Resonance 6. and gases 3. Superposition of waves. Power B. local (PE = mgh) b. sign conventions 2. Mechanical advantage 4. Beat frequencies 8. Wavelength. Phase 3. Power. amplitude) B. Work 1. Amplitude. wave speed 3.

Thermal expansion coefficient 5. absolute potential at point in space 6. pressure versus depth (P = gh) 4. Archimedes¶ principle (buoyancy) 3. Continuity equation (Av = constant) 6. Equipotential lines 7. Ultra sound FLUIDS AND SOLIDS A.5. Hydrostatic pressure a. conductors. Resonance in pipes and strings 8. Elastic limit 4. Solids 1. Charges. Poiseuille flow (viscosity) 5. Potential difference. Coulomb¶s law (F = kq1q2/r2. Concept of turbulence at high velocities 7. Bernoulli¶s equation B. Pascal¶s law b. Density 2. Insulators 3. Electric field a. Elastic properties (elementary properties) 3. potential due to dipole . reflection of sound from a moving object) 6. field due to charge distribution 5. Doppler effect (moving sound source or observer. charge conservation 2. definition of dipole b. Surface tension 8. Shear 6. sign conventions) 4. Harmonics 9. Fluids 1. Compression ELECTROSTATICS AND ELECTROMAGNETISM A. Pitch 7. Electric dipole a. field lines b. Density. behavior in electric field c. Electrostatics 1. specific gravity 2.

) ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT ELEMENTS A. energy of charged capacitor c. X-rays. P = I2R) C. Capacitance a. internal resistance of battery 4. resistivity ( = RA/L) 5. resistors in series c. dielectrics 6. Gauss¶s law B. Young¶s double-slit experiment . Properties of electromagnetic radiation (general properties only) a. Electrostatic induction 9. Battery. Electromagnetic Radiation (Light) 1. concept of parallel-plate capacitor b. etc. Concept of interference. Terminal potential. UV. voltage 3. Classification of electromagnetic spectrum (radio. sign conventions. capacitors in series d. units) 2. Power in circuits (P = VI. Discharge of a capacitor through a resistor 7. Root-mean-square current 2. Ohm¶s law (I = V/R) b. Circuit Elements 1. Alternating Currents and Reactive Circuits 1.8. infrared. radiation velocity equals constant c in vacuo b. radiation consists of oscillating electric and magnetic fields that are mutually perpendicular to each other and to the propagation direction 2. Magnetism 1. Light (Electromagnetic Radiation) 1. Existence and direction of force on charge moving in magnetic field C. Current (I = Q/ t. resistors in parallel d. Conductivity theory B. Resistance a. Definition of the magnetic field B 2. Root-mean-square voltage LIGHT AND GEOMETRICAL OPTICS A. capacitors in parallel e. Circuits 1. electromotive force.

semilog plots) 5. General nature of fusion 7. Optical instruments ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE A. lens strength. refractive index n. Dispersion (change of index of refraction with wavelength) 4. binding energy . Geometrical Optics 1. lens aberration 7. radius. lasers B. color a. calculation of energy emitted or absorbed when an electron changes energy levels B. focal length b. Thin lenses a. Spherical mirrors a. Thin films. Atomic number. Nuclear forces 4. X-ray diffraction 4. isotopes 3. Combination of lenses 8. diffraction grating. Polarization of light 5. . Atomic Nucleus 1. Visual spectrum. use of formula (1/p) + (1/q) = 1/f with sign conventions c. half-life. diopters e. energy b. single-slit diffraction 3. protons. Refraction. energy liberated. Conditions for total internal reflection 5. Emission spectrum of hydrogen (Bohr model) 2. Neutrons. real and virtual images d. stability. mirror curvature. real and virtual images 6. exponential decay.2. Snell¶s law (n1sin1 = n2sin2) 3. Atomic Structure and Spectra 1. Atomic energy levels a. use of formula (1/p) + (1/q) = 1/f with sign conventions c. atomic weight 2. Reflection from plane surface (angle of incidence equals angle of reflection) 2. quantized energy levels for electrons b. Mass deficit. Ray tracing 9. . Other diffraction phenomena. General nature of fission 6. converging and diverging lenses. focal length b. Doppler effect (moving light source or observer) 6. Radioactive decay ( .

substrates and products) 2. Substrates and enzyme specificity B. Feedback inhibition 2. deoxyribose. primer required) 2. phosphate) 3. Glycolysis (anaerobic and aerobic. Krebs cycle (substrates and products. DNA Replication 1. general features of the pathway) 4. PCR . Semiconservative nature of replication C. Function of enzymes in catalyzing biological reactions 2. Base-pairing specificity. Gene cloning 4. concept of complementarity 4. Competitive inhibition 3. Function in transmission of genetic information B. Double-helix structure 2. DNA composition (purine and pyrimidine bases. Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation (substrates and products. general features of the pathway) 3. Enzyme Structure and Function 1. Recombinant DNA Techniques 1. Repair of DNA 1. Noncompetitive inhibition C. Restriction enzymes 2. specific coupling of free nucleic acids. Basic Metabolism 1. Mechanism of replication (separation of strands.Content Outline for Biological Science Section of the MCAT BIOLOGY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: ENZYMES AND METABOLISM A. Hybridization 3. Reduction of activation energy 3. DNA Structure and Function 1. Control of Enzyme Activity 1. Repair of mutations D. Repair during replication 2. DNA polymerase. Metabolism of fats and proteins MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: DNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS DNA Structure and Function A.

and rRNA. RNA base-pairing specificity 2. Role and structure of ribosomes MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: EUKARYOTES A. exons) MICROBIOLOGY A. Genomic content (RNA or DNA) 5. Lack of organelles and nucleus 3. General characteristics 2. mRNA composition and structure (RNA nucleotides.Protein Synthesis A. Codon±anticodon relationship. transcription factors 3. basic concept of splicing (introns. Cancer as a failure of normal cellular controls. Posttranscriptional control. Genetic Code 1. Roles of mRNA. enveloped and nonenveloped) 2. Transcription 1. Control of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes 1. tRNA. tRNA and rRNA composition and structure (e. Fungi 1. centromeres B. Mechanism of transcription (RNA polymerase. Typical information flow (DNA RNA protein) 2. tumor suppressor genes 4. Eukaryotic Chromosome Organization 1. Virus Structure 1.g. General aspects of life cycle B. Chromosomal proteins 2. codon sequences) B. oncogenes.. Translation 1. 5 cap. Structural aspects of typical bacteriophage 4. primer not required) C. Initiation and termination codons (function. Telomeres. Transcription regulation 2. degenerate code 3. poly-A tail) 2. Size relative to bacteria and eukaryotic cells . promoters. General structural characteristics (nucleic acid and protein. Missense and nonsense codons 4. DNA binding proteins. RNA nucleotides) 3.

RER (site of ribosomes) c. nuclear pores B. role in membrane biosynthesis: SER (lipids). archaebacteria 4. Prokaryotic Cell: Growth and Physiology 1. Nucleus and Other Defining Characteristics 1. use of host synthetic mechanisms to replicate viral components c. Existence of anaerobic and aerobic variants F. Viral Life Cycle 1. Endoplasmic reticulum a. Nuclear envelope. Reproduction by fission 2. attachment to host cell. Generalized phage and animal virus life cycles a. acquisition of antibiotic resistance 3. Nucleolus (location. spirilli (spiral-shaped). eubacteria. Lack of nuclear membrane and mitotic apparatus 2. extragenomic DNA. Regulation of gene expression. presence of organelles. rough (RER) and smooth (SER) b. Defining characteristics (membrane-bound nucleus. Retrovirus life cycle. High degree of genetic adaptability. Prokaryotic Cell: Genetics 1. Exponential growth 4. Flagellar propulsion E. site of ATP production b.C. penetration of cell membrane or cell wall. inner and outer membrane 2. reverse transcriptase 4. Lysosomes (vesicles containing hydrolytic enzymes) 3. Major classifications: bacilli (rod-shaped). Mitochondria a. function) 4. Transduction. cocci (spherical). Membrane-bound Organelles 1. Self-replicating biological units that must reproduce within specific host cell 2. Nucleus (compartmentalization. RER (transmembrane proteins) . Lack of typical eukaryotic organelles 3. storage of genetic information) 3. mitotic division) 2. transfer by conjugation 2. Transformation (incorporation into bacterial genome of DNA fragments from external medium) 3. transfer of genetic material by viruses D. self-assembly and release of new viral particles 3. integration into host DNA. Presence of cell wall 5. Existence of plasmids. self-replication. have own DNA and ribosomes c. coupling of transcription and translation GENERALIZED EUKARYOTIC CELL A. Prokaryotic Cell: Bacteria Structure 1. entry of viral material b.

Cell Cycle and Mitosis 1. Passive and active transport 5. cell signaling pathways. anaphase. Composition and function of eukaryotic cilia and flagella 6. RER (role in biosynthesis of transmembrane and secreted proteins that cotranslationally targeted to RER by signal sequence) 4. gap junctions b. desmosomes D. Cell±cell communication (general concepts of cellular adhesion) a. Apoptosis (Programmed Cell Death) . Cytoskeleton 1. centrioles. role in packaging. Membrane channels 6. Membrane potential 9. Membrane receptors. Exocytosis and endocytosis 10. S. Sodium±potassium pump 7. Intermediate filaments (role in support) 5. Microtubules (composition. role in support and transport) 4. Osmosis 4. Interphase and mitosis (prophase. nuclear membrane breakdown and reorganization d. secretion. spindles b. kinetochores c. metaphase. G2. centromeres. second messengers 8. role in cleavage and contractility) 3. Protein and lipid components. Centrioles. chromatids. Golgi apparatus (general structure. asters. General function in cell containment 2. fluid mosaic model 3. telophase) 2. Plasma Membrane 1. and modification of glycoprotein carbohydrates) C.M) 4. Microfilaments (composition. G1. microtubule organizing centers E.d. Mitotic structures and processes a. Growth arrest F. tight junctions c. mechanisms of chromosome movement 3. Phases of cell cycle (G0. General function in cell support and movement 2.

Dendrites (structure. Function of endocrine system (specific chemical control at cell. insulation of axon 5. oligodendrocytes. Nerve Cell/Neural 1. sliding filament model) 3. Nodes of Ranvier (role in propagation of nerve impulse along axon) 6. frequency of firing) B. Transport of hormones (bloodstream) 3. synaptic knobs c. Organization of contractile elements (actin and myosin filaments. transmitter molecules b. hormone 3. cross bridges. fatigue d. all-or-none b. Integration with nervous system (feedback control) . Axon (structure. Cellular mechanisms of hormone action 2. Synaptic activity a. Action potential a. propagation between cells without resistance loss 8. sodium±potassium pump 10. tissue. extracellular matrix) NERVOUS AND ENDOCRINE SYSTEMS A. Sarcomeres ( I and A bands. Endocrine System: Hormones 1. Specificity of hormones (target tissue) 4. loose versus dense. sarcoplasmic reticulum 4. Myelin sheath. and organ levels) 2. Excitatory and inhibitory nerve fibers (summation. Epithelial cells (cell types. Cell body (site of nucleus and organelles) 2. threshold. Calcium regulation of contraction. fiber types. simple epithelium. Muscle Cell/Contractile 1. Connective tissue cells (major tissues and cell types. Synapse (site of impulse propagation between cells) 7. products) 4. H zone²general structure only) 5. Schwann cells. function) 4. Presence of troponin and tropomyosin C. Abundant mitochondria in red muscle cells (ATP source) 2. Other Specialized Cell Types 1. Resting potential (electrochemical gradient) 9. stratified epithelium) 2. M and Z lines. Major endocrine glands (names.SPECIALIZED EUKARYOTIC CELLS AND TISSUES A. Definitions of endocrine gland. function) 3. Major types of hormones B. Endocrine System: Mechanisms of Hormone Action 1. Endothelial cells 3. locations.

and fluids. function) 4. ear structure b. Organization of vertebrate nervous system 3. proprioceptive and somatic sensors 2. reflex arc. coagulation. Reflexes a. pressure and flow characteristics 7. hormones.C. mechanism of hearing 4. visual image processing CIRCULATORY. efferent control D. plasma. oxygen affinity . Capillary beds a. Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems (functions. Arterial and venous systems (arteries. Composition of blood a. clotting mechanisms. response to external influences c. LYMPHATIC. Circulatory System 1. ions. Pulmonary and systemic circulation 6. Nervous System: Structure and Function 1. nutrients. sensory input d. high-level control and integration of body systems b. removal of metabolic waste) 2. brain c. integrative and cognitive abilities 2. antagonistic control) 5. hemoglobin. blood cells b. feedback loop. roles of spinal cord. Olfaction. Functions (circulation of oxygen. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transport by blood a. Systolic and diastolic pressure 5. erythrocyte production and destruction (spleen. taste 3. Role in thermoregulation 3. structural and functional differences b. effects on flexor and extensor muscles b. Hearing a. venules. Nervous System: Sensory Reception and Processing 1. Vision a. veins) a. Skin. Major functions a. Sensor and effector neurons 4. oxygen content c. mechanisms of gas and solute exchange b. regulation of plasma volume d. mechanism of heat exchange 8. light receptors b. chemicals. AND IMMUNE SYSTEMS A. hematocrit b. eye structure c. arterioles. bone marrow) c. role of liver in production of clotting factors 9. Four-chambered heart (structure.

Liver a.10. Concepts of antigen and antibody 5. epiglottal action c. mast cells. pharynx (function in swallowing) d. neutrophils. Ingestion a. roles in nutrient metabolism. site of digestion d. bone marrow b. structure (gross) 4. Cells and their basic functions a. vitamin storage c. structure (gross) 3. detoxification d. Mechanism of stimulation by antigen. production of digestive enzymes. Stomach a. Structure of antibody molecule 6. Lymph nodes (activation of lymphocytes) C. Composition of lymph (similarity to blood plasma. natural killer cells. dendritic cells b. Basic aspects of innate immunity and inflammatory response 4. Tissues a. substances transported) 3. roles in blood glucose regulation. thymus d. storage in gallbladder b. Pancreas . function 5. Bile a. spleen c. Lymphatic System 1. Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Systems 1. lymph nodes 3. macrophages. return of materials to the blood 2. Digestive System 1. antigen presentation DIGESTIVE AND EXCRETORY SYSTEMS A. esophagus (transport function) 2. Source of lymph (diffusion from capillaries by differential pressure) 4. low pH. Details of oxygen transport: biochemical characteristics of hemoglobin a. storage and churning of food b. T lymphocytes c. production of bile b. B lymphocytes. plasma cells 2. transport of proteins and large glycerides c. protection by mucus against self-destruction c. saliva as lubrication and source of enzymes b. gastric juice. equalization of fluid distribution b. Major functions a. modification of oxygen affinity B.

Nephron structure a. production of enzymes. Roles in homeostasis a. production of enzymes. support. glomerulus b. cortex b. neutralization of stomach acid e. function and structure of villi c. Excretory System 1. Functions a. osmoregulation c. blood pressure b. Rectum (storage and elimination of waste. Storage and elimination (ureter. Large intestine a. removal of soluble nitrogenous waste 2. bladder. bacterial flora c. distal tube f. structure (anatomic subdivisions) 7. peristalsis B. Muscular control a. collecting duct 4. absorption of water b. glomerular filtration b. site of digestion d. Formation of urine a. bicarbonate b. feces) 9. urethra) MUSCLE AND SKELETAL SYSTEMS A. concentration of urine d.a. structure (gross) 6. structure (gross) 8. thermoregulation (shivering reflex) . sphincter muscle b. countercurrent multiplier mechanism (basic function) 5. transport of enzymes to small intestine c. absorption of food molecules and water b. Bowman¶s capsule c. peripheral circulatory assistance c. Muscle System 1. secretion and reabsorption of solutes c. mobility b. medulla 3. acid±base balance d. proximal tubule d. Small intestine a. loop of Henle e. Kidney structure a.

specialization of bone types. sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation B. physical protection 2. Respiratory System 1. neuromuscular junctions. structural rigidity and support b. structures b. smooth. motor end plates c. voluntary and involuntary muscles d. Skeletal System 1. calcium storage c. bone growth (osteoblasts. Skeletal structure a.2. Structural characteristics of skeletal. rib cage. endoskeleton versus exoskeleton 3. particulate matter 2. striated versus nonstriated 3. Functions a. Bone structure a. osteoclasts) RESPIRATORY SYSTEM A. gas exchange. Breathing mechanisms a. motor neurons b. differential pressure b. Ligaments. thermoregulation b. function) 4. General structure and function a. protection against disease. Nervous control a. diaphragm. Cartilage (structure. resiliency and surface tension effects . joint structures c. calcium±protein matrix b. and cardiac muscle. tendons 5.

connective) b. tissue types (epithelial. gonads b. nails. Male and female reproductive structures and their functions a. Functions in thermoregulation a. Reproductive sequence (fertilization. Functions in homeostasis and osmoregulation 2. Gene regulation in development . ectoderm) e. Embryogenesis 1. gastrulation i. sweat glands. blastula formation d. mesoderm. birth) B. cleavage c. differences in morphology c. Cell communication in development 3. Cell specialization a. implantation. vasoconstriction and vasodilation in surface capillaries 3. Skin System 1. relative contribution to next generation 4. differences in formation b. hair. Gametogenesis by meiosis 3. disease organisms 4. erectile musculature b. location in dermis d. Reproductive System 1. cell types. Structure a. Ovum and sperm a. neurulation 2. relative impermeability to water REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM AND DEVELOPMENT A. tissue types 2. protection against abrasion. formation of primary germ layers (endoderm.SKIN SYSTEM A. hair b. calluses. differences between male and female structures 2. Stages of early development (order and general features of each) a. fat layer for insulation c. development. Physical protection a. differentiation c. layer differentiation. Major structures arising out of primary germ layers C. first cell movements ii. fertilization b. genitalia c. determination b. Developmental Mechanisms 1.

multiple) 5. general concept of mutation b. Meiosis and Genetic Variability 1. concepts of parental. Complete dominance 9. leakage. cytoplasmic inheritance. frameshift) c. Analytic Methods 1. Gene 3. Significance of meiosis 2. Programmed cell death GENETICS A. linkage c. recombination d. Codominance 10. Wild type 7. Homozygosity and heterozygosity 6. Gene pool B. Important differences between meiosis and mitosis 3. translocation) d. base substitution. single crossovers e. advantageous versus deleterious mutation e. Incomplete dominance. insertion. mitochondrial inheritance 5. F1. Hardy±Weinberg principle 2. expressivity 11. independent assortment b. Recessiveness 8. probability calculations. Mutation a. transcription error. Sex-linked characteristics a. and F2 generations) . double crossovers 4. relationship of mutagens to carcinogens C. sex determination c. very few genes on Y chromosome b. types of mutations (random. deletion. chromosomal rearrangements (inversion. Locus 4. Phenotype and genotype (definitions. penetrance. Allele (single.4. inborn errors of metabolism f. Mendelian Concepts 1. Testcross (backcross. translation error. pedigree analysis) 2. Segregation of genes a.

Evolutionary time as measured by gradual random changes in genome 5. adaptation and specialization d. divergent. parasitism ii. pharangeal pouches. dorsal nerve cord 2. outbreeding h. notochord b. fitness concept b. Evolution 1. symbiotic relationships i. Origin of life B. Natural selection a. Chordate features a. commensalism iii. and convergent evolution j. parallel. Relationship between ontogeny and phylogeny 4. concepts of natural and group selection d. brachial arches c. genetic drift i. selection by differential reproduction c. inbreeding g.EVOLUTION A. definition of species b. polymorphism c. evolutionary success as increase in percent representation in the gene pool of the next generation 2. mutualism 3. concepts of ecological niche. Speciation a. concept of population growth through competition f. bottlenecks. competition e. Comparative Anatomy 1. Vertebrate phylogeny (vertebrate classes and relations to each other) .

Visible region a.g.. Mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) 2. Sigma and Pi Bonds 1. intramolecular vibrations and rotations b. Absolute and relative configuration a.ORGANIC CHEMISTRY THE COVALENT BOND A. -electron and nonbonding electron transitions b. conformational isomers 2. Racemic mixtures. conventions for writing E and Z forms 4. cis and trans isomers) c. Multiple Bonding 1. separation of enantiomers MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND SPECTRA A. 1H NMR Spectroscopy 1. Valence shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory. absorption in visible region yielding complementary color b. Protons in a magnetic field. Structural formulas 4. Mass Spectrometry 1. predictions of shapes of molecules (e. effect of structural changes on absorption 3. and their respective geometries) 2.g. Ultraviolet region a. fingerprint region 2. equivalent protons 2. enantiomers. sp2. specific rotation 3. conjugated systems B. Infrared region a. Hybrid orbitals (sp3. Absorption Spectroscopy 1. stereoisomers (e. Stereochemistry of Covalently Bonded Molecules 1.. Delocalized electrons and resonance in ions and molecules B. CO2) 3. Rigidity in molecular structure C. Spin±spin splitting . Molecular ion peak C. sp. H2O. constitutional isomers b. Its effect on bond length and bond energies 2. NH3. Isomers a. recognizing common characteristic group absorptions. conventions for writing R and S forms b. diastereomers. Polarization of light.

effect of chain branching on physical properties . chain reaction mechanism. etc. physical properties 2. General principles a. Important reactions a. Description a. oxidation c. protection of alcohols e. stability of free radicals. Alkanes 1. Alcohols 1. substitution reactions with halogens. ring strain in cyclic compounds c. physical properties 2. 3. Recrystallization (Solvent Choice from Solubility Data) HYDROCARBONS A. hydrogen bonding b. depending on alcohol and derived alkyl halide) b. Distillation C. nomenclature b. General principles a. esterification h. reactions with SOCl2 and PBr3 f. bicyclic molecules OXYGEN-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS A. pinacol rearrangement in polyhydroxyalcohols. preparation of mesylates and tosylates g. nomenclature b. inorganic esters 3. substitution reactions (SN1 or SN2. inhibition b. Paper chromatography 3. Thin-layer chromatography D. Extraction (Distribution of Solute Between Two Immiscible Solvents) B.SEPARATIONS AND PURIFICATIONS A. Gas±liquid chromatography 2. Chromatography (Basic Principles Involved in Separation Process) 1. synthetic uses d. Description a. Important reactions a. acidity of alcohols compared to other classes of oxygen-containing compounds c. combustion b.

General principles a. imine. substitution reactions 3. reactions at position i. halogenation ii. decarboxylation iv. Carboxylic Acids 1. reactions at adjacent positions i. Important reactions a.B. . physical properties and solubility 2. hemiacetal ii. internal hydrogen bonding d. 1. acidity of the carboxyl group d. aldol condensation iii. Wolff±Kishner reaction g. Important reactions a. Description a. nomenclature b. nucleophilic addition reactions at C=O bond i. carboxyl group reactions i. their resonance structures C. reduction iii. organometallic reagents f. enamine b. acidity of hydrogens. keto±enol tautomerism e. oxidation c. Aldehydes and Ketones 1. nucleophilic attack ii. Description a.3-dicarbonyl compounds. dimerization c. íunsaturated carbonyl compounds. carbanions c. nomenclature b. Grignard reagents 3. acetal. esterification b. resonance stability of carboxylate anion . haloform reactions ii. physical properties 2. effect of substituents on reactivity of C=O. hydrogen bonding b. steric hindrance b. inductive effect of substituents e. General principles a.

D. physical properties 2. Important reactions a. General principles a. Important reactions a. effect of substituents on basicity of aromatic amines . transesterification e. Esters) 1. relative reactivity of acid derivatives b. Strain (e. Important reactions a. stabilization of adjacent carbocations c. decarboxylation b. preparation of acid derivatives b. Amides. acidity of hydrogens in íketo esters b.g. Description a. Keto Acids and Esters 1. Anhydrides. nomenclature b.. Description a. nomenclature b. hydrolysis of fats and glycerides (saponification) f. -lactams) E. General principles a. electronic effects d. Hofmann rearrangement d. acetoacetic ester synthesis 3. Description a. nucleophilic substitution c. Hofmann elimination 3. hydrolysis of amides 3. physical properties 2. stereochemistry. basicity b. reaction with nitrous acid c. steric effects c. amide formation b. nomenclature 2. alkylation d. Acid Derivatives (Acid Chlorides. keto±enol tautomerism AMINES 1. General principles a.

structure a. epimers and anomers 2. terpenes c. peptide linkage b. Description a. Description a. Carbohydrates 1. 1º structure of proteins b. classification i. common names b. steroids b. absolute configurations c. 2º structure of proteins C. cyclic structure and conformations of hexoses d. Phosphorus Compounds 1. amino acids classified as dipolar ions c. Important reactions a. structure of phosphoric acids (anhydrides. Important reactions a. General principles a. nomenclature. hydrophobic or hydrophilic 2.BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES A. Reactions of monosaccharides B. Description a. triacylglycerols d. hydrolysis 3. classification. Amino Acids and Proteins 1. free fatty acids D. Hydrolysis of the glycoside linkage 3. Description. Wittig reaction . acidic or basic ii. esters) 2. a absolute configuration(s) b. Lipids 1.

C. Distinguish between supported and unsupported claims F. Determine. C. C. Identify the reasons or evidence offered in support of a thesis. Identify the Central concern or thesis of the passage. III. Recognize an accurate paraphrase of complex information presented in the passage. B. D. Evaluation A. Application A. H. models. Determine how a conclusion from the passage can be modified to be made consistent with additional information. E. or theories given in the passage. Judge the bearing of new evidence on conclusions presented in the passage. Identify comparative relationships among ideas or pieces of information contained in the passage. Judge the credibility of a source. the meaning of significant terminology or vocabulary used in the passage. conclusion. Use given information to solve a specified problem. Recognize appropriate questions of clarification. Appraise the strength of the evidence for a generalization. Recognize plausible alternative hypotheses or solutions. E. Identify the background knowledge contained in the passage or question that is relevant to a particular interpretation. or claim.MCAT Verbal Reasoning Skills I. G. II. F. Predict a result on the basis of passage content and specific facts about a hypothetical situation. Identify the probable cause of a particular event or result based on information presented. D. B. D. from context. IV: Incorporation of new information A. Judge the soundness of an argument or a step of reasoning presented in the passage. B. Recognize methods or results that would challenge hypotheses. and conclusions. Identify a general theory or model based on given information. Identify stated or unstated assumptions contained in the passage. Judge whether a conclusion follows necessarily from the reasons given in the passage. Comprehension A. Recognize the scope of application of hypothesis. F. C. explanations. Judge the relevance of information to an argument or claim. D. B. Determine the implications of conclusions or results for real-world situations E. .

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