Content Outline for Physical Sciences Section of the MCAT

ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE AND PERIODIC TABLE A. Electronic Structure 1. Orbital structure of hydrogen atom, principal quantum number n, number of electrons per orbital 2. Ground state, excited states 3. Absorption and emission spectra 4. Quantum numbers l, m, s, and number of electrons per orbital 5. Common names and geometric shapes for orbitals s, p, d 6. Conventional notation for electronic structure 7. Bohr atom 8. Effective nuclear charge B. The Periodic Table: Classification of Elements into Groups by Electronic Structure; Physical and Chemical Properties of Elements 1. Alkali metals 2. Alkaline earth metals 3. Halogens 4. Noble gases 5. Transition metals 6. Representative elements 7. Metals and nonmetals 8. Oxygen group C. The Periodic Table: Variations of Chemical Properties with Group and Row 1. Electronic structure a. representative elements b. noble gases c. transition metals 2. Valence electrons 3. First and second ionization energies a. definition b. prediction from electronic structure for elements in different groups or rows 4. Electron affinity a. definition b. variations with group and row 5. Electronegativity a. definition b. comparative values for some representative elements and important groups 6. Electron shells and the sizes of atoms

BONDING A. The Ionic Bond (Electrostatic Forces Between Ions) 1. Electrostatic energy q1q2/r 2. Electrostatic energy lattice energy 3. Electrostatic force q1q2/r2 B. The Covalent Bond 1. Sigma and pi bonds a. hybrid orbitals (sp3, sp2, sp, and respective geometries) b. valence shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory, predictions of shapes of molecules (e.g., NH3, H2O, CO2) 2. Lewis electron dot formulas a. resonance structures b. formal charge c. Lewis acids and bases 3. Partial ionic character a. role of electronegativity in determining charge distribution b. dipole moment PHASES AND PHASE EQUILIBRIA A. Gas Phase 1. Absolute temperature, K 2. Pressure, simple mercury barometer 3. Molar volume at 0°C and 1 atm = 22.4 L/mol 4. Ideal gas a. definition b. ideal gas law (PV = nRT) i. Boyle¶s law ii. Charles¶s law iii. Avogadro¶s law 4. Kinetic theory of gases 5. Deviation of real-gas behavior from ideal gas law a. qualitative b. quantitative (van der Waals equation) 6. Partial pressure, mole fraction 7. Dalton¶s law relating partial pressure to composition B. Intermolecular Forces 1. Hydrogen bonding 2. Dipole interactions 3. London dispersion forces

conventions for writing chemical equations b. Bond dissociation energy as related to heats of formation 4. standard heats of reaction and formation b. Colloids 6. Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions: Thermochemistry 1. Phase changes. enthalpy H. Description of composition by percent mass 5. condensation point 3. Endothermic and exothermic reactions a. Description of reactions by chemical equations a. Thermodynamic system. vapor pressure lowering (Raoult¶s law) b. common oxidizing and reducing agents b. Oxidation number a. Hess¶s law of heat summation 3. Molecular weight 2. Spontaneous reactions and Gº .´ relative entropy for gas. boiling point elevation ( Tb= Kbm) c. Metric units commonly used in the context of chemistry 4. phase diagrams 2. heat capacity. osmotic pressure 5. Avogadro¶s number 6. Colligative properties a. Henry¶s law STOICHIOMETRY 1. liquid. disproportionation reactions c. Entropy as a measure of ³disorder. state function 2. balancing equations including redox equations c. limiting reactants d. melting point. and crystal states 6. boiling point. Empirical formula versus molecular formula 3.184 J/g·K) 5. redox titration 8. Measurement of heat changes (calorimetry). Mole concept.C. specific heat capacity (specific heat capacity of water = 4. Free energy G 7. freezing point depression ( Tf= Kfm) d. Definition of density 7. Freezing point. theoretical yields THERMODYNAMICS AND THERMOCHEMISTRY A. Phase Equilibria 1. Molality 4.

Rate-determining step 4. Solubility 1. rate constant b. the equilibrium expression 3. heat of vaporization 8. Temperature scales. cation (common names. chemical.g. enzyme catalysis 7. and thermal energy units 4. Equilibrium in reversible chemical reactions a.g.B. Zeroth law (concept of temperature) 2. PO43±. Complex ions and solubility 6. Equivalence of mechanical. Second law (concept of entropy) 5. Solubility product constant. reaction order 3. interpretation of energy profiles showing energies of reactants and products. NH4+. Units of concentration (e. dependence of reaction rate on concentrations of reactants a. Ions in Solution 1. formulas. conservation of energy) 3. the equilibrium constant c. radiation) 7. activation energy. convection.molarity) 2. Dependence of reaction rate on temperature a. Catalysts. Relationship of the equilibrium constant and Gº SOLUTION CHEMISTRY A... application of Le Châtelier¶s principle 8. Common-ion effect. and charges for familiar ions. Heat transfer (conduction. Solubility and pH . First law ( E = q + w. Reaction rates 2. Complex ion formation 5. Thermodynamics 1. activated complex or transition state ii. Hydration. conversions 6. PV diagram (work done = area under or enclosed by curve) RATE PROCESSES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS: KINETICS AND EQUILIBRIUM 1. ammonium. sulfate) 2. SO42±. Arrhenius equation 5. electrical. Rate law. phosphate. H for the reaction b. Heat of fusion. Kinetic control versus thermodynamic control of a reaction 6. the hydronium ion B. law of mass action b. activation energy i. Anion. its use in laboratory separations 4. e.

calculation of pH of solutions of weak acids or bases 6. influence on titration curves B. sulfuric) 5. benzoic) a. concepts (common buffer systems) b. cathode c. direction of electron flow . reduction potentials. half-reactions b. Conjugate acids and bases 4. Titration 1. Ionization of water a. e. anode. pH of pure water 3. Brønsted±Lowry definition of acids and bases 2. Indicators 2. acetic. cell potential c.ACIDS AND BASES A. oxidation and reduction at the electrodes 2. hydrolysis of salts of weak acids or bases c. definition. electrolysis b. electron flow.. pH definition.g. Interpretation of titration curves ELECTROCHEMISTRY 1. dissociation of weak acids and bases with or without added salt b. Neutralization 3. Equilibrium constants Kaand Kb (pKa and pKb) 7. electrolytes d.. Electrolytic cell a. Acid±Base Equilibria 1. nitric. Faraday¶s law relating amount of elements deposited (or gas liberated) at an electrode to current e. Kw. Weak acids and bases (common examples. Galvanic (voltaic) cell a. e. Strong acids and bases (common examples. its approximate value (Kw = [H3O+][OH±] = 10±14 at 25°C) b.g. Buffers a.

Newton¶s third law (forces equal and opposite) 5. Concept of force. Vectors. Equilibrium 1. Vector addition 4. Law of gravitation (F = ±Gm1m2/r2) 7. Momentum = mv 2. time) 2. Uniform circular motion 8. velocity (average and instantaneous) 5. Weight 10.PHYSICS TRANSLATIONAL MOTION 1. Translational equilibrium ( Fi = 0) 3. Weightlessness B. Centripetal force (F = ±mv2/r) 9. Conservation of linear momentum 4. Friction (static and kinetic) 11. Dimensions (length or distance. Force EQUILIBRIUM AND MOMENTUM A. Newton¶s second law (F = ma) 4. Rotational equilibrium ( i= 0) 4. units 2. components 3. lever arms 7. Torques. Analysis of forces acting on an object 5. Momentum 1. Analysis of pulley systems 13. Impulse = Ft 3. Freely falling bodies FORCE AND MOTION. Inelastic collisions . Elastic collisions 5. Acceleration 6. Concept of a field 6. Newton¶s first law (inertia) 6. Center of mass 2. Motion on an inclined plane 12. Speed. Newton¶s first law (inertia) 3. GRAVITATION 1.

Intensity of sound (decibel units. Relative speed of sound in solids. Wave Characteristics 1. general (PE = ±GmM/r) 3. Work 1. log scale) 4. gravitational. General periodic motion (velocity. wave addition 5. antinodes) 7. wave speed 3. Kinetic energy (KE = mv2/2. Attenuation . Amplitude. and gases 3. Work±energy theorem 5. Power. Path independence of work done in gravitational field 3. Transverse and longitudinal waves 2. Conservation of energy 4. Simple harmonic motion. frequency. Mechanical advantage 4. interference. liquids. Superposition of waves. Standing waves (nodes. units WAVES AND PERIODIC MOTION A. frequency 2. Derived units.WORK AND ENERGY A. Hooke¶s law (F = ±kx) 4. Production of sound 2. period. Refraction and general nature of diffraction SOUND 1. gravitational. Amplitude and intensity 4. Beat frequencies 8. Wavelength. Motion of a pendulum 6. Phase 3. local (PE = mgh) b. Power B. spring (PE = kx2/2) c. Potential energy a. Resonance 6. sign conventions 2. Periodic Motion 1. Energy 1. units) 2. Conservative forces 5. amplitude) B. displacement as a sinusoidal function of time 5.

Hydrostatic pressure a. specific gravity 2. Solids 1. Fluids 1. Ultra sound FLUIDS AND SOLIDS A. Electrostatics 1. definition of dipole b. charge conservation 2. Compression ELECTROSTATICS AND ELECTROMAGNETISM A. Archimedes¶ principle (buoyancy) 3. Resonance in pipes and strings 8. Doppler effect (moving sound source or observer. field due to charge distribution 5. Poiseuille flow (viscosity) 5. absolute potential at point in space 6. Thermal expansion coefficient 5. Coulomb¶s law (F = kq1q2/r2. Continuity equation (Av = constant) 6. Charges. Equipotential lines 7. Harmonics 9. Insulators 3. pressure versus depth (P = gh) 4. Elastic limit 4. Elastic properties (elementary properties) 3. Density. Pascal¶s law b. Density 2. potential due to dipole . Shear 6. Bernoulli¶s equation B. conductors. Potential difference. Surface tension 8. sign conventions) 4. field lines b. Electric dipole a. behavior in electric field c. Pitch 7. reflection of sound from a moving object) 6. Concept of turbulence at high velocities 7.5. Electric field a.

capacitors in series d. Current (I = Q/ t. Magnetism 1. Ohm¶s law (I = V/R) b. Resistance a. Properties of electromagnetic radiation (general properties only) a. Capacitance a. infrared. etc. resistors in series c. X-rays. Root-mean-square voltage LIGHT AND GEOMETRICAL OPTICS A.) ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT ELEMENTS A. Power in circuits (P = VI. Gauss¶s law B. Terminal potential. Conductivity theory B. Root-mean-square current 2. Alternating Currents and Reactive Circuits 1. Existence and direction of force on charge moving in magnetic field C. Circuit Elements 1. sign conventions. Light (Electromagnetic Radiation) 1. electromotive force. Concept of interference. capacitors in parallel e. radiation consists of oscillating electric and magnetic fields that are mutually perpendicular to each other and to the propagation direction 2. Electromagnetic Radiation (Light) 1. UV. Battery. Discharge of a capacitor through a resistor 7. Definition of the magnetic field B 2. units) 2. resistors in parallel d. Classification of electromagnetic spectrum (radio. P = I2R) C. Electrostatic induction 9. dielectrics 6. internal resistance of battery 4. resistivity ( = RA/L) 5. Young¶s double-slit experiment . concept of parallel-plate capacitor b. voltage 3. Circuits 1.8. energy of charged capacitor c. radiation velocity equals constant c in vacuo b.

exponential decay. focal length b. diopters e. energy liberated. atomic weight 2. lasers B. protons. color a. half-life. diffraction grating. Conditions for total internal reflection 5. Combination of lenses 8. Atomic Structure and Spectra 1. . converging and diverging lenses. Atomic Nucleus 1. stability. binding energy . Mass deficit. Visual spectrum. use of formula (1/p) + (1/q) = 1/f with sign conventions c. refractive index n. Thin lenses a. Atomic energy levels a. Optical instruments ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE A. Radioactive decay ( . use of formula (1/p) + (1/q) = 1/f with sign conventions c. General nature of fusion 7. real and virtual images d. Snell¶s law (n1sin1 = n2sin2) 3. Thin films. Ray tracing 9. Spherical mirrors a. energy b. Nuclear forces 4. Geometrical Optics 1. Refraction. quantized energy levels for electrons b. . Emission spectrum of hydrogen (Bohr model) 2. mirror curvature. single-slit diffraction 3. Doppler effect (moving light source or observer) 6. Neutrons. X-ray diffraction 4. Polarization of light 5.2. Reflection from plane surface (angle of incidence equals angle of reflection) 2. real and virtual images 6. Dispersion (change of index of refraction with wavelength) 4. lens strength. radius. lens aberration 7. calculation of energy emitted or absorbed when an electron changes energy levels B. Other diffraction phenomena. isotopes 3. General nature of fission 6. focal length b. semilog plots) 5. Atomic number.

Recombinant DNA Techniques 1. substrates and products) 2. Feedback inhibition 2. DNA polymerase. Gene cloning 4. Krebs cycle (substrates and products. Reduction of activation energy 3. Function in transmission of genetic information B. Basic Metabolism 1. Metabolism of fats and proteins MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: DNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS DNA Structure and Function A. DNA Replication 1. Substrates and enzyme specificity B. Mechanism of replication (separation of strands. DNA Structure and Function 1. Function of enzymes in catalyzing biological reactions 2. general features of the pathway) 3. general features of the pathway) 4. Repair of DNA 1. specific coupling of free nucleic acids. PCR . Noncompetitive inhibition C. primer required) 2. phosphate) 3. DNA composition (purine and pyrimidine bases. Hybridization 3. Repair during replication 2. Competitive inhibition 3. concept of complementarity 4. Restriction enzymes 2. Semiconservative nature of replication C. Double-helix structure 2. Glycolysis (anaerobic and aerobic. Enzyme Structure and Function 1. Base-pairing specificity. deoxyribose. Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation (substrates and products. Repair of mutations D. Control of Enzyme Activity 1.Content Outline for Biological Science Section of the MCAT BIOLOGY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: ENZYMES AND METABOLISM A.

Posttranscriptional control. Control of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes 1. Codon±anticodon relationship. Role and structure of ribosomes MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: EUKARYOTES A. Translation 1. Fungi 1. exons) MICROBIOLOGY A. RNA base-pairing specificity 2. promoters. General aspects of life cycle B. Virus Structure 1.g. basic concept of splicing (introns. Lack of organelles and nucleus 3. Mechanism of transcription (RNA polymerase. Cancer as a failure of normal cellular controls. 5 cap. Genomic content (RNA or DNA) 5. RNA nucleotides) 3. tumor suppressor genes 4. General characteristics 2. Structural aspects of typical bacteriophage 4. enveloped and nonenveloped) 2. Missense and nonsense codons 4. poly-A tail) 2. Chromosomal proteins 2. Genetic Code 1. codon sequences) B. Size relative to bacteria and eukaryotic cells . centromeres B. Roles of mRNA. mRNA composition and structure (RNA nucleotides. Initiation and termination codons (function. Transcription regulation 2. oncogenes. primer not required) C. degenerate code 3. transcription factors 3. Telomeres.Protein Synthesis A.. General structural characteristics (nucleic acid and protein. Typical information flow (DNA RNA protein) 2. Transcription 1. tRNA and rRNA composition and structure (e. DNA binding proteins. tRNA. and rRNA. Eukaryotic Chromosome Organization 1.

transfer of genetic material by viruses D. Regulation of gene expression. Generalized phage and animal virus life cycles a. site of ATP production b. Flagellar propulsion E. entry of viral material b. Nuclear envelope. Reproduction by fission 2. Lysosomes (vesicles containing hydrolytic enzymes) 3. Endoplasmic reticulum a. Prokaryotic Cell: Growth and Physiology 1. Existence of plasmids. Prokaryotic Cell: Genetics 1. Transformation (incorporation into bacterial genome of DNA fragments from external medium) 3. storage of genetic information) 3. Mitochondria a. Defining characteristics (membrane-bound nucleus. rough (RER) and smooth (SER) b. Membrane-bound Organelles 1. Nucleolus (location. self-assembly and release of new viral particles 3. Self-replicating biological units that must reproduce within specific host cell 2. nuclear pores B. eubacteria. Retrovirus life cycle. Major classifications: bacilli (rod-shaped). Viral Life Cycle 1. spirilli (spiral-shaped). self-replication. archaebacteria 4. role in membrane biosynthesis: SER (lipids). Lack of nuclear membrane and mitotic apparatus 2. inner and outer membrane 2. coupling of transcription and translation GENERALIZED EUKARYOTIC CELL A. function) 4. High degree of genetic adaptability. mitotic division) 2. attachment to host cell. extragenomic DNA. Nucleus (compartmentalization. acquisition of antibiotic resistance 3. presence of organelles. transfer by conjugation 2. have own DNA and ribosomes c. Existence of anaerobic and aerobic variants F. Nucleus and Other Defining Characteristics 1. Lack of typical eukaryotic organelles 3. RER (transmembrane proteins) .C. integration into host DNA. use of host synthetic mechanisms to replicate viral components c. penetration of cell membrane or cell wall. Exponential growth 4. Prokaryotic Cell: Bacteria Structure 1. RER (site of ribosomes) c. cocci (spherical). reverse transcriptase 4. Transduction. Presence of cell wall 5.

spindles b. desmosomes D. Composition and function of eukaryotic cilia and flagella 6.d. Interphase and mitosis (prophase. role in cleavage and contractility) 3. Mitotic structures and processes a. microtubule organizing centers E. secretion. Membrane receptors. chromatids. Plasma Membrane 1. RER (role in biosynthesis of transmembrane and secreted proteins that cotranslationally targeted to RER by signal sequence) 4. cell signaling pathways. S. G2. kinetochores c. fluid mosaic model 3. metaphase. Cytoskeleton 1. G1. Sodium±potassium pump 7. Golgi apparatus (general structure. General function in cell containment 2. Microfilaments (composition. Cell±cell communication (general concepts of cellular adhesion) a. Exocytosis and endocytosis 10. gap junctions b. Growth arrest F. Cell Cycle and Mitosis 1. and modification of glycoprotein carbohydrates) C. role in support and transport) 4. centromeres. Osmosis 4. Membrane channels 6. centrioles. asters. tight junctions c. Apoptosis (Programmed Cell Death) . second messengers 8. Intermediate filaments (role in support) 5. role in packaging. nuclear membrane breakdown and reorganization d.M) 4. Passive and active transport 5. Phases of cell cycle (G0. anaphase. telophase) 2. Protein and lipid components. mechanisms of chromosome movement 3. Microtubules (composition. Centrioles. Membrane potential 9. General function in cell support and movement 2.

Sarcomeres ( I and A bands. frequency of firing) B. Schwann cells. Presence of troponin and tropomyosin C. function) 3. Other Specialized Cell Types 1. cross bridges.SPECIALIZED EUKARYOTIC CELLS AND TISSUES A. loose versus dense. oligodendrocytes. extracellular matrix) NERVOUS AND ENDOCRINE SYSTEMS A. M and Z lines. transmitter molecules b. H zone²general structure only) 5. sliding filament model) 3. hormone 3. Integration with nervous system (feedback control) . Synapse (site of impulse propagation between cells) 7. insulation of axon 5. Major types of hormones B. fiber types. Endocrine System: Mechanisms of Hormone Action 1. Major endocrine glands (names. Excitatory and inhibitory nerve fibers (summation. locations. Synaptic activity a. Abundant mitochondria in red muscle cells (ATP source) 2. Axon (structure. Function of endocrine system (specific chemical control at cell. Muscle Cell/Contractile 1. function) 4. products) 4. Definitions of endocrine gland. Resting potential (electrochemical gradient) 9. Myelin sheath. Cell body (site of nucleus and organelles) 2. Nodes of Ranvier (role in propagation of nerve impulse along axon) 6. Nerve Cell/Neural 1. Cellular mechanisms of hormone action 2. and organ levels) 2. Connective tissue cells (major tissues and cell types. stratified epithelium) 2. Dendrites (structure. threshold. all-or-none b. Endocrine System: Hormones 1. Action potential a. Transport of hormones (bloodstream) 3. simple epithelium. Specificity of hormones (target tissue) 4. Endothelial cells 3. tissue. propagation between cells without resistance loss 8. Organization of contractile elements (actin and myosin filaments. Calcium regulation of contraction. synaptic knobs c. Epithelial cells (cell types. sarcoplasmic reticulum 4. sodium±potassium pump 10. fatigue d.

oxygen affinity . Four-chambered heart (structure. and fluids. hematocrit b. LYMPHATIC. high-level control and integration of body systems b. Functions (circulation of oxygen. coagulation. Role in thermoregulation 3. Organization of vertebrate nervous system 3. eye structure c. plasma. integrative and cognitive abilities 2. ear structure b. AND IMMUNE SYSTEMS A. Major functions a. clotting mechanisms. pressure and flow characteristics 7. blood cells b. regulation of plasma volume d.C. light receptors b. veins) a. nutrients. visual image processing CIRCULATORY. oxygen content c. roles of spinal cord. Circulatory System 1. effects on flexor and extensor muscles b. Arterial and venous systems (arteries. venules. removal of metabolic waste) 2. function) 4. arterioles. Vision a. hormones. bone marrow) c. Hearing a. Nervous System: Structure and Function 1. ions. proprioceptive and somatic sensors 2. feedback loop. reflex arc. Sensor and effector neurons 4. mechanism of hearing 4. chemicals. efferent control D. structural and functional differences b. mechanisms of gas and solute exchange b. response to external influences c. sensory input d. Systolic and diastolic pressure 5. brain c. Composition of blood a. Capillary beds a. role of liver in production of clotting factors 9. Reflexes a. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transport by blood a. mechanism of heat exchange 8. erythrocyte production and destruction (spleen. hemoglobin. Nervous System: Sensory Reception and Processing 1. antagonistic control) 5. Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems (functions. Olfaction. Skin. taste 3. Pulmonary and systemic circulation 6.

Bile a. Liver a. substances transported) 3. Digestive System 1. plasma cells 2. function 5. macrophages. structure (gross) 3. transport of proteins and large glycerides c. Concepts of antigen and antibody 5. epiglottal action c. Basic aspects of innate immunity and inflammatory response 4. Composition of lymph (similarity to blood plasma. Lymphatic System 1.10. production of bile b. antigen presentation DIGESTIVE AND EXCRETORY SYSTEMS A. neutrophils. esophagus (transport function) 2. Stomach a. lymph nodes 3. Lymph nodes (activation of lymphocytes) C. storage in gallbladder b. structure (gross) 4. Major functions a. detoxification d. vitamin storage c. Tissues a. Mechanism of stimulation by antigen. B lymphocytes. saliva as lubrication and source of enzymes b. dendritic cells b. spleen c. Structure of antibody molecule 6. Ingestion a. Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Systems 1. Pancreas . Source of lymph (diffusion from capillaries by differential pressure) 4. production of digestive enzymes. roles in blood glucose regulation. storage and churning of food b. mast cells. Cells and their basic functions a. low pH. natural killer cells. site of digestion d. protection by mucus against self-destruction c. gastric juice. T lymphocytes c. roles in nutrient metabolism. pharynx (function in swallowing) d. modification of oxygen affinity B. bone marrow b. equalization of fluid distribution b. return of materials to the blood 2. Details of oxygen transport: biochemical characteristics of hemoglobin a. thymus d.

structure (gross) 8. feces) 9. concentration of urine d. absorption of food molecules and water b. transport of enzymes to small intestine c. Roles in homeostasis a. Bowman¶s capsule c. blood pressure b. peristalsis B. Kidney structure a. structure (anatomic subdivisions) 7. Functions a. function and structure of villi c. Small intestine a.a. Muscle System 1. support. urethra) MUSCLE AND SKELETAL SYSTEMS A. Formation of urine a. bicarbonate b. Nephron structure a. peripheral circulatory assistance c. site of digestion d. production of enzymes. Storage and elimination (ureter. thermoregulation (shivering reflex) . production of enzymes. osmoregulation c. countercurrent multiplier mechanism (basic function) 5. mobility b. removal of soluble nitrogenous waste 2. Large intestine a. secretion and reabsorption of solutes c. bacterial flora c. bladder. medulla 3. neutralization of stomach acid e. Excretory System 1. absorption of water b. sphincter muscle b. structure (gross) 6. Rectum (storage and elimination of waste. glomerulus b. Muscular control a. proximal tubule d. glomerular filtration b. cortex b. distal tube f. acid±base balance d. collecting duct 4. loop of Henle e.

structures b. protection against disease. osteoclasts) RESPIRATORY SYSTEM A. sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation B. particulate matter 2. motor end plates c. specialization of bone types. and cardiac muscle. Skeletal System 1.2. differential pressure b. structural rigidity and support b. General structure and function a. Bone structure a. calcium storage c. calcium±protein matrix b. neuromuscular junctions. bone growth (osteoblasts. tendons 5. rib cage. Structural characteristics of skeletal. Skeletal structure a. Cartilage (structure. joint structures c. Ligaments. Breathing mechanisms a. motor neurons b. striated versus nonstriated 3. function) 4. thermoregulation b. voluntary and involuntary muscles d. gas exchange. diaphragm. smooth. resiliency and surface tension effects . physical protection 2. Respiratory System 1. Nervous control a. Functions a. endoskeleton versus exoskeleton 3.

connective) b. Embryogenesis 1. relative impermeability to water REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM AND DEVELOPMENT A. Functions in homeostasis and osmoregulation 2. disease organisms 4. Stages of early development (order and general features of each) a. differences between male and female structures 2. relative contribution to next generation 4. Gametogenesis by meiosis 3. Cell communication in development 3. development. fat layer for insulation c. differentiation c. cleavage c. Developmental Mechanisms 1. Gene regulation in development . gastrulation i. first cell movements ii. sweat glands. Major structures arising out of primary germ layers C. mesoderm. Male and female reproductive structures and their functions a.SKIN SYSTEM A. formation of primary germ layers (endoderm. neurulation 2. birth) B. cell types. nails. ectoderm) e. Cell specialization a. protection against abrasion. Reproductive sequence (fertilization. Physical protection a. fertilization b. determination b. genitalia c. gonads b. Ovum and sperm a. differences in formation b. Structure a. tissue types 2. blastula formation d. Functions in thermoregulation a. Reproductive System 1. layer differentiation. hair b. Skin System 1. vasoconstriction and vasodilation in surface capillaries 3. differences in morphology c. tissue types (epithelial. erectile musculature b. hair. implantation. location in dermis d. calluses.

leakage. very few genes on Y chromosome b. Important differences between meiosis and mitosis 3. chromosomal rearrangements (inversion. Codominance 10. Mendelian Concepts 1. types of mutations (random. Hardy±Weinberg principle 2. Homozygosity and heterozygosity 6. insertion.4. Analytic Methods 1. relationship of mutagens to carcinogens C. single crossovers e. cytoplasmic inheritance. independent assortment b. mitochondrial inheritance 5. penetrance. Meiosis and Genetic Variability 1. Segregation of genes a. Recessiveness 8. Testcross (backcross. frameshift) c. Sex-linked characteristics a. sex determination c. expressivity 11. linkage c. pedigree analysis) 2. Gene 3. Allele (single. F1. multiple) 5. advantageous versus deleterious mutation e. Locus 4. probability calculations. Complete dominance 9. translation error. general concept of mutation b. inborn errors of metabolism f. Programmed cell death GENETICS A. recombination d. Significance of meiosis 2. double crossovers 4. deletion. Incomplete dominance. base substitution. concepts of parental. transcription error. Wild type 7. Phenotype and genotype (definitions. Gene pool B. translocation) d. Mutation a. and F2 generations) .

divergent. definition of species b. concepts of ecological niche. Speciation a. brachial arches c. Chordate features a. symbiotic relationships i. Vertebrate phylogeny (vertebrate classes and relations to each other) . selection by differential reproduction c. evolutionary success as increase in percent representation in the gene pool of the next generation 2. mutualism 3. Evolutionary time as measured by gradual random changes in genome 5. dorsal nerve cord 2. competition e. fitness concept b. parallel. adaptation and specialization d. and convergent evolution j. bottlenecks. polymorphism c. concepts of natural and group selection d. concept of population growth through competition f. Evolution 1. pharangeal pouches.EVOLUTION A. Relationship between ontogeny and phylogeny 4. Origin of life B. genetic drift i. parasitism ii. Comparative Anatomy 1. Natural selection a. inbreeding g. outbreeding h. notochord b. commensalism iii.

Delocalized electrons and resonance in ions and molecules B. Absorption Spectroscopy 1. effect of structural changes on absorption 3. Spin±spin splitting . Isomers a. specific rotation 3. intramolecular vibrations and rotations b. enantiomers. Valence shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory.ORGANIC CHEMISTRY THE COVALENT BOND A. stereoisomers (e. -electron and nonbonding electron transitions b. Structural formulas 4. Racemic mixtures. Ultraviolet region a. NH3. Hybrid orbitals (sp3. conjugated systems B. Visible region a. Protons in a magnetic field. fingerprint region 2. and their respective geometries) 2. Rigidity in molecular structure C. predictions of shapes of molecules (e. Stereochemistry of Covalently Bonded Molecules 1. CO2) 3. Its effect on bond length and bond energies 2. Mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) 2. sp2. Polarization of light. conformational isomers 2. conventions for writing E and Z forms 4. cis and trans isomers) c. sp. diastereomers. equivalent protons 2. Multiple Bonding 1. Molecular ion peak C. Sigma and Pi Bonds 1. separation of enantiomers MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND SPECTRA A.. 1H NMR Spectroscopy 1. Mass Spectrometry 1. recognizing common characteristic group absorptions.g. constitutional isomers b. absorption in visible region yielding complementary color b. Absolute and relative configuration a..g. H2O. conventions for writing R and S forms b. Infrared region a.

Alcohols 1. bicyclic molecules OXYGEN-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS A. Extraction (Distribution of Solute Between Two Immiscible Solvents) B. protection of alcohols e. pinacol rearrangement in polyhydroxyalcohols. preparation of mesylates and tosylates g. nomenclature b. combustion b. ring strain in cyclic compounds c. General principles a. substitution reactions (SN1 or SN2. reactions with SOCl2 and PBr3 f. Chromatography (Basic Principles Involved in Separation Process) 1. depending on alcohol and derived alkyl halide) b. stability of free radicals. Description a. Alkanes 1. physical properties 2. 3.SEPARATIONS AND PURIFICATIONS A. Important reactions a. effect of chain branching on physical properties . Gas±liquid chromatography 2. nomenclature b. Important reactions a. Thin-layer chromatography D. General principles a. synthetic uses d. oxidation c. Description a. esterification h. acidity of alcohols compared to other classes of oxygen-containing compounds c. substitution reactions with halogens. Paper chromatography 3. etc. inorganic esters 3. Distillation C. inhibition b. Recrystallization (Solvent Choice from Solubility Data) HYDROCARBONS A. physical properties 2. hydrogen bonding b. chain reaction mechanism.

General principles a. dimerization c.B. nomenclature b. Aldehydes and Ketones 1. halogenation ii. oxidation c.3-dicarbonyl compounds. reduction iii. carbanions c. imine. carboxyl group reactions i. reactions at adjacent positions i. decarboxylation iv. physical properties 2. Carboxylic Acids 1. Description a. haloform reactions ii. internal hydrogen bonding d. íunsaturated carbonyl compounds. Grignard reagents 3. nucleophilic addition reactions at C=O bond i. esterification b. 1. . organometallic reagents f. hemiacetal ii. nomenclature b. acidity of hydrogens. nucleophilic attack ii. Description a. their resonance structures C. effect of substituents on reactivity of C=O. Wolff±Kishner reaction g. inductive effect of substituents e. acetal. enamine b. acidity of the carboxyl group d. General principles a. hydrogen bonding b. substitution reactions 3. resonance stability of carboxylate anion . Important reactions a. Important reactions a. steric hindrance b. keto±enol tautomerism e. aldol condensation iii. reactions at position i. physical properties and solubility 2.

stereochemistry. Strain (e. nomenclature b. Description a. hydrolysis of fats and glycerides (saponification) f. nomenclature 2. Acid Derivatives (Acid Chlorides. Important reactions a. basicity b.. Hofmann rearrangement d. General principles a. decarboxylation b. acidity of hydrogens in íketo esters b. nomenclature b. Important reactions a. keto±enol tautomerism AMINES 1. electronic effects d. Description a. stabilization of adjacent carbocations c. acetoacetic ester synthesis 3.g. Hofmann elimination 3. effect of substituents on basicity of aromatic amines . Anhydrides. -lactams) E. Esters) 1. nucleophilic substitution c. hydrolysis of amides 3. Keto Acids and Esters 1. General principles a. transesterification e. Important reactions a. General principles a. steric effects c. Amides. amide formation b. alkylation d. reaction with nitrous acid c. physical properties 2. preparation of acid derivatives b. relative reactivity of acid derivatives b.D. Description a. physical properties 2.

Amino Acids and Proteins 1. structure a. classification. Hydrolysis of the glycoside linkage 3. General principles a. Reactions of monosaccharides B. amino acids classified as dipolar ions c. Important reactions a. cyclic structure and conformations of hexoses d. Lipids 1. esters) 2. Description a. a absolute configuration(s) b. hydrolysis 3. Carbohydrates 1.BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES A. 2º structure of proteins C. structure of phosphoric acids (anhydrides. free fatty acids D. terpenes c. Wittig reaction . epimers and anomers 2. hydrophobic or hydrophilic 2. steroids b. Important reactions a. peptide linkage b. triacylglycerols d. Phosphorus Compounds 1. Description a. absolute configurations c. common names b. Description. acidic or basic ii. 1º structure of proteins b. classification i. Description a. nomenclature.

Recognize an accurate paraphrase of complex information presented in the passage. H. Recognize plausible alternative hypotheses or solutions. . Identify the Central concern or thesis of the passage. F. models. D. Determine. C. Determine the implications of conclusions or results for real-world situations E. Distinguish between supported and unsupported claims F. C. and conclusions. Use given information to solve a specified problem. Evaluation A. E. Identify a general theory or model based on given information. D. B. Application A. Judge the relevance of information to an argument or claim. IV: Incorporation of new information A. B. Identify comparative relationships among ideas or pieces of information contained in the passage. C. C. Comprehension A. Determine how a conclusion from the passage can be modified to be made consistent with additional information. F. B. E. conclusion. Judge the soundness of an argument or a step of reasoning presented in the passage. the meaning of significant terminology or vocabulary used in the passage. Identify the probable cause of a particular event or result based on information presented. Judge whether a conclusion follows necessarily from the reasons given in the passage. Judge the bearing of new evidence on conclusions presented in the passage. Identify the reasons or evidence offered in support of a thesis. II. B. G. D. or claim. Identify the background knowledge contained in the passage or question that is relevant to a particular interpretation. explanations. Recognize the scope of application of hypothesis. Recognize methods or results that would challenge hypotheses. Judge the credibility of a source. Appraise the strength of the evidence for a generalization.MCAT Verbal Reasoning Skills I. Identify stated or unstated assumptions contained in the passage. D. or theories given in the passage. from context. Predict a result on the basis of passage content and specific facts about a hypothetical situation. III. Recognize appropriate questions of clarification.

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