Content Outline for Physical Sciences Section of the MCAT

GENERAL CHEMISTRY
ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE AND PERIODIC TABLE A. Electronic Structure 1. Orbital structure of hydrogen atom, principal quantum number n, number of electrons per orbital 2. Ground state, excited states 3. Absorption and emission spectra 4. Quantum numbers l, m, s, and number of electrons per orbital 5. Common names and geometric shapes for orbitals s, p, d 6. Conventional notation for electronic structure 7. Bohr atom 8. Effective nuclear charge B. The Periodic Table: Classification of Elements into Groups by Electronic Structure; Physical and Chemical Properties of Elements 1. Alkali metals 2. Alkaline earth metals 3. Halogens 4. Noble gases 5. Transition metals 6. Representative elements 7. Metals and nonmetals 8. Oxygen group C. The Periodic Table: Variations of Chemical Properties with Group and Row 1. Electronic structure a. representative elements b. noble gases c. transition metals 2. Valence electrons 3. First and second ionization energies a. definition b. prediction from electronic structure for elements in different groups or rows 4. Electron affinity a. definition b. variations with group and row 5. Electronegativity a. definition b. comparative values for some representative elements and important groups 6. Electron shells and the sizes of atoms

BONDING A. The Ionic Bond (Electrostatic Forces Between Ions) 1. Electrostatic energy q1q2/r 2. Electrostatic energy lattice energy 3. Electrostatic force q1q2/r2 B. The Covalent Bond 1. Sigma and pi bonds a. hybrid orbitals (sp3, sp2, sp, and respective geometries) b. valence shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory, predictions of shapes of molecules (e.g., NH3, H2O, CO2) 2. Lewis electron dot formulas a. resonance structures b. formal charge c. Lewis acids and bases 3. Partial ionic character a. role of electronegativity in determining charge distribution b. dipole moment PHASES AND PHASE EQUILIBRIA A. Gas Phase 1. Absolute temperature, K 2. Pressure, simple mercury barometer 3. Molar volume at 0°C and 1 atm = 22.4 L/mol 4. Ideal gas a. definition b. ideal gas law (PV = nRT) i. Boyle¶s law ii. Charles¶s law iii. Avogadro¶s law 4. Kinetic theory of gases 5. Deviation of real-gas behavior from ideal gas law a. qualitative b. quantitative (van der Waals equation) 6. Partial pressure, mole fraction 7. Dalton¶s law relating partial pressure to composition B. Intermolecular Forces 1. Hydrogen bonding 2. Dipole interactions 3. London dispersion forces

melting point. Henry¶s law STOICHIOMETRY 1. Phase Equilibria 1. condensation point 3. Description of reactions by chemical equations a. osmotic pressure 5. Spontaneous reactions and Gº . Endothermic and exothermic reactions a. Colligative properties a. standard heats of reaction and formation b. theoretical yields THERMODYNAMICS AND THERMOCHEMISTRY A. Measurement of heat changes (calorimetry). Empirical formula versus molecular formula 3. Freezing point. limiting reactants d. Bond dissociation energy as related to heats of formation 4. and crystal states 6. freezing point depression ( Tf= Kfm) d. Free energy G 7. Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions: Thermochemistry 1.´ relative entropy for gas. specific heat capacity (specific heat capacity of water = 4. Metric units commonly used in the context of chemistry 4.C. Description of composition by percent mass 5. common oxidizing and reducing agents b. Oxidation number a. Definition of density 7. Molecular weight 2. liquid. Thermodynamic system. boiling point. state function 2. Molality 4. heat capacity. Hess¶s law of heat summation 3. Avogadro¶s number 6. phase diagrams 2. Entropy as a measure of ³disorder. Phase changes. disproportionation reactions c. Mole concept. balancing equations including redox equations c. Colloids 6.184 J/g·K) 5. enthalpy H. boiling point elevation ( Tb= Kbm) c. vapor pressure lowering (Raoult¶s law) b. conventions for writing chemical equations b. redox titration 8.

Ions in Solution 1. enzyme catalysis 7. radiation) 7. the equilibrium constant c. Solubility product constant. conservation of energy) 3. formulas. Thermodynamics 1. heat of vaporization 8. Relationship of the equilibrium constant and Gº SOLUTION CHEMISTRY A. PV diagram (work done = area under or enclosed by curve) RATE PROCESSES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS: KINETICS AND EQUILIBRIUM 1. activated complex or transition state ii. PO43±. NH4+. Hydration. Rate law. and thermal energy units 4. Solubility and pH . the hydronium ion B. interpretation of energy profiles showing energies of reactants and products. Reaction rates 2. H for the reaction b. Kinetic control versus thermodynamic control of a reaction 6. and charges for familiar ions. Equilibrium in reversible chemical reactions a. its use in laboratory separations 4. Temperature scales. conversions 6. Complex ions and solubility 6. Heat of fusion. sulfate) 2. activation energy. Arrhenius equation 5. First law ( E = q + w. reaction order 3. cation (common names.molarity) 2. electrical. the equilibrium expression 3.g. ammonium. Zeroth law (concept of temperature) 2. Units of concentration (e. Dependence of reaction rate on temperature a. Catalysts.. activation energy i. law of mass action b. Rate-determining step 4. e. Common-ion effect. Second law (concept of entropy) 5. Anion.B. Complex ion formation 5. chemical. rate constant b.g. dependence of reaction rate on concentrations of reactants a. Solubility 1. application of Le Châtelier¶s principle 8. convection. phosphate. Heat transfer (conduction. Equivalence of mechanical. SO42±..

Weak acids and bases (common examples. Titration 1. Galvanic (voltaic) cell a. nitric.. e.ACIDS AND BASES A. concepts (common buffer systems) b. electrolysis b. cathode c. Conjugate acids and bases 4. its approximate value (Kw = [H3O+][OH±] = 10±14 at 25°C) b. electron flow. Kw. influence on titration curves B. pH definition. e.. Electrolytic cell a. Interpretation of titration curves ELECTROCHEMISTRY 1. oxidation and reduction at the electrodes 2.g. dissociation of weak acids and bases with or without added salt b. sulfuric) 5. direction of electron flow . anode. calculation of pH of solutions of weak acids or bases 6. Ionization of water a. electrolytes d. half-reactions b. Brønsted±Lowry definition of acids and bases 2. definition. cell potential c. Buffers a. Equilibrium constants Kaand Kb (pKa and pKb) 7. Faraday¶s law relating amount of elements deposited (or gas liberated) at an electrode to current e. pH of pure water 3. Strong acids and bases (common examples.g. acetic. Neutralization 3. benzoic) a. reduction potentials. Indicators 2. Acid±Base Equilibria 1. hydrolysis of salts of weak acids or bases c.

Equilibrium 1. Concept of a field 6. Momentum = mv 2. Newton¶s third law (forces equal and opposite) 5. Translational equilibrium ( Fi = 0) 3. Conservation of linear momentum 4. units 2. Vector addition 4. Center of mass 2. Elastic collisions 5. Friction (static and kinetic) 11. Centripetal force (F = ±mv2/r) 9. Uniform circular motion 8. Weightlessness B. Momentum 1. Newton¶s first law (inertia) 6. Law of gravitation (F = ±Gm1m2/r2) 7. lever arms 7. components 3. Force EQUILIBRIUM AND MOMENTUM A. velocity (average and instantaneous) 5. GRAVITATION 1. time) 2. Newton¶s second law (F = ma) 4. Analysis of forces acting on an object 5. Concept of force. Torques.PHYSICS TRANSLATIONAL MOTION 1. Newton¶s first law (inertia) 3. Acceleration 6. Freely falling bodies FORCE AND MOTION. Vectors. Impulse = Ft 3. Motion on an inclined plane 12. Inelastic collisions . Rotational equilibrium ( i= 0) 4. Weight 10. Speed. Analysis of pulley systems 13. Dimensions (length or distance.

units WAVES AND PERIODIC MOTION A. amplitude) B. Power B. Periodic Motion 1. Production of sound 2. Beat frequencies 8. Work±energy theorem 5. and gases 3. interference. Transverse and longitudinal waves 2. Intensity of sound (decibel units. period. Derived units. liquids.WORK AND ENERGY A. sign conventions 2. Wavelength. gravitational. Attenuation . wave speed 3. Simple harmonic motion. Amplitude. Conservation of energy 4. Power. Potential energy a. Path independence of work done in gravitational field 3. local (PE = mgh) b. Work 1. Phase 3. Energy 1. Refraction and general nature of diffraction SOUND 1. Relative speed of sound in solids. general (PE = ±GmM/r) 3. Kinetic energy (KE = mv2/2. Mechanical advantage 4. Resonance 6. wave addition 5. log scale) 4. gravitational. frequency. Standing waves (nodes. displacement as a sinusoidal function of time 5. Superposition of waves. Motion of a pendulum 6. antinodes) 7. Hooke¶s law (F = ±kx) 4. Wave Characteristics 1. units) 2. General periodic motion (velocity. Conservative forces 5. frequency 2. Amplitude and intensity 4. spring (PE = kx2/2) c.

Density. Electrostatics 1. Continuity equation (Av = constant) 6. Insulators 3. Potential difference. Resonance in pipes and strings 8. Archimedes¶ principle (buoyancy) 3. absolute potential at point in space 6. pressure versus depth (P = gh) 4. Fluids 1. Ultra sound FLUIDS AND SOLIDS A. Elastic properties (elementary properties) 3. Poiseuille flow (viscosity) 5. reflection of sound from a moving object) 6. Solids 1. definition of dipole b. charge conservation 2. Shear 6. field lines b.5. Electric field a. Harmonics 9. Compression ELECTROSTATICS AND ELECTROMAGNETISM A. Concept of turbulence at high velocities 7. Coulomb¶s law (F = kq1q2/r2. Charges. Doppler effect (moving sound source or observer. Electric dipole a. conductors. behavior in electric field c. Density 2. Hydrostatic pressure a. specific gravity 2. Elastic limit 4. potential due to dipole . sign conventions) 4. Pascal¶s law b. field due to charge distribution 5. Surface tension 8. Thermal expansion coefficient 5. Equipotential lines 7. Pitch 7. Bernoulli¶s equation B.

Alternating Currents and Reactive Circuits 1. internal resistance of battery 4. energy of charged capacitor c. voltage 3. Resistance a. Capacitance a. Young¶s double-slit experiment . Ohm¶s law (I = V/R) b.) ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT ELEMENTS A. Root-mean-square current 2. Current (I = Q/ t. resistors in parallel d. Terminal potential. dielectrics 6. X-rays.8. Classification of electromagnetic spectrum (radio. Discharge of a capacitor through a resistor 7. Circuits 1. etc. Definition of the magnetic field B 2. radiation consists of oscillating electric and magnetic fields that are mutually perpendicular to each other and to the propagation direction 2. resistors in series c. Root-mean-square voltage LIGHT AND GEOMETRICAL OPTICS A. sign conventions. resistivity ( = RA/L) 5. Battery. Concept of interference. UV. Gauss¶s law B. P = I2R) C. Light (Electromagnetic Radiation) 1. Conductivity theory B. Electromagnetic Radiation (Light) 1. radiation velocity equals constant c in vacuo b. electromotive force. units) 2. Properties of electromagnetic radiation (general properties only) a. infrared. capacitors in series d. concept of parallel-plate capacitor b. Power in circuits (P = VI. Electrostatic induction 9. Magnetism 1. capacitors in parallel e. Circuit Elements 1. Existence and direction of force on charge moving in magnetic field C.

mirror curvature.2. Other diffraction phenomena. Refraction. protons. half-life. . energy liberated. Reflection from plane surface (angle of incidence equals angle of reflection) 2. energy b. Combination of lenses 8. focal length b. Thin films. Atomic energy levels a. radius. semilog plots) 5. real and virtual images 6. Spherical mirrors a. diopters e. quantized energy levels for electrons b. use of formula (1/p) + (1/q) = 1/f with sign conventions c. General nature of fusion 7. focal length b. Ray tracing 9. lasers B. Nuclear forces 4. X-ray diffraction 4. Radioactive decay ( . Visual spectrum. refractive index n. Emission spectrum of hydrogen (Bohr model) 2. Polarization of light 5. Atomic Structure and Spectra 1. Neutrons. Dispersion (change of index of refraction with wavelength) 4. calculation of energy emitted or absorbed when an electron changes energy levels B. use of formula (1/p) + (1/q) = 1/f with sign conventions c. exponential decay. stability. converging and diverging lenses. . atomic weight 2. Doppler effect (moving light source or observer) 6. Atomic number. real and virtual images d. single-slit diffraction 3. Snell¶s law (n1sin1 = n2sin2) 3. color a. Mass deficit. lens strength. lens aberration 7. isotopes 3. Optical instruments ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE A. Conditions for total internal reflection 5. Atomic Nucleus 1. binding energy . General nature of fission 6. Thin lenses a. Geometrical Optics 1. diffraction grating.

Base-pairing specificity. Krebs cycle (substrates and products. deoxyribose. Basic Metabolism 1. Recombinant DNA Techniques 1. PCR . Restriction enzymes 2. Glycolysis (anaerobic and aerobic. Noncompetitive inhibition C. Enzyme Structure and Function 1. Function in transmission of genetic information B. general features of the pathway) 3. concept of complementarity 4. DNA polymerase. Control of Enzyme Activity 1. Feedback inhibition 2. DNA Replication 1. DNA composition (purine and pyrimidine bases. Mechanism of replication (separation of strands. Metabolism of fats and proteins MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: DNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS DNA Structure and Function A. Function of enzymes in catalyzing biological reactions 2.Content Outline for Biological Science Section of the MCAT BIOLOGY MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: ENZYMES AND METABOLISM A. Competitive inhibition 3. Gene cloning 4. Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation (substrates and products. phosphate) 3. Repair during replication 2. substrates and products) 2. Hybridization 3. Repair of mutations D. specific coupling of free nucleic acids. Reduction of activation energy 3. DNA Structure and Function 1. general features of the pathway) 4. Semiconservative nature of replication C. Substrates and enzyme specificity B. Double-helix structure 2. Repair of DNA 1. primer required) 2.

centromeres B. Transcription regulation 2.g. Telomeres. Mechanism of transcription (RNA polymerase. Virus Structure 1. mRNA composition and structure (RNA nucleotides. RNA nucleotides) 3. transcription factors 3. Size relative to bacteria and eukaryotic cells . Lack of organelles and nucleus 3. Structural aspects of typical bacteriophage 4. Transcription 1. tumor suppressor genes 4. tRNA and rRNA composition and structure (e. degenerate code 3. Genomic content (RNA or DNA) 5. poly-A tail) 2. Role and structure of ribosomes MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: EUKARYOTES A. Fungi 1. RNA base-pairing specificity 2. primer not required) C. oncogenes. promoters. General structural characteristics (nucleic acid and protein. Eukaryotic Chromosome Organization 1. General aspects of life cycle B. General characteristics 2. basic concept of splicing (introns. Roles of mRNA. 5 cap. Chromosomal proteins 2. Translation 1. Codon±anticodon relationship. Initiation and termination codons (function. Genetic Code 1. Cancer as a failure of normal cellular controls. Control of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes 1. exons) MICROBIOLOGY A. codon sequences) B. and rRNA. tRNA. Posttranscriptional control. Missense and nonsense codons 4. DNA binding proteins.Protein Synthesis A. enveloped and nonenveloped) 2. Typical information flow (DNA RNA protein) 2..

penetration of cell membrane or cell wall. self-replication. mitotic division) 2. Major classifications: bacilli (rod-shaped). Regulation of gene expression. integration into host DNA. Nucleus (compartmentalization. coupling of transcription and translation GENERALIZED EUKARYOTIC CELL A. High degree of genetic adaptability. function) 4. rough (RER) and smooth (SER) b. acquisition of antibiotic resistance 3. transfer of genetic material by viruses D. site of ATP production b. nuclear pores B. storage of genetic information) 3. Reproduction by fission 2. inner and outer membrane 2. Self-replicating biological units that must reproduce within specific host cell 2. Mitochondria a. role in membrane biosynthesis: SER (lipids). Presence of cell wall 5. entry of viral material b. cocci (spherical). Lack of typical eukaryotic organelles 3. RER (site of ribosomes) c. presence of organelles. Existence of plasmids. Nucleus and Other Defining Characteristics 1. Nuclear envelope. Retrovirus life cycle. Viral Life Cycle 1. Prokaryotic Cell: Bacteria Structure 1. Lack of nuclear membrane and mitotic apparatus 2. Transduction. eubacteria. self-assembly and release of new viral particles 3. Flagellar propulsion E. Transformation (incorporation into bacterial genome of DNA fragments from external medium) 3. Endoplasmic reticulum a. spirilli (spiral-shaped). Defining characteristics (membrane-bound nucleus. Exponential growth 4. RER (transmembrane proteins) . Prokaryotic Cell: Genetics 1. Existence of anaerobic and aerobic variants F. Nucleolus (location. Membrane-bound Organelles 1. attachment to host cell. archaebacteria 4. reverse transcriptase 4. transfer by conjugation 2. Prokaryotic Cell: Growth and Physiology 1. extragenomic DNA. use of host synthetic mechanisms to replicate viral components c.C. have own DNA and ribosomes c. Lysosomes (vesicles containing hydrolytic enzymes) 3. Generalized phage and animal virus life cycles a.

Apoptosis (Programmed Cell Death) . fluid mosaic model 3. and modification of glycoprotein carbohydrates) C. telophase) 2. Protein and lipid components. Interphase and mitosis (prophase. Microfilaments (composition.M) 4. centrioles. RER (role in biosynthesis of transmembrane and secreted proteins that cotranslationally targeted to RER by signal sequence) 4. Sodium±potassium pump 7. second messengers 8. centromeres. Cell Cycle and Mitosis 1. anaphase. role in cleavage and contractility) 3. Membrane receptors. secretion. cell signaling pathways. asters. spindles b. role in packaging. Membrane channels 6. Composition and function of eukaryotic cilia and flagella 6. Cytoskeleton 1. mechanisms of chromosome movement 3. Plasma Membrane 1. microtubule organizing centers E. chromatids. Osmosis 4. Phases of cell cycle (G0. General function in cell support and movement 2. General function in cell containment 2. Mitotic structures and processes a. G1. nuclear membrane breakdown and reorganization d. kinetochores c. Centrioles. gap junctions b. Membrane potential 9. desmosomes D. Exocytosis and endocytosis 10. Cell±cell communication (general concepts of cellular adhesion) a. G2. Golgi apparatus (general structure. tight junctions c. S. Intermediate filaments (role in support) 5. Growth arrest F. Passive and active transport 5. role in support and transport) 4. metaphase. Microtubules (composition.d.

Function of endocrine system (specific chemical control at cell. Specificity of hormones (target tissue) 4. Excitatory and inhibitory nerve fibers (summation. Action potential a. extracellular matrix) NERVOUS AND ENDOCRINE SYSTEMS A. Dendrites (structure. Calcium regulation of contraction. stratified epithelium) 2. Nodes of Ranvier (role in propagation of nerve impulse along axon) 6. Synaptic activity a. Cellular mechanisms of hormone action 2. Endocrine System: Mechanisms of Hormone Action 1. tissue. Cell body (site of nucleus and organelles) 2. Schwann cells. Resting potential (electrochemical gradient) 9. Synapse (site of impulse propagation between cells) 7. Epithelial cells (cell types. Other Specialized Cell Types 1. propagation between cells without resistance loss 8. cross bridges. sliding filament model) 3. function) 4. Major types of hormones B. function) 3. loose versus dense.SPECIALIZED EUKARYOTIC CELLS AND TISSUES A. threshold. oligodendrocytes. Definitions of endocrine gland. Axon (structure. locations. transmitter molecules b. Endocrine System: Hormones 1. hormone 3. Presence of troponin and tropomyosin C. Myelin sheath. Transport of hormones (bloodstream) 3. sodium±potassium pump 10. Connective tissue cells (major tissues and cell types. Major endocrine glands (names. sarcoplasmic reticulum 4. products) 4. Abundant mitochondria in red muscle cells (ATP source) 2. synaptic knobs c. fatigue d. insulation of axon 5. H zone²general structure only) 5. Sarcomeres ( I and A bands. M and Z lines. Nerve Cell/Neural 1. frequency of firing) B. and organ levels) 2. Organization of contractile elements (actin and myosin filaments. Muscle Cell/Contractile 1. simple epithelium. Endothelial cells 3. fiber types. Integration with nervous system (feedback control) . all-or-none b.

Olfaction. reflex arc. Functions (circulation of oxygen. Organization of vertebrate nervous system 3. hemoglobin. oxygen content c. mechanism of hearing 4. removal of metabolic waste) 2. nutrients. integrative and cognitive abilities 2. ions. eye structure c. Nervous System: Sensory Reception and Processing 1. high-level control and integration of body systems b. function) 4. proprioceptive and somatic sensors 2. coagulation. clotting mechanisms. regulation of plasma volume d. chemicals. Major functions a. brain c. Reflexes a. mechanism of heat exchange 8. taste 3. pressure and flow characteristics 7. mechanisms of gas and solute exchange b. Role in thermoregulation 3. Vision a. antagonistic control) 5. hormones. feedback loop. response to external influences c. veins) a. plasma. blood cells b. Arterial and venous systems (arteries. Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems (functions. oxygen affinity . Skin. Four-chambered heart (structure. ear structure b. Capillary beds a. and fluids. bone marrow) c. venules. efferent control D.C. roles of spinal cord. Nervous System: Structure and Function 1. arterioles. LYMPHATIC. light receptors b. visual image processing CIRCULATORY. role of liver in production of clotting factors 9. Composition of blood a. sensory input d. Pulmonary and systemic circulation 6. AND IMMUNE SYSTEMS A. hematocrit b. Systolic and diastolic pressure 5. erythrocyte production and destruction (spleen. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transport by blood a. structural and functional differences b. Hearing a. Circulatory System 1. effects on flexor and extensor muscles b. Sensor and effector neurons 4.

Digestive System 1. Basic aspects of innate immunity and inflammatory response 4. Tissues a. antigen presentation DIGESTIVE AND EXCRETORY SYSTEMS A. thymus d. production of digestive enzymes. production of bile b. bone marrow b. Composition of lymph (similarity to blood plasma. Ingestion a. Pancreas . neutrophils. protection by mucus against self-destruction c. vitamin storage c. epiglottal action c. modification of oxygen affinity B. equalization of fluid distribution b. Major functions a. function 5. roles in blood glucose regulation. saliva as lubrication and source of enzymes b. gastric juice. Stomach a. Details of oxygen transport: biochemical characteristics of hemoglobin a. Mechanism of stimulation by antigen. Source of lymph (diffusion from capillaries by differential pressure) 4. detoxification d. lymph nodes 3. storage in gallbladder b. B lymphocytes. macrophages. plasma cells 2. spleen c. low pH.10. Cells and their basic functions a. Bile a. storage and churning of food b. Lymphatic System 1. T lymphocytes c. Liver a. Structure of antibody molecule 6. pharynx (function in swallowing) d. return of materials to the blood 2. Lymph nodes (activation of lymphocytes) C. roles in nutrient metabolism. mast cells. dendritic cells b. structure (gross) 4. site of digestion d. natural killer cells. Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Systems 1. substances transported) 3. structure (gross) 3. esophagus (transport function) 2. Concepts of antigen and antibody 5. transport of proteins and large glycerides c.

feces) 9. Muscle System 1. structure (gross) 6. Formation of urine a. sphincter muscle b. transport of enzymes to small intestine c. Muscular control a. Roles in homeostasis a. bacterial flora c. production of enzymes. Kidney structure a. production of enzymes. glomerular filtration b. bicarbonate b. concentration of urine d. support. bladder. medulla 3. removal of soluble nitrogenous waste 2. Bowman¶s capsule c. urethra) MUSCLE AND SKELETAL SYSTEMS A. acid±base balance d. Small intestine a. secretion and reabsorption of solutes c. mobility b. site of digestion d. structure (anatomic subdivisions) 7. blood pressure b. Functions a. cortex b. collecting duct 4. Storage and elimination (ureter. peripheral circulatory assistance c. Excretory System 1. osmoregulation c.a. absorption of water b. function and structure of villi c. glomerulus b. Large intestine a. countercurrent multiplier mechanism (basic function) 5. Rectum (storage and elimination of waste. absorption of food molecules and water b. loop of Henle e. peristalsis B. structure (gross) 8. neutralization of stomach acid e. proximal tubule d. Nephron structure a. thermoregulation (shivering reflex) . distal tube f.

bone growth (osteoblasts. sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation B. tendons 5.2. diaphragm. Structural characteristics of skeletal. structures b. General structure and function a. particulate matter 2. joint structures c. Ligaments. protection against disease. and cardiac muscle. striated versus nonstriated 3. calcium±protein matrix b. Functions a. Nervous control a. Skeletal System 1. Breathing mechanisms a. gas exchange. rib cage. resiliency and surface tension effects . physical protection 2. Skeletal structure a. motor neurons b. structural rigidity and support b. smooth. Respiratory System 1. calcium storage c. function) 4. Bone structure a. endoskeleton versus exoskeleton 3. Cartilage (structure. thermoregulation b. voluntary and involuntary muscles d. osteoclasts) RESPIRATORY SYSTEM A. motor end plates c. specialization of bone types. neuromuscular junctions. differential pressure b.

cell types. protection against abrasion. Cell specialization a. Gametogenesis by meiosis 3. cleavage c. Gene regulation in development . vasoconstriction and vasodilation in surface capillaries 3. Structure a. differences in morphology c. birth) B. Reproductive System 1. Major structures arising out of primary germ layers C. hair. layer differentiation. Physical protection a. determination b. Ovum and sperm a. calluses. development. Functions in homeostasis and osmoregulation 2. relative impermeability to water REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM AND DEVELOPMENT A. tissue types 2. ectoderm) e. Embryogenesis 1. gonads b. relative contribution to next generation 4. gastrulation i. differences between male and female structures 2. mesoderm. fertilization b. tissue types (epithelial. connective) b. nails. hair b. blastula formation d. location in dermis d. Stages of early development (order and general features of each) a. disease organisms 4. Skin System 1. neurulation 2. Male and female reproductive structures and their functions a. Reproductive sequence (fertilization. genitalia c. implantation. first cell movements ii. Cell communication in development 3. fat layer for insulation c. sweat glands. formation of primary germ layers (endoderm. Functions in thermoregulation a. Developmental Mechanisms 1. erectile musculature b. differentiation c.SKIN SYSTEM A. differences in formation b.

mitochondrial inheritance 5. chromosomal rearrangements (inversion. Codominance 10. F1. translocation) d. recombination d. Incomplete dominance. insertion. base substitution. Mendelian Concepts 1. Important differences between meiosis and mitosis 3. types of mutations (random. Significance of meiosis 2. expressivity 11. deletion. Locus 4.4. leakage. transcription error. Allele (single. sex determination c. advantageous versus deleterious mutation e. Wild type 7. Segregation of genes a. Analytic Methods 1. penetrance. frameshift) c. independent assortment b. double crossovers 4. Gene 3. Programmed cell death GENETICS A. very few genes on Y chromosome b. linkage c. translation error. Testcross (backcross. Mutation a. and F2 generations) . Gene pool B. pedigree analysis) 2. general concept of mutation b. probability calculations. Phenotype and genotype (definitions. inborn errors of metabolism f. Homozygosity and heterozygosity 6. Hardy±Weinberg principle 2. Meiosis and Genetic Variability 1. Recessiveness 8. concepts of parental. Sex-linked characteristics a. Complete dominance 9. relationship of mutagens to carcinogens C. single crossovers e. multiple) 5. cytoplasmic inheritance.

polymorphism c. definition of species b. Comparative Anatomy 1. pharangeal pouches. Relationship between ontogeny and phylogeny 4. parasitism ii. and convergent evolution j. genetic drift i. brachial arches c. inbreeding g. Vertebrate phylogeny (vertebrate classes and relations to each other) . adaptation and specialization d. concepts of natural and group selection d. mutualism 3. Speciation a. Evolutionary time as measured by gradual random changes in genome 5. symbiotic relationships i. Chordate features a. bottlenecks. divergent. fitness concept b. notochord b. dorsal nerve cord 2. concepts of ecological niche. competition e. concept of population growth through competition f. evolutionary success as increase in percent representation in the gene pool of the next generation 2. commensalism iii. parallel. selection by differential reproduction c. Evolution 1. Origin of life B. Natural selection a. outbreeding h.EVOLUTION A.

NH3. fingerprint region 2. Absorption Spectroscopy 1. Isomers a. conformational isomers 2.g. Stereochemistry of Covalently Bonded Molecules 1. Rigidity in molecular structure C. Multiple Bonding 1. equivalent protons 2. Valence shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory. constitutional isomers b. Structural formulas 4. Sigma and Pi Bonds 1. enantiomers. cis and trans isomers) c.. conventions for writing E and Z forms 4. Ultraviolet region a. conjugated systems B. predictions of shapes of molecules (e. Protons in a magnetic field. diastereomers. Its effect on bond length and bond energies 2. Polarization of light. -electron and nonbonding electron transitions b. sp. H2O. Hybrid orbitals (sp3. 1H NMR Spectroscopy 1. Racemic mixtures. and their respective geometries) 2. CO2) 3.g. Spin±spin splitting . absorption in visible region yielding complementary color b. conventions for writing R and S forms b. specific rotation 3. recognizing common characteristic group absorptions. Absolute and relative configuration a. Molecular ion peak C. sp2..ORGANIC CHEMISTRY THE COVALENT BOND A. Mass Spectrometry 1. Delocalized electrons and resonance in ions and molecules B. intramolecular vibrations and rotations b. separation of enantiomers MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND SPECTRA A. effect of structural changes on absorption 3. Visible region a. stereoisomers (e. Infrared region a. Mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) 2.

pinacol rearrangement in polyhydroxyalcohols. Extraction (Distribution of Solute Between Two Immiscible Solvents) B. esterification h. Alcohols 1. Recrystallization (Solvent Choice from Solubility Data) HYDROCARBONS A. preparation of mesylates and tosylates g. Thin-layer chromatography D. 3. depending on alcohol and derived alkyl halide) b. General principles a. Alkanes 1. combustion b. General principles a. oxidation c. Important reactions a. protection of alcohols e. substitution reactions with halogens. nomenclature b. acidity of alcohols compared to other classes of oxygen-containing compounds c. ring strain in cyclic compounds c. hydrogen bonding b. physical properties 2. physical properties 2. nomenclature b.SEPARATIONS AND PURIFICATIONS A. chain reaction mechanism. inhibition b. synthetic uses d. Distillation C. Important reactions a. Description a. reactions with SOCl2 and PBr3 f. etc. inorganic esters 3. Gas±liquid chromatography 2. substitution reactions (SN1 or SN2. bicyclic molecules OXYGEN-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS A. stability of free radicals. Chromatography (Basic Principles Involved in Separation Process) 1. Description a. Paper chromatography 3. effect of chain branching on physical properties .

B. Carboxylic Acids 1. hemiacetal ii. reactions at adjacent positions i. reactions at position i. Grignard reagents 3. physical properties and solubility 2. inductive effect of substituents e. aldol condensation iii. steric hindrance b. acidity of hydrogens. Description a. imine. enamine b. Description a. effect of substituents on reactivity of C=O. reduction iii. íunsaturated carbonyl compounds. internal hydrogen bonding d. decarboxylation iv. Important reactions a.3-dicarbonyl compounds. nomenclature b. General principles a. substitution reactions 3. . keto±enol tautomerism e. 1. physical properties 2. Important reactions a. resonance stability of carboxylate anion . Aldehydes and Ketones 1. oxidation c. General principles a. nucleophilic attack ii. their resonance structures C. organometallic reagents f. haloform reactions ii. halogenation ii. hydrogen bonding b. dimerization c. nomenclature b. carboxyl group reactions i. nucleophilic addition reactions at C=O bond i. carbanions c. acetal. esterification b. acidity of the carboxyl group d. Wolff±Kishner reaction g.

basicity b.g. physical properties 2. acetoacetic ester synthesis 3. Strain (e. -lactams) E. Hofmann elimination 3. stereochemistry. preparation of acid derivatives b. General principles a. General principles a. nucleophilic substitution c. electronic effects d. Important reactions a. nomenclature b. Description a. Acid Derivatives (Acid Chlorides. Important reactions a.D. Esters) 1. effect of substituents on basicity of aromatic amines . General principles a. decarboxylation b. nomenclature b. Important reactions a. Description a. stabilization of adjacent carbocations c. nomenclature 2. Amides. relative reactivity of acid derivatives b. alkylation d. hydrolysis of amides 3. Anhydrides. hydrolysis of fats and glycerides (saponification) f. steric effects c. transesterification e. Keto Acids and Esters 1. physical properties 2. amide formation b. keto±enol tautomerism AMINES 1. reaction with nitrous acid c.. Description a. Hofmann rearrangement d. acidity of hydrogens in íketo esters b.

terpenes c. Phosphorus Compounds 1.BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES A. epimers and anomers 2. common names b. Carbohydrates 1. Important reactions a. General principles a. hydrolysis 3. classification. acidic or basic ii. classification i. Hydrolysis of the glycoside linkage 3. steroids b. cyclic structure and conformations of hexoses d. Wittig reaction . 1º structure of proteins b. Description a. Reactions of monosaccharides B. a absolute configuration(s) b. 2º structure of proteins C. free fatty acids D. amino acids classified as dipolar ions c. peptide linkage b. Important reactions a. esters) 2. Description a. Amino Acids and Proteins 1. triacylglycerols d. Description a. Description. hydrophobic or hydrophilic 2. absolute configurations c. nomenclature. structure of phosphoric acids (anhydrides. Lipids 1. structure a.

E. and conclusions. explanations. C. B.MCAT Verbal Reasoning Skills I. Determine how a conclusion from the passage can be modified to be made consistent with additional information. Judge the bearing of new evidence on conclusions presented in the passage. F. Recognize an accurate paraphrase of complex information presented in the passage. Judge the relevance of information to an argument or claim. E. Judge the credibility of a source. Identify comparative relationships among ideas or pieces of information contained in the passage. Determine. D. Judge the soundness of an argument or a step of reasoning presented in the passage. Comprehension A. Use given information to solve a specified problem. Predict a result on the basis of passage content and specific facts about a hypothetical situation. Application A. Evaluation A. II. F. from context. conclusion. models. Identify the background knowledge contained in the passage or question that is relevant to a particular interpretation. Identify the reasons or evidence offered in support of a thesis. Recognize methods or results that would challenge hypotheses. C. or claim. B. D. Identify stated or unstated assumptions contained in the passage. Distinguish between supported and unsupported claims F. B. D. C. D. B. C. Recognize the scope of application of hypothesis. . H. Recognize appropriate questions of clarification. Judge whether a conclusion follows necessarily from the reasons given in the passage. G. the meaning of significant terminology or vocabulary used in the passage. Identify the probable cause of a particular event or result based on information presented. III. or theories given in the passage. Identify the Central concern or thesis of the passage. Determine the implications of conclusions or results for real-world situations E. Identify a general theory or model based on given information. Appraise the strength of the evidence for a generalization. IV: Incorporation of new information A. Recognize plausible alternative hypotheses or solutions.

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