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Birds and fowls are more suited to cold than to hot weather. They lay more eggs in cold weather because
they are not stressed. Fowls do not perspire but they pant for breath and need much drinking water in hot
weather. So that they will lay more eggs, do not leave them under the heat of the sun; if they are allowed to
roam about, let them seek shade. Give them wet food and crushed shells during very hot weather.


The first week in newly hatched chicks is important. It is here that the health of the fowl depends, to give it
good price. These first seven days is 15% of the growth and life of a growing chick. In the natural way, the
mother hen teaches the chicks, as they go about together, how to cackle, or squawk and the young ones learn to
hunt for food and avoid enemies (oppressors). The mother hen also provides her chicks with heat under her
wings. But in raising chicks in numbers, these opportunities are wanting. They learn in life individually. Thus, it
is necessary to provide the chicks with the right temperature, light and air, and right number in their coop.

1. Coop temperature

Chicks temperature is 38.6°C and becomes 40.5°C in 7 days. The feathers that provide heat to their bodies
are still few. Thus, many chicks die of cold within the first seven days. The coop temperature must be 31°C-35°C
in the first day. This is lowered by 3°C at the end of the first week. After this, temperature must be maintained
at 21°C-24°C . When the temperature of the coop is not right, the chicks will not approach their food or drink
within 5-7 days, so many chicks die of hunger and weakness when they are cold. When the coop temperature is
right, the chicks are lively in the first 2 or 3 days; they pick up things that attract them like bright stones or
colorful grains and they preen their feathers or swim in the soil. When the coop temperature is not adequate,
they cling close to one another, chirp loudly and endlessly and refuse to move.

2. Light

In the first week, give the chickens light to enable them to keep eating. After this, familiarize them for a
period of an hour without light so that they will not suffer shock when power is out. If they will not learn to eat in
the dark, they will not grow fast. They will not grow quickly with mere 8 hours light and 16 hours dark.

3. Flow of Air

Airflow in the coop must be adequate enough to remove the stench of their manure. Strong wind however
will make them feel cold.

4. Chick Population

Do not overpopulate the chicks in the coop. They should be just enough so as to allow free circulation of

5. Loss of Heat

When the chicks are clustered together, heat is not lost. The size of the coop should grow as the chicks
grow. In this way, the right temperature is maintained.

6. Drinking Water

Chicks easily get thirsty, especially in hot weather. If they do not drink enough, they will not eat enough,
and so will not have energy in their bodies. As such, they will chill, which could cause their death.

Drinking bowls should be numerous so that they will quickly learn to drink. These should also be in bright places
so they can be easily found and accessible to approach.

Chicks that drink before eating easily gain weight.


Instead of providing more ventilation or cooling devices in chicken coops during hot weather, give more fat
in their meals instead of pure corn so as to cool their bodies. Chicken given fat gain weight more quickly than
those given pure carbohydrates (corn) only.


Like children, growing chicks easily get infected with disease. In coops where they are reared, respiratory
sicknesses are common when they are crowded and ventilation is poor. This is because of ammonia, a gas that
is emitted by the decaying feces of the chicks. When the chicks are crowded, feces get accumulated and with
this, together with moisture, the strength of ammonia increases, especially when ventilation is poor. According to
experts, experienced chicken raisers know when the number of chicks has reached a certain level that makes
ammonia no longer bearable for the chicken. In such condition, ammonia lowers the weight of the chicken. The
fowls lose appetite, their lungs weaken, and become vulnerable to respiratory diseases. Because of this, it is not
good to allow feces to accumulate, and it is necessary to widen ventilation windows.


Layers will lay eggs regularly if they are kept away from noise and disturbances. The effect of noise and
disturbances on 4,000 layers was studied by four scientists from the University of Zagreb, Yugoslavia. When a
strong electric bell was sounded, the number of eggs laid was decreased; when a stronger sound, the firemans
siren was sounded, decrease in eggs laid was bigger. When the 2 sounds - bell or siren were simultaneously
sounded, the hens, struck with fear, tried to see the source of the noise. Not one laid egg. In this event, 240 out
of 4,000 (6%) died, 480 (9%) did not lay eggs; 3,720 (93%) suffered obstetrical defects, 1,640 (41%) got
indigestion problems and 360 (9%) got respiratory sicknesses.


Poor layers cost food and space, and so should be removed. The marks of a poor layer are:

• The comb is pale, dry and withdrawn at the top and below the throat.
• The eyes are dim.
• The hen is thin and inactive.
• The appetite is poor, and the maw or crop is empty.
• Yellow color surrounds the eyes, legs and bill. A good layer has no such color.
• The hips are hard, thick and narrow (at 2 fingers wide).
• The rear (rectum) is yellow, small and shrunken.
• The body is shallow, narrow and short.


1. Gather the eggs 3 times a day or more in hot weather. Eggs easily spoil in a warm surrounding.
2. Put the eggs in a basket or container.
3. Sort the eggs according to size.
4. Wipe off dirt or stains before storing.
5. Keep in a cool and well ventilated place.
6. Always keep the containers clean so as not to stain the eggs.
7. Cool off the containers first (if warm) before putting in the eggs.
8. Sell or dispose the eggs 2 times a week or more often so as to retain only the most freshly laid ones.


The sodium content of salt is necessary for egg laying. But this element is not provided in commercial feeds
because it will increase the cost. To enable the hen to produce well, mix 200 gms of salt for every 2 sacks of
feed. It has been observed by researchers that chickens lay eggs 29% short when their feed lacks salt.


Light is important in the setting up of a coop for layers. It has much to do in the maturation of the growing
layers and their capability to lay plenty.

The rules are:

1. Do not increase lighting in the coop of growing layers. This hastens their maturity and it makes them start
laying eggs even while very young, but the eggs are small.

2. If the layers are already laying eggs, do not decrease lighting. It has effect on the hormones of the layer --
either activate or suppress them.

3. So it is suggested that from 4 to 20 weeks of a growing layer, the length of sunlight is 13 hours, if possible 14-
16 hours a day.

A 50-watt bulb is adequate for a 25 sq.m. coop. The ceiling where it will hang is from 2.4"-2.7" (inches).


According to studies in the University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada, a laying hen given Vitamin D when feed
bears stronger egg shells than those not given Vitamin D. Several groups of layers were given different doses of
Vitamin D3 (calciferol, derived from the fish liver oil). Those not given with the vitamin laid less eggs, and their
shells easily broke. After 4 weeks, their egg laying decreased by 30%, and either with thin shells or without
shell. But those given Vitamin D3 in their diet laid normal eggs with strong shells. Those given 125 units Vitamin
D3 only, also laid equal number of eggs as those given 500 units, but the eggs were not normal in shape and the
shells were not strong.


According to researchers from Brent School, Baguio City, egg shells have certain uses that are not benefited
from, such as:

- Fertilizer -- egg shells contain calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur. When applied on cabbage plants,
the leaves became wider, greener and the heads bigger.

- Cement -- although it does not dry easily, cement from egg shells are smooth binder for bricks in the
following proportions:

1 part cement

2 parts crushed egg shells

- Paste -- strengthens paste when mixed with starch.


1. Watermelon rind
Researchers at UP Los Baños fed watermelon rind to chickens for 6 months. These were compared to
chicken given ordinary commercial feed. They observed that commercial feeds can be replaced with watermelon
rind up to 20%.


a. Boil the rind until cooked.

b. Dry in the sun.
c. Grind and mix with ordinary feed.

2. Sunflower Seeds

Researchers in India tried feeding 18% up to 26% protein (from the resulting cakes after oil has been
extracted from the sunflower seeds) to growing chickens aging up to 70 days. These grew faster and consumed
more feeds than those not given sunflower cakes. They also observed that feeding the chickens with seed coats
did not cause any harm.

3. Tobacco Seeds

In places where tobacco is widely planted, farmers know that every plant can yield about 30 grams. To save
on feeds, researchers tried replacing 20% of the feeds with tobacco seeds. Nothing adverse was observed in the
chicken, neither in taste nor in shape.

Tobacco seeds contain: 20% protein (38% if newly harvested), 15% crude fiber and 4% carbohydrates.

4. Banana Leaves

According to researchers in Southern Mindanao Agricultural Research in Kabacan, North Cotabato, broilers
fed with 5% chopped banana leaves gained weight almost 1-1/2 kilos more than those fed with commercial
starter mash ration or with 10% added banana leaves.

5. Banana Peels


a. Chop fine raw saba peels.

b. Boil for one hour, drain and cool.
c. For every kilo of dried banana peel, add:
• 150 gms dried chicken manure
• 100 gms rice bran (darak)

d. Mix well and dry in the sun.

e. Pulverize further up to about 1 mm sieve

This can be mixed up to 15% commercial broiler starter mash and finisher mash.

Example: 850 gm commercial mash

150 gm banana peel and added mixture

1 kilo

For broiler feed, ration diet is starter mash from day 1 to day 42, and finisher mash from 42-49 days.

Chickens fed 25% with this in 56 days made no difference in weight with those fed with 100% corn.

6. Rabbit Manure
According to British Poultry Science Report (1981), for every kilo of broiler feed, 100-200 gm dried rabbit
manure can be added. Dried rabbit manure according to their research, contains 18.8% raw protein, 9% water,
and 19.9% MJ energy in every kilo.

7. Seaweeds

Two kinds of brown algae can be mixed with the chicken feed in the following way:

a) dry algae in the sun until dry

b) pulverize and add to the feed at 5% amount.

Every kilo of algae is 20 gms powder that contains:

• 8.76% raw protein

• 7.76% raw fiber
• 36.67% ash and
• 46.26% free nitrogen extract

Every kilo of this contains 2,452 calories.

8. Water Lily

According to UPLB Researchers, water lily is rich in protein making it suitable as feed for chicken.


1. Pulverize (grind) water lily leaves

2. Mix the greenish paste-like substance with water and stir well to dissolve protein.
3. Screen the mixture to separate fibers.
4. Heat the liquid to 80oC to coagulate protein components, dry and pulverize.

The result is the water hyacinth leaf protein concentrate (WHLPC) which is an excellent substitute to ¼ soybean
meals as feed for chicks aged 1-40 days-old. WHLPC is also rich in calcium and potassium and contains 35% raw
protein with 11% roughage. WLHPC, although do not necessarily aid in growing chicks, it lessens the cost of
feeding. It also lessens the risks of flooding due to clogging of waterlines as well as oxygen depletion in water

Control Flies in the Chicken Coop

1. Dissolve Erythrocin B. in water. (This is a food color so it is harmless to humans).

2. Spray this solution on the chicken manure. When the flies alight or the manure, their legs get the erythrocin.
When they get exposed to sunlight, they die in a few minutes. Erythrocin B in the flies, when exposed to
sunlight, creates a kind of oxygen that is poison to them -- whether they are still in the larval stage or already
hatched flies. Erythrocin is safe in the environment because this stays only for two hours in water, when under
direct sunlight. However, in the chicken manure, about 80% of this dye lasts for about a week.


According to farmers with long experience in chicken raising, mixing powder soap with the feed increases
the weight of the chicken more than does the adding of feed. This is because detergent aids in the process of
digestion in the chicken, reduces fat, and suppresses some parasites in the intestinal tract. The amount is: 2
grams Tide (or powdered detergent) for every kilo broiler mash feed.

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