Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 19

Build a High-Resolution

Synthetic Aperture Radar


Imaging System in Your
Backyard
by
Gregory L. Char vat

for
MIT Haystack Obser vatory Open Lunch
12 May 2010

1
Synthetic Aperture Radar
(SAR) in Your Backyard
Learn about radar
imaging systems by
building one.
Discover why you head lamps/tail lamps
have greatest RCS on the
were pulled-over. 5.0 Mustang at X-band

Measure the RCS of


your favorite model
aircraft.

2
Outline
Make a rail SAR
Measured radar imagery
Summary

3
Make a rail SAR
1. Use a realistic architecture
2. Locate parts at hamfests.
3. Design radar sensor around available parts
4. Test radar sensor
5. Find a linear rail
6. Develop data acquisition system
7. Write SAR algorithm
8. Build outdoor range
9. Make images!
4
Use this realistic architecture: x

FMCW rail SAR L


Linear Rail

z
10 dB Directional Coupler
Antenna
Trig 90%
LFM Chirp Motion
Source (VCO) 10%
Transmit
Video Antenna
LNA
Amplifier

Receive
MIxer
Antenna

ADC Frequency Domain


Data

Radar Image
Rail Control

Stepper
Motor

5
Locate/test parts and fabricate
1. Microwave parts are difficult
2. Test to see what actually
to find at low costs. Visit your works, let this drive your design
local Hamfests

3. Fabrication in garage machine 4. Complete radar system


shop

6
6
Radar sensor
built from
hamfest parts
LFM stretch mode
Pulse compression
7.5-12.5 GHz chirp in
10 ms
+15 dBm TX Power
15 dBi horns, +- 25
deg E and H plane

7
Test radar sensor
snow

Range profile tests 0 dBsm pt. tarets


demonstrate
functionality
Row of 0 dBsm
point targets
Difficult test
environment due
to snow (February
in East Lansing
Michigan)

8
Find a linear rail
Linear rails are
expensive
The longer the better
typically $10K for an
8’ long rail
Low-cost substitute:
Genie screw-drive
garage door opener
Cost = Free!

9
Find a linear rail: low-cost stepper
motor control 2.5 A stepper
motor
Torque required too high
for largest low-cost
stepper motor
Cordless drill planetary
gear transmission reduced
torque by 6
Enabled <2.5 A stepper
motor to be used
Reduced stepper drive
cost 6:1 cordless drill
planetary gear drive

10
Develop a data acquisition system
(relatively) low-cost NI
PCI-6014
16 bit 200 KSPS ADC
10 bit 10 KSPS DAC (use
for LFM modulation)
Labview
rapid soft ware
integration
controls stepper motor
drive
radar timing
acquisition/recording
GUI
11
Develop algorithm
Preferred SAR algorithm for the rail SAR in Chapter 5:
W. G. Carrara, R. S. Goodman, R. M. Majewski, Spotlight
Synthetic Aperture Radar Signal Processing
Algorithms, Artech House Inc., Noowod MA, 1995.
Code this up in MATLAB

12
Build an outdoor range
open space (reduce aliasing and clutter)

styrofoam table
for holding up targets

mow the lawn


to reduce clutter
13
Lawn clutter mitigation
Mow the lawn
Use coherent background subtraction
Do not walk in front of target scene

footprints
14
Radar imagery: 5.0 Mustang
100 cm

15
Radar imagery: bike
50 cm

Cannondale M300

16
Radar imagery: model
aircraft
20 cm

1:32 Scale F14


1:48 Scale B52

17
Low RCS imagery

GO STATE in pushpins: -55 dBsm spheres

18
Summary
Radar built from junk at hamfests
Learn
radar system design
radar imaging techniques
what causes you to get pulled over
High performance at low-cost
Next steps? Build your own!
For more info goto www.mit.edu/~gr20603
(click on Synthetic Aperture Radar)
References:
G. L. Charvat. "Low-Cost, High Resolution X-Band Laboratory Radar System for Synthetic Aperture Radar Applications." Austin
Texas: Antennas Measurement Techniques Association conference, October 2006.

G. L. Charvat, L. C. Kempel. “Low-Cost, High Resolution X-Band Laboratory Radar System for Synthetic Aperture Radar
Applications.” East Lansing, MI: IEEE Electro/Information Technology Conference, May 2006.

19