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Combined Multipul se-Multilevel Voltage

Source Inverter Configuration for STATCOM


Applications
B. Geethalakshmi, P. Dananjayan, and K.DelhiBabu

reduced as the number of level increases. However the


Abstract-- In this paper a new combined multipulse-multilevel number of voltage levels is limited by control complexity,
inverter topology is proposed for static synchronous compensator complication of the system structure and cost ineffectiveness.
to regulate the ac bus voltage at a constant level. A closed loop Another practical configuration of the inverter that is
controller for operating the STATCOM in the automatic voltage currently used in high power utility applications is the multi-
control mode is developed. To analyze the performance of the pulse inverter (MPI) [4], [5] particularly the
STATCOM connected in shunt with the transmission line, a 48-pulse inverter, which can be used without ac filters due to
single machine infinite bus power system has been considered. its high performance and low harmonic rate on the ac side. In
The complete digital simulation of the STATCOM incorporated
into the power system is performed in the MATLAB/Simulink 48-pulse inverter configuration eight simple units producing
environment and the results are presented to validate the quasi-square wave voltage are combined via eight phase
feasibility of the proposed topology. shifting isolation transformers. However as the pulse number
increases, the structure of the phase shifting transformer
Index Terms-- FACTS, Multilevel inverter, Multipulse becomes complex and its implementation appears to be
inverter, Reactive power compensation, STATCOM. difficult and expensive. Hence a new inverter topology,
namely the combined multipulse multilevel inverter which
enjoys the benefits of both the MPI and MLI configurations,
INTRODUCTION
I. is developed to obtain high performance, reliable, flexible,
EACTIVE power compensation is an essential part of a cost effective power converter suitable for high power
power system and the static synchronous compensator applications. This paper aims to develop this new
(STATCOM) plays an important role in controlling the configuration, which significantly reduces the complexity as
reactive power flow over the transmission line [1], [2]. The well as the total harmonic distortion.
basic building block of the STATCOM is a voltage source
inverter (VSI) that generates a synchronous sinusoidal II. STATIC SYNCHRONOUS COMPENSATOR
voltage. The traditional 2-level VSI is not viable for high Fig. 1 shows the schematic diagram of the STATCOM [6]
voltage applications. In order to be used in such high voltage connected to a single machine infinite bus (SMIB) power
applications each main switch of the 2-level converter is system. The STATCOM model is connected in shunt with the
formed by many semiconductor devices connected in series. transmission line using a step-down transformer having
However with this arrangement many constrains such as leakage reactance XT. The ac voltage difference across this
matching of the electrical and thermal characteristics of the transformer leakage reactance produces reactive power
semiconductor devices present in the same switch, voltage exchange between the STATCOM and the power system at
sharing among them etc., need to be addressed. An attractive the point of common coupling (PCC).
alternative to the 2-level inverter is the multilevel inverter The exchange of real power and reactive power between
(MLI) especially the H-bridge MLI [3] in which the single- the STATCOM and power system can be controlled by
phase full bridge inverters are cascaded in series in each phase adjusting the amplitude and phase of the inverter output
leg of the main inverter so as to produce a staircase waveform.
Even though this multi-level approach results in low voltage. To operate the STATCOM in capacitive mode, the
switching losses it needs bulky output filter circuit to reduce magnitude of the inverter output voltage is controlled to be
the harmonic components. These filtering requirements can be greater than the voltage at the PCC. In contrast, the magnitude
of the output voltage of the inverter is controlled to be less
than that of the power system at the PCC in order to absorb
B. Geethalakshmi is with Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry,
India. (e-mail: bgeethalakshmi_pec@yahoo.co.in). the reactive power from the grid. Converter absorbs a small
P. Dananjayan is with the Department of Electronics and Communication amount of real power from the ac system to replenish its
Engineering, Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry, India (e-mail: internal losses and keep the capacitor voltage at the desired
pdanaqjayanoyahotmail1com). level. The losses can be supplied from the ac system by
K. DelhiBabu is with the Power Grid Corporation of India, India.
making the output voltage of the inverter lag the ac system
voltage by a small angle.
978-1-4244-1762-9/08/$25.00 (©2008 IEEE
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x9~

3OkfV
100 MIhV

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of STATCOM.


Fig. 3. Diode clamped 3-level inverter.

III. COMBINED MULTIPULSE - MULILEVEL INVERTER


The proposed combined multipulse multilevel inverter xlO I
configuration shown in Fig. 2 consists of four 3+ 3-level
inverters and four PSTs. In this configuration the diode
clamped multilevel inverter shown in Fig. 3 is used as a three
level inverter. In this circuit, the dc-bus voltage is split into t 05 .
::::::: ::::::::: ..
..........
three levels by two series connected bulk capacitors, C1 and
C2. The output voltage van has three states: Vd,/2, 0 and -Vd,/2
0.01 0[02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0[06 0.07 0.08 0os 0.1
when the switch pairs SI & S2, S2 & S1' and SI' & S2' are Time (sec)
switched ON respectively. The voltages generated by each of a) Output voltage
the three level inverters are applied to the secondary windings

I
of four different PSTs. The primary windings of the PSTs are
Fundamental (0OHz) = 9360 THD= 3.81 %
connected in series and the proper pulse pattern as shown in
u.3
Table 1 is maintained so that the fundamental components of
the individual 3-level inverters are added in phase on the i 0.26
primary side. This configuration produces almost a near
L 0.2
sinusoidal output voltage with a total harmonic distortion of
about 3.810% as depicted in Fig. 4.
+7.5 A 33 -75 8+
U 0.1
B-
'5 n n-q

L .
\/-22.5 A 33 -7.5 +
0 500 1000
-n
]2 B
= b3 <] C
+f Frequency (Hz)
b) THD
+ -7.5 A +7.5" +
33
Fig. 4. Multipulse-multilevel Inverter output voltage and it's THD.
-n o B =,, < C ^b3
c3 C=I-

C2: IV. STATCOM CONTROLLER


+ -37.50 A 33 +7.5 8+
A complete closed loop control scheme [7] for operating
-n B =,, <PTC the STATCOM in the automatic voltage control mode is
3-Level hilverters PSTs shown in Fig.5. In the automatic voltage control mode, the
shunt converter dynamically absorbs or injects reactive power
Fig. 2. Combined multipulse-multilevel inverter.
with the ac grid so as to maintain the transmission line voltage
TABLE I to a reference value at the PCC. Also it should draw a very
PHASE DISPLACEMENT FOR A MULTIPULSE-MULTILEVEL INVERTER small amount of real power from the network to compensate
for the losses in the inverter switches and coupling
Coupling Gate pulse Phase shifting transformer and to maintain the dc link voltage constant.
transformer pattern transformer Hence the closed loop control scheme of STATCOM consists
Y-Y +7.5° -7.5° of active power control part and reactive power control part.
A-Y -22.5° -7.5° The active power control part compares dc link capacitor
Y-Y -7.5 ° +7.5° voltage with reference input and the difference is controlled
A-Y -37.5° +7.5° by PI controller which produces ocl as described in equation
(1). A phase locked loop is used to determine the
instantaneous angle 0 of the three-phase line voltage Vabe
sensed at bus B2 of Fig. 1. This instantaneous angle is used to
produce the angle of the PWM output signal, 0Sh given in
equation (2).

atlj Kp s jV(DC VDC)


-
(1)

OSh 0- Gi1 (2)


Reactive power control part supplies reactive power to the
power system to control the shunt connected bus voltage, V. . . T .

This part produces the modulation index, msh as given in Fig. 6. Transmission line voltage and current.
equation (3) to the PWM modulator.
mShm+ Am (3) At t = 0.4 s, the static synchronous compensator is
where connected to the power system network by switching on the
circuit breaker CB2. Since there exists a lagging power factor
in the line, the STATCOM is expected to operate in the
Am= jKp + (Vabc Vabc) capacitive mode. Hence the STATCOM controller increases
the modulation index from 0.738 to 0.778 as shown in Fig. 8
These 0Sh and msh are used by the PWM modulator for in order to increase the STATCOM voltage magnitude higher
generating the sinusoidal reference and this signal is than the bus voltage magnitude which enables the injection of
compared with the triangular carrier in order to produce 0.24 p.u of reactive power into the ac power system as shown
in Fig. 7. Also it draws a very small amount of real power
pulses to the inverter switches. Using OSh and msh, the from the network to compensate for the losses in the inverter
fundamental component of PWM inverter output voltage is switches and coupling transformer and to maintain the dc link
obtained as described in equation in (4)
voltage constant. The corresponding d-q components of the
vsine = mSh sin (221ft - OSh ) (4) STATCOM current are described in Fig. 9. The dc link
voltage is maintained constant at the desired set reference
TT
abce
*
m value as shown in Fig. 10. It is observed from the Fig. 11 that
the ac terminal voltage settles to 1 p.u and the phase
difference between the transmission line current and the
voltage is reduced to 14.5° as described in Fig. 6, thereby
STATCOM improves the power factor of the line from 0.5 lag
to 0.968 lag. Thus the STATCOM maintains better power
factor over the transmission line and maintains uniform
voltage profile.
U.3
i 0.25

CD 0.2

0.15
To Iiiveiter N0 0.1
Nitches
Fig.5. Closed loop control scheme of STATCOM. cD 0.05
Qref
CD O
~n3 nc

V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.8; 0.7 0.8
Time (sec)
The complete digital simulation is performed in the Fig. 7. Reactive power injected by the STATCOM in the capacitive mode.
MATLAB/Simulink environment and the results are
0.81
presented. The results shown below demonstrate the dynamic 0.8 L. s.-.s..........
performance of the STATCOM in improving the voltage > 0 79 .. .....

profile and the power factor of the bus. The load in the system 0.o78 .. ..

is with the ratings of P = 300 MW, QL = 150 MVAR


connected at load bus B3 through the circuit breaker CB1. The
transmission line current is lagging the voltage by 60° as 0.76 ................. ........ .........................
depicted in Fig.6 resulting in a power factor of 0.5 lag and the 0.74 .............
.. ...., ...,.....e.................
bus voltage magnitude is at 0.982 p.u as the STATCOM is 0.73I 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0. ; 7 0.8
inactive. Tirne (s e c)
Fig. 8. Variation of modulation index.
-3
x 10
0.25

-, 0.2

1.1 0.15
ll:.
-d 0 0.1

*. 0.05

4.... nI Qnf \

........................... 0 01 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 08


Time (sec)
-0.1 Fig. 12. Reactive power injected by the STATCOM in the capacitive mode
with fault.
0.81
0.8 ......................................................................................................
-0.4 .....

073 - '' '' '' '' 1 ' '


0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
Time (sec) 0.76
R 0077
.75
-=
Fig. 9. Direct and quadrature components of STATCOM current.
0.74
4
xlO
x
i.U4I1n1 . i--

I I

.En 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 04 0E5 EIB 0.7 0.8


Time (sec)
Fig. 13. Variation of modulation index with fault.
03. C)395
3(;.034
CD

4n
03.C)385e r 0.60 .5
. -

V 3 .380
I__

)375 .

3.E 5
-o. oo
D36E5
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0. 1.8
Time (sec) -O.010
Fig. 10. DC side voltage of the inverter. U. 2

0.1 ........ -......e ., .............

1
S
:H 0 2 000
05
0.995 ... ..:. .:... .;

.I ... -04
0L 0.99 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 05 06 07 0.8
Time (sec)
hE
0.985 Fig. 14. Direct and quadrature components of STATCOM current with fault.

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0. 6 0.7 0.8 1.006

Time (sec)
Fig. 11. Transmission line voltage. 1.005

.1 .004
Also the system performance is verified when a three
phase fault is applied at t = 0.6s and cleared at t = 0.65s. The ) 1.003

reactive power injected by the STATCOM settles to the X 1.002


desired value within a small interval of time after the fault is
cleared as shown in Fig. 12. Similarly the modulation index, 1.001

direct and quadrature components of STATCOM current and


correspondingly the bus voltage magnitude settle to the 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
Time (sec)
0.8

preferred value as described in Fig. 13-15. This proves the Fig. 15. Transmission line voltage with fault.
transient stability of the STATCOM.
VI. CONCLUSION VIII. BIOGRAPHIES
The dynamic performance of STATCOM with the proposed
combined multipulse multilevel inverter has been tested by B. Geethalakshmi received Bachelor of
simulation assuming that it is connected with the 230kV Engineering in 1996 and Master of Engineering in
1999 from Bharathidasan University. She is working
transmission line of SMIB power system. This new inverter as Senior Lecturer in Department of Electrical and
configuration produces almost three phase sinusoidal voltage Electronics in Pondicherry Engineering College,
and maintains THD well below 400. Before compensation for Pondicherry, India. She has published paper in 3
any load variations, there was a dip in the supply voltage and International Journals and presented paper in 8 IEEE
International conferences. She is currently pursuing
the supply currents were lagging. But when STATCOM is her Ph.D work in power electronics application in
connected to the power system a uniform voltage profile is power systems. Her areas of interest include power
maintained and the three phase supply currents are almost in converters such as ac-dc-ac converters, matrix
phase with the supply voltage. Hence it is clearly revealed converter and power factor correction techniques.
from the simulation results that the STATCOM plays a vital
role in improving the power factor and regulating the bus
voltage. P.Dananjayan received Bachelor of Science from
University of Madras in 1978, Bachelor of
VII. REFERENCES Technology and Master of Engineering the Madras
[1] L. Gyugyi and N. G. Hingorani, "Understanding FACTS: Concepts and Institute of Technology, Chennai and Ph.D degree
Technology of Flexible AC Transmission Systems", IEEE press, New from Anna University, Chennai. He is working as a
York, 1999. Professor and Head of the Department of
[2] Y. H. Song, A. Johns, "Flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS)",
Electronics and Communication Engineering,
IEE Power and Energy series 30, London, UK, 1999. Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry,
[3] H. K. Al. Hadidi and R.W. Menzies, "Investigation of a Cascade Multi India. He has more than 50 publications in National
level Inverter as an STATCOM", 0-7803-7989-6/03, IEEE 2003. and International Journals. He has presented more than 120 papers in National
[4] Bhim Singh and R. Saha, "A New 24-Pulse STATCOM for voltage and International conferences. He has produced 5 Ph.D candidates and is
Regulation", Proc. of PEDES 2006, 8B-03. currently guiding eight Ph.D students. His areas of interest include power
[5] Ricardo Davalos M., Juan M. Ramirez and O.Ruben Tapia, "Three- converters, power electronics application in power system, ATM Networks,
phase multi-pulse converter StatCom analysis", Electrical Power and Wireless Communication and Spread spectrum Techniques.
Energy Systems vol. 27, pp. 39-51, 2005.
[6] M. S. El-Moursi and A. M. Sharaf, "Novel reactive power controllers for K.DelhiBabu received Bachelor of Engineering in 2007 at Pondicherry
STATCOM and SSSC", Electric Power Systems Research vol.76, pp Engineering College, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry, India. He is
228-241, 2006. working as an executive engineer in Power Grid Corporation of India. He has
[7] Dong - Jun Won, Il - yop Chung and Seung - Il Moon, "Determination presented paper in various international conferences. His areas of include
of equivalent impedances of UPFC voltage source model from the power converters, power electronic applications in power systems and power
dynamic responses of UPFC switching-level model", Electric Power system restructuring. At present he is actively participating in the
and Energy Systems vol. 25, pp. 463-470, 2003. implementation of HVDC systems in India.