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Gender and Society

Barb Bluebumblebee
I. Gender and Society
a. Masculinity and Femininity
i. Has ideas about what is male and what is female based on
overlapping influences
ii. These influences are Biology (nature) and Culture (nurture)
b. Nature vs. Nurture
i. Biology
1. Sex that you are born
a. Primary sex characteristics—gonads
b. Secondary sex characteristics—voice quality, Adam’s
apple, breasts, body changes.
c. Sometime sex is not clearly marked
i. Hermaphrodites
ii. Transsexuals—sex one is born with doesn’t
conform to gender id.
iii. Transvestite
ii. Culture
1. Masculinity and Femininity
a. Is a Social construction (of gender)
b. Traits/behavior associated with each sex that is
c. People create and recreate gender; it is a human
2. Gender roles
a. Learned socially
b. Infinite or varied gender roles based on culture
c. Sexism
c. Gender inequality
i. Differentially valuing an individual solely based on sex
ii. 2 components of sexism
1. Discrimination – behavioral component/ action
2. Prejudice—rigid/ irrational generalization ‘stereotypes’
d. Feminism
i. Definition: Doctrine that advocates/demands that the same rights
be granted women as men (and vice versa), and is a worldwide
movement to end sexism and sexist oppression
ii. Concerns equality and justice for all
iii. Micro (individuals) and macro (society)
iv. Affirms womanhood and celebrates women’s accomplishments
v. There are personal perspectives and social movements
vi. 4 types of feminism
1. Liberal (mainstream)
a. Believe in capability of present system of social
structure to bring about equality
b. Use legal means, political avenues, and social reforms
c. Views
i. On porn: people have first amendment rights
Gender and Society
Barb Bluebumblebee
ii. On prostitution: people have free will, legalize
prostitution, decriminalize prostitution
iii. On domestic violence:
1. Bring protection thru
a. Restraining order
b. Protective services
c. Mandatory arrest
2. Ecucation
a. Counseling
3. Her choice/her body
a. To press charges or not
b. To leave or stay
2. Radical
a. Want sexism abolished in public and private sphere
b. Oppression is the results of women being categorized
as inferior to men
c. Views
i. Blame liberals for ‘enabling the system’
ii. Want to get rid of Patriarchy/ they blame it
iii. On porn: degrading to women b/c it makes them
iv. On prostitution: degrading shouldn’t exist
v. On domestic violence:
1. Intolerable
2. If patriarch didn’t exist there wouldn’t be
domestic violence

d. Two offshoots
i. Lesbian
1. Want no cultural difference between
hetero and homos
2. Want equality and acceptance
3. Want to dismantle hetero privilege
4. On domestic violence:
a. Acknowledgement that domestic
violence also happens in gay
ii. Ecofeminism
1. Combination of environmental and
2. They want more women’s rights
3. On Reproductive Technologies: artificial
insemination, cloning, sex selection,
freezing/ donating eggs and sperm,
fertility drugs,
4. On abortion: birth control, organ
harvesting from fetus
Gender and Society
Barb Bluebumblebee
5. Militarism: environment being desolated
and damaged due to war
6. On domestic violence:
a. If it led to marital rape where she
get pregnant
b. she should have the right to abort
3. Marxist (Karl Marx)
a. Economy is #1, society is an arena of economic
inequality, Capitalism insight due to feminism
b. Marx wanted a classless society
c. On domestic violence:
i. Regardless of economic status receive the same
4. Socialist
a. Combines insights of Radical and Marxist
b. Patriarchal Capitalistic feminism
c. On domestic violence:
i. Blames the male power control and economy
e. Myths of Feminism
i. Why are there myths?
1. To discredit feminism, Portray in a negative light
2. The myths were created because of fear of redistribution of
power, fear of loss of status quo
ii. What are the myths?
1. All Feminist are a bunch of angry whiny women with an axe
to grind
2. All Feminists have no sense of humor/ exaggerate discr.
against women
3. All Feminists hate men/ want to be like men/ want a system
of power over men
4. All Feminists are lesbians
5. All feminists reject motherhood, consider kids a burden,
reject all things feminine
iii. Shattering the Myths
1. All Feminist are a bunch of angry whiny women with an axe
to grind
a. Majority of feminists are liberal
b. Work patiently with little to no resentment
2. All Feminists hate men/ want to be like men/ want a system
of power over men
a. Men need to know how gender privilege works in
b. Hatred of women (misogyny) is learned
c. 93% of women are in a relationship with men
d. Maintain difference between men and women but they
want to be equally valued
3. All feminists reject motherhood, consider kids a burden,
reject all things feminine
Gender and Society
Barb Bluebumblebee
a. Improve conditions under which women mother
b. At least 75% of women have children

f. Gender differences
i. Are gender differences natural expressions of biological
dissimilarity or social creations?
ii. Theoretical perspective
1. People who believe in gender
a. Socialbiologists (social biological perspective)
i. Argument: gender differences are related to
ii. Type of belief:
1. Everything has a purpose
2. They want stability/ balance
3. There should be distinct gender roles that
complement each other
4. Maximize harmony and minimize
disruption with specialized tasks
5. Too much overlap creates competition:
families end in divorce, domestic violence,
iii. Critique
1. Justifies sexism
2. Not kept pace with sociological changes
3. Makes the issue black and white
2. People who believe in gender roles
a. Feminist sociology
i. Acknowledge importance of both biology and
ii. Argument: sociobiologists say that if gender is
firmly fixed on biology then gender would be
1. But gender isn’t fixed or absolute
2. Gender roles are infinitely varied
g. Gender socialization of children
1. Through agents of socialization
a. Family, education, Media
2. Learned gender
a. Overt
b. Subtle
h. Women’s Movements
i. Origin
1. 1848
2. Seneca Falls convention, NY
ii. 1st wave (Suffrage Movement)
1. 1920
2. Right to vote extended to women
3. 19th amendment
Gender and Society
Barb Bluebumblebee
iii. 2nd wave (Resurgence)
1. 1960/1970
2. Workforce
3. 1963—equal pay for equal work legislation
4. 1964—Ban gender based discrimination (civil right
5. Educational opportunities
a. Roe vs. wade—abortion rights
b. Health: birth control, family planning/counseling, rape
crisis hotline, domestic violence shelters, access to
iv. 3rd wave
1. 1980/1990 thru today
2. Ecofeminism
a. Military enrollment/ active combat for women
b. Reproductive technology
c. Education/ Counseling
d. Rape: dispelling myths, stiffer penalties
e. Domestic violence: stiffer penalties, mandatory arrest/
restraining orders
3. Lesbian: all gay rights notions
4. Radical
a. Porn: is it degrading?
b. Prostitution
5. Workforce
a. Maternal/Paternal leave
b. Sexual Harassment
c. Glass ceiling
d. Affordable daycare
e. Affirmative action: a policy/program that seeks to
redress past discrimination to ensure equal
f. Sexual education
6. Family
a. Clothing: pink for girl, blue for boy, sports clothing
b. Toys: dolls vs. action figures
c. Chores: housework vs. yard work
d. Room décor: racecar beds vs. canopy beds, galaxy
walls, curtains vs. blinds
7. Education
a. Duties: clap erasers, moving desks vs. taking notes
b. Classes to take
c. Encourage feedback
d. Steered toward certain majors
8. Media
a. Selling of products
b. Laundry: moms are shown
c. Men are masculine and active
Gender and Society
Barb Bluebumblebee
d. Women are submissive and sexy
e. Late night talk shows: no women
9. Sports
a. Play by play
b. Referees
10. Movies
a. Action movies are majority male
b. Sport movies are majority male
11. Music: male dominated

II. Femininity and the beauty ideal (gender and women’s bodies)
a. Value and worth (based on physical appearance)
b. Perceived
c. Treated
d. Evaluated
e. What women find troubling?
i. Weight (‘letting selves go’)
ii. Breasts
iii. Cellulite/ and proportionality
f. Historical overview
i. 1920’s: bobbed/boyish hair, slender legs and hips, small breasts
hid form
ii. 1930’s: beauty gets a bra/ development of cup size
iii. 1940/1950’s: Hourglass figure, voluptuous, Marilyn Monroe
iv. 1960’s: long straight hair, thing youthful body--lean
v. 1970/1980-ish: volume hair, athletic physically fit, tan
vi. 1980/1990’s: thin, flawless skin, supermodel era
vii. Today: waif like thin and bare midriff
g. Interesting facts
i. 25-30 years ago (80-90’s) fashion models weighted 8% less than
average women
ii. Today: fashion models weigh 23-25% less than the average
iii. 5% of avg women weigh in at fashion model weight
h. Consequences
i. Excludes women of color
ii. Asian: medicalization of facial features, double eyelid, nose
iii. African American: hate dark skin, kinky hair, body type
iv. Women fail to appreciate their own uniqueness
v. Which leads to self-loathing self hatred
i. Beauty aids
i. Unnecessary/dangerous cosmetic surgery
ii. 413% increase in breast augmentation in the last 10 years
iii. Unhealthy diets—low carbs
Gender and Society
Barb Bluebumblebee
iv. Appetite suppressant drugs
v. Huge weight loss
vi. Classic beauties—psych/ emotional toll
vii. Encourages competitiveness—trying to measure up
j. Eating disorders
i. Who it affects
ii. 5-10 million women will suffer from an eating disorder
iii. Affects: women, white, middle-upper class, young
iv. Anorexia: self starvation
v. Bulimia: binge eating with self induced vomiting/laxative use
vi. Since 1950 every 5 years eating disorders have gone up by 36%
vii. Consequences
1. Death
2. Digestive problems, rupture of esophagus/stomach
3. Heart failure, stroke, high cholesterol, hypertension
4. Kidney/liver failure, hair loss, decreased bone density
5. Explanations of women’s eating disorders
6. Gender roles
7. Women have been long associated with food/domestic
pursuits and have training in the kitchen
8. Consumption—easily accessible and unquestioned
9. Comfort food, pleasure, energy, nourishment, celebration,
10. Object of compulsion
k. Beauty Ideal—close monitoring of size and shape
i. Hispanic women
1. 40% are overweight
2. Delgada/flaca
a. equals thin or weak
b. if you are thin you are viewed as ill
c. bodies that are prized are curvy/ have a good set of
3. Weight problems
a. Diet and calories are not really discussed
b. Exercise is not discussed
4. Food has ceremonial importance
a. From rituals to the simplest gatherings
b. Kitchen is the household center
5. Types of food eaten
a. Fried
b. Lard, beans
c. Cheese
ii. Aging and Beauty
1. Is there a double standard
a. Men = wise and distinguished as they age
b. Women
i. Loath aging
ii. Fear aging
Gender and Society
Barb Bluebumblebee
iii. Age passing—do you look younger than you
2. What people fear as they age?
a. Women
i. Wrinkles/lined face
ii. Menopause
iii. Sagging/loose skin
iv. Grey hair
v. Varicose veins
vi. Osteoporosis
b. Men
i. Balding/hair loss
ii. Sexual performance
c. Both
i. Weight-gain
ii. Hair loss/growth in unwanted places
iii. Tooth loss
l. Resisting the Beauty Ideal
i. Many women try to attain the beauty ideal: this is ongoing/daily
ii. Some women reject the beauty ideal, try to free themselves, defy
social scripts
1. If there was a continuum
a. One side would have women who believe beauty ideal
is #1
b. The other side would reject the beauty ideal
c. And the middle would conform but with individual
preference: Middle ground
iii. Why are women resisting the Beauty Ideal?
1. To some it is unattainable, unrealistic, impossible to achieve
2. Difficulty to maintain: time consuming, too much work)
3. Environmental factors: regionally/upbringing
4. Some women don’t have self loathing = like their
iv. How women resist
1. Don’t shave armpits or legs
2. Shave hair off/ dye different colors
3. Clothing: not in latest fashions/don’t get into fashion
4. Don’t get mani/pedi cures/ don’t go to salons
5. Reject beauty aids/ surgeries/weight loss industry
Gender and Society
Barb Bluebumblebee

I. Men and Masculinity

a. If the experiences of being female has had a profound effect on
women’s behavior and of other’s reaction to her, does the
experience of being male also have powerful implications for
b. Yes it does.
II. Male privileged class
a. White, upper middle class, and heterosexual
b. If you are a minority, poor, and gay you will struggle the most
c. In order of struggle from worst to least: gay men-minority-poor.
d. So some men are powerless, or damaged by harsh mass
III. Men powerfully effected by
a. Experience growing up male
b. Ways people respond to them as male
c. Expectation based on gender roles (certain behaviors)
d. Their own feeling regarding masculinity
IV. Describe Masculinity
Personality traits Activities Prohibited stereotypes
behaviors activities/behavi
Disciplined hard Support family No emotion Bread winner
working Initiate sex No crying Provider
Stoic/composed Love sports No weakness Ladies man
Charming Love manly No vulnerability Athlete
Tough activities No sensitivity Handyman
Aggressive Fixing things, No feminine Protector
Strong building ways: Hero
Violent Solving Domestic chores Problem solver
Competitive problems No ‘breaking
Confrontational down’
Heroic No asking for
Leaders help
In control
V. Robert Brannon traditional themes of Masculinity
a. Anti-Femininity
i. No sissy stuff
1. No femininity, everything under prohibited column is
not allowed
Gender and Society
Barb Bluebumblebee
2. If you do any of it: It could lead to social
3. You could be labeled stigmatized or degraded
4. Suspicion of being homosexual
b. Status Achievement
i. The big wheel
ii. Successful power
1. Hard working bread winner provider athlete
iii. One ups-man ship: always try to one-up someone
c. Inexpressiveness/Independent
i. The sturdy oak/ male machine
1. Emotional composure
2. Self control
d. Aggressive/Adventurers
i. Give them hell
1. Physical, violent
2. Risk taker
VI. Variation and Endorsement of Masc
a. Scale of masc:

VII. Race class and Misc.

a. Media portrayl of race and ethnicity
i. Black urban Life
1. Criminals, Thugs, Gangs, Violent
2. Uneducated, lazy, disrespectful
3. Athlete, natural rhythm
4. Comedic
5. Sexual maniac, many kids, dead beat dads
6. Psychologically messed up
ii. Hispanics
1. Always in the Barrio (ghetto), tough guys
2. Uneducated
iii. Asian
1. Martial arts
2. Fit
3. Really Intellegent
VIII. Masculinity and Health
a. Males are disadvantaged
i. Hazards of being male
1. Conflict
Gender and Society
Barb Bluebumblebee
2. Restraints
ii. Female vs. Male
1. Females have a greater chance of being healthy
2. Men are more vulnerable at any age
3. More male kids are:
a. Miscarried
b. Stillborn
c. Die in 1st year
4. As Adults
a. Women outlive men by an avg of 6 years
b. Men are more prone to heart disease, lung
disease, cirrhosis of liver
c. Mental illness
d. Depression
e. Stress related health, hypertension, ulcers
f. Suicide
i. Women will attempt
ii. Men 2-3x more likely to succeed
g. Homicide
i. Men do
ii. Men are done to
h. Rape
i. 99.1% are done by males
i. Car accidents
i. Most done by men
ii. Insurance rates higher
b. Biogenic Explaination of the disadvantages of being male
i. Chromosome:
1. X-X is a genetic advantage in women
2. X-linked abnormalities that men typically suffer from
a. Color-blindness
b. Baldness
c. Dyslexia
d. Hyperactivity
e. Hemophilia
f. Turner syndrome
g. Ret syndrome
h. Bruxism
i. Minx: kinky hair syndrome
3. Testosterone
a. Make men more aggressive
b. Baldness
c. Psychogenic
i. Gender differences
Gender and Society
Barb Bluebumblebee
1. Males
a. Socialized to alcohol
b. Lead a more dangerous lifestyle over women
c. Men’s health:
i. More likely to ignore symptoms
ii. Less knowledgeable about health
iii. Will delay treatment
iv. Refuse to discuss symptoms
v. Less likely to use healthcare systems
d. Why?
i. Men’s magazine only focused on: sports,
money, sex, hobbies
ii. Women are indroduced to the healthcare
system much earlier than men b/c of
menstrual cycle
IX. Masculinity and Sports
a. Revered male jock culture
i. Men and boys are defined by athletic ability and participation
1. If you part. Then your masc is not called into question
ii. Why participate?
1. Pressure: from fathers, uncles, other men
2. ‘natural thing to do’
3. Status, popularity, acceptance- Stardom
4. Emotional closeness
a. Safe arena for men to bond
5. Class effect:
a. Not being able to afford certain sports
b. Certain sports for certain class id
i. Expensive: hockey, equestrian, jai alai
ii. Inexpensive: football, soccer
6. Race factor:
a. Survival strategy
b. Participate in sports instead of crime
iii. Dangerous Sports
1. A hazard of masculinity
a. High contact, aggressiveness and performance
b. Domineering, toughness
c. High valued reputation when your body is given
up for team
d. Different sports for different reasons
i. Nascar: accidents
ii. UFC: submissions
iii. Boxing: KO
2. Media Pushes
Gender and Society
Barb Bluebumblebee
a. Top 10 bloodiest
b. Roughest plays
c. Dirtiest plays
d. And overanalyzing of the extreme
3. Most dangerous Sports
a. Football and Hockey
b. Most concussions
b. Consequence of Failure
i. Steriod Usage
1. Reasons
a. Bigger Stronger Faster
b. This is a society norm
2. Winning advantage, Competitive edge
3. Everyone is doing it
4. To not fall behind/keep up
5. Money
a. Bonuses for routine wins
b. Sponsors
6. Prolong Career
7. Faster Recovery from injuries
8. Impress others by improving physique
ii. Consequences of Steroid usage
1. Men and women
b. Baldness
c. Acne
d. Jaundice
e. Enlarged Forehead
f. Kidney damage, cancer
g. Heart disease/stroke Atherosclerosis
h. Liver damage/cancer
2. Men specifically
a. Shrinkage of testicles
b. Reduced sperm count
c. Infertility/impotence
d. Moobs
3. Women specifically
a. Enlargement of female genitalia
b. Breast tissue loss
c. Facial features
d. Deepening of voice
e. Body hair/facial hair
f. Amenorrhea
4. Adolescents
Gender and Society
Barb Bluebumblebee
a. Stunt growth: height
b. Premature growth: muscles
iii. Emotional and psychological consequences of steroids
1. Mood swings
2. Depression
3. Anger
4. Euphoria
5. Invincibility
6. Decreased need for sleep
7. Paranoia
8. Delusions
X. Masculinity and Homophobia
a. Acceptance
i. Lesbian feminism
ii. Push toward acceptance
iii. Change to Identity
b. Non acceptance
i. Anti gay sentiment started around 19th century
1. Time frame when looking at same sex sexuality
experiences a shift
2. Shifted from a behavior to identity
ii. Behavior
1. Mean that it was a choice
2. Deviant
3. Mental illness
4. Immoral
5. Vulgar
6. Notion of dangerous
7. Unnatural
iii. Church
1. Catholics and Christians
a. Sex is for procreation only
b. Not for pleasure
c. Since homosexual sex doesn’t produce offspring
then it is immoral/unnatural
d. Only acceptable way is to be heterosexual
iv. Even with the shift there is still homophobia
v. Homophobia
1. Fear and intolerance of homosexual identity and
homosexual people
2. Those who see it as taboo have a greater intolerance
vi. How does non acceptance manifest?
1. Sterotypes
2. Media
Gender and Society
Barb Bluebumblebee
3. Derogatory jokes
4. Unprovoked violence
XI. Fatherhood and Masculinity
a. Good provider
i. Male status worth depends on what he does for a living and
how successful he is
ii. Incontrast to women where femininity depends on Beauty
iii. A steady successful career is an obligation for men
iv. For women it’s a culture option for work or family
b. History of fatherhood
i. 18th and early 19th century
1. Father
a. Moral overseer of family
b. Parenting embodied by dads will
c. This was because mens work was close to home
so men participated more in raising childeren
2. Mother
a. To weak to guide children in development
b. Housekeeping, domestic affairs
ii. Later 19th century
1. A rise in industrialization
a. Father:
i. Works in factory
ii. Distance
iii. Loses touch with home
b. Mother
i. Parenting becomes womens work
ii. Domestic affairs still womens work
iii. 20th century
a. Father:
i. Absent
ii. Fighting in war
b. Mother:
i. 24/7 women work Parenting
ii. Women also had to work also
iii. Men came home women were displaced
iv. 60’s-70’s-today?
1. 2nd wave feminism
a. Father:
i. New father
ii. Present at birth
iii. Involved in pregnancy
Gender and Society
Barb Bluebumblebee
iv. Involved with boy and girl children’s
v. Culture of fatherhood vs Conduct of fatherhood
1. Ideals of what makes a good father
2. Has changed more rapidly than conduct
3. Conduct: what is really done by fathers
vi. Involved Fatherhood
1. Dilemmas of involved fatherhood
a. Most men in society
i. Economic obligation comes 1st
b. obstactles
i. Employers
1. Male parental responsibility is not
2. Parenting is belived to be a choice
3. May put job in peril if job is placed 2nd
ii. Stigma around stay at home dad
1. Undervalued,
2. No tangible paycheck
3. Manliness is called into question by
other men
4. Medical professionals only want to deal
with the mother
5. If father is with child:
a. The thoughts are that mother is
unfit, or deceased
6. If mother is with children: father is
iii. Avoiding stigma
1. Fathers are self employed at home
iv. Sucesses for daddy tract
1. Less likely for men to be in Masculinity
2. Show more empathy and tolerance
3. Image for women to see that is non
4. Diminish gender roles
5. Wives adore stay at home dads
a. less divorce
b. diminish depression rates
c. decrease dom. Violence
d. decrease sexism
e. positive trends
6. Effect on kids
Gender and Society
Barb Bluebumblebee
a. Teen pregnancy rates down
b. Less drug use/runaways
c. Less antisocial behavior
d. Crimes decrease
e. Better academics
f. Less resentment towards fathers
vii. Masculinity and Sexuality
1. Status and achievement
a. Set of demands for men
i. Conquest mentality
1. Double standard
i. have sex with as many as
ii. pressured to lose virginity
iii. notions of keeping score
ii. Performance/competence
1. Should be able to
a. Products erection
b. Repeat orgasms in partner
c. Sexual stamina
iii. Penis size
1. Huge penis is a cultured fantasy
2. Men will feel inadequate if they don’t
live up
3. Penile augmentation is on the rise
4. Huge penis is for display purposes
iv. Misc inadequacies
1. Shrinkage from cold
2. Not being perpetually aroused
3. If a man is incompetent sexually he will
ask a woman for advice
4. Viagra: salvation to men’s sexual
viii. Gender and Work
1. Women’s participation in Labor Force
a. Change in Population: more women in US than
b. Industrial patterns
c. Stereotyped women’s proper place
2. 19 century

a. Men dominated factories

b. Women were exclusively in textile and garments
c. Manufacturing: white, wealthy, single
Gender and Society
Barb Bluebumblebee
d. Women of color: worked in domestic, laundry,
a. Men overseas in combat
b. Women ‘took over’: became tool makers builders
c. Upon men's return: women were laid off/$ was
reduced/or moved back to women's work
4. 60s-70s
a. 2nd wave women's movement: political and social
b. Women entered the workforce in great numbers
c. Women were having fewer kids
d. Divorce rates saw a dramatic increase
i. Women became sole economic provider for
e. A downturn in the economy made it necessary for
a 2 income family
5. Sex Segregation in the Workforce
Occupational Industry Establishment
The degree to which men Nationally 50/50 Men and women still
and women are balanced, but men and have the same job title
concentrated in jobs women are still doing but are still doing
where one sex dominates traditional work traditional work
Men: Women Men Women Men Women
construction Nurses Curbside Stewardess Corporate law Family law
Major airline pilots Teachers K-12 checkers at Cust. service Private practice Public defender
Protective service Social workers airlines Front desk Brain Surg General Practice
workers Shuttle Maid Cardiologist OBGYN
Engineers, Security Laundry Chem.Engineer Pediatrics
Architects Pilot Hostess Civil Engineer Biomedical
College Professor Valet Wait staff Mechanical Engineer
Lawyers Room service Engineer Aerospace
Doctors Restaurant Corporate Real Engineer
Directors Bartender Estate Residential Real
Manager Bio Professor Estate
Chef Chem Professor Sociology
dishwasher Math Professor Professor
Grilling Chef Professor
Iron Chef Bio Professor
Competitive chef
At home Chef
6. Explaination and Theory of sex segregation
a. Functionalism Theory
i. Argument: Gender differences are related to
1. Why are we sex Segregated
a. Men are more athletic
b. Women are more caring
Gender and Society
Barb Bluebumblebee
c. It is biological/Genetic
d. Serves a purpose
i. Maximize harmony minimize
ii. Too much overlap creates
2. Conflict Theory
a. Karl Marx
i. Men are the haves
ii. Men have power and control
in society
iii. Women are the have nots
iv. There is a built in
disadvantage in our
patriarchal society
3. Women prefer and freely choose jobs
different from men
a. Prefer
i. Gender socialization (act
like a woman box)
ii. Steered to believe in gender
iii. Learned to prefer certain
types of jobs
b. Freely
i. Not accurate
ii. Fear consequences of being
in a job not dominated by
iii. Family is the primary
iv. Choose jobs that are flexible
4. Middle range theories
a. Human Capital theory
i. Women earn less than men:
78cents to Mans $1.00
ii. Women have fewer assets
to see on labor markets
Older women Younger women
Qualifications Gender penalty: potential to
Less education have kids
Less yrs of experience Employers fear cost and
Gender and Society
Barb Bluebumblebee
5. Overcrowding Theory
a. Women crowd a relatively small
# of occupations especially sex
segregated ones
b. Consider law of supply and
demand: more competition for a
job and employers can pay less

6. Dual labor market

Primary Secondary
• Dominated by men • Dominated by women
• Better wages • Less pay
• Power/status • Less fringe benefits
• Increased Education • Jobs are
• Fringe Benefits: o PT
o Healthcare o Seasonal
o Paid vacation o Intermittent
o Disability time • Alienating
o Pensions o No spontaneity
o 401K/IRA o No creativity
o Stock options o Disassociated
o Expense account from job
o Maternity/Paternit o Just a paycheck
y leave
o Bonuses/$$$
• Opportunities for
• Job security
• Rewarding
• Good working
• Have to be full time

7. Cant ignore Discrimination

a. That men are haves
b. Women have less assets
8. Institutionalized Sexism
a. Byproduct of the policies,
practices, and procedures of the
b. Not intentional, not overt
Gender and Society
Barb Bluebumblebee
c. There are unintended
consequences that are
disadvantageous to women
9a-5pm workday Healthcare Pension Plans Age
If you have kids Not usually Need X amount of Getting ahead
this is difficult offered if you years at a job between 30-40
work PT are child bearing

7. Consequences of Sex Segregation Jobs

a. Atypical Jobs: Roles are reversed
i. Disadvantages for women
1. Pay
2. Hiring
3. Promotions (glass ceiling)
ii. Men in Atypical
1. Glass elevation/escalation
2. Preferential treatment
b. Whats a girl to do?
i. Go back to women's work
ii. Change careers
iii. Get more education
iv. Start a business
8. Solutions
a. Comparable Worth
i. Equal Pay for Equal Work
ii. 1963 legislation
b. Job evaluations
i. Elimination of gender age sex race on
ii. Elimination of name
c. Affirmative Action
i. Outlived its usefulness?
For (No side) Against (yes side)
Support Affirmative action Opposes Affirmative Action
• Not meant to be permanent • Not anti minority
• Don’t want slide back to • Not want to keep things the
discrimination same
• Artificial incentive is needed • Violation of fairness
until opportunity structure is • Not a matter of justice
truly equitable o E.O judge people based
• No way to guarantee that on equality
well qualified minorities will o A.A judging people
be hired based on group
Gender and Society
Barb Bluebumblebee
• Opportunities to succeed or membership
prove self • Govt backed favoritism
• Society will be enriched • Zero sum game
• Lead to a color sex blind • Reverse Discrimination
society • Create color/sex conscious
• Levels playing field society
• Whatever the cost is now • Good faith policy creates
doesn’t come close to o Divisiveness
historical costs o Hatred
• Favoritism always existed o Resentment
o Further stereotypes
ix. Gender and Violence
1. Female Circumcision
a. Where it is pervasive
i. Africa
ii. Middle east
iii. Asian muslims
b. 3 types
i. Sunna : tradition Duty
1. Removal of prepuce
2. Removal of tip of clitoris
ii. Clitoridectomy
1. Entire removal of clit
2. And removal of labia minora
iii. Infibulations
1. Removal of clitoris
2. All labia
3. Scraping the sides of the vulva across
the vagina and then joining them
4. On wedding night unsewn and resewn
after each intercourse
c. Why?
i. Meets a religious obligation
1. No where in Koran is it required
2. It is simply permissible
ii. Social custom
1. Preserves group id
2. Promotes unity solidarity and
iii. Promotes health and fertility
1. Incompatible with data
2. The belief is that women's genitalia
grows uncontrollably
Gender and Society
Barb Bluebumblebee
iv. Limits mobility of women prevents
1. Belief is that women are naturally
2. Women's place is in the home
3. Promotes good family values
4. Increase dependency of women on
v. Fundamental control over women
d. Foot binding
i. Part of beauty ideal in china
ii. Typically starts around 3-8
iii. Began in 10th century
iv. 1911 it was forcibly banned
v. Desireability was a part
1. Her value and worth was determined
by feet
2. Men socialized to look at feet before
vi. Believe that the smaller the feet the more
intense the sexual urge is in men
1. Men are socialized to believe that it is
aesthetically pleasing
2. Like making love to a virgin every time,
b/c of the use of heels causing pelvic
muscle constriction
vii. Goal was that women feet were 3-4’’
viii. Seeking the golden lotus
e. Ensure Marriage ability
i. Good marriage
ii. Effect marital status
iii. Big feet = poverty or raised poorly
f. Consequences
i. Bleeding
1. Excessive , uncontrollable, intermittent
2. Obstructed menstrual flow
3. Painful urination
a. Kidney damage
b. PID
c. UTI chronic
5. Infibulation: difficulty/painful
childbearing and intercourse
ii. Psychologically
Gender and Society
Barb Bluebumblebee
1. Lack of sexual responsiveness
2. Depression
3. Anxiety
4. Incompleteness