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Cellular Systems

Mobile Communications
Cellular Systems

Wen-Shen Wuen

Trans. Wireless Technology Laboratory


National Chiao Tung University

Vincent W.-S. Wuen Mobile Communications 1

Outline Cellular Systems

Outline

1 Cellular System Fundamentals

2 Frequency Reuse

3 Interference and System Capacity

4 Trunking and Grade of Services

5 Improving Coverage and Capacity in Cellular Systems

6 Channel Assignment Strategies

7 Handoff Strategies

Vincent W.-S. Wuen Mobile Communications 2


Cellular System Fundamentals Cellular Systems

Introdcution

Early mobile radio systems:


Cover a large area by using a single, high powered transmitter
with an antenna mounted on a tall tower.
No frequency reuse, no interference
Limited user capacity
Cellular concept:
Based on power fall off with distance of signal propagation and
reuse the same channel frequency at spatially separated
locations
Sovling problem of spectral congestion and user capacity
Replacing a single, high power transmitter (large cell) with
many low power transmitters (small cells)
Available channels can be reused as many times as necessary
so long as the co-channel interference is kept below acceptable
levels

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Cellular System Fundamentals Cellular Systems

Cellular System

Each cell is assigned to a unique channel set, Cn


Adjacent cells: cells assigned to a different channel sets
Co-channel cells: cells using the same channel sets

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Cellular System Fundamentals Cellular Systems

Tesselating Cell Shapes

To approximate the contours of constant received power


around the base station
Hexagonal cells:
Having largest area for a given distance between the center of a
polygon and its farthest perimeter points
Approximating a circular radiation pattern for an omnidirectional
base station antenna and free space propagation
Diamond cells: better approximating contours of constant
power in modern urban microcells

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Frequency Reuse Cellular Systems

Frequency Reuse

S: total number of duplex channels available for use


k: number of channels assigned to a cell (k < S)
N : number of cells sharing the S duplex channels

S = kN (1)

Cluster: a group of N cells use the complete set of available


frequencies
C : the total number of duplex channels with frequency reuse
M : number of replica of a cluster

C = MkN = MS (2)

Cluster size: N is typically 4, 7 or 12 for hexagonal cell shape.


Frequency reuse factor: 1/N
For the same cell size at a given area, N ↓⇒ M ↑⇒ C ↑

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Frequency Reuse Cellular Systems

Various Cluster Sizes for Hexagonal Cells


Cluster sizes:
4-cell reuse
7-cell reuse
12-cell reuse
19-cell reuse
N -cell reuse

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Frequency Reuse Cellular Systems

Locating Co-Channel Cells in Hexagonal Cells


Example: N = 19, i = 3, j = 2

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Frequency Reuse Cellular Systems

Reuse Distance

The distance between co-channel (frequency reuse) cells

Origin: (0, 0)
Nearest co-channel location
P : (i, j)
Reuse Distance, D
p q
D = 3R i2 + ij + j2 (3)
p
= R 3N (4)

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Frequency Reuse Cellular Systems

Number of Cells Per Cluster


Number of cells per cluster, N
p p 2
Acluster 3 3x2 /2 3D /2
N = = p = p
Acell 3 3R2 /2 3 3R2 /2
à ¢!
1 D 2 1 3R2 i2 + ij + j2
µ ¶ ¡
= = 2
= i2 + ij + j2 (5)
3 R 3 R

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Interference and System Capacity Cellular Systems

Interference

Major limiting factor in the performance and major bottleneck


in increasing capacity
Sources of interference:
anothr mobile in the same cell
a call in progress in a neighboring cell
other base station operating in the same frequency band
any noncellular system which leaks energy into the cellular
frequency band
Interference effects:
Cross talk: interference on voice channels
Missed and blacked calls: interference on control channels
System-generated cellular interference
Co-channel interference
Adjacent channel interference

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Interference and System Capacity Cellular Systems

Co-channel Interference

Cannot be combated by simply increasing transmitter power


To reduce, co-channel cells must be separated by a minimum
distance to provide sufficient isolation

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Interference and System Capacity Cellular Systems

Co-channel Interference, cont’d

Assume
the size of each cell is the same
base stations transmit the same power
⇒ co-channel interference ratio is independent of TX power and
is a function of the radius of the cell, R, and the distance
between centers of nearest co-channel cells, D.
Co-channel reuse ratio, Q

D p
Q, = 3N (6)
R
Q ↑⇒ spatial separation of co-channel cells ↑⇒ co-channel
interference ↓
Q ↓⇒ N ↓⇒ M ↑⇒ C ↑ channel capacity ↑, but co-channel
interferece ↑

Vincent W.-S. Wuen Mobile Communications 16

Interference and System Capacity Cellular Systems

Signal to Interference Ratio, SIR, S/I

S S
= PN (7)
I co
Iii=1
S: desired signal power from the desired station
Ii : the interference power caused by the i-th interfering co-channel
cell base station
Di : the distance of the i-th interferer from the mobile.
µ ¶−n
d
∵ Pr = P0 ∴ Ii ∝ Di−n (8)
d0

Assume transmit power of each base station is equal and the


path loss exponent is the same, the SI of for a mobile at cell
boundary:
¡p ¢n
S R−n R−n 3N
= PN = = (9)
I co
D −n Nco D−n Nco
i=1 i

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Interference and System Capacity Cellular Systems

Co-channel Interference For N =7

Consider first tier of


co-channel cells:
S R−4

I 2(D − R)−4 + 2(D + R)−4 + 2D−4
(10)
S 1

I 2(Q − 1)−4 + 2(Q + 1)−4 + 2Q−4
(11)
where Q = D/R and assume n = 4.

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Interference and System Capacity Cellular Systems

Example 1
If signal-to-interference ratio of 15 dB is required for satisfactory
forward channel performance of a cellular system, what is the
co-channel reuse factor and cluster size that should be used for
maximum capacity if the path loss exponent is (a) n=4, (b)n=3?
Assume there are six co-channel cells in the first tier and all of them
are at the same distance from the mobile.
Solution:
p
(a) Consider 7-cell reuse pattern: Q = D/R = 3N = 4.583,
p
S/I = ( 3N)n /Nco = 4.5834 /6 = 75.3 = 18.66 dB ⇒ N = 7 can be used.
(b) Consider 7-cell reuse pattern: S/I = 4.5833 /6 = 16.04 = 12.05 dB
< 15 dB, therefore a larger N should be used.
N = 12 ⇒ D/R = 6, S/I = 63 /6 = 36 = 15.56 dB > 15 dB, therefore N = 12
should be used.

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Interference and System Capacity Cellular Systems

Channel Planning of Wireless Systems

Typically 5% of the entire mobile spectrum is devoted to control


channels and 95% of the spectrum is dedicated to voice
channels.
Air interface standards ensure a distinction between voice and
control channels and control channels are not allowed to be
used as voice channels and vice versa.
Different frequency reuse strategy is applied to control
channels to ensure greater S/I protection in control channels.
For propagation consideration, most practical CDMA systems
limits frequency reuse with f 1/f 2 cell planning.
CDMA system has a dynamic, time-varying coverage region
depending on the instantaneous number of users on the radio
channel. ⇒ breathing cell ⇒ dynamic control of power levels
and thresholds assigned to control channels, voice channels for
changing traffic intensity

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Interference and System Capacity Cellular Systems

Adjacent Channel Interference

results from imperfect receiver filters which allows nearby


frequency to leak into the passband.
causes near-far effect, a nearby TX captures the receiver of the
subscriber.
ACI can be minimized through careful filtering and channel
assignments.
Keeping frequency separation between each channel as large as
possible
Avoiding the use of adjacent channels in neighboring cell sites
For a close-in mobile (MS1) is X times as close to the BS as
another mobile (MS2) and has energy leaks to the passband,
the S/I at the BS for the weak mobile (MS2) before receiver
filtering is approximately
S
= X −n
I
S
for n = 4 ⇒ I ≈ −40 dB
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Trunking and Grade of Services Cellular Systems

Definition of Common Terms in Trunking Theory

Set-up Time: The time required to allocated a trunked radio


channel to a requesting user.
Blocked Call (Lost Call): Call which cannot be completed at time
of request, due to congestion.
Holding Time: Average duration of a typical call. Denoted by H
(in seconds).
Traffic Intensity: Measure of channel time utilization, which is
the average channel occupancy measured in Erlangs.
Load: Traffic intensity across the entire trunked radio system,
measured in Erlangs.
Grade of Service (GOS): A measure of congestion specified as
the probability of a call being blocked (for Erlang B), or the
probability of a call being delayed beyond a certain amount of
time (for Erlang C).
Request Rate: The average number of call requests per unit
time. Denoted by λ second−1 .
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Trunking and Grade of Services Cellular Systems

Trunking Theory

Each user generates a traffic intensity of Au Erlangs:

Au = λH

The total offered traffic intensity A for a system containing U


users:
A = UAu

In a C channel trunked system, if the traffic is equally


distributed, the traffic i ntensity per channel, Ac :

Ac = UAu /C

Erlang: the amount of traffic intensity carried by a channel that


is completely occupied (1 Erlang = 1 call-hour / hour).
Busy hour traffic, Ab = call/busy hour × mean call holding time.

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Trunking and Grade of Services Cellular Systems

Example 2
Call established at 2 am between a central computer and a data
terminal. Assuming a continuous connection and data transferred at
34 kbit/s what is the traffic if the call is terminated at 2:45am?
Solution:
Traffic=(1 call)×(45 min)×(1 hour / 60 min) =0.75 Erlangs

Example 3
A group of 20 subscribers generate 50 calls with an average holding
time of 3 minutes, what is the average traffic per subscriber?
Solution:
Traffic=(50 calls)×(3min)×(1 hour/60 min)=2.5 Erlangs
2.5/20=0.125 Erlangs per subscriber.

Vincent W.-S. Wuen Mobile Communications 25

Trunking and Grade of Services Cellular Systems

Erlang B: Blocked Calls Cleared

AC
C!
p [blocked] = PC A k = GOS
k=0 k!
where C : the number of trunked channels offered by a trunked radio
system; A: the total offered traffic.
Assumptions of Erlang B:
There are memoryless arrivals of requests.
The probability of a user occupying a channel is exponentially
distributed.
There are a finite number of channels available in the trunking
pool.

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Trunking and Grade of Services Cellular Systems

GOS of an Erlang B System

Trunking efficiency: a meaure of the number of users which can be


offered a particular GOS with a particular configuration of fixed
channels.
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Trunking and Grade of Services Cellular Systems

Erlang B Chart

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Trunking and Grade of Services Cellular Systems

Erlang C: Blocked Calls Delayed

Probability of a call not having immediate access to a channel


and being queued:

AC
C!
p [delay > 0] = = GOS
Ak
AC + C! 1 − CA C−1
¡ ¢P
k=0 k!

The probability that the delayed call is forced to wait more than
t second:

p [delay > t] = p [delay > 0] p [delay > t|delay > 0]


(C − A)t
µ ¶
= p [delay > 0] exp − (12)
H

Average delay D for all calls in a queued system

H
D = p [delay > 0]
C −A

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Trunking and Grade of Services Cellular Systems

Erlang C Chart

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Trunking and Grade of Services Cellular Systems

Example 4
How many users can be supported for 0.5% blocking probability for
the following number of trunked channels in a blocked calls clear
system? (a) 1, (b) 5, (c) 10, (d) 20, (e) 100. Assume each user
generate 0.1 Erlangs of traffic.
Solution:
(a) C = 1, Au = 0.1, GOS = 0.005, from the chart,
A = 0.005 ⇒ U = A/Au = 0.005/0.1 = 0.05 users
(b) C = 5, Au = 0.1, GOS = 0.005, from the chart,
A = 1.13 ⇒ U = A/Au = 1.13/0.1 ' 11 users
(c) C = 10, Au = 0.1, GOS = 0.005, from the chart,
A = 3.96 ⇒ U = A/Au = 3.96/0.1 ' 39 users
(d) C = 20, Au = 0.1, GOS = 0.005, from the chart,
A = 11.1 ⇒ U = A/Au = 11.1/0.1 ' 111 users
(e) C = 100, Au = 0.1, GOS = 0.005, from the chart,
A = 80.9 ⇒ U = A/Au = 80.9/0.1 ' 809 users

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Trunking and Grade of Services Cellular Systems

Example 5
Trunked mobile networks A, B, and C provide cellular services in an urban
area with 2 million residents. The (no. of cells, no. channels/cell) for the
three providers are (394,19), (98,57) and (49,100). Find the number of
users that can be supported at 2% blocking if each user averages two
calls/hour at an average call duration of 3 min. Find the percentage market
penetration for each provider.
Solution:
System A: GOS = 0.02, C = 19, Au = λH = 2(3/60) = 0.1 Erlangs. For GOS = 0.02
and C = 19 ⇒ A = 12 Erlangs U = A/Au = 12/0.1 = 120 ⇒
total number of subscribers is 120 × 394 = 47289
System B: GOS = 0.02, C = 57, Au = λH = 2(3/60) = 0.1 Erlangs. For GOS = 0.02
and C = 57 ⇒ A = 45 Erlangs U = A/Au = 45/0.1 = 450 ⇒
total number of subscribers is 450 × 98 = 44100
System C: GOS = 0.02, C = 100, Au = λH = 2(3/60) = 0.1 Erlangs. For GOS = 0.02
and C = 100 ⇒ A = 88 Erlangs U = A/Au = 88/0.1 = 880 ⇒
total number of subscribers is 880 × 49 = 43120
Market penetration: A: 47280/2,000,000=2.36%; B:
44100/2,000,000=2.205%;C: 43120/2,000,000=2.156%

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Trunking and Grade of Services Cellular Systems

Example 6
Given a city area: 1300 mile2 , with 7-cell reuse pattern, cell radius=4 miles
and frequency spectrum: 40MHz with 60KHz channel bandwidth. Assume
GOS=2% for an Erlang B system, if the offered traffic per user is 0.03
Erlangs, compute (a) the no. of cells in the service area (b) the no. of
channels per cell (c) traffic intensity of each cell (d) the maximum carried
traffic (e) the total no. of users can be served for the GOS (f) the no. of
mobiles per unique channel (g) the theoretical maximum no. of users that
could be served at one time by the system.
Solution:
p
(a) Acell = 1.5 3R2 = 2.5981 × 42 = 41.57 square mile. Total no. of cells
Nc = 1300/41.57 = 31 cells.
(b) Total no. of channels per cell C = 40MHz/(60kHz × 7) = 95 channels/cell.
(c) C = 95, GOS = 0.02 ⇒ traffic intensity per cell A = 84 Erlangs/cell.
(d) Maximum carried traffic=no. of cells × traffic intensity per cell =
31 × 84 = 2604 Erlangs.
(e) Traffic/user=0.03 Erlangs ⇒ Total no. of users = 2604/0.03=86800 users
(f) no. of mobiles per channel= no. of users/no. of channels =86800/(40
MHz/60 kHz)=130 mobiles/channel.
(e) The theoretical maximum no. of served mobiles (all channels are
occupied)= C × Nc = 95 × 31 = 2945 users
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Trunking and Grade of Services Cellular Systems

Example 7
A hexagonal cell within a four-cell system has a radius of 1.387 km. A total
of 60 channels are used within the entire system. If the load per user is
0.029 Erlangs and λ = 1 call/hour, compute the following for an Erlang C
system which has a 5% probability of delayed call: (a) how many user per
square kilometer will the system support? (b) the probability that a delayed
call will have to wait for more than 10 seconds? (c) the probability that a
call will be delayed for more than 10 seconds?
Solution:
Cell area=2.598 × (1.387)2 = 5km2 . no. of channel per cell C = 60/4 = 15
channels.
(a) For Erlang C of 5% probability of delay with C = 15, the traffic
intensity=9.0 Erlangs.
no. of users=total traffic intensity/traffic per user = 9/0.029=310 users for
5 km2 or 62 users/km2
(b) H = Au /λ = 0.029hour = 104.4 second.
p[delay > 10|delay] = exp (−(C − A)t/H) = exp(−(15 − 9)10/104.4) = 56.29% (c)
p[delay > 0] = 5% = 0.05
p[delay > 10] = p[delay > 0]p[delay > 10|delay] = 0.05 × 0.5629 = 2.81%

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Improving Coverage and Capacity Cellular Systems

Cell Splitting

Let R ↓ and keeps D/R


unchanged
Pr [at old cell boundary] ∝ Pt1 R−n

Pr [at new cell boundary] ∝ Pt2 (R/2)−n

for n = 4
Pt1
Pt2 =
16

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Improving Coverage and Capacity Cellular Systems

Cell Splitting

Example 8
Assume each BS uses 60
channels and large cell radius of 1
km and microcell radius of 0.5
km. Find the number of channels
in a 3 km by 3 km square around
A when (a) without the use of
microcells (b) the labeled
microcells are used (c) all original
BS are replaced by microcells.
Solution:
(a) 5 × 60 = 300 (b) (5 + 6) × 60 = 660
(2.2x) (c) (5 + 12) × 60 = 1020 (3.4x)

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Improving Coverage and Capacity Cellular Systems

Sectoring

Increasing S/I ratio, keeping cell radius R the same and


decreasing D/R ⇒ D ↓⇒ N ↓⇒ frequency reuse ↑ ⇒ cluster size
N can be reduced because of S/I is improved.

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Improving Coverage and Capacity Cellular Systems

Sectoring, cont’d

Vincent W.-S. Wuen Mobile Communications 39


Improving Coverage and Capacity Cellular Systems

Microcell Zone

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Improving Coverage and Capacity Cellular Systems

Microcell Zone

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Channel Assignment Strategies Cellular Systems

Channel Assignment Strategies

Fixed channel assignment


each cell is allocated to a predetermined set of voice channels ⇒
the call is blocked is all the channels are occupied.
borrowing strategy: a cell is allowed to borrow channels from a
neighboring cell if all of its own channels are occupied.
MSC supervises the borrowing procedure to ensure no disrupting
calls or interference with any of the calls in progress in the donor
cell.
Dynamic channel assignment
the serving BS request a channel from MSC whenever a call
request is made.
following an algorithm considering the likelihood of future
blocking in the cell, the frequency of use of the candidate cell, the
reuse distance of the channel and other cost functions.
MSC needs to collect real-time data on channel occupancy, traffic
distribution, and radio signal strength indicator (RSSI) of all
channels on a continuous basis. ⇒ increasing storage and
computational load on the system.

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Handoff Strategies Cellular Systems

Handoff

When a mobile moves into a different cell when a conversation


is in progress, the MSC automatically transfer the call to a new
channel belonging to a new BS.
Many handoff strategy prioritize handoff requests over call
initiation requests when allocating an unused channel.
Handoff threshold: a signal level slightly stronger than the
minimum usable signal for acceptable voice quality.

∆ = Pr,handoff − Pr,min.usable

∆ too large ⇒ unnecessary handoffs burden MSC


∆ too small ⇒ may be insufficient time to complete a handoff
before a call is lost

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Handoff Strategies Cellular Systems

Handoff Scenario at Cell Boundary

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Handoff Strategies Cellular Systems

Handoff Decision
Monitor the signal level of MS for a period of time
to ensures MS is actually moving away from the serving BS.
Dwell time
The time over which a call may be maintained within a cell,
without handoff, depending on propagation, interference,
distance between the MS and BS, and other time varying
effects
Monitor RSSI
BS monitors the signal strengths of all its reverse voice
channels to determined the relative location of each MS.
Locator receivers monitor the signal strength of users in
neighboring cells need of handoff and report RSSI to MSC.
Mobile assisted handoff (MAHO)
MS measures the received power from the surrounding BS’s
and continuously reports to the serving BS.
Faster handoff time than first generation analog system
Suited for microcellular environments
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Handoff Strategies Cellular Systems

Handoff Considerations

Prioritizing Handoffs
Guard channel concept: reserves a fractional of total available
channels exclusively for handoff ⇒ reducing total carried traffic
⇒ combining with dynamic channel assignment to offer
efficient spectrum utilization
Queuing of handoff requests: using the finite time interval
between the time the received signal levels drops below the
handoff threshold and the time the call is terminated ⇒ not
guarantee a zero probability of forced termination

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Handoff Strategies Cellular Systems

Handoff Considerations

Umbrella cells

Cell dragging
Hard handoff
Soft handoff

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