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Questions and Answers
Questions
What is 5S?

5S is a simple tool for organizing your workplace in a clean, efficient and safe manner to enhance your productivity, visual
management and to ensure the introduction of standardized working.
5 S Stands for
1 S SEIRI – ORGANISATION (SORTING OUT)
Distinguish between the necessary & unnecessary items.
2 S SEITON – SYSTEMATIC ARRANGEMENT
A place for everything & everything in its place
3 S SEISO – CLEANING
Eliminate dirt, dust, etc. Cleaning is inspection
4 S SEIKETSU – STANDARDIZATION
Standardize the work procedure for everything we do
5 S SHITSUKE – SELF DISCIPLINE
Develop a habit of doing right things as standardized.

What are the benefits of 5S?


1. A neat & clean workplace.
2. Systematized day to day working
3. Improved work efficiency
4. Standardized work practices
5. Improved work discipline
What are the benefits of Tool Room 5S?
1. Neat & Organized Tool Room
2. Easy retrievablity of tools and materials.
3. Improved Safety.
4. Reduction in breakdown time.
5. Improved morale.
What is WCM?

WCM Stands for World Class Manufacturing.


The definition of World Class Manufacturing is a holistic and systematic approach for implementing the correct Lean Six Sigma
concepts, principles, policies and techniques which successfully transition a manufacturing company into a world class manufacturer.

What is GRT?
Grass Root Team
What is your role in GRT?
Define individual role. Like-Improve the productivity of the area by effectively eliminating abnormalities, problems & participating in
improvement activities of the area.
What is Self-Maintenance?

Self Maintenance or Autonomous Maintenance is the concept where the team works together in their area daily:
To prevent equipment deterioration
To maintain equipment in optimal condition
To establish basic equipment condition
To eliminate equipment failure
To make operator familiar with his equipment
To eliminate Quality defect
To eliminate cost losses

What are the benefits of Self-Maintenance?


Improved Productivity.
Improved morale.
Improved basic condition of equipment and area.
Reduction in abnormalities.
Reduction in losses and wastes.
Reduction in breakdowns.
What are the 7 Steps of Self-Maintenance?
1. Initial clean-up.
2. Counter Measures against Sources of deterioriation.
3. Formulation of clean-up and lubrication standards.
4. General Inspection.
5. General Process Inspection.
6. Standardization.
7. Implement Autonomous Management.

Timing of Self-Maintenance?
Daily 30 min. from 9.30 am to 10.00 am.
What is abnormality?
Any deviation from the normal condition or standards.
How many types of Abnormality?

8 types of abnormalities.
1. UBC:- Un Fulfilled Basic Conditions
2. SD:- Small Defects/Flaws
3. HTA:- Hard To Access / Inaccessible Places
4. SC:- Sources of Contamination
5. QD:- Quality Defects
6. US:- Unnecessary Items
7. UC:- Unsafe Condition
8. UP:- Unsafe Practices

How do you capture the abnormalities?


Through daily Self-Maintenance & daily site round. Abnormalities are identified and are captured in abnormality register. If the
abnormality is related to equipment in is notified in SAP.
Why abnormality tag is used?
If the idenfied abnormality needs time/shutdown/opportunity to rectify, then abnormality tag is tagged to equipment until further
rectification and is noted in abnormality register/SAP notification.
Full Form of CLIT?
Cleaning, Lubrication, Inspection, Tightening.
Full Form of LLF?
Look, Listen & Feel.
Symbol for Cleaning as per CLIT?
Triangle
Symbol for Lubrication as per CLIT?
Circle
Symbol for Inspection as per CLIT?
Square
Why Match Marking is required?
To check the bolt for the possible looseness.
What is Kaizen?
Kaizen, also known as continuous improvement, is a long-term approach to work that systematically seeks to achieve small,
incremental changes in processes in order to improve efficiency and quality.
Types of Kaizens?
Gemba Kaizen & Kobetsu Kaizen.
What is KPE (Kaizen per Employee)?
Number of Kaizens done by a person. For a GRT, it is calculated as Number of Kaizens divided by Number of persons in the GRT.
What is KPI (Kaizen Participation Index)?
Number of Persons partcipating in doing kaizens. For a GRT, it is calculated as Number of Kaizens divided by No of persons who have
done Kaizens.
What is QCDIP?
Quality, Cost, Delivery, Innovation & Productivity.
What is PQCDSM?
Productivity, Quality, Cost, Delivery, Safety & Morale.
What is the Self- Maintenance Kaizen?
Kaizen done to reduce maintenance time and improve ease of maintenance.
What is your contribution in GRT?
Give examples of improvement activities done by you.
What is OPL?
One Point Lesson, also called Single Point Lesson
Name the three types of OPL?
1. Basic Knowledge
2. Improvement Case
3. Troubleshooting Case
What is SOP, SWP, SMP and HIRA?
SOP- Standard Operating Procedure,
SWP- Safe Work Procedure,
SMP- Standard Maintenance Practice,
HIRA- Hazard Identification & Risk Assessment
What is ISO?
International Organisation for Standards
What is IMS?
Integrated Management Systems
What is the purpose of Why-Why Analysis?
Why Why Analysis is done to find the root cause of a problem.
What is Root Cause Analysis?
Root cause analysis (RCA) is a method of problem solving used for identifying the root causes of faults or problems.
How many GRTs are there is Aditya Cement Works?
25
What is the role of team leader?
A team leader's role is to provide direction, instructions and guidance to GRT, for the purpose of achieving improvement in GRT.
What is the role of Super Area Owner?
SAO's role is to provide guidance, advice, knowledge, motivation, emotional support and role modeling to GRTs.
How many KFAs as per OPEX framework?

9 KFAs
1. Work Environment
2. Asset Management
3. Supply Chain Management
4. Customer Experience Management
5. Quality Management
6. People Management
7. Systematic Improvement
8. Information and Knowledge Management
9. Technology and Innovation Management

BCE Audit is a part of which KFA?


Work Environment
What is MTTR?
Mean Time To Repair
MTTR, or Mean Time To Repair, is the time it takes to run a repair after the occurrence of the failure. That is, it is the time spent during
the intervention in a given process.
MTTR=total hours of downtime caused by system failures/number of failures
What is MTBF?
Mean Time Between Failure
MTBF, or Mean Time Between Failures, is a metric that concerns the average time elapsed between a failure and the next time it
occurs.
MTBF=total time of correct operation in a period/number of failures
What is OEE?

Overall Equipment Effectiveness


OEE is a best practices metric that measures the percentage of planned production time that is fully productive.
OEE= Availability X Performance X Quality

What is DMAIC?

Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve & Control


DMAIC refers to a data-driven improvement cycle used for improving, optimizing and stabilizing business processes and designs.

What is BCE?
Basic Condition Evaluation
A systematic approach to assess the basic condition/system/practices of the area/unit.
How many elements of BCE?
4 elements
Name of Elements?
1. Basic Upkeep
2. Safety, Health/Hygiene & Environment
3. Maintenance
4. Operation
Name of 3 Perspectives?
1. Physical Condition
2. System
3. Behaviour
Scope for BCE?

Production (Shop floor)


Engineering & Maintenance
Stores
Offices
Utilities
Building/Structure
Canteen, Kitchen, Toilets
Garden, Parking, Streets
Guest House
Contractor Areas
Colony
Hospital
School

What is the Score of AC in Last Year BCE Assessment?


3.85 or 77%
Why Third party BCE Audit is significant for Unit?
BCE is the basic eligibility criteria for applying to Aditya Birla Excellence Awards.
Total Score as per BCE Audit Check list?
300 = Physical Condition-100 + System-100 + Behavior-100
What is area ownership?
Assigning area/s to the team members in GRT for maintaining/improving the area.
What is the role of area owner?
The area owner is responsible for maintaining basic condition & improvement in the area assigned.
Top 03 Best Areas in your GRT.
Be ready with 3 best areas in your area.
How many types of Waste Bins are there?
3 types
1. Bio-degradable Waste bin
2. Non Bio-degradable Waste bin
3. Metallic & Non Metallic Waste bin
What is the colour of Bio-degradable waste bin?
Green
What is the colour of non-Bio-degradable waste bin?
Red
What is disposal frequency of waste bin?
Members shall be aware of waste disposal frequency schedule.
What is the benefit of CLIT checklist?
Helps in maintaining basic condition of equipment/area and improves productivity.
What is tool point?
A specified place to keep all the required tools of that area.
What is 5S map?
A map showing the layout of any area with responsibilities.
What is holding area?
A temporary storage area for any kind of materials.
What is 5S standard?
A standard layout showing place for everything & everything in its place of that area.
What is the benefit of GRT Self-Audit?
GRT Self-Audit helps the GRT members to be aware of their position and to prepare action plan for further improvement.
What is PPE?
Personnel Protective Equipment.
Name the mandatory PPEs to be used at site?
Shoes, Helmet, Goggles, Nosemask, Handgloves & Reflective Jacket.
What is the advantage of foundation bolt cap?
To protect the bolt thread from dust and corrosion.
What are the benefits of daily team meeting?
Helps team members to keep updated of daily performance and to prepare action plan accordingly.
What is the frequency of refilling first aid kit?
Members shall be aware of waste disposal frequency schedule.
When did you last use your first aid kit?
First Aid Kit usage details to be maintained in a register.
Do you check the expiry date of the medicines in first aid kit before use?
Check the expiry date of the medicine before use.
Is the list of medicines available in front of first aid box?
List of medicines to be mentioned infront of first aid box.
Have you displayed first aid SOP at your area?
First Aid SOP to be displayed at your area.
Have you displayed the first aiders name at your area?
List of First Aiders of your area to be displayed at your area.
Have you displayed emergency contact details at your area?
Emergency contact details shall be displayed at your area
What is job specific PPE?
Specific PPE which is used for specific job is called job specific PPE. For Eg. Rubber hand gloves for handling oil, Leather Hand gloves &
Leather Apron for Welding, etc.
How many types of fire extinguishers are there?
4 types
How many types of fire are there?

1. Combustible Materials (wood, paper, cloth, trash, and plastics.)


2. Flammable Liquid (gasoline, petroleum oil, paint, propane and butane)
3. Electrical & Flammable Gases (energized electical equipment such as motors, transformers, and appliances)
4. Flammable Metals (combustible metals such as potassium, sodium, aluminum, and magnesium)

When do we use A, B, C & D type fire extinguisher?


A type - Combustible Materials
B type - Flammable Liquid
C type - Electrical & Flammable Gases
D type - Flammable Metals
Can we use A type fire extinguisher for electrical fire?
No
What is the benefit to mark the operating range on pressure gauge?
To know the normal operating range of the system and to easily identify visually if any deviation.
Are you aware of your current Tool room inventory?
Members shall be aware of tool room inventory.
Do you have a list of tool room inventory?
List of tool room inventory shall be maintained.
Have you checked your equipment oil level indicators condition?
All equipment oil level indicators shall be clearly visible and not damaged.
What will happen if the equipment oil level indicator is not visible?
Oil level in the system cannot be checked and may lead to equipment deterioration/damage.
Have you checked your gearbox breathers?
Check the gearbox breathers frequently.
What happens if the gearbox breathers are chocked/jammed?
The gases in the gearbox generated during operation are unable to pass out and deterirate the gearbox internals.
What do you mean by illumination level?
Light Level or Illuminance, is the amount of light measured in a plane surface. (or the total luminous flux incident on a surface, per unit
area)
Are you aware of illumination level at your area?
Members shall be aware of illumination level of their area.
What is the meaning of WASH Pledge?
Water, Sanitation & Hygiene Pledge is an initiative to provide employees with safe and sustainable drinking water and sanitation and
hygiene.
What is the frequency of toilet cleaning?
Members shall be aware of toilet cleaning schedule of their area.
What is meaning of Zero concept which is displayed at your Activity Board?
1. Zero Accident
2. Zero Leakage
3. Zero Scrap
4. Zero Defect
5. Zero Breakdown
6. Zero Customer Complaints
What is Key Performance Indicator (KPI)?
A Key Performance Indicator is a measurable value that demonstrates how effectively a team is achieving objectives.
What is the meaning of multi skilling? How many people are multi skilled at your area
A single employee having multiple skill-sets, may or may not be a part of the employee job.
What is the total score for assessment as per Aditya Birla Excellence Frame Work?
20000 Points
What are the three broad categories of Aditya Birla Excellence Frame Work?
Enablers
Processes and
Results
What are the criteria of Enablers in Aditya Birla Excellence Frame Work?
Leadership &
Strategic Plan Deployment
How many KFAs are there? Name the Criteria (KFAs) of Processes in Aditya Birla Excellence Frame Work?

There are nine KFAs in Processes as per Aditya Birla Excellence Frame Work.
Work Environment
Asset Management
Supply Chain Management
Customer Experience Management
Quality Management
People Managemgent
Information & Knowledge Management
Systematic Inprovement
Technology & Innovation Management

What is RADAR?

Results-Approach-Deployment-Assessment-Refinement.
RADAR is the cyclical tool that we use to assess an organisation – identifying strengths and areas for improvement and scoring.

Name the criteria of Results in Aditya Birla Excellence Frame Work?


Unit Performance Results
Customer Satisfaction Results
People Satisfaction Results
Societal Satisfaction Results
Supplier Satisfaction Results
How many criteria are there in Aditya Birla Operational Excellence Frame Work?
The Framework comprises of 16 Criteria for Operational Excellence covering under the broad categories of Enablers, Processes and
Results. These 16 Criteria are further sub divided into sub criteria each focusing on a major requirement. The details of these Criteria
are as follows:
 Enablers: 2 Criteria
 Processes: 9 Criteria (KFAs)
 Results: 5 Criteria
What is the role of Work Environment KFA?
It helps units to create an ideal, safe, and healthy and environment friendly workplace.
What is the role of Asset Management KFA?
Asset Management- guides units in developing systems to effectively manage it assets including plant equipment, offices, civil
structures, etc.
What is role of Supply Chain Management KFA?
Supply Chain Management- enables unit to integrate its suppliers, processes and customer.
What is role of Customer Experience Management KFA?
Customer Experience Management- Integrates unit’s internal customer with external customer.
What is role of Quality Management KFA?
Quality Management- Guides units for building quality systems and processes leading to zero defects and complaints.
What is the role of People Management KFA?
People Management- Helps units to enrich its employee relationship, improve their performance. It also extends support to CSR
initiatives.
What is the role of Information & Knowledge Management KFA?
Information & Knowledge Management- covers measurement and analysis of data, IT support to Process Management and IT security.
It also help developing knowledge base and aims at transforming unit as learning organization.
What is the role of Systematic Improvement KFA?
Systematic Improvement- Helps in bringing out employees potential in continuous and systematic improvement.
What is the role of Technology & Innovation Management KFA?
Technology and Innovation Management- guides unit for technological changes. It also brings focus on creativity and innovation for
breakthrough improvement.
What is AC Unit Vision?
CONCRETE FUTURE
What is AC Unit Mission?
M1-Sustainability with prime focus on SHE
M2-Technological innovations
M3-Cost Optimization
M4-Team synergy
M5-Competency & skill development
M6-Stakeholder delight.
What are our Group Values?
Integrity
Commitment
Passion
Seamlessness
Speed
What is Sustainability?

Sustainability is defined as: “the physical development and institutional operating practices that meet the needs of present users
without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs, particularly with regard to use and waste of natural
resources. Sustainable practices support ecological, human, and economic health and vitality. Sustainability presumes that resources
are finite, and should be used conservatively and wisely with a view to long-term priorities and consequences of the ways in which
resources are used.” In simplest terms, sustainability is about our children and our grandchildren, and the world we will leave them.

What is the Weightage and points for each categories of Aditya Birla Excellence Frame Work?
Enablers- 15% & 3000 Points
Processes- 45% & 9000 Points
Results- 40% & 8000 Points
What is GRI G4 Guidelines?
Global Reporting Initiative -G4 is a sustainability reporting guidelines.
What is the abbreviation of FMEA?
Failure Modes and Effects Analysis.
Failure modes and effects analysis is a step-by-step approach for identifying all possible failures in a design, a manufacturing or
assembly process, or a product or service.
What is the abbreviation of CAPA?

Corrective And Preventive Action.


Corrective and preventive action (CAPA, also called corrective action / preventive action, or simply corrective action) are
improvements to an organization's processes taken to eliminate causes of non-conformities or other undesirable situations.
What is the abbreviation of CMMS?
Computerized Maintenance Management System.
A CMMS is software that helps maintenance teams keep a record of all assets they are responsible for, schedule and track maintenance
tasks, and keep a historical record of work they perform.
What is HAZOP/HAZAN?

HAZOP- Hazard and Operability Study / HAZAN- Hazard Analysis.


A hazard and operability study (HAZOP) is a structured and systematic examination of a complex planned or existing process or
operation in order to identify and evaluate problems that may represent risks to personnel or equipment.
HAZAN is a technique that focuses on job tasks as a way to identify hazards before they occur. HAZAN takes into account the
relationship between the employee, the task to be done, the tools at the workers disposal and the surrounding environment. Once
uncontrolled hazards have been identified by a HAZAN analysis, steps can be taken to either eliminate risks or reduce risk to an
acceptable level.
PM Audit is a part of which KFA?
Asset Management.
How many Criteria are there for PM Audit?

There are Six Criteria for PM Audit.


1) Organization Culture
2) Maintenance Objectives & Targets
3) Maintenance Management System
4) Maintenance Work Management
5) Lubrication Management
6) Document Control- Engineering Records
BCE Audit is a part of which KFA?
Work Environment.
What is OTIF or DIFOT?

On Time In Full or Delivery In Full On Time.


DIFOT (Delivered In-Full, On-Time) or OTIF (On-Time In-Full) is a measurement of delivery performance in a supply chain. Some
consider it superior to other delivery performance indicators, such as shipped-on-time (SOT) and on-time performance (OTP),
because it looks at deliveries from the point of view of the customer.
What is the abbreviation of VSM?
Value Stream Mapping.
Value stream mapping is a lean-management method for analyzing the current state and designing a future state for the series of
events that take a product or service from its beginning through to the customer.
What is OHSAS?

Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series.


Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series, (officially BS OHSAS 18001) is an internationally applied British Standard for
occupational health and safety management systems. It exists to help all kinds of organizations put in place demonstrably sound
occupational health and safety performance.
What is PDCA cycle?

Plan-Do-Check-Act
The Deming Cycle, or PDCA Cycle (also known as PDSA Cycle), is a continuous quality improvement model consisting out of a logical
sequence of four repetitive steps for continuous improvement and learning: Plan, Do, Study (Check) and Act. The PDSA cycle (or
PDCA) is also known as the Deming Cycle, the Deming wheel of continuous improvement spiral.
How many types of Wastes (MUDA) are there?

Eight types of Wastes (MUDA).


Transporting
Inventory
Motion
Waiting
Over-Processing
Over-Production
Defects
Under Utilization of resources
How many types of Losses are there?

There are 16 types of Losses mainly categorized into three types. 1) Man 2) Machine 3) Material.
Shutdown Loss
Production Adjustment Loss
Equipment Failure Loss
Process Failure Loss
Normal Production Loss
Abnormal Production Loss
Quality Defect Loss
Reprocessing Loss
Management Loss
Operating Motion Loss
Line Organization Loss
Logistics Loss
Measurement & Adjustment Loss
Material Yield Loss
Energy Loss
Equipment Loss
What are 7 QC Tools?

Cause-and-effect diagram (also known as the "fishbone" or Ishikawa diagram)


Check sheet
Control chart
Histogram
Pareto chart
Scatter diagram
Stratification (alternately, flow chart or run chart)
What are 7 New QC Tools?

Affinity Diagram
Relation Diagram
Tree Diagram
Matrix Diagram
Arrow Diagram
Process Decision Program Chart (PDPC)
Matrix Data Analysis
What is CoQ?
Cost of Quality
Cost of quality is a methodology that allows an organization to determine the extent to which its resources are used for activities that
prevent poor quality, that appraise the quality of the organization's products or services, and that result from internal and external
failures.
Quality costs fall into four categories, which are:
•Prevention costs
•Appraisal costs
•Internal failure costs
•External failure costs
What is CoPQ?
Cost of Poor Quality
Cost of poor quality (COPQ) or poor quality costs (PQC), are costs that would disappear if systems, processes, and products were
perfect.
What is Value Engineering?

Value Engineering is "the systematic application of recognized techniques by a multi-disciplined team which identifies the function of
a product or service; establishes a worth for that function; generates alternatives through the use of creative thinking; and provides
the needed functions reliably at the lowest overall cost." VE is an effective technique for reducing costs, increasing productivity, and
improving quality.
What is RCM?

Reliability Centered Maintenance


Reliability centered maintenance (RCM) is a maintenance strategy that is implemented to optimize the maintenance program of a
company or facility. The final result of an RCM program is the implementation of a specific maintenance strategy on each of the assets
of the facility.
What is an MP Design?

In TPM, the concept of MP design is expanded to include design that aims at achieving not only no breakdowns (reliability) and easy
maintenance (maintainability) but also prevention of all possible losses that may hamper production system effectiveness and pursuit
of ultimate system improvement. To be specific, MP design should be so done as to satisfy reliability, maintainability, ‘Jishu-Hozen’,
operability, resource saving, safety, and flexibility.”
What is a CTQ parameter?
Critical to Quality parameter
A process characteristic or component that has a direct effect on whether the overall process or product is perceived by the customer
to be of acceptable quality.
What is Six Sigma?

Six Sigma is a disciplined, data-driven approach and methodology for eliminating defects (driving toward six standard deviations
between the mean and the nearest specification limit) in any process – from manufacturing to transactional and from product to
service.
To achieve Six Sigma, a process must not produce more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities.
What is Lean Manufacturing?

Lean manufacturing or lean production, often simply "lean", is a systematic method for waste minimization ("Muda") within a
manufacturing system without sacrificing productivity. Lean also takes into account waste created through overburden ("Muri") and
waste created through unevenness in work loads ("Mura").
Lean provides tools and processes to eliminate waste from the manufacturing process resulting in improved efficiency, effectiveness,
and profitability.
What is TQM?

Total Quality Management


A holistic approach to long-term success that views continuous improvement in all aspects of an organization as a process and not as a
short-term goal. It aims to radically transform the organization through progressive changes in the attitudes, practices, structures, and
systems.
What is TPM?

Total Productive Maintenance


TPM (Total Productive Maintenance) is a holistic approach to equipment maintenance that strives to achieve perfect production:
No Breakdowns
No Small Stops or Slow Running
No Defects
No Accidents
What is NDT?
Non Destructive Testing.
Nondestructive testing (NDT) is the process of inspecting, testing, or evaluating materials, components or assemblies for
discontinuities, or differences in characteristics without destroying the serviceability of the part or system. In other words, when the
inspection or test is completed the part can still be used.

What is PM Analysis?
Phenomena Mechanism Analysis.
PM analysis is a Kaizen tool practiced standalone or under TPM practice as the case may be in order to solve chronic problems.
Phenomenon is an abnormality (an effect) of which root-causes are difficult to find without systematic and structured efforts to study
interrelationships of various causes related to man, machinery and allied equipment, material, methods, environment, etc. This is so
particularly in case of chronic problems.

What is Preventive Maintenance?


Preventative maintenance (or preventive maintenance) is maintenance that is regularly performed on a piece of equipment to lessen
the likelihood of it failing. Preventative maintenance is performed while the equipment is still working, so that it does not break down
unexpectedly.
What is Predictive Maintenance?
Predictive maintenance (PdM) techniques are designed to help determine the condition of in-service equipment in order to predict
when maintenance should be performed. This approach promises cost savings over routine or time-based preventive maintenance,
because tasks are performed only when warranted.
What is Maintenance Prevention?

Maintenance Prevention refers to “design activities carried out during the planning and construction of new equipment, that impart to
the equipment high degrees of reliability, maintainability, economy, operability, safety, and flexibility, while considering maintenance
information and new technologies, and to thereby reduce maintenance expenses and deterioration losses.”
What is Condition Based Maintenance?
Condition based maintenance (CBM) is a maintenance strategy that monitors the actual condition of the asset to decide what
maintenance needs to be done. CBM dictates that maintenance should only be performed when certain indicators show signs of
decreasing performance or upcoming failure.
What is LCC analysis?

Life Cycle Costing Analysis


Life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) is a tool to determine the most cost-effective option among different competing alternatives to
purchase, own, operate, maintain and, finally, dispose of an object or process, when each is equally appropriate to be implemented on
technical grounds.
What is OPE?

Overall Plant Effectiveness.


Overall plant effectiveness is the product of the availability, performance rate, and quality rate. It is a comprehensive indicator of a
plant's condition that takes into account operating time, performance, and quality. It can be used to judge the effectiveness with which
plant is being used to add value.
What is NVA?
Non Value Added Activity.
Non-Value Adding Activities add to the cost of doing business. Typical Non-Value Adding activities include rework, inspection,
movement and any of the 8 Wastes.
What is WIP?

Work in Progress.
Work in progress (WIP) refers to partially-completed goods that are still in the production process. These items do not include raw
materials or finished goods. ... WIP is one of the three types of inventory, of which the others are raw materials and finished goods.
What is JIT?
Just In Time.
Just-in-time (JIT) is an inventory strategy companies employ to increase efficiency and decrease waste by receiving goods only as they
are needed in the production process, thereby reducing inventory costs.
What is X-Matrix?
A Hoshin Kanri X-matrix is a one page document strategic plan of any organization that includes goals, strategies, strategic projects
(initiatives) and owners. It is also known as Policy Deployment (PD) document.
What is Inbound Logistics?
Inbound logistics refers to the transport, storage and delivery of goods coming into a business.
What is Outbound Logistics?
Outbound logistics refers to the processes involved in the movement and storage of products and how related information flows of
goods goind out of a business.
What is GPRS?
General Packet Radio Services.
What is Energy Mapping?
Energy Mapping is a process to identify the types, quantity, and qualities of energy that are available within a region in terms of both
energy being supplied and the quality of energy needed for different uses.
What is milk-run concept?
It is the combination of shipments from multiple vendors in close geographic proximity into one shipment received by the customer,
normally done for a defined route on a recurring basis.
What is TAT?
TAT for an operation is the time taken from start of the operation/process till the finish of operation/process.
What is QCO?
Quick Changeover.
Quick changeover is the amount of time taken to change a piece of equipment from producing the last good piece of a production lot to
the first good piece of the next production lot.
What is SMED?
Single Minute Exchange of Dies.
SMED is a lean production method used to reduce the waste in manufacturing process. It helps to reduce the amount of changeover
time from running one product to the next.
What is SLA?

Service Level Agreement.


A service level agreement (SLA) is a contract between a service provider (either internal or external) and the end user that defines the
level of service expected from the service provider. SLAs are output-based in that their purpose is specifically to define what the
customer will receive.
What is a Quality Plan?
A quality plan is a document, or several documents, that together specify quality standards, practices, resources, specifications, and
the sequence of activities relevant to a particular product, service, project, or contract. It is a method for measuring the achievement of
the quality objectives.
What is Process Mapping?

A process map is a planning and management tool that visually describes the flow of work. A process map is also called a flowchart,
process flowchart, process chart, functional process chart, functional flowchart, process model, workflow diagram, business flow
diagram or process flow diagram. Process mapping is a workflow diagram to bring forth a clearer understanding of a process or series
of parallel processes.
What is ISO 9001?

ISO 9001 is the international standard that specifies requirements for a Quality Management System (QMS). Organizations use the
standard to demonstrate the ability to consistently provide products and services that meet customer and regulatory requirements.
What is ISO 14001?

ISO 14001 is the international standard that specifies requirements for an effective Environmental Management System (EMS). It
provides a framework that an organization can follow, rather than establishing environmental performance requirements.
What is OHSAS 18001?
OHSAS 18001, Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series, (officially BS OHSAS 18001) is an internationally applied
British Standard for occupational health and safety management systems. It exists to help all kinds of organizations put in place
demonstrably sound occupational health and safety performance.
What is SA 8000?

Social Accountability 8000.


SA8000 is an auditable certification standard that encourages organizations to develop, maintain, and apply socially acceptable
practices in the workplace. The SA8000 streamlines the complexities of navigating industry and corporate codes to create a common
language and standard for measuring social compliance.
What is ISO 27001?
ISO 27001 (formally known as ISO/IEC 27001:2013) is a specification for an Information Security Management System (ISMS). An
ISMS is a framework of policies and procedures that includes all legal, physical and technical controls involved in an organisation's
information risk management processes.
What is VoC?
Voice of Customers.
Voice Of the Customer (VOC) is a process used to capture the requirements/feedback from the customer (internal or external) to
provide the customers with the best in class service/product quality.
What is CSR?
Corporate Social Responsibility.
Corporate Social Responsibility is a management concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their
business operations and interactions with their stakeholders.
What is TERS?
Training Effectiveness Review System.
What is SPT in SA 8000?
Social Performance Team.
What is HSC in SA 8000?
Health and Safety Committee.
What is tacit Knowledge & Explicit Knowledge?

Tacit Knowledge- Unwritten, unspoken, and hidden vast storehouse of knowledge held by practically every normal human being,
based on his or her emotions, experiences, insights, intuition, observations and internalized information. Tacit knowledge is integral to
the entirety of a person's consciousness, is acquired largely through association with other people, and requires joint or shared
activities to be imparted from on to another.
Explicit Knowledge- Articulated knowledge, expressed and recorded as words, numbers, codes, mathematical and scientific
formulae, and musical notations. Explicit knowledge is easy to communicate, store, and distribute and is the knowledge found in
books, on the web, and other visual and oral means. Opposite of tacit knowledge.
What is Process Capability?
The process capability is a measurable property of a process to the specification, expressed as a process capability index (e.g., C pk or
Cpm) or as a process performance index (e.g., Ppk or Ppm). The output of this measurement is usually illustrated by a histogram and
calculations that predict how many parts will be produced out of specification (OOS).
What is SPC?

Statistical Process Control (SPC) is an industry-standard methodology for measuring and controlling quality during the manufacturing
process. Quality data in the form of Product or Process measurements are obtained in real-time during manufacturing. This data is
then plotted on a graph with pre-determined control limits. Control limits are determined by the capability of the process, whereas
specification limits are determined by the client's needs.
What is Innovation?
Innovation can be defined as the process of implementing new ideas to create value for an organization. This may mean creating a new
service, system, or process, or enhancing existing ones. Innovation can also take the form of discontinuing an inefficient or out-of-date
service, system, or process.
What is EBIDTA?
Earnings Before Interest, Tax, Depreciation and Amortization
It is a measure of a company's operating performance. Essentially, it's a way to evaluate a company's performance without having to
factor in financing decisions, accounting decisions or tax environments.
What is ROCE?
Return On Capital Employed.
ROCE is a financial ratio that measures a company's profitability and the efficiency with which its capital is employed. ROCE is
calculated as:
ROCE = Earnings Before Interest and Tax (EBIT) / Capital Employed.
What is ROA?
Return on assets (ROA) is an indicator of how profitable a company is relative to its total assets. ROA gives an idea as to how efficient
management is at using its assets to generate earnings. Calculated by dividing a company's annual earnings by its total assets, ROA is
displayed as a percentage.
What is Hoshin Kanri?

Hoshin Kanri (also called Policy Deployment) is a method for ensuring that the strategic goals of a company drive progress and action
at every level within that company. This eliminates the waste that comes from inconsistent direction and poor communication.
What is Jishu Hozen?
Jishu Hozen is a Japanese word that means autonomous maintenance. “Jishu” loosely translated, means – independence, autonomy.
“Hozen” when translated to English means – preservation, integrity or conservation.
What is NABL? (ISO 17025)
National Accreditation Board for testing and calibration Laboratories.
NABL is a society which provides accreditation recognition of the technical competence of a testing or calibration medical laboratory
for a specific task following ISO/IEC 17025:2005, ISO 15189:2012 Standards.
What is QMS?
Quality Management System.
What is EMS?
Environment Management System.
What is ISMS?
Information Security Management system
What is the frequency of internal BCE Audit?
Once in 6 months.
What is frequency of External BCE Audit?
Once in 2 years.
What is the frequency of PM Audit / Maintenance Audit?
Once in 6 months.
What is the frequency of internal IMS Audit?
Once in a year.
What is DNV-GL?
Det Norske Veritas (Norway) and Germanischer Lloyd (Germany).
DNV GL is an accredited certification body. They certify the compliance of companies according to a third party standard, such as ISO
9001 (quality management system) or ISO 14001 (environmental management system).
What is the frequency of External IMS / DNV Audit?
Once in a year.
Who is (MR) Management Representative?
MR is an enabler of the quality system. Management Representative is a direct contact which allows top management, employees,
regulatory agencies and the registrar to discuss any aspect of the IMS.
What is SIPOC?
Suppliers-Inputs-Process-Outputs-Customers.
SIPOC is a visual tool for documenting a business process from beginning to end. A SIPOC diagram is a tool used by a team to identify
all relevant elements of a process improvement project before work begins. It helps define a complex project that may not be well
scoped, and is typically employed at the Measure phase of the Six Sigma DMAIC methodology.

What is DPMO?
Defects Per Million Opportunities.
DPMO (or nonconformities per million opportunities (NPMO)) is a measure of process performance.
It is defined as the number of defective units per million units produced (or Service Provided).
What is DFSS?

Design For Six Sigma.


DFSS, or the Six Sigma DMADV process (Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, Verify), is an improvement system used to develop new
processes or products at Six Sigma quality levels. It also can be employed if a current process requires more than just incremental
improvement.
What is Variable Cost?
A periodic cost that varies in step with the output or the sales revenue of a company.
Variable costs include raw material, energy usage, labor, distribution costs, etc.
What is TSR?
Thermal Substitution Rate.
Amount of thermal energy replaced by using other fuels such as AFR and Pet Coke.

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