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High temperature stainless steels

High temperature stainless steels High temperature stainless steels within the steel and metals industry

High temperature stainless steels within the steel and metals industry

High temperature stainless steels High temperature stainless steels within the steel and metals industry
High temperature stainless steels High temperature stainless steels within the steel and metals industry

High temperature stainless steels

High temperature stainless steels
High temperature stainless steels

What properties are demanded of a high temperature alloy?

The various process stages in the metallurgical industry, right through from ore to the finished, rolled or forged product, usually take place at high temperatures. The production equipment used in these processes is subjected to intense heat from hot gases or from red-hot or molten materials, which makes heavy demands on the construction materials used for that equipment. The problem can be solved by selecting special alloys for parts exposed to particularly difficult conditions.

Depending on the operating conditions, the demands on high temperature alloys may be as follows:

• High creep strength

• Stability of internal microstructure

• High resistance to oxidation and HT corrosion

• Good resistance to erosion-corrosion

These properties are discussed in more detail in the following text.

Equipment manufacturers also make the following demands on the material they use:

• Good formability and machinability

• Good weldability

• Good availability on the market

CREEP RESISTANCE

The design stress for a material specifies the load to which this material can be subjected at high tempera- tures without failing or being significantly deformed during service. From room temperature up to a certain temperature (550 – 600°C for most austenitic steels), the design stresses are based on the proof strength of the material. Above that temperature, the more tempe- rature dependent creep strength will determine the design stress values. As a rule, creep strength is expressed as the creep rupture strength, i.e. the stress that causes rupture after 10 000 or 100 000 hours (R km 10 000 and R km 100 000 ). For components that are more sensitive to deformation, the creep deformation strength, i.e. the stress resulting in a strain of 1% after 10 000 or 100 000 hours (R A1/10 000 and R A1/100 000 ), should be used as a basis for design calculations. An often neglected mechanical property is the ductility. In a creeping component, stress redistribution due to creep can off-load the heaviest stressed parts, provided the ductility is high enough. Moreover, the

resistance to low cycle fatigue (during start-ups and shut-downs, or major service transients) is proportional to the ductility.

MICROSTRUCTURAL STABILITY

Most high temperature alloys suffer from a common dis- advantage when used at sufficiently high temperatures – diffusion controlled microstructural changes, which result in impaired properties. The most common type of reaction is the precipitation of non-desirable phases. Besides lowering the corrosion resistance by consuming beneficial alloying elements (above all chromium), this phenomenon leads to a reduced toughness/ductility of the material – especially at room temperature. The precipitates are often intermetallic phases such as sigma, chi, and Laves phase, but carbides and nitrides are also common. At even higher temperatures, grain growth may occur, possibly increasing the creep strength somewhat, but simultaneously reducing the ductility substantially.

HIGH TEMPERATURE CORROSION Oxidation

When a material is exposed to an oxidizing atmosphere at high temperatures, an oxide layer is formed on the surface. This layer will retard further oxidation. If the temperature of the material increases, the oxide growth rate will increase and the layer will finally crack and spall off, thus losing its protective effect – the scaling temperature has been reached. Although oxidation is seldom the main cause of high temperature corrosion failures, the oxidation performance is of primary interest, because the properties of any formed oxide layer will determine the resistance to other aggressive elements in the environment. The toughness and adherence of the oxide layer also determine the erosion resistance of the alloy.

Water vapour

Most flue gases (except from coal combustion) have an increased water vapour content. Its presence will reduce the oxidation resistance of an alloy.

Carburization and nitridation

Carburization and nitridation are common heat treat- ment processes in which the surface of the material is intentionally enriched in carbon and/or nitrogen to improve the hardness, the wear resistance, or the fatigue strength of a component.

High temperature stainless steels
High temperature stainless steels

High temperature stainless steels

Even if the furnace components in these processes are constructed of more resistant materials, the cyclic exposure to the carburizing/nitriding environment will eventually lead to an excessive pick-up of carbon/ nitrogen. This will lead to problems such as embrittlement due to precipitation of chromium rich carbides/nitrides and impaired corrosion resistance because of the simultaneous chromium depletion in the matrix. These effects can also occur for other reasons, e.g. carburization due to oil residues on heat-treated com- ponents and nitridation due to overheating in nitrogen containing gases or to cracking ammonia.

Attack by sulphur, halogens, and molten salts and metals

Sulphur attacks are often life limiting in many high temperature applications. Due to kinetic factors, non- equilibrium sulphides can form and grow under oxidizing conditions. Even if initially formed sulphides are later overgrown by oxide or dissolved, their earlier existence has made the oxide layer less protective. An old rule-of-thumb says that nickel-containing alloys should be avoided in reducing sulphidizing envi- ronments, since the formation of low melting point nickel- sulphur compounds may lead to a rapid deterioration of the alloy. In practice, however, the austenitic microstruc- ture is required for good mechanical properties, and a number of nickel containing alloys have shown excellent performance in sulphur-bearing environments, since their chromium contents were high enough to enable the formation of a protective oxide layer. Molten salts and slags can attack an existing protective oxide film. The extent of the attack will depend on the composition of both the alloy and the melt. Halogens (such as chlorine and fluorine) or their salts (halides) may also cause serious damage.

Molten metal corrosion is rarely occurring, but when it does, it can be very detrimental. Two types of attack can appear – dissolution of the solid metal (or one or another alloying element) in the melt, or penetration of the melt into the grain boundaries of the solid metal, causing rapid brittle cracking.

Erosion-corrosion

Particle impact on and/or abrasion of an oxide layer can remove it, or at least make it less protective. A ductile and adherent oxide layer is therefore beneficial.

AvestaPolarit high temperature stainless steels

Besides the common HT alloys presented below (i.e., 4948, 4878, 4828, 4833, and 4845), there are three propri- etary AvestaPolarit alloys: 153 MA, 253 MA, and 353 MA . These three alloys are based on the same concept:

• Improved oxidation (and thus also HT corrosion) resistance by an increased silicon content and addition of very small quantities of rare earth metals (micro-alloying=> MA).

• Enhanced creep strength due to increased contents of nitrogen (and carbon for 253 MA). In many cases, the properties of these steels have proved to be equiva- lent or even superior to those of grades with higher contents of alloying elements. Materials selection will be determined by the application and operating conditions in each individual case. 153 MA is normally intended for use at somewhat lower service tem- peratures than the other two grades. The chemical compositions of the AvestaPolarit high temperature steels are shown in the table below.

COMPOSITION AND STANDARDS

Table 1: Chemical compositions and designations of AvestaPolarit high temperature alloys

AvestaPolarit

 

Chemical composition, %, typical values

National steel designations, superseded by EN

designation

EN

ASTM

C

N

Cr

Ni

Si

Others

BS

DIN

NF

SS

4948

1.4948

304

H

0.05

18.3

8.7

0.5

304S51

1.4948

Z6 CN 18-09

2333

4878

1.4878

321

H

0.05

17.5

9.5

0.5

Ti

304S51

1.4878

Z6 CNT 18-10

2337

153

MA

1.4818

S30415

0.05

0.15

18.5

9.5

1.3

Ce

1.4891

2372

4828

1.4828

0.04

20

12

2.0

1.4828

Z17 CNS 20-12

4833

1.4833

309S

0.06

22.5

12.5

0.5

309S16

1.4833

Z15 CN 23-13

253

MA

1.4835

S30815

0.09

0.17

21

11

1.7

Ce

1.4893

2368

4845

1.4845

310S

0.05

25

20

1.0

310S24

1.4845

Z8 CN 25-20

2361

353

MA

1.4854

S35315

0.05

0.15

25

35

1.5

Ce

153 MA, 253 MA, and 353 MA are patented grades with trademarks used by AvestaPolarit. 253 MA and 353 MA are registered.

High temperature stainless steels

High temperature stainless steels
High temperature stainless steels

TENSILE AND CREEP STRENGTH PROPERTIES

Most strength values are tabulated in the AvestaPolarit

data sheet “High Temperature Stainless Steel”.

Therefore, the strength and its variation with tempera-

ture are only shown graphically here.

Diagram 1 shows clearly that 153 MA and 253 MA

have higher proof strength values at room temperature

as well as at elevated temperatures. This is a result of

the higher nitrogen contents in these two alloys.

353 MA has a similarly high room temperature

strength. At present, there are no specified proof strength

values at higher temperatures.

Diagram 2 shows the 100 000 hours creep strength

as a function of temperature for all our HT steels. The

higher creep strength of the MA alloys is, also in this

case, a result of the higher nitrogen content.

A more obvious way to illustrate the difference

between various steels is to use relative, instead of

absolute values:

For each alloy and temperature, the relative strength

has been calculated by dividing the stress value that

has been calculated by dividing the stress value that Diagram 1: Elevated temperature proof gives rupture

Diagram 1: Elevated temperature proof

gives rupture after 100 000 hours with the correspond-

ing value for 253 MA.(E.g., at 800°C, 4828, 4833,

and 4845 are only half as strong as 253 MA, i.e., twice

the material thickness is required for “normal”

dimensioning.)

The analogous curves for the other creep strength

parameters (i.e. R km 10 000 , R A1/10 000 , and R A1/100 000 ) show similar behaviour.

MICROSTRUCTURAL STABILITY

Upon service exposure at elevated temperatures,

most alloys become more or less embrittled.

4948, and especially 4878 are little affected, while the

loss in toughness is substantial for 4828, 4833,

and 4845, due to an extensive precipitation of the

intermetallic sigma phase.

In 253 MA and 353 MA, much less sigma is formed.

Instead, carbide and nitride precipitation will take

place during service, which will result in a loss in RT

impact toughness. In fact, it may be as low as for a

sigma phase embrittled alloy, and in addition, the

as for a sigma phase embrittled alloy, and in addition, the Diagram 3: Relative 100 000

Diagram 3: Relative 100 000 hours creep rupture strength

Diagram 3: Relative 100 000 hours creep rupture strength Diagram 2: 100 000 hours creep rupture

Diagram 2: 100 000 hours creep rupture strength.

strength Diagram 2: 100 000 hours creep rupture strength. Diagram 4: Charpy V toughness after 200

Diagram 4: Charpy V toughness after 200 hours’ ageing

High temperature stainless steels toughness reduction will be more rapid since the precipitation of carbides/nitrides
High temperature stainless steels
toughness reduction will be more rapid since the
precipitation of carbides/nitrides is faster than that of
sigma phase. However, service experience indicates
that the ductility is superior at lower deformation rates.
The carbon/nitrogen solubilities in the MA alloys
increase with increasing temperature, and above a
certain temperature, the post-service toughness will
be sufficiently high. This temperature is 850°C for
253 MA and 1000°C for 353 MA. These alloys can of
course be applied at lower temperatures if the loss in
RT impact toughness is born in mind when main-
tenance and repair work is performed. 153 MA was
developed as a leaner alloyed variant of 253 MA for
applications where high demands are made on tough-
ness. 153 MA will have a sufficiently high toughness
after service at all temperatures.
Diagram 5: Cyclic oxidation at 1150 °C. The specimens were
cooled down to room temperature every two hours
HIGH TEMPERATURE CORROSION
Oxidation

The oxidation resistance of all HT grades rely on the formation of a protective oxide layer, rich in chromium, aluminium, and/or silicon. Additional alloying elements may improve the properties further. Diagram 5 shows that, in spite of its lower chromium content, 253 MA shows better oxidation resistance than 4845 under cyclic conditions. Obviously, the REM addition and increased Si content of 253 MA have improved the adherence of the oxide so that the alloy can retain a thicker oxide layer before it starts to spall due to thermal shock. Short-term tests, as in Diagram 5, are a rapid method of ranking alloys. However, one must bear in mind that this ranking can change with increasing time, cf. Diagram 6. Historically, the oxidation resistance of an alloy has been specified as the “scaling temperature”, i.e. the temperature, at which the oxidation rate becomes unacceptably high. Since this temperature is of little technical importance, we have abandoned the “Scaling temperature” concept, for “Maximum recommended service temperature”, which is based on service experience together with long- and short-time, isothermal and cyclic laboratory tests, see Table 2.

Water vapour

The presence of water vapour in the environment will make any formed oxide layer more porous and hence less protective. The reduction in maximum service temperature can be 50 – 150°C, depending on steam content.

Diagram 6: Long-term oxidation at 1100°C. The specimens were cooled down to room temperature once a week for weighing.

Table 2: Recommended maximum service temperatures

AvestaPolarit

 

Maximum service tem- perature (°C) in dry air

designation

EN

ASTM

4948

1.4948

304H

800

4878

1.4878

321H

800

153

MA

1.4818

S30415

1000

4828

1.4828

1000

4833

1.4833

309S

1000

253

MA

1.4835

S30815

1100

4845

1.4845

310S

1100

353

MA

1.4854

S35315

1150

Carburization/nitridation

The resistance of high temperature alloys to carburiza- tion/nitridation increases primarily with increasing nickel content but also with increasing contents of silicon and chromium. 353 MA is therefore the best of the MA grades, but 253 MA has also performed well under certain conditions in carburizing/nitriding environments, despite of its lower alloy content. Experience has shown that it takes only traces of

High temperature stainless steels

High temperature stainless steels
High temperature stainless steels

oxygen in the furnace gas (e.g. in the form of carbon dioxide or steam) to produce a thin and tough oxide layer on 253 MA, which provides good protection against pick-up of both carbon and nitrogen. However, under reducing conditions, when such a scale cannot form, 353 MA and 4845 are better alternatives.

Sulphur attack

While high nickel content is beneficial to the resistance of the material to carburization and nitridation, it can be a disadvantage in a sulphur-rich environment. In oxidizing gases, where sulphur occurs in the form of sulphur dioxide, attack is delayed only as long as the material is protected by a thin, continuous oxide film. However, if the oxide grows in thickness and begins to crack, the gas will be able to penetrate through to the base material and continue the attack. Due to their firmly adhering protective oxides, 153 MA, 253 MA, and 353 MA are better suited for such environments than materials with similar or higher nickel contents. Nevertheless, the maximum service temperature is lower than in air. In reducing sulphurous atmospheres, the oxide layer is rapidly dissolved and the bare metal is exposed to attack. Under such cicumstances, nickel-free (or at least low Ni) alloys should be used.

Molten salts and metals

Certain heat treatment steps are carried out in molten salt or metal pots. The corrosion problems often occur at the melt-air-interface, but can be managed. Attacks from e.g. molten flue gas deposits or accidentally contaminating metals/alloys can be much more damaging.

Erosion-corrosion

Replacing salt/metal pots with fluidized bed furnaces will put other demands on the construction material from being corrosion resistant to being able to with- stand the abrasive wear. Another type of erosion-corrosion occurs in flue gas channels, where particles are often entrapped in the rapidly moving combustion gas stream. In both these types of erosion, the MA grades have shown excellent resistance due to the thin adherent oxide layer formed on them, see e.g. Diagram 7.

FORMING, MACHINING, AND WELDING

The workability of 153 MA, 253 MA, and 353 MA is similar to that of ordinary austenitic stainless steels.

is similar to that of ordinary austenitic stainless steels. Diagram 7: Erosion test results They have

Diagram 7: Erosion test results

They have good formability in cold condition, although they work-harden in the same way as other austenitic stainless steels. However, since these grades have high nitrogen contents, they also have higher mechanical strength and require higher deformation forces during cold working. Hot forming should be carried out in the temperature range 1150 – 900°C (the minimum temperature for 353 MA is 980°C). Since 153 MA, 253 MA, and 353 MA are harder than conventional austenitic steels, their machinability is also affected. Their tendency towards work hardening during cold deformation must also be taken into account in machining. See “Machining Guidelines” for each alloy. These grades have good weldability. Suitable welding methods are shielded metal arc welding, inert gas welding with pure argon, or submerged arc welding (the latter not for 353 MA). The best results are achieved by using AvestaPolarit 253 MA filler metal for both l53 MA and 253 MA. If a somewhat poorer oxidation resistance, creep strength, and microstructural stability are acceptable, AvestaPolarit 309 filler metal can also be used.

A new SMAW electrode, 253 MA-NF, has been

developed for applications where embrittlement is unacceptable. More detailed welding instructions are given in a special AvestaPolarit Welding brochure entitled “How to weld 253 MA”. Also for 353 MA, there is a filler metal with a matching composition and a

special welding instructions brochure.

It is generally not necessary to perform heat treat-

ment after forming or welding since the material will be exposed to high temperatures when in operation. In some cases, heat treatment may be required to relieve material stresses (e.g. fan impellers).

High temperature stainless steels
High temperature stainless steels

High temperature stainless steels

AVAILABLE PRODUCT FORMS

Hot rolled plate and sheet

Cold rolled plate, sheet and strip

Bar; Wire

Welded pipe and tube

Seamless tube

Fittings

Fabricated products of sheet and plate

Welding consumables

Castings

153 MA

253 MA

353 MA

••

••

Sheet and plate products are manufactured by AvestaPolarit, welded pipes and tubes, fittings, wire and filler metals are manufactured by AvestaPolarit subsidiaries, seamless tubes by AB Sandvik Steel, and castings are produced by licensees. The entire AvestaPolarit range of high temperature steels, both standard and micro-alloyed, is outlined on the last page of this brochure.

Applications in the steel and metals industries

The application of heat-resistant alloys, principally for the various process stages in the production and pro- cessing of iron and steels, is described below. In many cases, these examples will also apply to the production of non-ferrous metals, such as copper, aluminium, etc. Special attention will be given in the descriptions to the application of the micro-alloyed high temperature (X53 MA) steels developed by AvestaPolarit.

PELLET SINTERING PLANTS

Sintering is used for converting fine-grained ore concentrate into larger pieces, which are better suited for the blast furnace process. This can be carried out in batches in tiltable pallets (Fig. 1) or continuously on a conveyor type of sintering furnace. The furnace and conveyor belt both have a cast grid base with intervening gaps for the extraction of combustion gases. The charge, which consists of a mixture of ore concentrate, limestone, and coal dust, is ignited in both cases from above by means of a burner

placed over the surface of the charge. A wind box is connected below the grid, and the vacuum it creates causes the combustion front to move down through

the charge. In the sintering process, high temperature materials are used principally in the form of castings for the grids

and sheet for the wind boxes and burners in the firing

hoods. The grids are subjected to relatively rapid

temperature variations from the charging of cold ore

concentrate mixture up to the ignition and discharge of the sintered material. The most common material

problems in this application are the deformations caused by high and fluctuating temperatures. Since both the ore and the coal dust contain sulphur,

153 MA and 253 MA are more suitable than alloys with higher nickel contents. By employing castings with higher carbon contents and special cast microstructures, a creep strength, which is higher than that of rolled material, is assured. Cast grids of 253 MA have been dimensionally stable over a long service time, without the gas permeability being affected or the grids becoming jammed or distorted.

BLAST FURNACE PLANTS

In blast furnaces, high temperature materials are typically used for the recuperators in which the blast air is preheated by the furnace gas (Fig. 2), the charging mechanism for pulverized stock charged into the furnace, the circulation fans, gas piping, etc. The coking ovens used for producing the blast furnace coke are also equipped with recuperators for recovering heat from the hot gases. High temperature alloys may also be necessary for the discharge doors and collecting grids of the coking ovens, which are subjected to high temperatures and abrupt temperature changes in conjunction with water-cooling. The temperature in the recuperators may vary from 1150°C at the hot-gas inlet end, down to the ambient outdoor temperature at the combustion air intake. Since both the coking oven gas and the blast furnace

ignition

ore concen-

combustion

recycled

cool dust

trate finest

front

bedding sinter

grid
grid

Figure 1

suction

High temperature stainless steels

High temperature stainless steels
High temperature stainless steels

gas contain sulphur, ferritic chromium steels have commonly been used, which has led to problems of creep deformation in the hottest zones. As both 153 MA and 253 MA have much higher creep strength than ferritic steels, they are better suited for this application. They also have better resistance to the effects of sulphur- rich gases than equivalent high temperature steels and nickel-base alloys. AvestaPolarit 253 MA has also been successfully used in expansion bellows (Fig. 3) for cyclically heated components. Expansion bellows for recuperator installations used to be made of 4878 or 4948, but a change to 253 MA, increased the service life of the bellows from 3–6 months to several years.

Figure 2

of the bellows from 3–6 months to several years. Figure 2 Figure 3 STEEL MELTING, SMELTERS,
of the bellows from 3–6 months to several years. Figure 2 Figure 3 STEEL MELTING, SMELTERS,

Figure 3

STEEL MELTING, SMELTERS, AND CONTINUOUS CASTING PLANTS

When steels and other metals are melted and refined in arc furnaces and converters, components such as fume extraction hoods, flue gas ducts, dampers, hatches, bridges, and the preheaters for ladles and scrap are subjected to high thermal stresses. This applies particularly to equipment, which cannot be protected by water cooling or refractory lining. Depending on the maximum service temperature, 153 MA, 253 MA, or even 353 MA may be used in these applications to avoid serious deformation and frequent repairs. 253 MA and 353 MA have also been used successfully in chutes for feeding e.g. scrap into the arc furnace or other alloying additions into the converter.

ROLLING MILLS

Before rolling or forging, ingots, slabs, and billets are usually heated in box-type or continuous reheat furnaces. Gas or oil burners or electric resistance elements are used for heating. In such furnaces, the components subjected to high temperature stresses are principally the rollers, slide-rails, or walking beams used for moving the material through the furnace. The frame- work and edge reinforcements for the charging and discharging doors are also subjected to high tempera- tures. Due to its high creep strength, AvestaPolarit 253 MA has proved to be an excellent material for such components. Numerous installations at rolling mills in several countries have yielded very favourable results. Lately, there has been a transition from “common” burners to oxy-fuel burners, where the combustion air is replaced by oxygen. In addition to all the benefits, there is one draw-back – the flue gas water vapour content will increase substantially (10 – 40%), which will increase the demands on oxidation resistance of the construction materials.

HEAT TREATMENT FURNACES

Steelworks, metal works, and special hardening shops carry out heat treatment to give various products the required properties. Many different types of furnace with different atmospheres and temperature cycles are used for this purpose. If heat treatment requires a controlled furnace atmosphere – an inert gas, an active gas, or vacuum – a gas-tight inner casing is used in the furnace. This is known as a muffle or retort and is made of a high temperature steel or a nickel base alloy.

High temperature stainless steels
High temperature stainless steels

High temperature stainless steels

The retort is actually a pressure vessel and is thus intended for higher gas pressures than a muffle. The most important furnace types and the material problems commonly occurring are discussed below.

• Bell-type furnaces

• Pit furnaces

• Box-type furnaces

• Molten salt/lead pots

• Continuous furnaces

• Furnaces with fluidized beds

Bell-type furnaces

A bell-type furnace consists of a vertical cylindrical or

rectangular shell, with a domed end welded to the top. The shell or “bell” has a refractory insulation and is placed over the muffle, which encloses the material to be heat-treated in a controlled furnace atmosphere.

Heating is carried out by gas or oil burners, by electric resistance elements, or by radiant tubes between the bell and the muffle. A fan at the bottom of the muffle circulates the hot gas inside it to ensure a uniform temperature throughout the furnace. The material to be heat-treated may be coils of strip, wire rods, bars, or small parts. The material is placed on a base above

a grid known as the diffuser, which helps to distribute the circulating gas in the muffle Fig. 4.

Figure 4

the circulating gas in the muffle Fig. 4. Figure 4 base fan muffle (inner cover) intermediate

base

fan

muffle

(inner cover)

intermediate

partition

diffuser

The problems usually arising are that the muffle is distorted adjacent to the burner zones due to non- uniform temperature, or that the entire bottom part of the muffle deforms due to creep. The base, the diffuser, and the fan impeller may also distort because of the

high temperatures and mechanical stresses. The material selected for the muffle will depend on

the maximum service temperature and the atmosphere

in the furnace. AvestaPolarit 153 MA and 253 MA are

suitable alternatives to conventional high temperature steels, such as AvestaPolarit 4833 (309S), 4845 (310S), or 4828 (W.-Nr. 1.4828), due to their better creep resistance. Service experience shows that furnace components made of these alloys are easier to repair and require less maintenance. 253 MA should be employed for temperatures above 850°C. If there is a risk of carburiza- tion and/or nitridation (and 253 MA has proved inadequate), more highly alloyed nickel alloys such as 353 MA will be necessary.

Pit furnaces

A pit furnace is, in principle, an inverted bell-type

furnace, which is recessed into the floor. The material problems and their solutions are therefore similar to those associated with bell-type furnaces.

Box-type furnaces

The box-type furnace is charged horizontally through

a door and is provided with a gas-tight muffle if used

for heat treatment in a controlled atmosphere. If electric heating is employed, the heating elements in the bottom are protected by a hearth made of high temperature

material (Fig. 5). In box-type furnaces, heat-resistant materials are also used for fans to ensure uniform temperatures and for pier protection caps. The most common material problem is that the muffle and hearth become distorted due to high temperatures and temperature differences.

The distortion is accentuated at points where the muffle

is secured or at the bottom, due to the cooling effect of

the supports. Other problems include failure of welded

joints and carburization and/or nitridation from the

of the supports. Other problems include failure of welded joints and carburization and/or nitridation from the

Figure 5

High temperature stainless steels

High temperature stainless steels
High temperature stainless steels

furnace atmosphere, which may lead to serious oxida- tion attacks or embrittlement. The materials used and alternative solutions employed are the same as those described above for bell-type furnaces.

Molten salt/metal furnaces

Salt bath furnaces are frequently used for liquid carburization and/or nitridation (case hardening), but also for “neutral” heat treatments, due to the excellent heat transfer and energy efficiency. For the case hardening salt pots, a high nickel alloy should be beneficial. For the neutral salt mixtures of KCl, NaCl, and BaCl 2 , the main problems are attacks from salt vapours and from contaminations in the salt bath. The most common molten metal application is patenting of wire in molten lead (or bismuth) baths. The lead itself is not extremely aggressive unless the construction material has a too high nickel content. The main problem is instead attacks from lead oxide at the metal/air surface, which should be covered with pulverized coal.

Furnaces with fluidized beds

In more recent generations of furnaces, based on heat transfer by the fluidized bed principle, 253 MA has proved to be suitable as a structural material for the furnace walls. In this context, the resistance to erosion caused by the pulverous bed material is important. This type of furnace may, for example, be used as a replacement for molten lead or salt bath furnaces for heat treatment of steel wire.

Continuous furnaces

In a continuous furnace, heat treatment of the material takes place as the material is continuously fed through the furnace. A common type is the straight tunnel furnace used for the annealing, hardening, or tempering of rolled strip, wire, machine components, or other separate work pieces (see Fig. 6). These furnaces can also be equipped with a gas-tight muffle (Fig. 7) made of high temperature material, if the annealing process demands a controlled furnace atmosphere. The feed of the charge through the furnace are carried out by means of e.g. walking beams, rollers, chains, and trolleys. Another conveying device is the conveyor belt, on which the heat-treated material is pulled through the furnace. It is usually made of wire mesh, slats, or possibly a solid strip of heat-resistant material.

Figure 6

Figure 7

a solid strip of heat-resistant material. Figure 6 Figure 7 The conveyor belts must have good
a solid strip of heat-resistant material. Figure 6 Figure 7 The conveyor belts must have good

The conveyor belts must have good resistance to the furnace environment, so that it does not corrode or become embrittled. A more common problem is that the conveyor belts become elongated after a certain service time and must be shortened. The creep strength (and ductility) of the materials used for such conveyor belts is thus crucial. 253 MA has yielded better results than materials such as 4845 (310S) and materials with even higher contents of alloying elements. At lower temperatures, 153 MA is a suitable alternative to type 4833 (309S). Heat-resistant materials are also used for driving gears and deflector rolls.

FURNACE COMPONENTS AND ACCESSORIES

In addition to the furnace structure itself discussed above, furnace components and accessories that are common to a number of furnace types, also require high temperature materials. These components are e.g. radiant tubes, electric resistance elements, fans, heat exchangers, anchor bolts for insulating mats, trays, baskets, and fixtures, and thermocouple sheathing.

Radiant tubes

If oil or gas burners are used, the combustion gases must be kept away from the charge. Therefore, radiant tubes are used for heat transfer to the furnace. The hot gas flows through the tubes, which are thus heated and emit radiant heat from the outer surfaces. The tubes may be straight, U-shaped, or W-shaped, and are made of high temperature material, either in cast or in welded form (Fig. 8).

High temperature stainless steels
High temperature stainless steels

High temperature stainless steels

In the past, most radiant tubes were cast. Relatively thin-walled tubes in straight lengths can be produced by centrifugal casting. However, all-welded tubes are becoming increasingly common. Welded tubes offer the following advantages compared to cast tubes:

• easier to manufacture to suit the requirements of the users, due to the availability of high temperature materials in the form of plate, sheet, and strip

• lower weight and more efficient heat transfer due to thinner material

• reduced sensitivity to thermal fatigue

• easier to reinforce in exposed areas and easier to repair by welding

• reduced likelihood of deposits and less risk of high temperature corrosion, due to smoother surfaces.

The most common material problems are deformation and embrittlement due to carburization and/or nitridation and overheating, caused e.g. by misaligned internal burners. Welded tubes of 253 MA have successfully replaced centrifugally cast radiation tubes in continuous heat treatment furnaces with a nitrogen/hydrogen gas atmosphere. In these cases it has been possible to reduce the wall thickness from 8–10 to 3–4 mm. 353 MA may be a suitable alternative for more aggressive gas environments.

Electrical resistance material

The materials used for electrical resistance elements are usually ferritic chromium-aluminium steels or nickel- base alloys. The former can withstand high temperatures, but become brittle after some service time. They also have a low creep strength and thus deform readily. Nickel-base alloys are less prone to embrittlement and deformation, but are more expensive. 253 MA may be used for heating elements for furnaces operating at moderate temperatures, i.e. in the range between 800 and 1050°C, due to its high creep strength and lower risk of embrittlement. This material has been tested in the form of resistance wire as well as corrugated strip elements (Fig. 9) and has yielded good

as corrugated strip elements (Fig. 9) and has yielded good Figure 8 results. Experience has shown

Figure 8

results. Experience has shown that 253 MA used as resistance material may have a service life of up to twice that of ferritic materials.

Fans

Fans used for circulating or extracting hot gases are subjected to very difficult conditions due to the stresses caused by the centrifugal force, and the effect of hot, aggressive gases containing abrasive dust. A fan impeller must not become so brittle that it fails, neither must it deform nor accumulate thick deposits, since it could then become unbalanced. So, the choice of material must be based on a thorough assessment of the operating conditions. AvestaPolarit 153 MA and 253 MA are suitable for the fans used in bell-type furnaces (Fig.4), due to their combination of high resistance to oxidation and high creep strength. When used for fans, for which abrasive dust has given rise to problems, 253 MA has also proved to be more resistant to erosion than e.g. 4845 (310S).

Heat exchangers

Recuperators for heat recovery from blast furnace gases have been mentioned earlier. Tubular heat exchangers (Fig. 10) and plate heat exchangers are also used for improving the efficiency of (p)reheating and heat treatment furnaces. Material selection will depend on the temperature and gas environment. Heat-resistant materials are also used for tube spacers and supports.

and gas environment. Heat-resistant materials are also used for tube spacers and supports. Figure 9 Figure
and gas environment. Heat-resistant materials are also used for tube spacers and supports. Figure 9 Figure

Figure 9

Figure 10

High temperature stainless steels

High temperature stainless steels
High temperature stainless steels

Anchor bolts and fasteners

Modern heat treatment furnaces are often insulated with highly effective fibre mats instead of refractory bricks or ceramic compounds. These insulating mats are secured to the inside of the furnace wall by means of special bolts with lock washers. The bolts are welded to the inside of the shell at suitable intervals. The mat is then pressed over the bolts and is held in position by the lock washers (Fig. 11). Fasteners of high temperature materials are also used for securing electrical resistance elements, radiant tubes, refractory linings, ceramic compounds (Fig. 12), etc. The fasteners and anchor bolts employed for this purpose may be made of bar, wire rod, or plate, and must have a high creep strength and a good resistance to oxidation to perform their task satisfactorily. AvestaPolarit 253 MA has proven to be a good alternative to both nickel-base alloys and other high temperature materials.

Trays, baskets, and fixtures

Small machine components that require heat treatment are often loaded into baskets or onto trays, which are then charged into the furnace (Fig .13). The materials used for these baskets and trays must be capable of withstanding the temperature cycles and furnace atmos- pheres when used repeatedly over a long service time. Alloys with high nickel contents are often used for this purpose, so AvestaPolarit 353 MA may be a suitable alternative. In spite of its lower content of alloying elements, 253 MA has produced good results for trays and baskets thanks to its very high creep strength.

Thermocouple sheathing

Thermocouples used for recording and controlling the furnace temperatures must be protected from attack by the furnace gases if they are to provide correct tempera- ture readings. These thermocouple sheathings must be thin-walled to ensure fast temperature response and must also be capable of withstanding the temperatures and gases in their environment. Sheathings made of 253 MA have yielded good results in this application as well as for use in gas analysers.

Figure 11

Figure 12

Figure 13

253 MA have yielded good results in this application as well as for use in gas
253 MA have yielded good results in this application as well as for use in gas
253 MA have yielded good results in this application as well as for use in gas
High temperature stainless steels
High temperature stainless steels

High temperature stainless steels

Summary of the areas of application

The various examples of applications of AvestaPolarit micro-alloyed high temperature steels in the steel and metals industries can be summarized as follows:

Pellet sintering plants

Grids, wind boxes, burners, fans, etc.

Blast furnace plants

Charging pipes for pulverized coal (and ore pellets), circulation fans, piping, expansion bellows, recuperators for blast furnace gas, and heat exposed parts of coking ovens.

Steel melting, smelters, and continuous casting plants

Extraction hoods, flue gas ducts, feed chutes, dampers, doors, bridges, and preheaters for scrap and ladles.

Rolling mills (heating furnaces)

Furnace rollers, slide-rails, walking beams, framework, edge reinforcements for doors, etc.

Heat treatment furnaces and furnace accessories

Muffles, retorts, fans, heat exchangers, tube spacers and supports, furnace hearths, pier protection caps, conveyor belts, radiant tubes, electric heating elements, anchor bolts and fasteners for refractory materials, fixtures for brazing work, trays and baskets, thermo- couple sheathing, tubes in gas analysers, etc.

Pellet sintering plants Blast furnace plants Steel melting, smelters, and continuous casting plants Heat treatment
Pellet sintering plants
Blast furnace plants
Steel melting, smelters,
and continuous
casting plants
Heat treatment
furnaces and furnace
accessories
Rolling mills
(heating furnaces)

High temperature stainless steels

High temperature stainless steels
High temperature stainless steels

What can AvestaPolarit offer the steel and metals industries?

AvestaPolarit and its subsidiaries offer a wide range of stainless steel grades and products. For high temperature applications, AvestaPolarit can provide both micro-alloyed stainless high temperature steels as well as standard steels of the chromium-nickel type.

STEEL GRADES

   

Chemical composition, %, typical values

National steel designations, superseded by EN

 

AvestaPolarit

EN

ASTM

C

N

Cr

Ni

Si

Others

BS

DIN

NF

SS

4948

1.4948

304

H

0.05

18.3

8.7

0.5

304S51

1.4948

Z6 CN 18-09

2333

4878

1.4878

321

H

0.05

17.5

9.5

0.5

Ti

321S51

1.4878

Z6 CNT 18-10

2337

153

MA

1.4818

S30415

0.05

0.15

18.5

9.5

1.3

Ce

1.4891

2372

4828

1.4828

0.04

20

12

2.0

1.4828

Z17 CNS 20-12

4833

1.4833

309S

0.06

22.5

12.5

0.5

309S16

1.4833

Z15 CN 23-13

253

MA

1.4835

S30815

0.09

0.17

21

11

1.7

Ce

1.4893

2368

4845

1.4845

310S

0.05

25

20

1.0

304S24

1.4845

Z8 CN 25-20

2361

353

MA

1.4854

S35315

0.05

0.15

25

35

1.5

Ce

153 MA, 253 MA, and 353 MA are patented grades with trademarks used by AvestaPolarit. 253 MA and 353 MA are registered.

PRODUCTS

Hot-rolled plate Widths: 1000 3000 mm

Steel grades: 153 MA, 253 MA, 353 MA, 4878, 4833, 4845

Thicknesses: 586 mm

Cold-rolled sheet and strip Widths: 5790 mm

Steel grades: 153 MA, 253 MA, 4828, 4833, 4845

Thicknesses: 0.151.6 mm

Widths: 501350 mm

Steel grades: 153 MA, 253 MA, 353 MA, 4878, 4833, 4845, 4828

Thicknesses: 0.44 mm

Widths: 13502000 mm

Steel grades: 153 MA, 253 MA, 353 MA, 4878, 4828, 4833, 4845

Thicknesses: 1.56.35 mm

Bar Sections: round, rectangular, flat, angle and other profiles Steel grades: 253 MA,4878, 4845

Drawn wire Diameters: 0.85 mm Steel grade: 253 MA

Welded pipe and tube, fittings

Diameters: 61600 mm

Steel grades: 153 MA, 253 MA, 353 MA 4828, 4845, 4878

Wall thicknesses: 125 mm

Manufactured products from plate and sheet To purchaser's specifications

Welding consumables Manual welding electrodes:

Steel grades: 253 MA, 353 MA, 409, 310, P10 (nickel-base)

Welding wire for automatic welding:MIG, TIG, Submerged arc Steel grades: 253 MA, 353 MA, 309L, P7, P10

Castings

From licensees.

More detailed information concerning each product is available in special AvestaPolarit data sheets which can be obtained from your nearest AvestaPolarit office or downloaded from our website: www.avestapolarit.com

ADVICE

Advice in matters concerning AvestaPolarit materials as well as references to previous

deliveries can be obtained from the Application Department at the Avesta Research Centre

or from your local AvestaPolarit representative.

Advice and assistance provided without charge are given with the best knowledge

and in good faith, but without any responsibility.

High temperature stainless steels
High temperature stainless steels

High temperature stainless steels

Colour-temperature scale for glowing steel

The steel should be judged under dark or dimly lit conditions – not in direct sunlight. The colour scale should be viewed in normal diffuse daylight – not sunlight or lamplight.

in normal diffuse daylight – not sunlight or lamplight. 1200 ° C 1100 ° C 1050

1200°C

1100°C

1050°C

980°C

930°C

870°C

810°C

760°C

700°C

650°C

600°C

Information 104103EN. 09-2003. Graphic Concept AB/Edita Västra Aros AB.

AvestaPolarit is one of the world's leading stainless steel producers. The Group combines cost-efficient production with a global sales and distribution network and offers customers one of the broadest product ranges on the market. AvestaPolarit's focus is exclusively on stainless steel, a fast-growing industry sector. Ever since the Group's formation in January 2001, AvestaPolarit's vision has been to become “Best in stainless”. Today, AvestaPolarit is an integral part of the Outokumpu metals and technology group, in which the stainless steel business is a core area.

Information given in this publication is subject to alteration without notice. Care has been taken to ensure that the contents of this publication are accurate but AvestaPolarit and its subsidiary companies do not accept responsibility for errors or for information which is found to be misleading. Suggestions for or descriptions of the end use or application of products or methods of working are for information only and the company and its subsidiaries accept no liability in respect thereof. Before using a product supplied or manufactured by the company, it is the respon- sibility of the customer to ensure the suitability of the product for its intended use. If further assistance is required, the company, which has extensive research facilities, will often be able to help. The cover picture shows 253MA radiant U-tubes mounted horizontally in a heat treatment furnace (courtesy by Rolled Alloys, Inc)

Technical Application Department:

AvestaPolarit AB Avesta Research Centre SE-774 80 Avesta Tel: +46 (0)226-810 00 Fax: +46 (0)226-810 77 E-mail: research@avestapolarit.com

www.avestapolarit.com

(0)226-810 00 Fax: +46 (0)226-810 77 E-mail: research@avestapolarit.com www.avestapolarit.com An Outokumpu Group company

An Outokumpu Group company