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Members in group: John Nguyen Ngoc Khoi


Anna Nguyen Van Anh
Jennifer Nguyen Thi Xuan Trang
Ikarus Huynh Kim Bao

Teacher: Mr. Brian Peacock


AC: Mrs. Olive Ngo Thi Viet Tam

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The discovery of the spectrum a great influence to the present life. It helps to
explain many interesting phenomena happening around us and is also a tool for
scientists to patent many inventions for life, such as determining the chemical,
manufacturing batteries of light and many other inventions.
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In Latin Õ  means "image" or "apparition", including the meaning "spectre".


Spectral evidence is testimony about what was done by spectres of persons not present
physically, or hearsay evidence about what ghosts or apparitions of Satan said. It was
used to convict a number of persons of witchcraft at Salem, Massachusetts in the late
17th century. The word "spectrum" [Spektrum] was strictly used to designate a ghostly
optical afterimage by Goethe in his  
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The !   m
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(can be detected by) the human eye.
Electromagnetic radiation in this range of
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light. A typical human eye will respond to ÕÕ 
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wavelengths from about 390 to 750 nm. In
terms of frequency, this corresponds to a band in the vicinity of 400±790 THz. A lightº
adapted eye generally has its maximum sensitivity at around 555 nm (540 THz), in the
green region of the optical spectrum (see: luminosity function). The spectrum does not,
however, contain all the colors that the human eyes and brain can distinguish.
Unsaturated colors such as pink, or purple variations such as magenta, are absent, for
example, because they can only be made by a mix of multiple wavelengths.

Visible wavelengths also pass through the "optical window", the region of the
electromagnetic spectrum that passes largely unattenuated through the Earth's atmosphere. Clean
air scatters blue light more than wavelengths toward the red, which is why the midºday sky
appears blue. The human eye's response is defined by subjective testing, but atmospheric
windows are defined by physical measurement.

The "visible window" is so called because it overlaps the human visible response spectrum.
The near infrared (NIR) windows lie just out of the human response window, and the Medium
avelength IR (M IR) and Long avelength or Far Infrared (L IR or FIR) are far beyond
the human response region.

Many species can see frequencies which fall outside the "visible spectrum". Bees and many
other insects can see light in the ultraviolet, which helps them find nectar in flowers. Plant

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species that depend on insect pollination may owe reproductive success to their appearance in
ultraviolet light, rather than how colorful they appear to humans. Birds too can see into the
ultraviolet (300±400 nm), and some have sexºdependent markings on their plumage, which are
only visible in the ultraviolet range.

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Our modern understanding of


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light and color begins with Isaac Õ 
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its component colors: red, orange, Õm
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yellow, green, blue and violet.

In the late 1660s, Newton starts experimenting with


his ¶celebrated phenomenon of colors.¶ At the time,
people thought that color was a mixture of light and
darkness, and that prisms colored light. Hooke was a
proponent of this theory of color. Newton realizes this
theory was false.
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Newton set up a prism near his window, and projected a beautiful
spectrum 22 feet onto the far wall. Further, to prove that the prism was not coloring the
light, he refracted the light back together.

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Colors that can be produced by visible light of a single frequency or wavelength


(monochromatic light) are referred to as the pure spectral colors.

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V. Electromagnetic spectrum:

The  
  
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electromagnetic radiation.[1] The "electromagnetic spectrum" of an object is the
characteristic distribution of electromagnetic radiation emitted or absorbed by that
particular object.

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EM waves are typically described by any of the following three physical properties:
the frequency , wavelength Ȝ, or photon energy . Frequencies range from 2.4×1023
Hz (1 GeV gamma rays) down to the local plasma frequency of the ionized interstellar
medium (~1 kHz). avelength is inversely proportional to the wave frequency, so
gamma rays have very short wavelengths that are fractions of the size of atoms, whereas
wavelengths can be as long as the universe. Photon energy is directly proportional to the
wave frequency, so gamma rays have the highest energy (around a billion electron volts)
and radio waves have very low energy (around femto electron volts).

VI. The emission spectrum

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