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Ia. It{. B. O.
Ie. M. B. 0. 7t -- 4,
I 9 l'r

I'Il Ef A(l ti I'age I

Inrnonuc'ronY SunvEY 4
Inlroilwtory ilersc.s.I vv. l-2 4
GeneralSuraey, I vv. 3-17 4
l. 'frrr vARTETIESorl I'IIFI rlloucrl'r oF ENLTcIITEN-
r\rEN'r'. lB-20 . 9
2. fxsl nucr loNs. 2l- 22 . 10
TUT T I I DIRIT T I RISERVAT T 2,3cTheSanr . gha. 23- 24. . tl
3. 'l'rrr FouR aIDS To tENEIRA'rroN. 25-36 . 13
4. ' frrn, LTNEAcE. 37- 39 . 1B
5. ' frrr oIr JECr r yEsupponls. 40- 41 lB
6. illrrs PROGnArr. 42 19
(7.-10.' I 'he pr ogr ess)
7 P urrrnc oN TUE ARr lt oun. 43 l9
B. Srrnnc our. 44-45 20
9. '.fnn neurpmrrvr. 46-47 2I
9, L6 'l'lw ,cn stages,48-70 22
9, 17 The eqrdpment with antidotes. 7l , z(l

10. Gorrvc-r'onru. 72-73 29

l. 'l 'H n LIITIB S or rIIE K N oIv LE D GE oF TIIE pA Ttl s . II v . I 3l
(II A. I'\rc pnth of the Disciples)
2. Tnr K NowLEDcE oF TnE par ns r vHr cH coNSI STsI N
TIIE cocNlrroN oF TrtE pATtt oF THD Drscrplrs . . 3l
l. I'he ospectsof tlw four trutlw. 3l
2. I-lw aids to penetration. 3-5 32
UI B. T'hepath of the Pratyekobuildhas)
3, Tun KNo\ilLEDGE oF TnE pATIrs wrrrcn coNslsrs lN
Priuted in ltaly - Sranrpato in ltalia TrrE coGNtl'IoN oF TIrn paTII oF THE Putyrrlnuo.
D T I A S . ( t- 7 , 33


L. Its threelolil distirt,ctiaerrcss. I . . Pagc 33 2. Trrn ENDEAVouns. vv. 6'll

2. 'Ihc aids to penatration. 9-10 34 A. The persorts utho arc suitable to ntake the anilea'
(f I C. The path of the Bodhisattuas) u/,urs. I'uge 50
(II Ca. The poth ol uision) R, T',he of training . 50
pATtI oF vlsloN, ;tz
4. Ttrn aND 'rnE GREAT aDyAN,rAGE. 3 . Tnn qu.llrrtns. 12ab
il-16 34 4 . F.nurrs. 12 c d 54
(tI Cb. Tlrc path of deuelopnwnt)
5 . Nlrnrs. I3-31 J/

5. Wulr rHE p ATH oF DEv ELopt r ENT DoE s . v. lZ. 37 I. The marhs of cogrritiotr'
6. Rrsor,u'rE FArrH. 1B-19 37 la. As regarils all'knoPlctlSe . JI

7. Pn.l.rsr, EULoGyAND cr,onrFrclTroN. 20 . 39 5B

lD. ls regarils tlrc' h.nouleilge of the paths
B. 'fHe ATTENTToNTo ruRNrNG ovER. ZI-ZJ 39 5B
lc. As regarils the knowleilge of all modes
9. Arrnr,rrroN To nEJorctNG. 24 . 40 60
2. The. distinctiue nwrles
10. Tnn MARK oF coNsrrutrarroN, 25 4l 6l
3, The marks of actiaitY
l l . A ns olur E p u n rry . 2 6 -8 l 62
4. Tha nrorks of oun''being , .
I. The couses of flrn belief in the Dharntn 4I
6. Trtn Arns lo EIIANcIPATIoN. 32'34 64
2, The ccus€s of falling o,toayfront, tha l)harma. 42
6a. The Aiils to emoncipaciort itr' gerrcral ' 64
3. The general character of absolute pu,rity , 42
6b. A fiuefolil diaision. of the Aiils to entancipatiort 64
4. The dffiren"t forms of ubsolute purity 42
5. T'h,eaarieties of absolute pulit1,, when. uiewed as a 6c. Threc tlcgreeso! strength of thc Ails to emancipa'
ti on 65
process . . 42
?. ' Irrn Ar os 'r o PENEr nAr r oN. 35'37. 65
B . ' frtn HosT oF r RnEvERsI Br , EBoDI I I sATTYAs' 3B- 59' 66
I . - 2. Iln n sr a n r,tsrrrr)
rN DrrltE nr lECO I |n N G o n QUII]. I. 7'1rcnmrks of irret'usiltility t ' the leuel of the Ails
TUDE. v. I 4'\ to penetration' ,
3.-4 . Irln nn ss AND NEARNEs g oF pERTE C T l y t s D o M .
2, Tie morks of irreaersibilily of one who sturuls ort
v.2 44 the path of oision,
P or Nr s r o B E s rru N N ED . 3 . 44 3, The marks of irreuersibility of on'eulw standson the

6. Arunorps. 4-7 44 70
path of ileuelopment,
7. E x only ouns . B -1 0 b . 45 70
A. The depth of the poth of deoelopment '
at. T Hr s , t unx Es s o F T rIE EN D E Av o u R S . l 0cd, 46 deuelop'
B. The ilistinctiae features of tlw path of
9. ' I ur p, c . r r roF v rs to N . l l -l 5 . 47 ?0
tnettt .
L -III. A nnr lp RE S U rl rE. v . 1 6 4B C. Nine ilegrees of the path of de'uelopment' 7l
IV. THB FULL UNDERSTANDINGOF ALL MODES D. The mark of enlightenrnent. 7L
E, The eightfolil tlepth of the path o! deaelopment 7L
l . A s pnc r s . v v . l -5
9. Tnn sauENEss oF BEcoM I Nc aND Q UI ETUDE' v' 60 74
l. 27 aspects relating to hinayanistic all-knowlarlge 49
2. 36 aspccts relating to thc lutowleilge of the paths, 10. Trrr uriltosr PUnlrY oF 'rrIE Bunnttl'rlnr'o' 61 ' JJ
3, 110 aspects reloting to the knowledge of aII modes. 49 l l . Trru sKI LL I N M EANs. 62'63 , JJ

I vrrr ] It*]


l. Irs crlARAcrnRrsrrcs. v. 1 .Puge 77 K an MA nE s uLT. v .3 . .P age 94

3. Tnn sTNGLE-rNsrANTANEous RE-uNroN wnrcn sEEs
2. Tnnrn cRowrrr. 2 7B
ALL DEAnMAS as DEvorD oF tuAnKS. v. 4
3. F r nu P o s rrro N . 3 BO sTNGLE-rNsraNTANEous RE-uNroN wIrIcIr sDES
4. 'Iun
4. Coupr , p rn s rA g rl rs AT ro N o F T rro u crrr. 4, 80 TIIE ]IIARK OF NON-DUAI.,ITYIN ALL DIIANITIAS. V. 5
5. T r r n P lt rr o F v rs ro N
5a. The two discrininations of tlw objecr. 5 BI
5h. The tuo tliscrintinatiorts of the subject. 6-7 . BI
2. Tnr f)nlnue-nonv. vv. 2-ll . 96
5c. The first false tliscriminatiott, of the object. B-9 BI
3. Tnn ErvJovnpnr-BoDy. vv. 12-32 9B
5d. The seconil folse iliscriminotiotr. of the object,
4. Tnn Tnexsr onnAr loN- BoDy. v. 33 I 02
r 0 - 1 2. B2
(5). Tun FUNCTToNSoF rnn Dn-Lnua-nonv. w. 34-40 102
5e. Tlrc frst false discrimination of tlrc subject. 13-14 B3
5f. The seconilfalse discrimination, of tlrc subject. 15-16 B1 IX. SUIIIMARY. vv. l-2 106
5g. Three reesons for the attainnrent of full enlighten-
nwnt . 1 7 . Bl-r .
;i"?'i^"*lttis*oirrNDEx. : ll;
5h. The greot enlightennrcnt. IB a, b 85
5i. The cognitions of ertinction and of non-produc-
t ion. 1 8 c -2 1 . 85
5k. The uccomplislnnent of tlrc deuelopment of tlrc sir
perfections. v. 22 . B6
51. Conilitioned co-production. v. 23. B6
6, Tttp PATrr or DEvELoPMENT
6a. The crowning ossoulr. 24-25 B6
6b. The first discrinrination of the object. 26, 27 ob B7
6c, The second discrinrinatiort, of the object. 27 c d-29 OI

6iI. The frst disuirnination of tlw subject. 30-31 . BB

6e. The second discrintination of the subject. 32-34 . B9
6[, The achieoementof a airtuous contlition 35-36 90
7. Tnp uNrr\rpEDEDcoNCENTnA?toN. 37-39 c 9r
B . T nn 16 E n n o n s . 3 9 d -4 2 . 92
VI. G RA DUA L R E -U N IO N . v. I 93
l. Wtrrr REGARDTo ALr, DTTARMAs lvrrrlour ottrrt,ows
AND lilrrrrour KARMA-REsuLT. vv. l-2
2. Wrtn nEcaRD To ALL DgAnilras tyrrrlour orrrFr,olvs.

l xl l xr l

Tlrc Abl:nsutrtuy a-dlufiledra ndnw pruj fiiip dr a nitopail e6u-

(dstra (abbreviated as AA) consists of 273 memorial ver'
ses. The sanskrit text has been printed three times, lly
2) and by
Stcherbatsky and Obermiller r), by G. Tucci
U. Wogihara 3). lly translation has been made frorn Wo'
gihara's text, lvhich seemed to require correction in two
places only n), although I have on occasions altered his
numbering of the items. The Tibetan translation has
been invaluable throughouto and I have studied it in the
edition of the Bibliotheca Buddhica.
A translation of the text by itself n'ould be quite urrin-
telligible. f have therefore added in brackets the neces'
sary explanations. They are derived from ttvo sources:
l. The Prajftdpdrunitd-srirra r-,elf. Ilere rve havc
for our guirlance the recast vcrsirtn of the I'uitcttuintiuti'
sdhusrikd-prajfid1tdranrird (abbrcviatcd as,l'), rvbich super'
imposes the framework of the AA on the text of the
Sutra, and adds, after each section, the appropriate heatl-
irrg from tlne AA. Only the lirst abhisanraya of this
text has so far been printed t), and for the remainder I

1) B i bl i otheca Buddhi c a, 23, Leni ngrad 1929.

2) In his edition of the Abhisamaydlankdrdlokd, Baroda 1932, GOS
(abbrevi ated ?).
r) In his edition of. the Abhisamaldlaikdrdlolco-, Tokyo 1932-5 (abbre'
viated as .Ef).
+) L e. at I 12 , 6ai k s ho for ' 5ai k s ho, bec aus e of H 728, l 7; IV ' 4? pari -
j aya[ for pari kshay af, w i th ,tl x v i i 332. V y av as ana at II 26 i s a mi s pri nt
for vyasana.
s) E d. N . D urr . 1934.

I. (oNtr,
- li. Al'hi:nnoti,ln,thnra.
ED\I'ARD CONZE Abhisamayilaikira
have relied on the Cambridge manuscript Add L628. In sometimes rentlered this as 'etc.'o but in othef cases I
addition I have generally rvorked out the correspondence have given in brackets the factors referred to, and r[pa-
of P with the chapters and pages of the Ashtasd.hasri.kd. edi I have translated as 'the skanrlhas '. (2) Sometimes
(: A) t), and with the chapters of the Sonsdhasrilcd (: S)') the exigencies of the rnetre have led to thc choice of unu-
and of the Asluddaflasd,lnsrikd (: Afl)q. sual terms, like khadga regularly for pratyekabuddha,
2. The commentary of llaribhadra, thc Abldsu- dpin*rnirrga or dyik-patha for dar6ana*mflrga, ctc. I have
moydlniftd,ra-d.loka a), which, among other things, para- not regarded it as my task to reproduce these peculiari-
phrases the entire text of the Abhisamayd.Ioitkdra. The ties, and I have, for instance, translated khadga as 'Pra-
interpretation of this commentary is, again, greatly assi- tyekabuddha ', and not as 'rhinoceros o.
sted by the analysis which E. Obermiller 5) has given of The headings which I have given in front of each sec-
it, and which owes a great deal to the Tibetan commen- tion do not form part of the text of the Abhisarnaydlnfi-
tators. kdra, They are supplied from the revised version of the
Vimuktisena's Abldsamaydlaiftdrouyahhyd is a source Paitcuuirl&atisdlmsrikd,, antl in a few cases from Haribha-
of some importance which I have not bcen able to eon- dra's commentary.
sult. The sanskrit mamrscript is in the possession of
Prof. Tucci, and an edition is expected in the near future.
This ryikhyd or vgti is a commentary on both P and
AA, sid,eby side, and it is chiefly concerned with showingo
point by point, the correspondence which exists between
the divisions and verses of AA and the text of P. The
verses of AA are usually explained, and so are difEcult
A : Atlasd.hasrikd
words occurring in the quotations from P.
AA : Abhisamaydloitkdra
Except for the additions in brackets, my translation
AAA : Abhisamay dlairk ar alok a
is in general quite literal. Only in two cases have I depar-
Ad : Arl,iila*asdhasrihd
ted from strict literalness. (1) The verses very often
H : Wocrrr.lne's edition of Hlnrerrann{s AAA
indicate a whole sequence of of items by -edi. I have
P : Paiicaaiqr{atisd,hasrikd prajir.d.pdrarnitdobhisamaydlaikd-
1) Ed. R. Mrrne, Calcutta IBBB. Bibliotheca Indica. rdnusarena sam{oilhitd
2) Ed. P, Gnosnr, Calcutra 1902-13.BibliothecgIndica. And the Cam- S : iatasdha'srikd
bridge manuscipte Ailil L630, 1627, 1632,
3) Tibetan only, 3 volumes. T : Tuccr's edition of AA
a) For editiour see notes 2) and 3).
5) Analyeie of the lbhisama.yd,laikdrd,.I, 1933,II;1936, III, 1943, up
to ll IV, 5, 3.

[2] t3 l
A b h i 6 a m a yd l a i ki r a

5. The objective supports.

6. The prograrn.
7. Thc rvork of (putting on) the armour.
IxrnouucroRY Sunvnv. B. The (work of) setting out.
9. The equipment.
Introtlu.ctory Verses. Yv. l-2.
10. The goirrg forth.
The purpose of my undertaking (in cornposingthe pre- II. Th,eknowledge o.f the paths, which belongs to the discer-
sent treatise) is to errable the wise to behold the way to ning Bodhisattvas:
the knowledge of all modes,demonstrated here (in the Praj- t. (A preamble) begiruring rvith the eclipsing (of the
fiflpdramita) lry the Teacher, though others carurot expe- Gods), etc.
rience it. And when they have in their memory arranged
2. The path of the Disciples.
the sense of the Sutra, they will be able to make quick
3. The path of the Pratyekabuddhas.
progressin the tenfold practice of the Dharma. 4. The (Bodhisattva's) path of visiono of great ad-
GeneralSuruey. vv. 3-17. vantage, by qualities belonging to this and the other rvorld.
The perfection of wisdom h.asbeen proclairnedby way (5.-10.) The (Bodhisattva's) Path of development, i.e.
of eight topics 5. What it does,
I. The knowledge of all rnodes, 6. Ilesolute Faith.
II. The knorvledge of the paths, 7. Praise, eulogy, and glorificationo
III. All-knowledge, B.-9. The two supreme attentions of
IV. The full understarrdingof all modes, B. Turning Overo and
V. (The full undcrstanding) which has reached 9. Rejoicing.
the summit. 10. Consummation.
W. The full understanding which is gradual, 11. Absolute Puritv.
YII. The single-instantaneous full understanding, III. All-lenouleilge ie considered (as follows):
VIII. The Dharma-body. l. From wisdom no stand in becoming,
These are the eight. 2. from pity no stand in quietude;
I. The Sage'shnowleilgeof all modes: 3. through lack of (skill in) means distance (from
1. The production of the thought of enlightenment. the mother of the Tathagatas),
2. Instructions. 4. through (skill in) means no distance (from it),
3. The four Aids to Penetration. 5. The points to be shunned,
4. The foundation (or source) of the progress, which 6. their antidotes,
its own-being is the Dharma-element. 7. The endeavours.

l4l tsl
EDIYARD CONZ E AbhisaDrayilariklra

B. their sameness. 2. The I)harma-body, (5) H.ith its activitv,

9. The path of vision of the Disciples, etc. 3. The enjoynrent-body,
IY. The full understantling of all motles: 4. 'I'he apparitional body,
l. Aspects, with it has been proclaimed fourfold.
2. Endeavours, and
3. Qualities. AA I' .,1 ,S Ad
4. Faults 1 1 7 ,2 2 i 3 ,1 7 i 5 5 ,l 7 2
2 37 ,1 4 . 4 ,1 8 11 8 ,7 ? t- 7
5. Marks 3 l l 9 ,l l 5, u iii 486,7 B-I0
6. Aids to emancipation 4 l(r0,15 l 7 ,2 1 vi i 1209 ll
5 1 6 4 ,t3 tB,( r 1 2 5 7 ,1 5 ll
7. (Aids to) penetration
6 1 6 9 ,4 18,10 1 2 6 3 ,9 11-12
B. The host of irreversible (Bodhisattvas) rvho 7 1 7 6 ,7 2 \l,9 1 3 0 2 ,2 0 13
still learning. B 1 8 0 ,1 2 0 ,i 1 l 3 l 3 ,l 9 13
9 1 8 5 ,2 0 2 0 ,l 3 1 3 ,tr 2 ,1 6 14-18
9. The sameness of becoming and quietude l0 2 3 1 ,l l - 2 1 ,5 xi 1530- l9-2 t
10. The utmost purity of the fieltl 2 6 9,6 xi i i f. l - ttl
11. Skill in mearrs.
II I f. 2006 xiv I {{b 22
Y. The full understanding at its su,mntit: 2 20tb JI xiv 22
1. The characteristic J 206b 3B xiv
4 2 r.5b A1
x l'i 25-'J6
2. Its growth 229b lll 5{ xviii 2l ]0a 2i
3. Firm position 6 232a 5 7 ,5 xyiii 27-5r
7 24Ba l()2 xxii 32tra
4. Complete stabilisation.
B 258a vi r35 x ri v 3{ |21, 2!

(5.-6.) Of the fourfold discrimination the fourfold 9 26ib l6r xxiv .t.)

antidote, respectively l0 2i0a vii I 7{) xxv 4l 0o-,t?9 J*

ll 273b I''6 ,7 xxvi I 35- 36

5. on the path of vision,
6. and that of development. III I 2B3 a vll I IB9 .IB xxvii 36
2 189 xxvi i 36
7. The unimpeded concentration
3 283b l89 xxvii 36
B. The errors. I9 0 xxvii 36
YI. Th"e gradual Jull understanding 5 190 xxv ii 36
6 190 xxvii 3(r
is thirteen-fold. a 2 B5 n 193 xxviii 37
YII. The single-instanta.neous full undersnnding B 290b l98 xxviii J'

9 290b lx 201 xx v iii JI

is fourfold by way of mark.
YIII. (The Dhurmabody): IV I 29ia 204 xxix 293a 38
l. The Substautial bodv , 3 0tb 208 xxx 295b 39

ti 1
EDWARD CONZ E AbhiEar naynlankir a

IV 3 3l0 c 22L xxx 39
4 3I 5 a XI 232 xxxi 353a 40-41
D 32Ba xI 2s3 xxxii 42-48
6 3694 xvl 3 1 2 ,I xxxviii 48
7 3 ?3 c 3 2 1 ,6 xxxviii 4B I. TIIE KNOWLEDGE OF ALL MODES
o 377a xvii 323 xxxi x (r0b 49-51
9 3986 xr x 356 xlii 96b J'

IO 4004 3fi I 97b 52-53 I, l. The aarieties of thethoughtof enli.ghtenrnxent,

l'v. IB-20.
Il 406a xx 370 xliv I 03b 54
The thought of cnlightenment is the desire for supreme
I 41 2a xx 3 8 0 ,1 xlv lllb JJ enlightenment in pursuit of the rvelfare of others. It is
, 4l8 c xxll 401 t20b ) J- J I
expoundcd bricfly and in dctail, in harmony rvith the
o 42Bb xxvl 434 xlviii r 59b 5B
4 429a 435 5B Sutras,
J 430o 436,9 58-62 It is 22-foldo since it rnay be like
6 464a xxviii 472 lii 20Bc 63
liv 300o 64
l. the earth, 2. gold, 3. thc nloon? 4. fire, 5. a treasury,
a 479b
B 4B2b 305c 3 64-10 6. a jewel mine, ?. the ocean, B. the thunderbolt, 9. a
mountain, 10. a remedy,
VI 503c 35?o 5 70-7I
ll. a teacher, 12. the rvishing jewel, 13. the sun, 14. a
lxi ? 19
VII 509b 370b 3 song, 15. a king.
16. a storehouse of jewelry, 17. a great roado 18. a coach
YIII I 523a
lxii 4t4b : (drawn by two horses), 19. a fountain, 20. a pleasant sound,
523b IJ

3 53 lo l? 73 2L. a river, and 22. a rain-cloud.

4 53 ?c 9 IJ

(5) to: to: 74-82

549a 3 lxxii 607o 3 Tlre Nidina-chapter, P 4-17,S 4-55,ie omittedin this analysis.
r then continues:
I, l, lc. The thouglrt of enlightenrnent,connected with the
desire for full enliglrtenment,in gencral. P l7-lB,
s i5 5
I, I, lb. The thought of enlightenment, conrected with the
desire for full enlightenment, in detail. P lB, S i 55.
I, lo lc. The thought of enlightenment, which hae the wel.
fare of others for its object, in genetal. P lB, S -.
I, l, ld. The thought of enlightenment which hae the welfare
of others for its object, in detail. P lB-19, S -.
r' I' le' the thoughtof enlightenment'
l8l tel
These 22 varielies are superimposed on the text of the Sutra I, 2, 3. o) The Buddha. P 47, g. S l4l, 14. 6) The
not without some violence. They are also found in Asanga's P 51,10. S lBl,l9. c) The Samgha. p 60,4, S
Mahdydnastitrilaikdra IV 15-20, pp. 16-17, which refers to dre 266,10.
Akshayamatistrtra as the source. Each variety is based orr the I, 2, 4. P 73. S 281,5._ I, 2, 5. p 75. S 283,5._
predomiqaace of some virtue, begirrning with detetminatiorr aud
I, 2. 6.
P 76,4. S 2S6.2.
earnest irrterrtion, and ending rl-ith. the Dharrna-body. I, 2, 7. P 77. S 290.
l, 2, B. P 83,7-gl, S 301,11.308,20
qo. P no. P s no. P s (Interlude. P 97-95. S 308-324)
I t9 : 922 6B L7 29 93 I, 2, 9, P 98,6. S ii 324.1. Divided into 16 ruorueut.s,
2L9 10 22 6B 18 29 94
319 bo 11 22 69 19 3l 100 DO. PS no.PS
42I 66 12 23 70 20 31 102
' 98,6 324,l
521 6B 13 23 72 2L 32 r06 9 107,l0 381,20
622 I 99,5 325,1 I0 ,12
6B 14 24 ?B-Bt, 97-92 22 32 il0 ,20
2 99,16 ,10 11 108,1 382,9
722 6B 15 27 81.82
822 3 102,5 335,6 12 109,16 399,5
6B 16 28 82-90
4 105,1 37L,20 13 n3 , B 455,13
I, 2. Instructiorr.s. vv. 2l-22. i)
,12 3iB,I7 14 115,1 470,8
6 ,16 ,21 15
The instructions are terrfold, and concern: ,4 ,g
106,B 380,2 16 ,B ,21
l. the progress, B 107,6 3Bl,16
2. the (four holy) truths,
r, 2, 10. P ll5,l0. s 470,22.
3. the three jewels, i.e. the Buddha, (the Dharma,
and the Samgha; see w. 23-24)
I, 2, 3c. The Sutngha. vv. 2J-24.
4. the absence of attachment,
5. (persistent) indefatigability, TL."e are twenty (varieties of sairrts):
6. full acceptance of the (urahayanistic) path, l. Those with dull (facultics),
7. the fi.ve organs of vision (i.e. the fleshly eye, the 2. those with kcen faculties,
heavenly eye, the wisdom eye, the dhanna-eye, the Bud- 3. those who have attained faith,
dha-eye), 4. those wlro have attained correct views,
B. the virtues of the six superknowledges, 5. those (who are reborn successively) in the families
(of men),
9. the path of vision, and
I0. the path of development. 6. those (who are reborn successively) in the families
(of gods),
r, , 1. P37. S118,7 7. those with one single interval (of rebirth among
I, , 2. P43,L4. S136,5 the gods),

I ll ]
EDWARD CONZ E Abhisamaydlaikira

B. those who (attain) Nirvana in an intermediate 62, The Once-returner S 270g

gtate" 63. The Never-rerurner. S 2?1.4-ts
5. P 64. S 268,16. 6. P G4. S 269,(t-270,9.7. p 65.
9. those who attain Nirvana as soon as they have s 274,20. B. .P 65. S 27I,20. g. t, 66. S 2i2,10. 10. p 66.
been reborn (in the sphere of pure form), cf. s 275,6-17. it. p OO. s 272,5 ,15. t2. p 67. cf. s 2?5,
10. with (great) e{Iort, 17. 13. P 67. S 14. P (rB. S lS. p 68. S 276,t5.
11. without effort, 16. p 69. S -. I7. p 69. S _. LB. Ij 69. S 2?9,10-280,20.
12. those who have gone to the Akanishtha gods (to 19. P 70. S 272,18-273, tB.
- 77. The candidate to Arhatship. S 280,20.
win Nirvana there),
20. 7r . s _.
13.-15. (rvho again are of) three (kinds), i.e.
71. 'I'he fruits which can be olrtaiued on the nath
13. those who move along by leaps, (jumping straight of t ho Discipln and pr at y. ekabu<I dha.S 2?t , I B.
from the lowest heaven of the form rvorld to the highest, - 71. The establishrnent of others in the dharma one
i.e. the Akanishtha heaven), t loes not oneself at t ain. S 274.
(I4. the Half-precipitant, who jumps liom the low' 7L. Elucitlation of tlrr: courmunity of irreversible
est to the highest heaven of form in two leapso Bodlrisattvas. S 274,28I.

15. those who, on their rvay through the heavens

of form, have deceased in all stations), I, 3. The four Aids to Penetration 1"v. 2S-J6.
16. those who have gone uP to the highest sphere (vv. 25-26) The distinctive superiority of the Bodhi-
of phenomenal existence' sattva and the Protector (the Buddha) over thc Disciples
17. those who have forsaken the greed for (the world and Pratyekabuddhas with regard to the degrees of
of) form, Heat, (Sunmits, Patience, and Highest mundane dhar-
lB. those who are appeased in this very lifeo mas), distinguished as weak, mediurn a'd strong, results
19. those who have witnessed (cessation) with their from
body, A.
their objects (r'v. 27-83),
20. the Pratvekabuddha. B. their aspccts (vv. 27-33),
C. their causality (which leads to the attainment of
P 60. The eight-lowest Bodhisattva (: Streamwinnet). understanding in all the three vehicles), (v. 27)
s 266 D.
the assistance (v. 36),
1. 60. The Bodhisattva-faithfollower. S 267 E.
the connection which, taken in due order, they
2. 6I. The Bodhisattva as dharma'follower' S 268
have with the four kinds of false discrimination (w. 34-
3. 6r. The candidate to the second and third fruit
who ie intent on faith. S 267
4. 62. The caudidate etc. who has attained correct
(w. 27-33). The Aids to penerrarion, weak, medium
views. S 268 and strong:

l t2 l I 13]
EDWARD CONZ E Abhisam aydlaikir a

(1. Heat) c) Strong; I 3k). (The object is) that, in consequence

of that, one does not look about for signs. (The aspect
a) Weak; I 3a-e). The object here arc (the 16 modcs
is) thc investigation by rvisdom in the absence of the
of) impermarrent, etc., which act as the su-bstraturn of the
appreherrsion of anything.
(four) truths. The special aspect (from which the Bodhi-
sattva considers these 16 modes) lies iu that he refrains
(3. Patience)
from settling down (in the conviction that the modes refer 'Weak;
o) I 34. (The object here is) the absence of
to separate dharmas which actually exist), etc. The
own-being in the skandhas; (the aspect lies in) that they
cause (here and throughout) is the winning of all the three
have non-existence for own-being.
b) Medium; I 3m). (The objecr here is) the absence,
b) Medium; I 3/). (The object here is) (the absenceo
in them, of birth and of going forth (from it); (the aspecr
in true reality) of the rise and fall of the skandhas. (The
lies in) the (perfect) purity (of body, speech, and mind).
aspect is) the absence of an either discontinuous or con-
c) Strong; I 3n). (Thc object here is) the abeence
tinuous existent.
of (the) signs (of all special and universal marks) in them
c) Strong; I 3S). (The object is the fact that the
(i.e. in all dharmas); (the aspect lies in that) no act of per-
truths, seen as impermanent' etc.' are mere) nominal con-
ceiving (separate dharmas takes place), because the signs
cepts. (The aspect lies in that) they can"ot be expressed
are not sustained by theln, and one has no belief in them.
in words.

(4. Highest mundane dharrnas)

(2. Summits) o) Weak; I 3o). (The object here are the skandhas
c) Weak; I 3h). (The object here is) not to take of the Bodhisattva which are merged into) the medita-
one's stand on the skandhas, and the absence of own- tive trance (which contemplates the non-genesis of the
being in them as a result of their having such an existence own-being of all dharmas). (The aspect lies in) its acti-
(which is empty of own'being). (The aspect lies in that vity (which carries the Botlhisattva soon to enlighten-
one notes) a common state of own'being for both (the
skandhas, and the emptiness of all dharmas), and there' 6) Medium; I 3p). (The object here are the skandhas
fore does not take one'6 stand on impermanent' etc' of the Bodhisattva insofar as they are the cause of) his
D) Medium; I 3t). (The object is) the fact of their prediction (to Buddhahood). (The aspect is) the extinc.
tion of conceit (since he remains unaware of being in
emptiness as the result of such an own-being, and a com'
mon state of own'being to them both (i.e. to the dharmas
c) Strong; I 3q). (The object here is) the common
and their emptiness). (The asPect it) the non'appro'
of dharmas. state of own-being of the three (i.e. of the meditative trance,

[14] l t5l
EDIY,\RD CONZ E Alrhisamaynlarikdra

the Bodhisattva and perfect wisdom). (The asPect is) the 6. the path of vision, Z. the path of developmento B. the
non-discrirnination of the meditative trancc (since all rlistinctivc Path, 9. the path of the adepts).
dharmas have ceased to exist for him). (D. Assistance) (v. 36).
(E. The four kinds of false discrimination) (vv. 34-35). (Three things) at all times give assistance:
There are two kinds of imputation of an object, the one l. (I 3ro) the abseneeof despondency, etc., in thought,
(I, 3s, corresponding to Heat) concerns (all) objcctive enti' 2. (I 3") (the good friend) lvho rlemonstrates the
tieso the other (I 3r, corresponding to Summits) the arrti- st:rte of al-rsenceof own-being, etc.;
dotes (to unwholesome states). Each one is ninefold. 3. (I 3r) the renunciation of states hostile to that.
The first (I 3s) is divided under the headings of l. delu'
sion (2. the skandhas, form, etc; 3. settling down in name I 3o.Weak fleat with regartl to the Truth of Ill.
P ll9,1l. s iii 486.?.
and form; 4. attachment to the two extremes; 5- the non'
I 3b. Weak Heat. . . Truth of Origination. p llg,l9.
cognition of defilement and purification; 6. the non'esta-
s 488.7.
blishment in the holy path; 7. the basis; B. thc self, ctc.; I 3c. Veak lleat. . . 'l'rutlr of Stopping. I, 120,4.
9. purity in relation to production, etc.). The second s 488.13.
(I 34 (is divided) under the headings of l. heap, (2. sense' I 3d. V eak Heat . . . Tr ut h of t he pat h. P 72t,5. S 490.4.
fields, 3. the elements, 4. co-production, 5. emptiness, I 3e. The distinctive causality for all degrees P 123,6.

6. the perfections, 7. the path of vision, B. the path of s 503,3.

I3f. P723,14. S, 504.-I3g. pt26,ZZ. S549,22.
development, 9. the path of the adepts).
I3r,. Pl2B,3. SSS3,3. -I3t. .P133,9. S6f3,f9.
The (imputation) of the subject is considered in trvo I3k. p135,t4. 5641,22. _I3r.
,P136,13. s 652,n.
ways, (I 3u, corresponding to Paticncc) as rcfcrringJ to I3n. Pl37,lg. S6?5,4. -f3n. J)l3B,lB. Sv683.
(the subject) as a substantial entity, and (I 3u, correspon' I3o. Pl4l,L. SBZ5,?. -IJp.pt44,tl. S836,l.
ding to Highest mundane dharmas) (as referring to the I 39. P l45,ll. S 836,ll.
I 3r. The connection with thc discriminationsin general.
subject as) to a conceptual (or nominal) entity. The first
P 145,20. S B3?,3.
(I 3u) concerns 1. (the idea of a) self as an independent
I3s. P146,21. 5842,14.-13r. pl4g,t4. S_. _I3u.
reality, (2. the self as a unit, 3. the self as a cause' 4. the P 150,3. s _.
self as a spectator, etc.l the self as the receptacle 5. of f 3r'. P 150,17.S vi 886.
the defilements, 6. of dispassion, 7. of the path of vision, f 3ru. Skill in means. the f ir st assiet ance. P l54, lS.
B. of the path of development, 9. the self as the lbunda- s 910,9.
I 3r. The good friend, the secoud assist ance. P 156. 3.
tion of the state of one rvho has attained his final goal).
s 937.1.
The secoud (I 3o) is based orr l. (the concept' or the nomi-
nal reality, of) the skandhas, (2. the sense'{ields, 3. the
elements, 4. conditioned co-productiorr, 5. purification,

l16l I l7 ]
- li. C o r r n .,l l ,h i "4 .td \,i ti ,,t,,j ,.l
l, 4. The Lineage. vv. 37'39. l. those belonging to the worltlly
path, 2. the supra-
The lincage (or the subjective source, or substraturn, r'.'rlane. (The first are) dharm", with, (the
of the activities of a Bodhisattva and of the propertics secon,l ,.e)
dharlnas rvithout outflorvs.
of a Buddha) is so called as the source (of 13 factors, i.e.) of (The dharmas withou[ rutflorvs
are again subdivided
1.-6. the six dharmas conducive to spiritual achieve- into) (2o) conditioned and (20)
unconditionetr (dharrnas),
ment, (i.e. the four Aids to Penetration, the path of vision, a'd (into 2c) dharrnas eharcd arso
with trre Discipl"*, uo,l
the path of development), (2d) (dharmas) nhich are special
to the Sage.
7. (the production of) the antidotes,
B. the forsaking (of detrimental states), I 5. P t(t4,IJ-169. S l2S?,tS_126J.
9. the state of being able to overlook the difference a) The objecr in gcneral. 6)
Worltily wholesomedharmas.
c) Vorltlly rrnwLolesometlharmas.
between those two (i.e. betrveen antidotes and harrnful
r/) Indeterminatctlharmas. e) Vorltlly
states)r wholesomedharmas.
./) Supramundanedharmas. g; Dlrur-^, with outflowe.
10. wisdom, together with pity, i) Dharmas without or,tflo*r. r.)
It. (the virtues of a Bodhisattva) which are not shared /r) Unconditionedtlharmas. /)
with the Disciples, nl) Urrcommondharrnas. n) The objective
supports of pro-
12. the successive actions for the x'elfare of others, gress.
13. the action of the cognition which rvorks without
I, 6. The program. v. 42.
any effort (for the rveal of beings).
The program of the Self-Existent
A distinction between the various lineages is rrot tena- should be known by
three kinds of greatnesso i.e.
bleo because the Dharma-element (o" the Absolute) ig
l. the aspiration to raise all beings
undifferentiated. But it is because of the difference bet- to the highest.pos-
sible state.
ween the dharmas that are founded on it that their distin-
.1" forsaking (of all false views),
tion is proclaimed. ?.
3. the achievement (of the thought
of all_knowledge
which is quite pure ancl transcendant).
P 160,15-164,19, S vii 1209-1257,14.
I6,I. P 169,4. S vii 1263,9. I i l8,l0.
I 6,2. P t72,6. S1270,3. Aill,l4.
I6,3. P t72,22. S t2?8,16.
I, 5. The objectiue supports. vv. 40-41. A i tg,6.
The objective supports (of a Bodhisartva?s activity) are (I, 7-10. The Progress).
all-dharmas. They again are reckoned as l, 7. Putting on the armour, v, 43.
l) wholesome, (B. unwholesome, C. indeterrninate); The progreas(which consietsin putting
(tle wholesome are subdivided into): on the) armour
is experiencedin six times six \ryays,
when the six (per-
I rB]
l l el
EDWARD CONZ E Alrhisamaynlaikera

fections), giving, etc. are combined with each other one 6. the threcfold purity (by which one does rot
by one. apprehend the object of each perfection, nor its subject,
nor the perfection itself),
i. e. The perfection of giving of a Bodhisattva who practises 7. the program,
the perfection of giving; the perfection of morality of a Bodhi'
B. the six superknowledges,
sattva who practices the perfection of giving; etc. fot 36 possible
9. the principle of the knowledge of all modes.
I ?o) The first sextad connected with the perfection of giving
6) The sccond sextad connected with the perfection of morality' I B,l. P l80,l. s vii l3l3,l9
c) Thc third sextad connected with the perfection of patience. I ,2 ,IB 1324,1 I
d) The fourth sextad connected witlr the perfection of vigour' ,3 l8l.r3 1325,20
e) The fifth sextad connected with the perfection of meditation. ,4 ,lB 132(t,I7
of lr'isdom' ,5 183,1 1328,I
/) The sixth sextad connected with the perfection
g) The perfection of wisdom developing into skill in meaus ,6 ,lB 1329,16
h) The armour of the skill in means of a Bodhisattva who ,7 184,5 I 331,1
courses in the perfection of wisdom. ,B ,20 1340,1
i) The r6sum6 of the sextad of the armour. ,9 I85,t0 ,ll
I 7a. P 176,7. S vii 1302,20.- I 7b- P 177.6. s 1304,6.
T7c. Pl77,LB. S1305,1d. -I7d. Pl7B,7 s 1306,18.
I, 9, The equipment. vv. 46-47.
l'le. P178,14. S1308,3. -I7f. PL7B,22' s 1309,12.
P179,12. s 1311,8. One should know that the progressive steps in the pro-
I7S. P1?9,8. S1311,3. -I7h.
S 1311,13. gress in equipment are as follows:
I 3;. P 179,15.
l. (cornpassionate) syrnpathy,
I, B. Setting out. vv. 44'45. 2.-7, the sextad of giving (and the other five per-
The progress in setting out, which consists in ascend- fections),
ing on the great vefuicle should l)e klown with reference to B. tyrrietutle,
1. the (entering on and emerging from the four) trances 9. togcther rvith insight,
and the (four) formless (attainments), 10. the path which couples the two (i.e. insight and
2. (the six perfections of) giving, (morality, Patience' quietude),
vigour, meditation and wisdom), ll. the skill in means,
3. the path (as defi.ned by the wholesome practices), 12. cogrrition (of the 20 kinds of emptiness),
4. (the four Unlimited, i.e.) friendliness, (compassion, 13. merit (rvhich results in ll2 kinds of meditative
sympathetic joy, and evenmindedness), trance),
5. the absence of devotion to a basis (rvhich marks his 14. the path (which consists of 2l practices),
cognitions), 13. the (43) dharanis,

[20] [21 ]
EDWA.RD CONZ E Abhisar nayElaikdr a

1 6 . the ten stages (see vv. 4B-70), 7. alrvays (in all his births) his mind is benr on leav-
L 7 . the antidotes (see v. 7l). ilrg horne;
B. he longs for the body of a Buddha;
9,1 c om pas s io n P 1 8 5 ,2 0 . S v i i 1 3 4 2 ,1 6 9. he demonstrates the Dharma (to beings);
I perfection of giving P lB?,1. S 1353,4 10. he is truthful in his speech. That is the tenth.
3 perfection of morality P LB7,2l. S 1355,13 One should know that these are effective as prepara-
4 perfection of patience P IBB,B. S 1357,11
tions when one does not assume a basis with refereuce
5 perfection of vigour P 189,1. S 1358,7
6 perfection of meditation P 189,10. S 1359,5
to the own-being (of these activities or their objects).
n perfection of wisdom. P 189,23. S 1360,3
9,8. P 190, 5. S 1 3 6 1 ,1
2. The second sroge is marked by eight preparatiorrs):
9 lgl, I 1 3 7 4 ,t9
10 192,12 1390,14 (Form, etc. is neither bound nor l. (the perfect purity of) morality,
11 194,3 1405,? freed). 2. gratitude (and thankfulness for all the kindlv
L2 t 95, 10 1407 actions he has ever experienced),
t3 198, 11. S 1 4 1 2 . v i i i 1 4 1 4 3. (the fi.rm grounding in the power of) patience,
t4 203.22 ix 1427 4. (the cultivation of) rejoicing,
t5 2L2,8 1450,16
5. (the manifestation of the) great compassion,
t6 2r4,6 x L454
17 225,20 1473,19 6. (an attitude of) respect (for one's instructors),
7. reverence for the instructors,
B. the vigorous pursuit of (the perfections), giving, etc.
I, 9,L6. The ten st&ges.r'v. 48-70.
I. (The Bodhisattva) seizes the fi,rst stageby means of
ten preparations: 3. On the third sfage one stands in {ive dh.armas, and
f . fte forms the) resolute intention (to win the know- the absence of coneeit is the essential factor in each case.
ledge of all modes); (The livc dharmas arc):
2. he supplies (all beings) with beneficial things; 1. an insatiable desire to leam,
3. (he forms) an even attitude of mind towards (all) 2. the disintercsted gift of dharma (without expect-
beings; ing any reward),
4. (he practises) renunciation (by giving to all beings 3. the thorough purification of the Buddha-field (to
without discrimination); which one dedicates all the merit one has acquired),
5. he tends the (good) friends (or preceptors); 4. the indefatigability (with which one keeps on
6. he searchesfor objective support from the true doing good to others) in the samsaric world,
Dharma: 5. a sense of shame and a dread of bln-e.
r oo 1
LAL ] [23 ]
Abhisanl: r Ydlaikdr a

2. morality,
should stand in ten dhar-
4. (On tne {ourrlt' s'og€ one 3. paticnce,
They arc):
maso and not abanrlon thern' 4. vigour,
1. living in a forest' 5. meditation,
2. fewness of wishes' wisdom;
3. contentmentt
4. the cultivation of the austere penancc of the
practices, 6,8. and rvhen he gives uP (another six dharmas,
outlook of)
5. the non-abanclonment of
moral training' ?. (he avoids all) longing for (the mental
qualities' the Disciples.l
6. the loathing of sensuous
outlook of)
7. disgust (for"the rvhole
of the phenomenal.world)' B. (he avoitls all) longing for (the mental
of all thnt is his' the Pratyekabuddhas;
B. the" complete renunciation
9. (an) uncowed (attitude
of mind)' 9. (he avoids all) inclination to worry;
a beggaro
10. a disrcgard (for all things)' 10. he remains uncowed rvhen he rneets with
I1. tloes not becorne sad when he has renounced
the ten (requisites) rything (he hail),
5. On tlnefiJtlt' stagehe accornplishes
by avoiding: 12. does not reject those rvho ask him for something,
atrtl rvith rnonks antl although he (hirnself) i" ')00r.
I. intimacY (with houscholtlcrs,
(of the faithful)''
2. jcalousy about thc families 7A. He has arrivetl at the seuentlrstcge
when he has
l. idfl places where one meets removed twenty blenrishes' They are:
of others'
4. exaltation of self and deprecation l. the seizing on a self,
5. the ten paths of unrvholesome 2. (the seizing on) a fc'ingr
6. conceit, 3. (the seizing on) a soul,
7. arrogance' .1. (rhc seizing on) a Person'
B. Perverted viervs' 5. (the seizing on) annihilationist viewso
9. doubt, 6. (the seizing on) eternalist views'
10. consent to the defilements' ?. (the production of the notion of) a sign'
B. (the formation of the vierv of) a cause'
6. He gains the sixth sftrge 9. (settling down in) the (five) skandhas'
10. (settling down in) the (lB) elements'
i'e' the perfections of)
6A. he fulfills (6 tlharmas' It. (settling dou'n in) the (12) sense-lielde'
I. giving,
[2 s]
EDWARD CONZ E Alrhisarnaydlaikera

16. a mind completely tamed,

12. establishing oneself in what belongs to the triple
17. a cogrrition which is nowhere obstructedo
lB. (one sees) nowhere a ground for attaclrrnent (or
13. attachement (to the triple world)'
14. hanging on' in oneos mind (to the triple world)'
jewel' 19. (one acquires a personality) which impartially
15.'l?. settling down in viervs on the triple
goes to nny (Buddha-)licld one wishcs to go to,
18. (settling down in views on) mor:rlity'
20. and which everywhere exhibits its orvn body
19. contentions about emPtiness,
(i'e' to emPti- (n. in the circle of the asseurbly).
20. (raising an) obstruction to that
B. (For the eighth stage) eight decds are taught:
(A) I. the cognition of the minds of all beings,
7 B. T n addition there is (another) set of t$renty (dhar-
They 2. the playing with the superknowledges,
mas which should be fulfilled on the seventh Etage'
3. the creation of a lovely Buddha-field,
4. the tending (and honourirrg) of the Buddhas, and
l.-3. the cognition of the three doors to deliverance
the contemplation of the Buddha(-body as it really is).
(i.e. of 1. emptiness, 2. the signless,3. the wishless).
(B) 5. the cognition of the (higher and lower) faculties
4. the tlrreefold PuritY,
(of others),
5. (the great) comPassion,
of 6. the purification of the Buddha-field (by purifying
6. the absence of conceit (which is the fulfillment
the thoughts of all being),
7. the (perpetual) abiding in (the concentrationon
?..the knowledge of the samenessof (all) dharmas'
(of everything) as an illusion,
B. (the penetration to) the one single principle
B. the grasping at a (nerv) becoming (or personality)
all dharmas),
at will.
9. the cognition of non'production'
I0. the patient accePtanceof non-production'-
11. (the habitual absence of all notions of duality 9. (On the nhrth stage twelve dharmas should be ful-
filled. They are):
which seesonly) one single flow of dhannas'
of (all) thought'construction'.- 1. Resolves which are infinite (aud always successful),
12. the uprooting -away
13. the turning from perception and (false) 2. the knowledge of the speech of the gods (and of
all other beings),
3. ready speech (or inspiration, which is inexhau-
14. (the turrring away from the) dcfrlements'
(together stible) like a river,
f 5. the paci{ication (tluougtr) quiet'udc
4. the supreme descent into the womb,
with) skill in insight,
[26] 127l
EDWARD CONZ E Alr hisar naydlaikdr a

5. the accomplishment of (being born in a good) I 9,17b. A nti dot es t ot he second. . . object . . . P227, 4. S 1480, 12.
I 9,L7c. A nti dot e t ot he f ir st . . . subjecr . . . P227, 21. Sl4B?, 21.
I 9,17d. A nti dot e t o t ho eecond.. . subject . . . P 228, 8,
6. (the accomplishment of) birth (in a Kshatriya or s t48g,l8.
Brahmin family), I 9,17e. Antidote to the first discrimination of the object on
7. (the accomplishlnent of bcing born in) the clan the path devcloprnenr. P 228,19. S 1491,3.
(from which all the Buddhas of the past have corne)' I 9,17f. A nti dot e t o t he second. . . object . , . P229, 13. S 1508, 16.
B. (the accomplishment of) a retinue (of Bodhisatt- I 9,17g. A nti dot e t o t he f ir st . . . subject , , . P 230, 14. S l5l?, 10.
I 9,I7h. A nti do t e t o t he second. . . subject . . . P 2J0, 19.
s 1 5l B . l .
9. (the accomplishrnent of) the rnanner of lrirth (so
that, even when just born, the Bodhisattva irradiates all
world systems with his splendour, and shakes them all I, 10. Going-Jortlr. vv. 72-73.
in six ways), The progress (which corrsists) in going-forth is eight-
10. (the accomplishment of) leaving home (together fold, and should be krrown with reference to:
with many other beings), l. the program (or ultimate goal),
Il. the accomplishment of (the miraeulous hannony) 2. the sameness (of all the elements involved in tLre
of the Bodhitree, process of going-forth to ernancipation),
12. the fulfilhnent of (all) the tlunlities. 3. (the activity for) the weal of h-ings (which pro-
duces the merit withoutl which the intuition of the ulti-
10. (The tentlt' stage) mate transcendent identity of evcrything is impossible),
Vhen he has passed beyond the nine stages' that cogni- 4. the absence of (the necessity for) exertion (in
tion by which he is established on the Butldha-stage, one's activity),
should be known as the tenth stage of a Bodhisattva' 5. the going-forth l'hich is free from (any attach-
ment to) the extremes (of eternalism and anrrihilation, of
Nirvarra and tlre samsaric world),
I, 9,L7. The eyr'ipment uiilt' an'titlotes. v. 71.
6. the going-forth which has the mark of (leading to)
The antidotes should be known as eightfold, with refe-
the attainrne't (of the achievements open to all the three
rence to the path of vision and to the path of repeated
meditational practice, and (they serve) the purpose of
7. the going-forth (rvhich leads to) the knowledge of
appeasing the eight discriminations of object and subject'
all modes (peculiar to a Buddha),
B. The (going-forth which lies within the) sphere of
I 9,I7. The equipment with antidotes.
I 9,17a. Antitlotc to the lirst discrimination of the object on the (highest degrees of the) path.
the path of vision. P 225,20. S x 1473,19'

[28 ] [2e]
ED1 YARD CONZ E Abhisam aydlaikdr a

10. The progress in going-forth. P 231,11. S xi 1530.

A i 24"5.
I I0,1. The program of going-forth.
I 10,1o. Going-forth to the highest possilrle state. P 232,8. II. THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE PATHS
s 1534.
I0,1lt. The going-forth which consists in forsaking. P 253,8.
s 15 5 5 "8. II, l. T'he lintbs oJ tlrc lmoulwlge o! the putlrc. v. l,
I I0,Ic. The going-forth which leads to achievernent. P 233'15 l. The capability of thc Gotls firr that (i.e. the know-
s 1558,21. ledge of the paths) is eclipsed by the splendour (of the
I10,2. P 234.2L. S 1560,21. A i 24,7. 'Iathagata).
r 10,3. 236,8 1564,8 24,7.
2. One is definitely lixed orr the object (of full enlighten-
I r0,4. 239,L2 1586,4 24,L0.
24,rr. ment).
I 10,5. 240,4 r6tB,5
I 10,6. 242,12. 1635,3. i 24,14. 3. (All living beings) are lrervaded (by the Buddha-
I 10,6o. Going-forth to attainment. P 242, 13. S 1635'3. nature which is the original cause of enliglttenment).
xii 1636. 4. The own-being (of the knowledge of the Paths con-
I 10,6b. Negation of something to be attained. P 244,18- sists in uot rejecting rebirth in the phenomenal I,orld, so
S 1642'15-1676.xiii 1. that one may be able to help beings).
I I0,6c. Negation of someone v'ho attains. P 247,20. S xiii
5. Its activity (consists in helping others to rvi full
66,L9-7L(enil of printed edition of S).
I 10,6d. Negation of both object and subject of attainment. enlightenment).
P 250,L6.
I I0,?. P 256,7. S fol. 99 a. A i 27'7. P 200b6 : A ii 33-34: A<I ch. 22: S xiv 1440.
I 10,8. P 263,18.S fol. 137b. A i 3I,10. f . I ii 33. But the might of the Budtlha,his majesty and autho-
I l0,Bo. Worldly perfection of giving P 263,18. rity, surpassedeven the splerrdourof the Gods.
I 10,8b. Supramundanepetfection of giving. P 264,L4. 2. A ii 33: P 20la 7. Those Gods who have not yet aspired
I l0,Bc. Worldly perfection of wisdom. P 265,1. fo firll enlightenment,shorrlddo eo.
I lO,Bd. Supramundarreperfection of wisdom. P 266,5. 3. P 20la B: I ii 33. 4. l, 20lb l: A ii 33.34. S. P 20tb
(I 10,8e. Conclusion. P 266,14-269,6). r:Aii34.

II, A. The Path ol tlrc Disciples.

II, 2. The knouledge of the path whichcazsisrs in the cogni-
tion oJ the path of the Disciples.
IL, 2,1. The aspects oJ the four truth.s. v. 2.
Within the compass of the knowledge of the paths,
(the knowledge of) the (16) aspect of the four holy Truths,

[30] [31 ]
EDIVARD CONZ E Abhisam aynlaikdr a

but without taking them as a basis, should be known as rr' 3. The knowledge of the paths which consisrs i,. the cogni-
the path of the Disciples. tion of the path of the Pratyekabuddlns.
(w. 6.-7.) (The text next) indicates the deptlr. of
P 20Ib L-202b ? has a discussion, not found in l, of the well- the cogrrition of the Pratyekabuddhas, who do not need
known 16 aspects of the four holy truths, i.e. imperrnauent' to be instructed by others (in their present lives,
ill, etc., w[ic[ are sometimes tlircctly uteltiole{, sornetirles thcy havc in prcvioue livce learnetl wrrat is neces.ary
only alluded to.
for) the self-enlightenrnenr of the Self-existent. (When a
Pratyekabuddhao after his enlightenrnent, desires) to make
IL, 2,2. Tlrc aiils to penetr&liorr,. vv. 3'5.
some one hear something with regard to such antl such
1. The degree of. Heat (comes from seeing) the ern[)ti-
an object in such and such a form, the said object appears
ness of the skandhas, i.e. fornr, etc. arrd from making no
even without words (in the mind) of that person just in
difference between the emptiness (of different objects);
the form which is necessary.
2. the Summits from not taking theur (i.e. the skandhas)
as a basis; Nothing correspondsto thie in p.
3. stenilfast Paticnce from (seeing) that it is itradrr is-
sible to take one's stand on them as being permanent' etc'; fI, 3,1. Its threefold distinctiueness. v. B.
4. tlre highest nnondant.edharmas on' the road of the (The distinctive features of) the path of the pratyeka-
saintly Disciples have been laid down through the demorr- buddhas are summed up in the fact that
stration in detail that one should not take one's stand l. it forsakes the construction, i' thought, of objective
(anywhere) when one has undertaken the ten stages. And ,errtities,
why? The Buddha, when he has ktrown enlighterunenb' 2. rlocs not forsake the (bclicf in a) subject,
has not looked out for (t"y) dharma. 3. has a (special) foundation (or source, of its olvn).

P 202b 7-206b 6 :/ ii 34-38. II 3,1,1. P 200b : A ii 38. Sublmti: Nothirrg in

L, A ii 34. Through standing on ernltiness shorrld one ataurl has becrrirrdicatcd,rrntlri'g iu particular L", lr."o explai'etl.
in perfect wisdom. The Gode thought: 'what the holy subhuti here
2. A ii 35. One should so developthat one does not take oue's demonstrates and teaches,that is remoter than the"'*pIo.".,
starrd on form, feelingr etc. subtler than the subtle, deeper than the tleep. ""-oa..
3. ,4 ii 35-6. One should not take one's stand on the ideas that II 3,1,2. P 20Ba S. A ii JB-40. All beings,and all rhings,
t form is permanent, or impermanent t, etc' a magical illusion, a dream.
4. ,4 ii 36-8. Nowhere did the Tathagata stand, lrecause his II 3,1,3. P 2ll. A ii 40-42. The Su*a speaks of those
mind sought no cuppoft. can grasp this teaching, and relates the miraculous creation
of flowers by Indra.
II, B. The path of the Pratyelwbudilhas.

[32] [33]
3. - li. Crrnzr, ll,hinnnynlaitr;rrt
EDWARD CONZ E Abhisamaydlaikira

w' 9-10' it (the Buddha) are not (ultimately distinct), and because
II, g,2. The aiils tu per,etrotion'
1. The degree of il*t consists in the absence of con- the Suchness of the skandhas) and the Buddha are in
existence (of form' etc') turn itlentical;
flict between the merely nominal
and the asPect which indicates the true nature of 2. (Cognition of dharma in su{Iering): the greatnesE
2. the (arise) when one discerns that formn (of perfect wisdorn and of all dharmas),
etc., cannot diminish (or increase)' 3. (Acceptance of subsequent cognition of dharma in
is no appropriation of
3. steadfosl Patience, when there suffering): their measurelessness,
of the internal ele' 4. (Subsequent cognition of sufiering): the absence of
form, etc., because of the emptiness
ment8, etc. limitations (in them),
through the aspects of 5. (Acceptance of cognition of dharrna in origination:)
4. the highest munilane dhnrmas
etc' the absence of extremes (in them);
the non-production, etc', of form'
6. (Cognition of dharma in origination:) The accu-
thitrgs are allowetl a con-
II 3,2,1. P 2L2' A ii 42' Separate rate deterrnination of ftrrm, etc. (reduces cverything to
ventionalexistencefromthestaudpointofempiricalreality. the purity of its dharrnic nature);
Tl 3,2,2. P 2L4a 5' A 1i 42' 7. (Acceptance of subsetluent cognition of dharmas
trains oneself neither to
if s,z,e. P 2l4b 4' A ii43' One in origination): one rvho stands in Buddhahood does not
let them go' ' A list of 20
approPriate the skaotlhas' nor to
the emptinessof the inter- take or give up anything;
kinds of emptin'ess'beginniug with
B. (Subsequent cognition in origination:) (a Bodhi-
nal elements,is giv"n at P 195-198'
ql' One does not ttain to get hold
II 3,2,4, P zLso li a ii sattva develops) friendliness (and the other Unlimited),
one' or rnake it disappear'
of any tlharrna, nor to prodluce 9. (Acceptance of cognition of dharma in stopp-
ing:) (and) emptiness (as the true essence of the skan-
II, C. The potlt' oJ the Bodh'isattuas'
10. (Cognition of dharrna in stopping:) (his way of
II, C a. The Potlt oJ uision'
greut atluorltage' w' ll-16' lifc leads to) the attainrnent of Buddhahood,
II, 4. Thepath oJ uislio't",an'ilthe
pathso one speaks. of the 11. (Acceptance of subsecluent cognition in stopping:)
Next, in thc knowledge of the
its advantages' It is four- the acquiring of every kind of purity,
Path of Yision, togethei with
of the Truths' and has the 12. (Subsequent cognition in stopping:) the removal
fold, with regard io "u"h
and of Cognition' Thcse of all misfortunes and diseasesl
moments of patient Acceptance
of the paths: 13. (Acceptance of cognition of dharma in the Path:)
are the moments of the knowledge
of dharma in suffering): the desire to seize on Nirvana is brought to an end,
1. (Acceptance of cognition
existence of dharmas)o because 14. (Cognition of dharma in the path:) the protec-
No consent (to the separate
and that which is founded on tion, etc., Lry the Buddhas (and Devas);
the foundation lsuchness)
[34] [3 s]
Alr hisar lr ay6laikdr a

15. (Acceptance of subsequent cognition of dharma II, WImt ilre parh oJ ileueloprnent
.5: tl,oes. v. 17.
in the Path:) following on (the observance of the precepts (Thcse are sorne of the rcsults
of the rnahayanistic
by which) one refrains from killing living beings, (it leads) path of tleveloprnent:)
to the establishment of beings in the principle of the know- l' self-disciprine at ail times, 2.
humility at ail rimes,
Iedge of all modes, in which he himself is (already) esta- 3. victory over the defilements,
4. no occasion for attacks
blished, (from others), 5. enlightenment,
6. (the place where the)
16. (Subsequent cognition of the path:) (and finally foundationi (of Buddhahood, i.e.
the perfection of wisdom,
to) the turning over of (the merit from) giving, etc. to is kept) is rvorthy of being
the (cause of the) full enlightenment (of all beings).
L. p 229. A iii 54. 2. A iii 54.
3. A ;ii 54. 4. A iii 54-5.
l, P zLSb 2. A ii 43-4. The Sutra considersthe relation bet- 5. I iii 55-6. 6. p 2JIa 9. A iii SJ_57.
ween Suchnessand the Tathagata, Iretlveenperfect wisdorn
and the skandhas.
II, 6. Re,solutelraith. w. lB_19.
2. P 2L7a 7. A ii 45. 3. P 217b 9. A li 45. 4. P 2l9a B.
Resolute faith should be knou,n
A ii 45. as threefold: l, f-;
5. P 2IB b 2. A ii 45. The extremesare eternity and annihi- one's olvn welfarel 2. for one's
own welfare and that of
lation. others; 3. just for the welfare
of others. Each one of
6. P 2L9 b 3. A ii 46-8. The Sutra discussesthe infinitude of these again is regarded as threefoltl:
weak, medium, strong.
beings,and of perfect rvisdorn,and the Bodhisattvawlro under- That, by the division into very weak,
stands perfect wisdom is a potential Tatlr.agata. etc., is again three-
fold. In this way it has been
7. A ii 48. ft was becausehe possessed the fulnessof perfoct regardetl as 27_fold.
wisdom that the Buddha received his prediction from Di-
II 6,1. One aims at onersowrl rvelfare.
II 6,1,1. Very weak. p 2l2a 2.
B. P 221 a 4. A iii 49. 9. P 221a 9. I iii 49-50. A iii S1,S_SL. The worahip
10. P 223 a 3. /4 iii 50-1. The Bodhisattvais protcctedby the of the perfection of wistlom brings
greatcr merit than the
Gods,etc., becauseit is thanks to hilr that all spiritual attairr- worahip of the relics of the Tathalata.
II 6,1,2. Moderatelyweak. p
ments, including Buddhahood,take place. fia ai. A iii 59-6I. The cult
11. P 223 b 2. I iii 5L. 12. P 224b 6. A ii. 5l-2. 13. A of the perfection of wisdonr is greatly
prnfitable, and bringe
iii 52-3. much reward. But rare are thise
who have perfect faith,
and rarer those who becomeirreversible.
L4. P 225 b 2. A iii 53. The Gods, and all the Buddhas and
II 6,1,3.- Fairly weak. p 2J6a
Bodhisattvas 'rvill protect, shelter and defenrl this follower 7. A iii 61. One shouldinde-
fatigably praetise perfect wisdom
of perfect wisdom. as the Tathagatas of the
15. P 226 a l. A iii 53. 76. P 228 b 6. A iii 54. past have done.
II 6,1,4. Weakly medium. p ZJ6b
B. A iii 6I-J. Devotionto
the perfection of wisdom brings nrore
II, C b. The path. of deaelopment. merit than the cult
of Stupas;

[36] [37]
EDWARD CONZ E Abhisam ay6laikdr a

II 6,1,5. Moderately medium. P 237 o 5. A iii 63. evert II, 7. Prai.se, eulogy and glorification. v. 20.
though one filled Jambudvipa with 6tupa3;
l. Praise, 2. Eulogy, 3. Glorification: with respecr to
II 6,1,6. Strongly medium. P 237 b L. A iii 64-5. and so
the perfection of wisdom one considers the clegieesof
for a Four-Continent'world system.
II 6,ln?. Weakly strong. P 237 b S- A iii 65-6. aud so for resolute faith, in nine triads (as before).
a emall cbuliocosm;
II 6,1,8. Medium Etrong. P 237 b 9. A iii 66'67. aud so for II 7,1. Praise.
a medium di-chiliocosm. l.P24BaB. Av t02 6. P 250a 3. I v 105
III 6,1,9. Snongly strong. P 238 a 4. A iii 67-8. and eo for 2. 104 7. 250a4 f06
a great tri-chiliocosm. 3. 249b 9 104 B. 5 106
II 6,2. One airns at the n'elfare of oneself and of others' 4. 250a 2 r05 9. 7 t07
II 6,2,L. Very weak. P 23Bo 9. A iii 68'70. And so for all 5. 250a2 105
beings in all the great tri-chiliocosms. II 7,2. Eulogy.
71 6,2,2. Moderately rveak. P 240 a 6. A 72-80. The power 1. P 250a B. Avl09 6. P 253a 6. A v lll
and advantages of perfect wisdoru are described' 2.8 110 7. 9 tL2
II 6,2,3. Fairly weak. P 242 b 2. ,4 80-83. Further advan- 3.9 lr0 B. b4 7t2
tages of perfect wisdorn. 4. ll0 9. lll
II 6,2,4. Weakly rnedium. A 82'83. 5. 110
II 6,2,5. Moderately medium. / 83-84- II 7,3. Glorification.
lI 6,2,6. Strongly rnedium. P 243 a 7. A 84. l. Av l r 6 5.P255b6. AvI2B
II 6,2,7. Weakly strong. A 84. , 120 6. 129
II 6,2,8. Medium strong. A B5'BB- 3. r23 7. I29
II 6,2,9. Strongly 6trong. A BB'92. 4. 126 B. r29
II 6,3. One aims at the welfare of others. 9. 256a6
in shar-
II 6,3,1. Yery 'w'eak. A iii 92-3. There is more merit
ing perfect wisdom with others, than in keeping it to oneself'
II 6,3,2. Moderately weak. A iv 94. Perfect wisdom is nore Ir, B. Th.e attention to rurning oaer (all merit to the cause
valuable than the relics of the Tathagata. of supreme enliglrtcruncnt). vv. 2l-23.
II 6,3,3. Fairly weak. A 94. 1. (The sutra {irsr describes) trre distinctive (merit
fI 6,3,4. Weakly medium. A 94-95. derived from) turning over (as compared with other meri-
II 6,3,5. Moderatcly uredium. A iv 96'8. Simile of wishing
torious actionso which results from) its supreme function
(which is to turn over to supreme enlightenment the meri-
rr 6,3,6. Strongly medium. A 9B'9.
II 6,3,7. Weakly etrong. P 245 b 2. A iv 99. torious deeds of all beings after one has rejoiced over
rI 6,3,8. Iltedium strong. P 246 b 6. A 99'100. them);
II 6,3,9. Strongly strong. P 247a 5. I 100-10f. 2. (it then considers it under) the aspect of non-ap-
preherrsion (of all meritorious dharmas);

[38] [3 e ]
EDWARD CONZ E Abhi6anraynlarikira

3. (the mental activity by which the turning-over' or (of himself and of others) and rejoices at them, but (in
ultirnate trrrth) he tloes not apprehend them, - (in this
tledication, is e{fected) is marked by the absence of
way) is the development of the mental work on Ilejoicing
perverted views;
4. the isolatedness (of this accumulation of merit results prescribed here.
from the lack of any connection of it with a self, or such- II 9. P 267b 2. A vi 16I.
5. (one takes as one's) range the recollection that in II, I0. The ntark oJ con,sutnnta,tiott.
(on the path of develop-
their own-being the multitude of the merits of the Bud- ment rchich is withouth outflows). v. 25.
dhas (is like an illusion); (It is considered from five points of view:)
6. (the turning over is characterised by being associat' l. its orvn-being (is omniscience, or the unpervertetl
ed with) skill in means' perception of the skandhas, which are seen to be devoitl
7. signless, of plurality);
B. enjoined by the Buddhas; 2. its excellcncc (it that of the perfection of wisdom,
9. (the merit) is unincluded in what belongs to the without which the other perfections cannot bring at'- -:
tripleworld; the attainment of Buddhahood);
10.-12. the turning over itself gives rise to great merit, 3. one does not get irrvolved in anything;
which is 10. weak, Il. mediumo 12' strong' 4,. the procuring of (the virtuous) dharmas, but not
after the rnanner of a basis;
II B,I. P 25Ba 6. I vi I35 5. (it is) that which brings about the great aim (i.e.
, B. 135,II
l40,IB Buddhahood).
3. 261 a 9.
4. 262. 149,19
II 10,1. 270a 5. A i; 170
5. 262 b B. 150,3
2. b2. t71
6. 263 a 4. oI 6 3. 27Lt B. 173
1 263 b , I vi 151,6
4. b6. 173
B. 265 a J. 153,7
5. 272b 7. r 75
9. b J, ,IB
10. 266 a 5 . l54,lB
II, ll, Absolute Pu,rity. r'v. 26-31.
1I. b l. 156,3
266 b 7 . l5 7,1 II, ll,l. T'lte cuu.sesof filrn belie,J(in the Dharma, which
are the factors favourable to purilication) are:
II, 9. Attention'to rejoicing. v. 24. l. tending (and honouriug) the Buddhas,
Owing to his skill in means (he appreciates)from thc 2. (fullillment of the six perfections, i.".) giving, etc.,
standpoint of (conventional truth) the wholesome roots 3. skill in means.

[40] [41 ]
EDWARD CONZ E AbhiEamay6latkira

II, IL,z. The causes of falling au)ay from Dlnrma (which rately weako etc. up to: very strong), and which
are the factors unfavourable to puriflcation) are: acts the taints, whiclr. are (correspondingly
divided in
I. being under the influence of Mara, nine ways into) very strong (,moderately ,trorr!,
etc. to, very
2. lack of fi.rm belief iu the deep (rnonistic) nature weak).
of dharma, b) Wirh regard to the process of counteracting
- - (the
3. settling down in (a belief in the reality of) the defilements of) the triple worrd (the sutra
then) .""f,.,.,
skandhas, etc., an objection (about the order of the antidotes
witi regar,l
4. being taken hold of by a bad friend. to the strength of the delilements), by
considering the
II, 11,3. (The generol clwracter of obsolute purity\. sameness of (the cognition) which measures
(the strengtlr
The purity of the fruit is (identical with) the purity of path and defiIements), (the object) which
is measured,
of the skandhas. The purity has here been proclaimed and_of the path (itself) (in view of the fact
trrat the tripre
in the sense that those two are not broken apart, not cut world ollers no basis for valid discriminations,
and all
apart. dharmas are equally illusory).
II, 11,4. (The different forms oJ absolute purity).
The purity of the (cognition of the) II lf. P 273b 6-283a 6. S xxvi l-xxviii 253. A vii 176-
o) Disciples, 6) Pratyekabuddhas, c) the legitimate
sons of the Jina (i.e. thc Bodhisattvas)
(results respectively from)
c) the forsaking of the (covering of the) defilements,
6) (the forsaking of the covering of the defilemerrts
and of that part of the covering of) the cognizable (which
consists in the imputation of the reality of an object),
c) (the forsaking of the covering on) the triple path
(of all the three vehicles);
d) but the absolute (purity) of a Buddha is (the
forsaking) of all (coverings, frorn defilement or from igno-
rance, together rvith their residues).

II, 11,5. (The aarieties of absolute purityo tohert,uierced as

a process)
c) Purity (is realised) in nine stages on the path (of
development), r'hich is (divided into) very t'eak (mode-

[42] [43]
ED- WARD CONZ E Alrhisarnaydlarikira

activity which has for its object) the Jinas, etc. (is a source
of *ruch merit, but it is not a complete antidote because
it has the character of) a subtle attachrnent. (The ap-
prehension of any formo or entityo whatsoever consti-
tutes a subtle attachment), because that (i.e. emptiness)
is (the original essential uature) of (all) dharmas in their
III, I-2. Unestablished in either beconti.ngor quietude. v. l. depth, owing to the fact that by their essential original
Not on the further shore (of Nirvana), nor on this nature they are isolated. When dharmas are cognized
(shore, of the samsaric world), nor established midway as having (all ultimately) one single essential and original
between them, the perfection of wisdom is understood nature (which is just the absence of a differentiated
through the cognition of the sameness of (the dharmas nature), - that is the removal of (all) attachrnent. (The
in the three) periods of time. depth of dharma) is spoken of as hard to understand,
III, 3-4. Farness ond nearrtess of perJect wisdom. v. 2. because (its intuition is reached by) the annulment .rf
She remains distarrt through lack of skill in means, sight'objects (and of all other objects of empirical consciour-
and (also) where a sign is taken as a basis. IIer nearness, ness); it is considered as unthinkable, because (in respect
in the right u'ay, has been said (to be due to) skill in means. of it there can be) no consciousness of the skandhas.
III, 5. Points to be shunneil. v. 3. That bei.g so, this whole distinction between the
The points to be shunned consist in false notions about to be shurrned a'd the antidotes, as it has been expiained
the practice rvith regard to: (here), should be known (to fall) witrrin the compass of thc
l. the emptiness of the skandhas, (i.e.) form, etc. (hinayanistic) all-knowledge (and therefore it co'ccrns the
2. (the own-being of) the dharmas which belong to realistic misconceptions of the Hinayarrists).
the three periods of time, III, 7. Endeo,aou,rs. l'v. 8-106.
3. (the achievement of) the rvings to enlightenment, (The training of a Bodhisattva, u'hich confo''s to the
giving, etc.; (in each case the false notions interpret these hinayanistic capacity for undcrstanding, comprises ten)
items as real separate entities). endeavours. They are:
III, 6. Antiilotes. w. 4-7. I. (the training in the negation of the realistic impu-
(The antidotes are:) tations) with regard to the skandhaso
l. to have no sense of ownership in connection with 2. with regard to their impermanence, etc., (and to)
(the practice of the six perfections), giving, etc.; 3. their being neither complete nor incomplete;
2. to enjoin othcrs to the sarne (selflessness); 4. the rcrnoval of (attacluncnt to) his course (anrl
3. the rcpudiation of (all) thc points of attachment, Practiccs) (as separatc errtities), because of his non-attach-
(and in this conlection it is pointed out that the mental ment to them (i.e. the skandhas);

[44 ] [4 s]

(of perfect gories employed, such as form, feeling, etc.; 6) of their

5. (the insight into) the immutability
special marks, such as blue, etc.; c) of their subdivisioru,
wisdom), (and)
as wlren form is taught to be 2?-fold; d) of the elements
6. into the absence of an agent (in the skandhas);
of the path of trainingo such as the 4 aids to penetration,
?. (the training which consists in) an endeavour to
do what it is hard to do, (and which is) threefold' (i.e.
c) the ultimate aim is dilficult to realise;
III B. P 290 b 3. A viii I9B.
b) it is difficult to be trained in the realization of
the knowledge of the paths;
lII, 9. The Path oJ Viston. wv. tl-15.
c) the activity on behalf of living beings is diffrcult
(Also) within the compass of (a Bodhisattva's medi-
to perform).
tation on the hinayanistic) all-knon'ledge the Path of .
B. One (then) considers the training insofar as it is
Vision consists of (16) mornents: the acceptance of the
not barren, (since it leads to) the attainment of the fruit
cognition of dharma, the cognition of dharma, the accep-
(or reward), which corresponds to the merits (acquired by
tance of subsequent cognition, the subserluent cognition,
the meditator)r
(and these four) refer (in turn) to the Truths of Ill, (ori-
9. (and then) the training (which leads one to a posi-
ginationo stopping, path). The (16) momcnts are (as fol-
tion where one) is not conditioned by anyone else, (where
lows): ('l'he cognition that) thc skandhas
one is completely independent of others).
l. are neither permanerrt nor impermanen!
10, (Finally one corrsiders) the one who experiences it
2. they have gone beyond the extremes (of eternity
in the seven aspects in which (the dharmas rvhich consti-
and annihilation, of frccdom antl bondage);
tute him and his trai'i1g) resernble (a dream, a rnagical
3. they are pure (as bcing neither empty nor not
illusion, a mirage, an echo, a reflex, a city of the gandhar'
vas, a fictitious magical creation).
4. they are neither produced nor stopped, (neither
III 7. A viii 193'198. dc{iled nor puri{ied);
P: l. 285 o B. 2.287 a 5. 3.287b5. 4. ?. 5' zBBb 4' 5. they are like space,
6. 2BBb S. 7. 2BBb g. B. 289 b 6. 9. ?' l0' 290a 9' 6. without (."y) pollution (either by defiling agents,
or by entities which have originated);
7. (they lie) outside (all possibility of) appropriarion,
III, B. The samenessof the endeaaours. v. l0 c-d'
B. can, in their own-being, not be expressed by words,
The (ultimate) samenessof (the endeavour?or the iden'
9. and therefore their meaning cannot be communi-
tity of all its constituent factors) is (here) understood as
cated to othere by means of words;
the absenceof four kinds of preconception about the skan-
10. they do not effect a basis (for apprehension)o
dhas, (which concernithe separate reality of o) the cate-

[46] [47 ]
Abhisam aydlar ikdr a

they are equally

11. (have) absolute purity (because
the undefiled ele-
out of contact with the defrling as with
is impos'
12. for them disease (i'e' any kind of su{fering) IV. TI{E FULL UNDERSTANDING OF ALL MODES
(for Bodhisattvas
13. the states of rvoe lr'ave ceased
IV, 1. Aspects. l'v. 1-5.
who are fused with Perfect wisdom)'
regard to the
14. there is no th'ought-construction with The (general) mark of the aspects is that they (act
realisation of the fruit, as antidotes against) the varieties of the theory which
15. no contact with (the) signs (of dharmas); (assumes the reality of separate) entities. They are of
of entities and
16. and a non-genesis of the cognition three kinds, in accordance with the three kinds of omni-
their verbal expressions as two separate science.
IV, I,l. 27 aspects relating to (hhwyanistic) all-knowledge.
III 9. P 290b 8-294b 2' A ix 200-203' There are four for each (of the first three) truths, (Lrut)
for the (truth of the) path fifteen are remembered. They
(I-III) A briel rdsutn6. v' 16' begin with the aspect of 'rrorr-existent o, and end with
Thereis(theknowletlgeofallnrodes),tlrerrthereis(tlre the aspect of ' unshakeable'.
is (all-knowledge)'
knowledge of the pattrs), and then there IV, 1,2. 36 aspects relating to the knawledge of th,epaths.
three topics is
tlrree of them, ' th" end of (ttre first) (Flere) eight, seven, five and sixteen are proclairnetl in
thereby amrounced. tlue order respectively with regard to thc cause, the pitth,
iu ix 203-4' Ill and stopping.
P 2g4b 2. .t[ claims to find this threefold r6sum6 '4
IY, 1,3. 710 aspects reluting to the knowledgeoJ all modes.
(This section) begins with thc pillars of rnindfulness,
aud ends with the aspects of Buddhahood. In accor-
dance with the distinctionl between the tlrree kinds of
omniscence, that of Disciples, Bodhisattvas and Buddhas,
and with reference to the truth of the path (and its many
varieties), (the aspects) are in due order considered as
respectively thirty-seven, thirty-four and thirty-nine.

IV f . P 297 rz l-301 D 3. S xxix 293a-295b. A ix 204-207,

'I'he list of the aspectsis given in Tucci, pp. f3-15.

'1, - f'1. CoNtP, ,4l,hisomnril,th\nrn
IY,2. The endeo,Dours.w. 6'11. 6. (A beginner) reaches understanding painfully
IV,Z, A,. The persons who are suitable to make ,lw endea' and slowly, (and he is still full of fears about emptiness);
t)ours, w. 6-?. 7. (on the degree of Heat) he obtains (from the
(People are) worthy of hearing this (perfection of wis- Buddha) his prediction (to Buddhahood),
dom) because B. (on the degree of Summits) he (obtains) irrever_
l. they have done their duties under the Buddhas (of sibility (from full enlightenment),
the past),
9. (on the degree of Patience) he (defrnitely) goes
2. they have sown wholesome roots among them' forth (to emancipation),
3. they have good friends to help them. 10. (on the degree of Highest mundane dharmas)
The good are worthy of studying it, bearing it in mindo he (reaches) a state free from impetliments (in the unim-
(and meditating on it) because peded concentration, see V ?),
1. they have honoured the Buddhas, ll. (on the path of vision, or the first stagul (hi.
2. have questioned them, co'dition is characterised by his) to enJightenment,
3. have coursed in (the perfections of) giving, mora' 'earness
12. (on the 2nd to ?th stage by the) speedy (p.o_
lityoetc. gress to enlighten"'ent),
IV, 2o B. The methoils of traht'ittg. vv. B-Il. 13. (on the Bth stage) (by earrying on his activi-
(The endeavours which are needed firr the intuition of ties in pursuit of) the *'elfare of others.
the aspects of the three kinds of omniscience are 20 in c) (14-77,, concern the means by which the training
number. They arc): is perfected):
o) (1-5., concern the essence of the training): (In order to bring his practice of pcrfcct rvisdorn
I. One does not insist on the reality of the to fulfillmenr, the Bodhisattva should)
skandhas. 14. (sec that merits and defects from the stand-
2. (The insight into the fact) that (in true reality point of absolute reality) do neither gro\v nor diminish;
this endeavour) about them is no endeavour. 15. he should not form the vicw that there is a
3. (The insight into) the depth of the Suchness tlharma (or virtue), or a non,dharma (sin);
(of the skandhic elements which constitute the process of 16. he should not perceive (the fact even) that
training)o the skandhas are unthinkable etc.:
4. (the insight that these elements) are hard to 17. he should not discriminate the sign or exi-
fathom, (and really inaccessible to discursive thought), stence of the skandhas.
5. (the insight into) their immeasurableness; (they r/) (lB-19, concern the result of the training):
are infinite and without any limits). fB. (On the gth stage) he bestows (on others) the
b) (6-f3, concern the individual rvho trains): precious jervel of the fmits (of a holy life),

I st ]
Alr hiBam aydlaik6r a
IV 3,1. The annihilation of Mara's power. P3I0a3. A x 221
19. (on the 10th stage he is perfectly) Pure' 2. One is brought to mind by the
e) (20, concerns time): Buddhasoaud is aware of this fact 3IOD I 223
20. (The last endeavour is) connected with the deli' 3. One is placed into the sight of
mitation of time (i.e. the Bodhisattva fixes a certain time, the Buddhas b 7 224
4. One is quite near full enlighten-
such as a month, or a year' which he will devote to the
lnent Sllo 3 224
study of the Praiftdpdramitdl.
One realises the gteat aim (i.e.
tLat one is not separatetl from the
lY 2,4. P30fb3. Ax 208. Buddhas; the great advantage,
rv 2,8,1. 2tL i.e. a happy destiny; the great
302 o 7. 211 fmit, i.e. supreme enlightenment;
3. 302 b 4. 2t2 the great karrnaresult, i.e. action
4. 302 b 7. 2L2 for othets after one has won
J. 303o l. 2L2 enlighterunent) 3ll a 4 ,., A

6. 4. 2I2 One can judge the character of

nl. 2t3 different countries (as to how far
B. 304b 3. 2t3 they are suitable for preaching
9. B. 2t5 the perfection of wisdom) 3ll D 4 225
10. 305a 6. 2L6 7. All dharmas without outllows are
11. 305b ?. 217 perfected 313 o 2
L2. 306 a 4. 2tB One become$a persorr ryho can
13. 61. 2tB communicate the doctrine to
14. 307D 1. 2t9 others 313 , 3 ,r 1
15. 2t9 o One cannot be deflectetl frorn en-
16. 308c 7. 219 lightenmant 3 1 3 67 227
n. b4. 220 1 0 . An uncomrnon storo of nrerit is
18. 309 a 9. 220 acrluirctl 3 1 3 t ,B 227
19. b1. 220 l I. The pledges (one has made on
20. b3. 220 behalf of others) are genuinely
redeemed 3l4a I 9.r.1
12. One receives a sublirne reward 314a9 228
fV, 3. The qualities. v. 12a, b. 13. One is active for the weal of
There are fourteen (virtuous) qualities (which are ob' beings 3I4b 2 228
tained as a result of the endeavours)o beginning with the t4. One is certain to win (perfect
wistlom) 3r4b B 229
waning of the power of the Maras.

Is 2]
ED1 YARD CONZ E Abhisam ayilar ikdr a

IV, 4. Fauhs. v. l2c, d. 14. One settles down in the idea

The faults should be discerned as together with that (tlre Prajfidpdrdmitd) is co-
four decads. pied out 319Ao 4 240
15. One settles down iu tLe idea
IY 4,A. Faults within the student himself. that (the Prajftdpdrdmira-) is not
IV 4,1. (The perfection of wisdom) is at' copied out 319Ao 9
tained only with great difficulty P 3154 B. A xi 232 16. One adlrerea (to the Prajfidpard-
2, Sudden flashesof ideas arise too mitd) as in the letters 319 A 6
quickly 3156 4 232 I?. One adlreres (to the Prdjiidpdra-
3. Unsuitable bodily behaviour B 232 mitd) as not irr the lettere 319 A 6 240
4. Unsuitable mental behaviour 18. One (devotes) attention to (woild-
(caused by distractions, when ly objects such as) a pleasant
studying the sutra) 316o 3 232 countryside, etc. 319 B o 3 240
5. Recitation, etc. (of the sutra) 1 9 . A taste for gainohonour antl fame 242
for wrong reasons (e.g. love of 20. One seeke for skill in uleans
gain or honour) 316b r 232 where it cannot be found 319 B D 242
6. Consideratiion of the motives for IV 4,8. Faults which arise from a dis-
the rejection (of the doctrine cord (or maladjustment) bet-
of Prajfiapdramitd) 233 ween studeut and teacher.
1 One deserts {the Projftapdromittl 2r . The one is zealous, the other
which is the cause of Buddha- indolent Jf9 B D 243
hood 233 cto
Though either may be zealous,
One loses the taste for the nrost they are eeparatcd lry living in
sublime (teaching of the praifld' different parts of the rvorld 3f9 B D
pdramitd) 317 a B 233 23. The one values gain (and hon.
9 .. One deserts the supreme vchicle b 3 234 our), the other is easily satislicd 320 o 2
10. One deserts the highest goal 1 23rr 24. 'l'hc one has undcrgone the au-
1I. One deviates frorn both the eterities, tlr.e other has not 320 o 7
cause (of Buddhahood) and the 25. The one is lovely in his nature,
fruit connected rvith it 31Bo 2 236 the other unlovely 320b 4
12. One deserts (the opportunity to 26. The one is generous, the other
win) the highest possible (form stingy 320 6
of existence) 31Bo 9 237 ,4
'Ihe one is willing to giveo the
13 . The production of manifold other uot willing to accept 321 a
flashes of ideas, and of distract' 28. The one requires a brief ex.
ing thoughts directed torvards planation and the other gives
a great variety of objects 31Bb 4 240 a detailed one, and vice versa 321 a 24314
Is 4] Is5 ]
EDWARD CONZ E Abhi6am ayilaikir a

29. The one has the higher know' 42. The teacher goes to a place
ledge of the dharma (as ex' haunted by robbers, and the
pounded i") the sutras, etc. student refuses to go there 324o 2 247
and the other has not 32l a 9 24314 43. The teacher likes to see the fa-
The one is endowed with the milies (which feed him, and so
six perfections, the other is uot 32rb 3 has rro time for his students) 324a B 248
IV 4,C. External unfavourable condi-
31 . The one has skill in means,
32Lb 7 tions
the other has rrot
44. lllara makes an effort to dissuade
32. The one has a powerful me'
322a 2 (from the perfection of wisdom) JZA b z 248
rnorlr the other has not
45. (Mara) arranges a fictitioua, or
The one lovee to (studY)'
(etc. the PraiftdPdra' counterfeit (appearance of the
322o 4 B uddh a) 325a I 249
mitd), the other does not
46. (Mara) produces a longing for
The one is covered over with
undesirable things 325a 7
sense-dcsires (and other evil
states)r the other is without
them 322o B 245 IY, 5. Morks, vv. 13-31.
JJ. The aversion to being reborn (The Sutra now considers the marks, or characteristic
in the states of woe (for the features, of the training). That by which something is
sake of other beings) 322b 4 246
rnarked, that should be known as its mark. And that
Delight at (the thought of)
is threefold, (i.e. 1. the marks of the) cognition (rvhich leads
going to a blissful existence
322b 7 to linal enlightenment)? 2. the distinctive marks (of the
(in the heavens)
37. The one is foud of solitude, mahayanistic path), 3. (the marks) of the activity (which
the other of companY 323aL 246 accompanies the cognition). But 4., that.rvhich is marhed
(The student) wishes to asso- is the own-being (of the training).
ciatc (with the teacher), but IV, 5,1. The marks of cognitiort.
(tl-re teaclrer) gives him no
246 fV, 5,1a. The marks of tlrc cogrtitiort.as regarils oll-knou-
opportunity 323a 4
39. The one needs some material
hclp, the other is unwilling These are the rnarks of the cognition comprised under
to give it 323a 9 the hcading of (the hinayanistic) all-knowledge. (It is a
40. The one goesto a a Place of ilan- cognirion) rvith regard to:
ger' the other to a safe Place 323b 2 247
l. the appearance of the Tathagata (in the world,
41. The teaclrer goes to a Place as a result of perfect wisdom),
which is short of food, and the
323b 6 247 (2.-75. concern aspects of the Buddhaos cognitiq4)
other refuses to come with him

Is 6] Is7 ]

l. emptiness, together with

2. (which sees) the world as essentially not crum-
2. the signless, and
3. his rejection of plans for the futurel
3. (which cognizes) the thoughts and doings of (all)
4. (his cognition of) non-production,
(insofar as they are) 5. of non-stopping,
4. (cognizes) those thoughts
(6. of the unreality of defiling forces,
7. of the unreality of purifrcation,
5. or (insofar as they are) dispersed,
B. of non-existence,
6. (cognizes) the aspect from which they do not get
9. of owu-being,
10. of lack of support,
?. (cognizes the mind) of those with greed, (hate and
ll. of all dharmas as analogous to space),
12. (his cognition) of the true nature of dharma a" .rndi-
(8. and of those without greed, hate and delusion),
9. (the thoughts) which are extensive,
13. as unconditiorred,
10. those which have gone great'
14. as free from discrimination;
11. those which are unlimited;
15. (the Buddha's ability to demonstrate) the distinc-
f2. (it knows) that consciousness cannot be defined
tions (between dharmas),
(since it is devoid of any separate essence of its own' or
16. (the Buddha's cognition of) the absence of marks
of any similarity by which it could be characterised),
(in dharmas).
13. it cognizes minds (or thoughts) as imperceptible,
fV, 5,1c. The marks of cognition ds regards the knouledge
14. (has a cognition) of that which one calls the a{lir-
of all modes.
mations (and negations, carried out by the thought-pro-
One speaks (as follows) of the marks of cognition within
cesses of others. and which lead to erroneous vieH's),
the compass of the knowledge of all modes: (The Bodhi-
15. has a cognition of the (unreality of) these (views)
sattva has the cognition that)
(when considered) from the point of view of Suchness,
l. (the Buddha) dwells as one who has taken recourse
(and) thence furthermore (there is)
to his own dharma (which is the perfection of wis-
16. the Sageos understanding of Suchness, and the
eommunication of that to others.
2. (that the Buddha will) honour (the perfection of
IV, 5,16. The marks of cognition as regards the ,knouledge
of the paths.
3. valuc it greatlyo
The marks of cognition under the heading of the know'
4. take delight in it, (and)
ledge of the paths are considered with refcrence to (the
5. worship it;
Buddha's cognition of)

Is B ] Ise]
6. (that the Buddha has a cognition of) the fact that 6. the knorvledge (of the Absolute) is accessi-bleto the
(all dharmas) have not been made by an agento experience of the wiseo
?. that (the Buddha has) a cognition which reaches 7. (but) it is not shared (by the Disciples);
everywhere, B. it brings quick(er) understanding (than that of thc
B. that (the Buddha) has the ability to show that which Disciples),
is imperceptiblc, 9. urrdergocs neither loss nor increase,
9. that he (cognizes)the world from the point of view 10. is an (intense) progress (in the six perfections),
of its emptiness, 11. (and leads to the accomplislrmenr) of full attain-
10. that he (can) indicate (this emptiness)o ment.
11. make it knowno 12. (This knorvledge of perfect wisdom is further con-
12. show it up, sidered rvith regard to) its objective supporr,
13. that he can demonstrate the unthinkability (of the
13. its (subjective) fou*dation (which is the Absolute
skandhas in their true nature), in the Bodhisattva),
14. their (basic) quiescence 14. the full complement (of the factors necessary for
15. the cessation of the world, realising perfect wisdom),
16. (and the cessation) of the perception (of the world)' 15. the assistance (provided by the power of perfect
IY, 5,2. The ilistirtctiue marhs. wisdorn and of skill in means),
The distinctive marks (which indicate the points of 16. the absence (in it) of a relishing (for any notiorm
superiority of the rnahayanistic path) are taught by way of I arrd mine, and for any separate dharmas).
of 16 moments' which have the (four holy) Truths for IY, 5,3. I'he ntarks oJ actiaity,
their range, (which conespond to the 16 moments of the The marks of the activity (of a Bodhisattva, who tluring
path of vision, as given at II4), and which are distinguish- his training helps others, are as follows):
ed by the special distinctive marks of unthinkableo etc' l. He brings benefits to people,
The 16 points by which the distinctive path (of a Bodhi- 2. ease,
sattva) is distinguished from the other paths are as fol- 3. shelter,
lows: (The Absolute is cognized as) 4. a refuge,
1. unthinkable, 5. a place of rest,
2. incomparableo 6. the final relief:
3. transcending all measure, 7. he becomes an island (to the *.orld), (and)
4. (transcending all) calculation; B. acts as a leader (to it);
5. as comprising (the virtuous qualities) of all the
9. he does not (in his mind) turn towards (an, beinge
saints; as to real persons whom he might really benefit),

[61 ]

9. (and) one has (learned to) refrain from settling dorvn

10. (he knows that) in actual fact the liuit (as unPro-
(in any entity in connection rvith this clevelopmcntJ.
duced, etc.) cannot be realized through the three vehicles,
10. (The surra then) spcaks of the objective supporr
11. and finally there is the activity of being a means
(of this developrnent rvhich is like an iilusion or rike.i""";,
(or route) to salvation.
fV, 5,4. TIte marhs of own-being.
ll. (of the fact that it is) i' antagonism (to the entire
The (description of the) own-being (or cssential cha-
world, since its assumptions are so contrary to those
racter of the meditative training) consists of 16 points. of
the world)
As a mark it (i.e. the own'being) is (here) intendcd, and
(The 16
12. (The dharma which is cognized by this medita-
therefore it is understood to be the fourth mark.
tional developrnent)is rrowhereobstructed (by any sepa-
points are: The essential nature of those who undergo
rate dharma),
training is)
13. groundless (on account of the non-ayy.ehension
1. separated from the defilements (i.e. greed, hate antl of
any separate dharma),
14. without a resort, (routeo or destiny),
2. from the tokerrs (of the defilements, which manifest
15. unborn,
themselves in bad conduct of body, voice and mind),
16. and free from the apprehension (even) of Suchness.
3. from (an unwise attention to) the signs (of the defi-
4. from both the points to be shunnetl (i.e. greed, etc') IV 5,1a,l. P 328a 4. A xii 2SJ 9. P A263
and from their antidotes (i.e. non'greed, etc.). 2. aB 256 10. 330a4 263
3. b3 2s6 ll.
5. (In its essential nature the meditational develop- a B 264
4. 329a1 257 12. b 2 265
ment is) hard to do (since it aims at leading all beings to
5. a6 257 13. b (t 268
Nirvana without establishing any connection with the 6. ?ss 14. b 9 268
skandhas, or any dharma whatsoever). 7. 329a9 260 15. .33107 270
6. It is devoted to one aim only (since the Bodhisattva B. 329b9 26L 16. 27r
cannot possibly fall on the hinayanistic level)o IV 5,16, l-16. P BJ3a 2-JJ4b J. A xii 272-274. S ch.
AiI. cb. 4Z
?. and (does not depart from) the program (which is
IV 5,1c,l-16. P 334b 3-336b 4. A xii 274-280.
the achievement of Buddhahood).
lV 5,2,1. P 336b4. I xiii 2Bt tl.P34la2.
8. (Further the own'being of this meditational deve- A xiv 2BS
(S ch. 34, Ad ch. 44) 12. 343 o 3. 286
lopment is marked by the fact that) it offers no basis (for 6. P 339b 6. A xiv 2BJ (S ch. 35, Ail ch. 45)
the apprehension of anything that should be developed, 7. b B. 283 13. P 344a 2. 287
of anyone who does the developing, or of the develop- B. 340a 3. 283 14. b 7. 2BB
ment itself), 9. a B. 283 15. 345b 6. 290

162) [63]

16. 348o 6. xv 292 3. Mindfulness, which is the accomplishment of one's

I0. b 2. xiv 284
(S ch. 36' AiI ch. 461 (fricndty) intcntions;

IY 5,3,1. P 349b 3. A xv 293 7. P Ssrb 2. A xv 296 4. The meditative trance, lvhich is without discrimina-
b 9. 293 B. 352b L. 296 tion (between doer, deed and doing); (and)
293 9. 353o 3. 297 5. Wisdom, which is the cognition of dharmas in all
3. 350 o 2.
a 4. 294 r0. b 9. 297
4. their modes.
a 7. 294 11. 359a 7. 298
5. IY, 6 c) Three degressof strength oJ the Aids to emancipation.
6. b 6. 29s
Full enlightenment is regarded as easy to know by the
9.P 359 a 5. ,4 xv 301
IV 5,4,1. P 356a 7. A xv 299 keen (i.e. by those who are strong irr faith, etc.), as hard
10. 360 o l . 302
(S ch. 37, Ail ch' 47)
299 (s 38' Ad 48\ to knorv by the dull (or those, who are weak in faith, etc.o
2. 356 o 9.
b L. 299 11. 362 b 7. 304 and also those who are only rnoderately strong ir. r'aitho
299 t2. 364o 3. xvi 306 ctc.).
4. b 2.
300 13. b6. 306
5. b 7.
300 14. b9. 306 IV
6. 357a 7. 6a.P 369o5. lxvi3ll
301 15. 366b 9. 309
7. b 1. b. 3696 r. 312
30r 16. 367 a 6. 309 c. I.
B. b 5. The sttong Aids to emancipation. ,4 xvi 313,6
2. 'i'he .rveak Aids to crnancipation. P B7La J
3. Thc rnrrdiunrAids to emaucipation. o B
IV, 6. The Aiils to Emancipation' I'v' 32-34'
IV, 7. The Aids to Penetration. I'v. 35-36.
IV, 6a. The Aiits to enranciPation in general'
perfect wis- a) (In its next section the Sutra) recommends the
The skill (which is in possession of both
towards) full ways in which those who are on the stage of lIeat nake
dom and ekill in means) (and u'hich moves
takes) the all beings into an object (of their thoughts): their thoughts
attainment (by means of a cognition which
nanifestation are described (first of all) as even (friendly, well-disposed,
signless (for its object, and through the
of) gene' frce from avcrsion, free frorn harrnl and therr) as tenfold
within the personal continuity of a Bodhisattva'
of a Buddha)' (insofar as one regards all beings as if they were or,.,'s
rosity (ani of all the other constituents
is regarded mother, father, brother, sister, son, daughter, fricnd, rela-
that, in this Full understanding of All Modes,
tive, kinsman or maternal relative).
as the Aids to EmanciPation'
to emu'n'cipatiort" b) (The Bodhisattva) has come to the Summits when
IV, 6 lr. A f'uefoltl iliaisiort' oJ the Aitls
he himself desists from (all) evil, stands (himself in the
They are frvcfold, ff
and Samgha) progressive path rvhich consists in) giving, ctc.o and also
1. Faith, which has the Buddha (Dharrna
enjoins those (practices) on others, proclaims their praises
for its object;
(to them), and makes them conform (to them).
2. Yigour, which ranges over giving etc';

[64] [6 s]
5 - Ii. Corzr, .4hhisnmntilahk;n
EDWARD CONZ E AbhisamayElaikira
c) And so (he comes to the stage of steadfast) Ptl- 5. (the praetice of the perfections),
_ givingo ete., is
tience when he establishes both himself and others in the on (the ide'rificatioo ur oneserf
withl) otire.e;
cognition of the (four holy) Truths, 'ased
6. (he fccls) no
_- ab''r thc _ruoiog
r/) and likewise one should understand the Highest dharma) even where 'esitation 1uf tl"
it is dcep;
(mundane) ilharmas (as reached) when (he himself) matures 7. he is friendly (whencvei
he acts rvith) his body,
all beingso (and incites others to do the same). (voice or mind);
B. he tloes not-rneet rvith any
IV 7. P 373 a 4-377a l. A xvi 321-322. of the five hinrlrances;
9. he loses all latent bias (towards
igrrorance and other
evil states),
IV, B. The host of irreaersible Bodhisattaos. wv. 38-59.
f 0. (he acquires constant)rninrlfulness
The host of irreversible Bodhisattvas (consists of Bodhi- anJ _,lf-possession,
lf. (he has clean habits), (rvears
sattvas who) proceed successively I. on the Aids to Pene- a) clean rlbe, etc.
6) Summits.
tration, 2. on the path of vision, 3. on the path of repeaterl
12. The (S0.000 farnilics of) rvornrs
meditational developrnerrt. cannot spring u1r
in his body;
B. P 3?7 o 1. The marks of irrcversibility in gcneral. : 13. (there is) no crookedncss
in his heart,
A xvii 323. 14. he has taken upon hirnself
the (12) ascetic praetices,
15. (his mind k'ows) not (rhe
srarcs which arc hostire
fV, B,l. Tlrc marks of irreuersibility on, the leuel of the Aids to the perfections), Iike nlearuless.
to Penetratiotr.. (vv. 39-45). 16. he moves tow_ardsa junction
(ruith perfect wisdom,
The marks of the irreversibility of him who stands on which is not in conflict) with
the true nature of Dharma;
the Aids to Penetration are said to be twenty? by way 17. he desires to go intn the
hells for the rveal of the
of the tokens which begin with the turning away frorn world.
the skandhas. (These tokens are as follows): c) Patience.
c) Heat. lB. He cannot be lcd astray
by others.
1. The turning away from the skandhas (to the Such- 19. 'When Mara recommends
a wrong (or counterfeit)
ness which is their true reality)o path, recognizes that . this is Mu.u jruiro
-he .p"utrf ;,
2. the extinction of doubt (which is shorvn by the d) Ilighest mundane dharrnas.
emergence of unwavering faith), 20..Td: finally, he takes rrp
. the (progressive) practices
3. the extinction of the (eight kinds of) inauspicious in (everywhere) the Butlclhas
_which h"rr"" ."joi".d.
rcbirth; It is by these trventy tokens
that (one can know that
4. he himself stands firm in what is wholesome, and a Bodhisattva) who cngagetl in tire practice of (the
he enjoins it also on others; -is
degreesof) a) Ilcat, 6) S""r-its, c) patiei"",
"rr.l I
[66] 167l
ghest (mundane) dharmas, does not turn back on full
that he cau enter into those states of meditative tra'cc,
enlightenrnent. b't does not allorv his future rebirth to be tlcternrincrl by
M,1,1. P37ia7. ,4 xvii 323 1r. P 379b 3. A 326 thern, with the result that he is reborn in thc world of
2. 323 12. 379b 5. 326 sense'desire, and not in the lvorld of form or of formless-
3' 378a 2. 324 13. b 9. 326 ness).
4. a5. 324 14. 380a 4' 327
5. He is light in body and rnintl,
5. bl. 325 15. a 6. 327
16. o B. 327 6. circumspect in the use of pleasant things (wtrich
6. b6. 326
326 r7 . b 2. 328 he possessesand enjoys rvithout caring for them, without
7. 379a 2.
B. o6. 326 lB. b 6. 328 eagerness or attachment).
9. o 7. 326 19. 381b 6. 329 7. at all times (in all his lives) he leads a chaste
10. o B. 326 20. 383 o 3. 330 life,
B. he is pure in the rnanner of earni-_ his livelihootl,
IY, 8,2. Tlrc marlrs oJ irreuersibilily oJ one wlrc slon'ds on' (and provides for it in the right way).
the path oJ uision. (vv. 46-5f). 9. He avoids to dwcll on, or to be occupied or pre-
o" tt path of vision one should discern the marks of occuPied with the (5) skandhas, (lB elements, 12 sc'se-
a Bodhisattva's irreversibility in accortlance wittr the (16) fields, which he regards as all equally empty).
moments, (defined by) the (patient) accePtance of the 10. with the (possible) obstacles (to his arrainment
cognition (of dharma) (etc. as at II 4)' The tokens of ema.cipation' which have all lost their power to harm
irreversibility of the wise who stand on the path of vision him),
are (in accordance with) the 16 moments, as follows: ll. with (the varied mrrltiplicity of) his ctluipment
l. revulsion from (the habit of forming) a notion of (for e^liglrtenment, in view of the fact that he has under-
the skandhas (u. separate entities which have actually stood the faults of discrimination),
been produced); 12. with battles (killers and their victimso hostile
2. firmness of the thought (by which he aspires for states and antidotes, because he has abandoned the dilfe-
supreme enlightenment, which he contirlues to regard rence between subject and object; and in consequence he
worth winning, although it is like sPace' and his self reaches a fourfold cessation of his karma-result, i.e. the
no place in it); cessation) l) of his faculties, (2) of the subjective basis of
3. the turning away from (thoughts which aspire the faculties, 3) of the objcctive range of the faculties,
for) the two inferior vehicles (of the Disciples and and 4) of the settling down in the notion of self);
tyekabuddhas), 13. with meanness (immoralit/, and the other etates
4. the mastery over the limbs of the (four) trances hostile to the six perfections).
(and the four formless allsinments) (rvhich consists 14. He does not grasp at even the least dharma,
EDWARD CONZ E Abhisam aynlat kdr a

15. (he reaches) certainty about his own stage, and IV, 8,3 C. Nine degress of the path oJ deuelopment.
By way of rnaking a continuoue series (the Sutra) con-
stands frrmly on the triad of the levcls (which is essen'
siders (thc path of development) as ninefold in kiml, (by
tially the same as the triple omniscicnce);
16. he renounces even his life for the sake of the distinguishing three degrees each of) weak, medium and
Dhanna (which consists in the knowledge of all modes, strong' and in addition it disti.guishes (another eeries of
etc.). with regard to the hostile states arising from false
discrimination, which are considered as very) weak, etc.
rv 8,2,1. P 3BI6 1. A xvii 33L,6 9. P 3866 l. A 334 (and in each case the strength of the path is inversely
, 3836 9. 331,25 10. b 6. 334
proportionate to that of the hostile state).
(S ch. 40, Ail ch. 50) il. b7. 334
1.4 332 t2. b B. 334 IY, 8,3 D. The mark oJ enlightenment.
3. P3846
4. b 7. 332 13. 387a 4. 335 Thc descriptions (of lthe merir accumulated by a Bodhi-
5. 385o +. 332 t4. b 4. 336 sattva rvho praetises this ninefold path of development)
6. b 2. 332 15. a
3BB 9. 337 as i'calculable (immeasurable and measureless) u." frorrt
b 7. 333 16. 6 B. 338 the standpoint of ultimate reality not adequatc. In a
B. 386a J. 333
conventio'al sense, (horvever), they are admittetl as prol)er
outpourings of the sagesospity (which bring great fruits
fV,B, 3. The marks oJ irreuersibility oJ one uho stantls on'
in the mi.ds of ordinary peoplc). (The accumulatio.
the path oJ deueloptn,ent. vv. 52-59.
nrerit produced by the path of devclopment) is an entity 'f
IV, 8,3 A. The tlepth oJ the path. oJ deuelopmen't.
rvhich cannot (in its ultir'ate reality) be expressed in
1) Decp is the patlt of developnrcnt. 2) Its depth is
rvords, and (the attribution of) grorvth (to trrc anrid'tcs)
(due to its being) emptiness' (the signless, the wishlessothe
and of dimi''tion (to the hostile states) is not tcrrablc
uneffected, non-production, no-birth, uon-existence, dispas-
(in respect of such an cntity). One speaks of (a path of)
sion, cessation, Nirvarra, departure). 3) This depth (which
meditational developrnent, - but there is nothing (by rvay
consists in emptinesso etc.) is free frorn the two extrernes
and negation, (because the skandhas are of the nine kinds of thi'gs bor. from farse discrimination)
of attribution
rvhich is left behind, ai { there is nothing (by way of the
not in emptiness, etc., and yet ernptiness' etc. is not other
nine kinds of states born of the path) which is built up.
than they).
But it is like enlighrenme't that this (path of develop-
IV, 8,3 B. The tlistirlctiue Jeatu,res oJ the path oJ deuelop'
mcnt) accomplishes the desired aim (and all the merit
gained should be dedicated to enlightenmcnt). And enlight-
The path of development (consists of) repcated reflec'
ertment has suchness for its mark, arrcl so should also the
tionso assessments a1d meditations (about the perfection
mark of this (path of dcvelopmcnt) be understood.
of wisdom) (successively) on thc Aids to Petrctration, on
lV, B,3li. The eightfold depth o! the path of deuelopment,
the path of vision, on the path of development itself.

[70] [ 71 ]

EDWAND CONZ E Alr hisar uayilat kdr a

(The attainment of full) enlightenrncnt is not joincd 2. The rlepth of the path of tle_
to the mind which (produced) thc first (thought of enlight- veloprnent 61. 342
enment), nor to (the one which produces) the last one. 3. Thc path of development is
frecrl frorn the trvo e_ytremes
The true nature of dharma (shoultl be understood) in
of attrilnrtiorr aud ncgation 391a 6.
accordance with the simile of a lamp (the wick has not 342
[V 8,3 B
been burned by the {irst incidence of the Ilarne, or by l. 'I'he roatl to devclopmerrt 39r b 6. 342
the last one, and it is also not burned without them, and 2. The roatl to development,
yet the wick has been burned up). (It then reveals itself rvhich consists of the Aids to
as) deep in eight ways. The depth lies in: penetration, etc. 39rb B. 342
'Ihe tlrreefirkl
f. its (rnode of) production, (in that it is produced
.vanraAe 3916 o 343
IV 8,3 C
C. The distinction of (9, or lB)
not as a result of the consecutivc moments of its deve-
kinds ou the path of rlevelop-
loprnent, and not independent of them, either);
2. its stopping, (in that, although they are in their I xviii 343
l. The discrirnination is very
own nature unproduced, entities are stopped in the con- -346
strong 392 b
ventional sense); 2. The path (antidote) is very
3. its Suchness, (rvhich is hard to understand because w eak 392b 3.
3. 'Ihc diecrimination is mc_
although not distinct from the skandhas, it rnust be rea-
dium strong
lized as a result of their removal); 4.
4. The path is moderately weak
4. the cognizable, (which is mere thoughto neither 7.
5. The discrirnination is weakly
dillerent nor not difierent
from Suchness); Ftrong
5. the cognition, (which is non-cognition, since Such- 6. The path is fairly weak 393 a ,
ness can be seen only when it is not seen); 7. The discrimination is stron-
6. the practice (which is the absence of all practising)o gly mediurn 5.
B. The path is wea':ly rnediurn 1
7. its non-duality (rvhich results from the absence of
9. The discrimination is mode-
ideas of sign and signless), and rately medium 3 9 3b r .
B. the skill in means (by which he forsakes in a con- 10. The path is moderatelv me_
ventional sense that which in ultimate reality cannot be di um b4.
forsaken). Il. The discrimination is weakly
medium b q
12. The path is strongly medium 394a ,
IY 8,3 I 13. The discrirnination is fairly
l. Deep i s th e p a th o f d e v e l o p - rveak 6.
ment P 390 a 5. I xviii 341 14. The path is weakly strong
1 7 2) li3 l

15. Ttre discrimination is mode-

not be constructed (as separate reahns). The solution of
rately rnedium b 1. thc (various) problems, concerning the non-existcnce of
16. The Path is medium strong b 3. karma, etc., (which are raised by this attitude, should be
1?. The discrimiqation is very understood) as explained (in the Sutra).
weak b 7.
lB. The Path is very strolrg IV 9. I' 398b 7-400a B. 'I'he host of irrcvcreiblc adepta.
IY 8,3 D. (The mark of enlighten- I xix 356-361
ment). xviii 347
o -351
l. The imPlications of incal-
394b 9. IV, 10. T'he utmost urity of the Budilhu-f,ekl. v. 61.
c ulable ' , e tc .
The rvorld of living beings is impure, (o. imperfect,
2. The mark of the orvn'being
o 395o 3. because it knows hunger, etc.), and so is the world which
of incalculable ', etc'
3' Orre raises a Problem, and fomrs the errvironmerrt of living beings, (because it con-
ex plain s (th e s ete n n s ) a s o u t- tains treeless deserts, etc.). The (trvofold) state of (per-
pourings of the Tathagata's fect) purity of a Buddhalield (cornes about) when (a
compassion 395o B.
Bodhisattva) achieves the purity (of those two worlds,
4. The Problem taised bY the
by counteracting their imperfections through the supply
absence of grorvth and dimi'
nution in au incxprcssibl: of food, etc., and through crcatiotr of an all-round plea-
entitY 395b 2. sant cnvironment).
5. I t s s o l u ti o n 396o 3.
IV 8,3 E. M0' P 400 o 8-4046 5. flhcnr The story of the Gaugesgotl'
I. The sirnile of thc lamP 397a L. A xix 352 tlt:-"s: P 404b 5-406a 5. .zlxix 361-365;365-369.
II. The eiglrtfold dcPth' A xix 353
l. P 397b 4 5' P 39Bo 2 -356 IY, ll. The slcill in nwans. vv. 62-63.
2.76. 5
(The Bodhisattva wr. o cnploys skill in rneans to per-
3. 39Bol 7' 5
o fcct his lJuddha-field has for his) objcctivc range (the
4.28. o
three doors to freedorn, i.e. eurptiness, the signless and
v' 60' the rvishless, which he enters without realising their fruits).
IV, 9. The santenessof becoming and quietude'
Bodhi- The endeavours (which constitute his) skill in means are
(After he has traversed the paths of a learner' the
and puri' tenfold, i.e.
sattva now, seeitrg the identity of defilement
train- l. he (victoriously) overcomes a multitude of enemies,
fi,cation, becomes uo u.l"pt, and requires no further
rvhen the 2. (he dwclls) unsupported (by emptiness, etc., as a
iog. The rnark of the adept is norv elucidated
lrecause all bird in the sky, and yct he docs not fall into the empti-
Stt." states that a Bodtrisattva knorvs that)'
should ness through leaving his Buddhadharmas incomplete);
dharmas are like a drcamo becoming and quietude

[74] [? s]
Abhisam aydlaf r kir a

3. as (an archer with his arrow hits) rvhat he intends

to hit (and can, by shooting up in quick succession one
arrow after another, prevent the {irst arrow from drop-
ping clown until he wishes it to do so), (so the Bodhisattva V. THE FULI, UNDERSTANDING AT ITS SUMMIT
continues to carry out his former vowse which promisecl
help to all beings).
4. (IIis skill is) marked as uncomrnon (because it is Y, l. Its characteri^ric. v. 1.
difficult to postpone emancipation in order not to abantlon The charaeterist^es of the Yoga which has reached the
all beings), Summits, (and which corresponds to the degree of Heat),
5. it is without attaehment (because all dharrnas are are considered in twelve ways, beginning with the fact
not apprehended), that one looks upon all dharmas, even in a dream, as
6. it is without a basis (because it contemplates the like a dream.
door to freedom 'rvhich is emptiness)'
7. rvithout sign (because no sign is apprehended), Y l,L. (A Bodhisattva) contemplates all dharmas (even in his
B. without wishes for tlre future (because none are dreams) as similar to a dream. P 412 a l. ,4 xx 380.
2. Ile does not produce a thought of longing for the level of
- -1. the Disciples (or of the Pratyekabuddhas, or for anything
token (of irreversibility),
1.ni. skill is) the (specific) tlrat belongs to the triple world). P 4L2 a 2. ,4 380.
10. (and) it is unlimited (in its objective range, because 3. IIe has a vision of the Tathagata (preaching dharma).
it ranges over everything). P 412u 3. I 3B0.
4. IIe has a perceptiorr of the *-onderworking powers of a
IV 11. P 406o 5. A xx 370 B uddha. P4l2a7. ASBL
1. 407b r. 3?1 6. P 409b 4. A xx 376 5. IIe aspires to deronstrate the fact that (all) dharmas
2. 374 7. 377 are si rni l ar t o a dr t nnr . P 4l2a 9. I 3Bl.
3. 408a 7. 375 B' 4I0o 9 Jtt
6. Ile is dotcrrnirrcd that his owrr lRuddha-fieltl shoukl
4. 375 9. 4106 7 379 contain uone of the states of woe. P 412 b 3. A 3Bl,
5. 375 10. 311o 9 380 7. IIe successfully appeases a conflagration in a city (or
village) by the sustaining power of the truthful al[r-
rnatiorr (of the fact that he possessesthe attributes of
an irreversible Bodhisattva). A 382.
B. He accomplishes a truthful utterance which induces
ghosts, like Yakslus, etc., to go away (after they have
taken possessionof a human being). P 413 o 4-416b 4.
,, xx 383-4.

EDYT ARD CONZ E A b hisam ayilaikir a

(At this point Haribhatlra inserte P 413 b 5-4L6 b 4: tlrerein no one grows and notlring increases). p 4lg b g.
o. A 405.
A xxi 385-395, as a section dealiug with ' Mara's deeds
These are dividcd into o) (deeils) arising frorn the assi- The growth is considcred from the point of vjew that
gnation of a name (by which the irrevcrsible Bodhisattva it o{Iers no baeis for the apprehension of the real
shall be known as a Buddh.), - weak, medium, strong; Btence of the person who wins enlightenrnent. or of
D) (deeda) arising from (an irrcversible Bodhisattva's mis- the dharrna u-hich is known to tlre enliehtened.
conceptions about the) quality of detacltnrenl, - weak, P 420b 6. A 408.
medium, strong). 5. The growth (in perfect wistlorn) consiete essentially in
9. He advances courageously on his owu initiative to the the (increasing' endowment with wholesome roots (which
higher knowledge, and tends thc good friends. P 416b 4. render the Bo lhisattva) euperior (to att other beings).
A xi 395. xxii 396. P 421a 2. I xxiii 410. S ch. 46. Ail ch. 56.
10. He trains in perfect wisdorn in all manners and ways. 6. This growth (in merit) by its own natule (induces) all
P 4L7 b 4. I xxii 398. the Gotls to (reverently) approach (the Bodhisattva).
11. He does not settle do\,vn in anything. P 4L7 b 6- 4398. P 422 a 2. ,4 xxiii 414.
12. IIe comes near the enlightenment of a Buddha. 7. The growth (iu perfect wisdom also enables the Bodhi-
P 4lB o 6. A 400. sattva) to overcome all the Maras. p 422 b 2. I xxiv 416.
B. The growth (in perfect wisdom) manifests itself by the
fact that a Bodhisattva treats (all other Bodhisattvas)
Y,, 2. Their growth. v. 2. alike, revering them as if they were the Teacher himself.
The growth (corresponding to the degrec of Summits), P 424b 3. A xxiv 422.
consists of 16 points' rvhich begin with the (description of 9. By its verv nature the growth (in perfect wisdom) con-
the) merit (which) all the People of Jambudvipa (and of sists iu tl-re perfectly pure training in skill in lneans.
P 425 a 4, A xxv 424, S ch. 42. Atl cb. 57.
rvorld-systems up to a great trichilicosm) (can gain) from
10. This grorvth is rnark.tl by the fnct that .^e hag bec.rnc
worshipping the Buddhaso and with lvhich (the rnerit
one who belongs to the clan of the lluddhas. p 427 o I.
tlcrived from the perfection of wisdorn) is compared in A 428.
many ways. ll. It has for its sig' (the aspiration for) the attainrnent of
tlrc fruit of Buddlrrrhoorl. p 427 a 2. A 42g.
V 2,I. The growth of tb'e rnerit (derived frorn the practice of 12. Its nature consists in that the etates hostile to the per_
perfect wisdom) is superior to that which the beings fections (i.". meanness, immorality, ill-will, Iaziiess,
of Jambudvipa, etc., gain from honouring the Tatha- distraction and stupidity) do not arise in the thought
gatas,etc. P 4IB o 10. I xxii 401' (of a Bodhisattva). P 427 a 6. A 4J0.
2. In its distinctive own-beingthe growth consistsof atten- 13. (This item is omitted by l{aribhadra. p 427 a B has:
tions to the perfection of wisdom- P 4I9 a 5' A 404' There ariscs no thought associatetl *ith trre skandhas,
3. When one has gained the patient acceptanceof what et c.).
fails to lre producecl, (one appreciates) the fnct that 14. The growth (i" perfect wisdom) comprehends (the
the growth (in perfect v'isdom) is pre-eminent (because growth) of all the perfections, and (the growth in) the

[78] uel
EDT YARD CONZ E Abhisarnay6lariklra

cognition (of perfect wisdom) (puts a stop to the non- Yo 5a. The two discriminations of the object. v. 5.
cognition, which is the source of all unwholesome dhar- The trvo (false) discriminations of the object cause
mas). P 427 b 2. I xxv 431' objects within their range to appear dillerent from what
15. The growth (in perfect wisdom) implies tb'e acquisi- they are in reality. The one refers to worldly activity,
tion of all the accomplishments' (those of a Disciple as
the other to withdrawal from activity, and each should
well as those of a Buildha)' P 427 b 6' A 43I'
it consists in lreing near to full be known as consisting of nine (itcms).
16. By its very nature
enlightenment. P 428 a 9. A 433' V, 51,. The tuo discriminations oJ the subject w. 6-?.
(The Sutra I nen) considers the two (false)discriminations
Y, 3. Firm position. v. 3. ofthe subjcct. The one regards beings (or persons) as (real)
The firm position (corresponding to the degree of Pa- substantial entities, the seconrlas (merely) nominal entities.
tience) is so called (because one has gained l' a firm posi- The Iirst refers to the common people, the second to the
tion in) the supreme fulfillement of the dharmas (charac- saints. Each one consists of rrine iterns. If the objective
teristic) of the three kinds of ornniscience, (and 2' a {irrn reality (of objects) is rrot so (as it appears to the discrirni-
position with regard to) the non-abandonment of the nating mind), then the tu'o (discrirninations) of thc subject
welfare of beings. cannot be considered as related to anything. Therefore
emptiness is their (true) mark, as far as the existence of
V 3. P 429a L. I xxvi 434' S ch' 48' Ad c\' 58'
the subjcct is concemed.

V, 4. Complete stabilisation. oJ throught' v' 4' V, 5c. The first false discritnination oJ the object. vv. B-9.
(The Sutra then says that it is perhaps possible) to The (first) false tliscrirnination of the objecto rvhich
measure a Four-Continent world systern' or a chiliocosul' refers to (the rvhole of) worldly activity, has been corxid-
or a di-chiliocosm, or a tri-chiliocosm (by comparison rvith ered in nine ways, with regard to
a tip of straw); (but not the abundance of merit derived l. its orvn-L 'ing (as rhe irnpossibility of understand-
from the thouglrt of a Bodhisattva rvho rejoices at irrg an absolutely isolated object by an absolutcly iso-
progressive spiritual achievements of a llodhisattva). Iated subject),
this abundance of its merits has been proclaimed (this 2. the lineage (insofar as it is not possible to discri-
complete stabilisation of thouglrt, which corresponds minate between the level of a Disciple, that of a Pratye-
the degree of Highest mundane dharmas, and which kabuddha, and that of a Bodhisattva who wishes to win
essentially) a state of meditative trance' full enlightenment),
3. the progress (which leads to) full attainment (in-
V 4. P 429o 'i- -4 xxvi 435' sofar as one cannot discriminate the di{Ierent stages of a
path which is just an illusory process);
V, 5. TIrc path oJ o-isiott (at its surnrnit)'

l B 0l
6. - If. CoNtr, j{ihinmnvnlotikir
Ab h i Ea r n a y6 l a fi ki r a

4. the fact that one is not deceived about the object 4. the fact that one goes for help (and instruction)
of cognition (which one sees as a mere illusory apPearance' to outsiders (and not to the Tathagata),
like that of a reflected image). 5. the fact that one goes back on the program
5. the points to be shunned and antidotes (in that outlined in f, 6),
one does not distinguish between rvhat is dear and undear, 6. (that one is content) rvith a liurited activity,
virtuous and faulty, to be given up or to be taken up)' sofar as one limits oneserf to the removar
of the eovering
6. one's own (spiritual) achievements? (which are not of the defile.nents);
apprehended), 7. the -rilfcrentiati'n (of one's spiritual achievement',
?.the(existenceofa)doer(inview ofthefactthat by falsely distingrrishing between the
first fruit, etc.),
the Bodhisattva is no more an agent than a magical creation B. the delusions about stantling anrl
setting out
of the Tathagata is), (which result from one's inability to forsake
alr the latent
B. thc activity (of the agent? which has no separate tendencies to ignorance),
reality), 9. the fact that one should pursue (the knowledge
9. the actions (of establishing all beings in Nirvana' -
of all modes only) afterwarcls (should not be tliscrimi-
through skill in means together with) their fruits, (insofar nated).
as the actions are performetl as if by a rnachine, rvhich V, 5 e. The f.rst Jalse tliscriminati,on ,I rhe
makes no discriminations). \rv. l3-14.
V, 5d. The second' discrimination' oJ the obiect' r-v' 10'12' The first (false discrimination of) the
subject (refers
The (second) false discrimination (of the object) refers to- the common people) (and assumes
that the s"lf, as a
to the alternative of withdrawal from activity, and arises subject, is a real srrbstantial e'tity.
'rhis ass'rnption is
in the minds of the Disciples, etc. It is nine-fold, with both stated and refuted f.om nine points
of view). It
regard to: should be known with regard to
l. the defi"ciency in (spiritual) achievement which
l. taking r.old of and rejection (which
fall are consid-
results when one allows becoming and quietude to ered both as they actually nre antl
ag they conventionally
apart, (whereas the combination of wisdom and compassion appear),
should lead to a unification of N'rvana and the samsaric 2. the (act of) attention (to perfect wisclom,
world); is in reality a non-attention),
i. th" absence of the assistance (given by the good 3. the adherenr.e to (tlifferent things which)
such belong
friend and by skill in means, to him who makes to the triple world, (in view of the fact
that in the true
discriminations); nature of dharma such differences do
not exist)o
3. the incompleteness of the progress (which fails to 4. the standing place (in view of the
fact that emp-
produce antidotes to all the coverings of the cognizable)' tiness oflers no standing place),

l 83l
EDWARD CONZ E Abhisamaydlatkera

5. (all inclinations towards) settling down (in existents 7. the absence of striving (for enlightenment
and in non-existents) (which are replaced by the refusal does not at all diller f.om nnlthing
to settle down anywhere), B. the absence of a cause (for enlightenment,
in ulti-
6. the concept of dharmas as (real) entities (which rnate reality),
should be given up), 9. the absence of the apprehension
of hostile forces
?. attachment (which is unsuitable with regard to (since no dharrna offers lr*i, for apprehension).
V, 5g. Tlnee reasons "
the cognition of true reality)r lor tlre attainmerrt of full enlighten-
B. (the di{ferences between) the antidotes (which are ment. v. 77.
not in keeping with the identity of their development (The path of visio' is connected
with trrree reasons for
everywhere), the attainrnent of full enlightenment
(by others), i.e.)
9. the impairment of bis ability to go wherever he t. (the establishment) of others in
enlightenment (as
wishes to go (as the result of his having rightly under' a_resu* of) the intlicario' (of
the path of i,i.iorr, etc. to
stood the true character of perfect wisdom). them);
Y, 5J. The second tJisuimination of the subject w. 15'16' 2. with that_ (i.e. enlightenment)
as cause (thcre is)
The second false discrimination of the subject (refers the errtrusting (of the perfectiorr
of wisdom to others,;,
to the holy persons' and assumes that the self, as 3. and, rvhen that (i.e. enlightenmerrt)
is rrninternrp-
a subject, is a conceptual entity. This assumption is tedly attained, (it acts as) the
cause (of abuntlant tleve-
both stated and refuted from nine points of view, i'"') lopment of perfect wisdom), rvrricrr
is markecr arr abuu-
with regard to dance of merit.
l. thc not going'forth according to the Program V, 5[. The great enliglilernn,ettt.
v. l{1.
(which the Bodhisattva avoids), O1" calls enlightenment the tno
. cogrritions of the ex-
2. the accurate determination of what is the path tinction of the taints (i.c. of the
coverings of the rrefirernerrts
and what is rrot the path (which is impossible, as irnplying and of the cognizarrre)anrr of trreir
norr-pr'rr'ctio' (in trre
a diflercnce in attainments), futurc).
3. production and stoPPing' (which are non-existent), v' 5i' The cogrtition's oJ extircriort.
ort' oJ trcr-ltroductiorr,.
4. the conjunction and disjunction of (all) entities vv. 19-2I.
(which is untenablc), But these two shoul<l be cognizetl
in due order through
5. the standing (on the skandhas, which is devoid the a'sence of extinction autl
iir" ,rorr-"*istence of protluc-
of a real support' as with a bird flying in the air); tion (in all dharmas). since
t'e essential originar nature
6. the destruction of the lineage (of the Hinayana, (of dharmas) is not (in reality
ever) stopped, how could
which takes place by the productiorr of the thought of (the force of) the path of vision
extinguish trrat which has
enlightenment), been born by rvay of false
discrimination, or how courtr

l84 I l Bsl
EDIYARD CONZ E Abhisamay6latlcira

That (some) others in means). From the transeending of one, two, tlrree,
it reach (a state of) non-genesis?
of dharmas'
should teach on the one hand the existence four, Iive, six, seven, eiglrt (stations)r the attainment of
extinction of the the crownirrg (and victorious) assault (takes place), rvhich
and on the other hand th'e (completc)
of the Teacher
covering from the cognizable on the part moves incornparably until cessation.
(because the-two
(i.". tnl guaah*), th"t surprises me Y, 6b. The first tliscrimination. oJ thc object. vv,26, 27a,b.
t"u"hiog, contradict each oth'er)' Nothing should The first false tliscrirnination of the object has the
nothrng should aspects of errdeavour for its range, and (it is considered)
taken away from it (i.e. from emancipation)'
true reality' One
be atlded to it. It shoultl be seen in its with regard to:
he is liberated'
who sees the truly real as it truly is' l. the corrdcnscd (explanation of dharma),
of the six
V, str. The accomplishnten't o! the deuelopment 2. the detailed (explanation of dharma),
pertections. v.22. 3. the fact that he is not upheld by the Buddha's aid,
' jWUua i'e') giving'
is further saicl about the perfections' 4.-6. the non-existence of the virtuorrs qualities (which
mutual combina'
etc., each one singly, ancl in thcir (36) miglrt arise on the three levels of the path, i.e. the path
16) moments (of
tions, that belongl it one single (of the of training, the path of vision and the path of deveiop-
under (the moment ment) (because they cannot take place) irr any of the three
the path of vision), and it is comprised
of the dharma pcriods of time, (for the past has ceased to be, the pre-
of th" Patient) acceptance (of the cognition
it is understood in
of suffJring) on this path of vision (as sent never really arises, the future is not yet);
at its summit)' 7.-9. (and with regard to the cognition) of the three-
connection with the }ull understanding
y, il. Conilition'ed co-production' v' 23' fold good path,
trance (which is (7. the path of training, rvhich is practised with an
Having entered ot th* meditative
o'-The Lion's Sport o" (since he is now free from understanding of the calm quietude of the skandhas, of
coverings)' he then
any fear about any of ih* tt"o kinds of their voidrress, insignificance and lack of solidity),
in direct and in
surveys conditioned co'production' both (8. the path of visiorr, ryherc onc aspircs frrr cmpti-
reverse order. ness),
V, 6. The Path oJ deueloPn'ent' (9. the path of developmenr, where one develops
Y, 6a. The ctowning assauh' w' 24'25' emptiness without attacltmentto scllarate entitics).
(beginning with Y, 6c, T'he second discriminution of the object. vv. Z,l c,
He has gone up the nine attainments
of the cessa- d-29.
the fi.rst trance), lncluding the attainment
he has come (down The second (false) discrimination (of the object) on the
tion (of feeling and perception), and
consciousness' path of development lr.as the proceeding of thought and
the same way), with the unconcentrated
his terminus (which its constituents for its range, and it is considered with
which belongs to the sensuous world' for
power of his skill regard to:
he includes in his trance tlrrough the

[86] l BT l
EDWARD CONZ E Allhisamaynlaikira

l. the non-production of the thought (of enlighten- 7. the (going-forth) on the triad of the vehicles (which
ment) (which is due to defi.ciencies with regard to the results from taking the skandhas as a basie),
good friend, etc.), B. the non-purity of his acceptance of the o{ferings
2. the non-attention to the terrace of enlighterurent' (of others, which results from not progressing co*ectly),
3.-4. the attention to the (two) inferior vehicles (be- 9. and the disturbance of his practices (which results
cause he clings to the methods of Disciples and Pratye- from taking the progress in giving, etc.? as a basis).
kabuddhas), Yo 6e. The second iliscriminatiort. oJ the subject w. JZ-J4.
5. the non-attention to full enlightenment (because The second (discrimination of the subject), connected
one is deficient in the practice of perfect wisdom)o with the path of development is (considered) as a poinr
6. the development (of perfect wisdom)o to be shunned arrd should be opposed by that (path of
?. the non-development (of perfect wisdom), development). It has for its cause and objectivc range
B. the reverse of both (i.e. neither development nor the fact that bei'gs are considered as conceptual (or nomi-
non-developmcnt), nal) entities. It is considered irr ninc way6, with regard
9. the fact that (its) objective reality is not consider- to the bewildermerrt about
ed as it really is (because one is inclined to perverted 1.-3. the threefold covering which covers the three
thinking). kinds of om'iscience, taken in due order (i.e. r. the krrorv-
Y, 6d. The f'rst iliscrimin'q,tiott' ol the nr,bject \rv. 30'31' ledge of all modes, 2. the knowledge of the paths, an<l 3.
The first (discrimination of the) subject should be all-knowledge, and rvhich results from non-comprehen-
known sion, respectively, of all modes, of all the paths, of all
l. as having for its range the conceptual existence entities);
of beings (because no real entity can possibly arise); 4. the (conditions governing thc) path of guietude,
2. with regard to the conceptual existence of dhar- 5. the conjunction with and the disjunction frorn,
mas (which are merely reflected images), and suchness, (the reality-limit, thc Dharma-clemento tlrrarr'as
3. the non'emPtiness of the dhannas (which consti- and skandhaso which are both inapplicable),
tute the knowledge of all modes, etc.); 6. the absence of a state of sarneness (when one can
4. as consisting essentially of attachment (to dhar- be interrupted by Mara, owi'g to not understanding his
mas) (which is counteracted by giving up the attempt to works)o
settle down anywhere), 7. the truths of Ill (origination, stopping antl path),
5. and of the investigation (into dharmas) (which B. the essential nature of the defilementso
leads to an understanding of their non-substantiality); 9. and, last of all, the (conditions rvhich govern the
6. it has further been proclaimed 'rvith regard to the existence of) non-dualityo (because one has not understood
effecting of (the exposition of) entities, that it consists in the absence of both object and subject).

IB B ] l Be l
EDW' ARD CONZ E Abhisar naydlar ikdr a

of extinction and of non-production. p 4S0 6. A

Y, 6f. The achieuenl,entol a airtuous cottditiort,. r'v. 35'36.
xxviii 4fr6.
Vhen these calamities (i.e. the four discriminations)
2. The reason for beiug confirrned in one's trust in
have become extinct, he is like one who at long last has full enlightenrnent of the Teacher. p 4Sl a 4.
regained his breath. As the rivers (feed) the great ocean' Y 5t. The cognitions of extinction and of non-production.
so all the accomplishments of the virtuous qualities (de- P 4Sl b 2. I xxviii 468. S ch. Sl, Ad ch. 6I
rived from all the three vehicles), which e{l'ect all the (pos' V s/c. ?he accomplislrmeut of the development of the six per-
fections (ro II BB6,ZJ. Nc, separate name in p).
sible) kinds of happiness in the world of living beings,
P 454 a-463 a.
from all sides sustain that great being, who, to h.is h.eart's
v 5L (Conditioned co-production).
content is in possession of their fruits. Tlr,e last of the 36 combinations (of V S /r) is: ., the
Bodlrisattva who has stood iu the perfection of wisdom,
V5a. 1.P430o2. I xxvi 436 and who acquires the perfectiorr of meditation . it is
2. 4. 437 he who wins the meditative trance rvlr.ich is tlre . Lion,s
v 5b. 1. 437 Sport "'. P 463 a-464a. S.
z. 4 3 1b 438 Y 6a. P 464a S.
Y5c. l. 433b 438 6. P436a3. 442 b. P 465b t-469 a S. S ch. 53, Ait. ch. 6J.
2. 435 b 5. 441 7. 436a 4. 442 c. P4(t9aS-469b4.
3. b 7. 44L B. a6. 443 d. P 469b 4_475b5.
4. b9. 442 9. nB. 443 e. P 475b 5-479b
4. 436o 2. 442 f. P 479b
At this point P, which in general follows the sequence of S
Y, 7. T'he unimpeded concentatiort. vv. J7-39
and A, carries out a substantial te'arrangement of the material' c.
t{, \d-f are obtained by transferring here the contents of S ch. 63' One compares the merit (tlerivetl) from having esta-
fol. 209 b 2-254c- 7, to which nothing corresponds in l. blished people in a tri-chiliocosm i' trre accomplis'rme*t
V 5 d. P 436b L-439 o 3 of the spiritual achiever'e'ts (ope' to) Discipres
a'tl pra-
V 5e. P 439o3 -4 4 2 b tyekabuddhas, and in the Bodhisattva's
V 5 P 442 b-445 a 7 definite way of
"f. certain salvation, (and one considers that) through
Y 5 g . 1. P 445a 7 . A x x v i i 4 5 4 . S c h . 50. l d ch' 60' the
P 447 a 4- ,4 xxviii 459 abundarrce of the rnerit (thcre arises) thc
Y 5 g. 2. a. Introduction. uirimp.,l",r
D. The entrusting in connection with the Tathagata' centratiorl, which takcs place ir'mediately "o.r-
previous to the
Veak, medium, Ftrong. A 460, winning of Buddhahood, (which in its turn
is identical
c. The entrusting iu connection t'ith the Bodhi- with) the knowleclge of all modes. The
objective supporr
sattva. Weak, medium, strong. A
of this (state of rneditarive trance) is the
3. P 449 a 4. A 464'464 a.
dharnras), rnintlfulness is taught as its rlecisive
V 5 [. The great enlightenment. lof ill
(condition), and the state of quiescence is its
I. The great enlightenment consisting in the cognitions aspect.

Ie0] Ie l ]
Abhisam aydlaikir a

v ?. P 47gb 2-452b 5.

V, B. The sixteen Errors' vv' 39 tI'42'

referring to the
(The Sutra then) considers the Errors'
16 on the part of the VI. THE GRADUAL RE.UNION
knowledge of all modes, which are
disputations and talk with
thcoreticians rvho utter
regard to The gradual activity is (then) considered by way of
I. the genesis of the objective support' 1. (the perfection of) giving,
2. the accurate determination of its (2. the perfection of rnorality,
all modeso
3. the cognition of the knowledge of 3. the perfection of patience,
4. ultimate and conventional truth' 4. the perfection of vigour,
a Bodhisattva)r
5. the endeavours (or Practices of 5. thc perfection of nreditation
7' the Dharma'
6.'8. the three jewels (6' the Buddha' 6. the perfection of) rvisdorn;
B. the Sarngha), 7. the recollection of the Buddha,
9. skill in means, (8. the recollection of the Dharma,
I0. the re'union of the Sage' 9. the rccollcction of thc Sarngha,
ll. the Perverted vien's, 10. the recollection of rnorality,
12. the Path, ll. the recollection of renurrciation"
13. Points to be shunned, 12. the recollection of deities), and
14. antidotes, 13. the fact th.at (all) dharuras have non-existence
15. the marks (of dharmas)' for own-being.
of visdom)'
16. the development (of the perfection
YI. Gradual re-uuion iu genet al P 503o 3
9. P 4BBa I
B,l. P 482 b vI r. P 5 0 3 6 I 7. P s05b I
2. 483 o 6 10. 49lb 4 , 6B B. 506n
484 o 3 ll. b 9 s066
3. 3. 504a 4 9.
4.b J L2. 493b 6 4. 5046 10. 506D
5.b 9 13. 496a 3 5. 5046 ll. s 0 66
S ch. 55. Ad ch. 65 14. 6. 505a 4 12. 5 0 7o I
6. 4B5b I 15. 497o 7 t3. 5 0 ?D I
7. b 3 16. 498a 7-503o
B.b I

lezl Ie 3 ]
EDWARD CONZ E Abhisamaydlaik6ra

tion thar) (all the) tlharnras (rvhich constitute

the prae-
tice of the pcrfectir's) arc (all equally)
likc a ,1.*o,^rr,
(finally) discovers. the absence of (separate)
marks in (all)
dharrnas in one single instant.
VII. THE SINGLE.INSTANTANEOUSRE.UNION. 4. r'he single-instantaneous re-urtion
whiclt, seestlrc rnark
of n.on-duality irt, all tllnnrws. (". S).
t. With regard to all tllwrmas without outflous the karnr,a- When he (habitually) rloes not even vierv
as trvo sepa-
result of which has not yet matured. (vv. 1-2). rate items (that rvhich appears to
him as an object in)
The Sage's single-instantaneous understanding should a dream and the (subjective) act of
seeing it, then he
be known (as arising) from (a single'instarttaneous cogni- (finally) sees rhe truly real non-duality
of fall) dharmas
tion of the perfectionso i.e.) of giving, etc. (which has for in one single instant.
its object) the combination one by one of all (dharmas)
VII a. The single-instantancorrsrc-union
without outflows, (begiruring with the perfections, and gener al. P 509, 3.
vII l. P s09b 6.
ending with the B0 minor characteristics). Just as, when 2. sls b 9.
a machine for raising water from a well is driven along by 3. 5I? a l. S ch. 62. Ail nq
I L.
a man at just one point, it is simultaneously moved along 4. 52r b 9.
in its totality; so also (th.is cognition which) in onc single
instant (cognizes one single dharma without outflows faces
at the same time all dharmas without outflows).
2. With regard to all dharmns uithout outflow*, which haae
reached,the state uhere their karma-result has matured. (v. 3).
(the Bodhisattva has reached) the condition
where the karma-result (of his dharmas without outflows)
has matured, and when he consists entirely of bright ele-
mentso then there has been born the cognition which in
one single instant (eognizes all dharrnas without outflows
which have reached maturity), and that is the perfection
of wisdom.
3. The single-hrstanta,neou,sre-union' which seesall dharm'as
as deaoiil oJ marks. (". a).
After, in the course of his practice of (the six perfec-
tions), givingo etc., he has established (the lirm convic'

Ie4] Ies]
EDWARD CONZ E Abhisar nay6laikir a

11. the four kinds of all-round purity,

12. the ten sovercignties,
13. the terr porvers,
14. the four grounds of self-confidence,
VIII. THE DHARMA.BODY 15. the (tluee) ways in which (the Tathagata)
nothing to hide,
16. the threefold mindful equanimity,
VIII, l. The Substantiol Body. (". f)' L7. a nature which is never bewildered (when
Those who have attained a state of purity in every ing people),
respect, and (all) the dharmas without outflows, theirs lB. the uprooting of the residues(of the defilements),
is the Substantial Body of tfte Sage. Its essential nature 19. the great compassionfor peopleo
has the following marks: 20. the eighteen dharmas which are said to be spe-
cial to the Sage,
VIII 1' P 532a'b. S -. Ail -' 21. the knowledge of all modes.

YIII, 2. The Dlnrm,a'boilY. (vv. 2-11). (VIII, 2,7. The coneentrationwhich appeases. ,.
(The 21 features of thc Dharma-body. vv. 2'6). (The meditative tra'ce) which appeases(the arising
The Dharma-bodY has been described as (associated the delilements in- others consists) with the Disciples
with): that) they avoid the (generation of) defilements
in people
I. The (37) wings to enlightenment (beginrring with (on the occasion of their) being seen by them.
Oo th"
the pillars of mindfulness, and ending rvith the eightfold ,other hand the Jina's (meditative
trance) which appeases
path), (the defilements of others) (is distinguished)by
the l"oor-
2. the (four) Unlimited, plete) annihilation of the srream of (alr) those
3. the (eight) emanciPations, on the occasion of their (entering) into a
village, etc.
4. the nine successive attairrments,
ten Deviceso
5. the (YIII, 2,8. The cognition *.hich results
from resolve).
bases of overcoming, divided into eight kinds'
6. the (". B).
7. (the rneditative trance) rvhich aPPeascs (the ari- The following are regarded as (the special features,
- not
sing of the defi.lements in others), found among the Disciples, of) the Buddhaos
B. the cognition wlr.ich results from resolve, which results from resolve: it does not turn
towards an
9. the (six) superknowledges, (external) object, it ie frce from altachmerrt,
10. the (four) analytical knowledges, ed,' alrides for ever, and is able to solve all
Ie6] l e 7I
? - li. CoNrF, ,lh|inmolnldnkn,t

::"1 "'
(The work of the Dharma-body' vv' 9'11)'
As thc cause (of thc factors of pcrfection
in the con-
ffi :":';il'
7. he has broad hcels;
verts) come to maturityo He manifests himself (in his B. his body is tall antl straight;
and whenever
great compassion) at that placeo wherever 9. his an-kle-joints are inco*-pi",.or.;
is absent' there
ili. n.tp is needetl. (But where the cause 10. the hairs on his botly point
thc Raingod
the fruit cannot aPPeax)' For aso even though ll. his shanks resemble those
of the antelope;
up (into rice'
may (send) rain, a rotten seed cannot grow 12. his arrns are long and powerful;
sPrung up'
etc.); so also, even though the Buddhas have 13. his sexual organ is covlere.l
by a sheath;
benefi'ts from
the unworthy are unable to gain (spiritual) 14. his skin Jras a golden hue,
the Buddha
them. From the abuntlance of his activity 15. is very delicate;
o all'pervading', and' because he never 16. the hairs on his body are
is thus described as well_gro.wn,each one
be ' eternal
becomes extinguishedo he is also declared to singly by itself, an<l they curl
to the right;
17. his face is adonred .rvith
u h"i._a.,ft (between
YIII 2. P 523b. S ch' 63' Ail c]n' 73' the eye-brows);
18. his trunk is like that of
a lion:
VIII, 3. The EnjoYmen't'BoilY' 19. his shouldersare gently
(Definition. v. 12) 20. the flesh in between his "r.r.r"dj
shoulder-blatlesis com.
the 32 marke
The (body of) the Sage which possesses pact;
andtheB0minorcharacteristicsisconsideredashisEn- 21. (even things which) raste
disagreeablyappear ro
joyment-Body, because it enjoys the happiness of the hirn as having a very fine taste;
(dharma of the) great vehicle' I his figure has a circumference
like that of the
, ?2.
(stately) fig tree;
(The 32 marks of the superman)' (w' 13-17)' 23. on his head there is a
as follows:
The 32 marks (of the Lord Buddha) are tongue is long and slender;
depict' 11. ltr
l. He has, stamped on his hands and feet' lines 25. he has a divine voice,
ing a wheel; 26. jaws like a lion:
like those of) a tor- 27. his teeth are very rvhite.
2. his feet (are well'Planted
toise; 28. equal in size,
hands and
3. webs join the fingers and toes on his 29. rvithout any gaps (betrveen
feet; 30. no less than 40 in number:
4. his hands antl feet are tender and soft; 3J. his cyes arc tlark_blrre.
5. his body has seven protuberancesl 32. his eye-lashesare like those
of a magnificentcow.
IeB ] Iee]
ED1 YARD CONZ E Ab h i 6 a m a yd l a i kd r a

(The causes of the first ten marks)' (w' fB'20)'

lB. his Iimbs are well_rountled,19. smooth,
20. slen-
der, 21. clean, 22. soft, and 23. pure;
One who accomplishes the cause of any of these nrarks'
he comes to its full possession tlrrough the fulfillment of 24. his genitals are fully tleveloped;
each of them. The causes which' accomplish the marks 25. his knee-orbs are large and beautiful;
are these, according to the Sutra:
26, he rvalks at an even pace;
(1) The following after the preceptor, etc.' 27. his eyes are pure;
(2) firmness with regard to (taking up) the (moral) 28. his body is (fresh and delicate) like
, that of a
beautiful youtho Zg. unimpaired (by
restraints; any tlefect), 30.
(3) the cultivation of the (four) means of conversion; with prominenceso31. firm and solid;
(4) (5) the gift of sublime things; 32. his limbs are well-proportioned;
(6) (?) (S) freedom from murder; 33. the pure light (which emanates from
hie body)
(9) the undertaking of (the practice of) wholesome
dispels the darkness:
(dharmas), 34. his belly is round, 35. smooth,
36. unmarred,
3?. and it does not hang down;
(10) their growth,
and so on (for the remainrng 22 marks)' 38. his navel is deepo antl 39, twisted
to the right;
40. from all sides he is beautiful
to behold, and 41.
characteristics of the superman)' his habits are clean;
(The B0 minor
42. hil body is free from black
(w. 2r-32). molesl
43. his hands are soft like cotton-wool;
The minor characteristics of the Buddha are enume-
44. the lines on his hanrle are fresh,
rated as follows: 45. deep, and
46. extensive;
1. The Sage's nails are coPPer'coloured, 2' glossy'
47. his face is not too long;
and 3. elevated;
4. his toes and f'ngers are rounded, 5' compact' 48. his lips are (red) like ihe Bimba
and 6. tapering; 49. his tongue is supple, S0. slender,
.oj Sl. ,"d
(like copper);
?. his veins do not bulge out, and B' they are free
52. his voice is (deep) like thunder,
from knots; (and) 53. the
sound of his voice is sweet and
9. his ankle-bones do not bulge out; soft;
10. his two feet are equal (in size); 54. his eye-teeth are round, 55. sharpo
56. very white,
57. equal (in size) and 58. regular;
ll. he walks with the stride of a lion, L2' of an ele-
59. his nose is prominent;
phant, 13. of a goose' (or) 14. of a lordly bull;
60. his eyes are very clear, and,
15. he walks while turning to the right, 16' elegant- 61. Iarge;
62. his eye-lashes are well_developed;
ly, and 17. upright;

l r00l l l 0l l
EDWARD CONZ E Abhisamaydlaikira

63. his eyes are (white and dark-blue) like the petals world of animals, c) the world of yama,
cJ) the world of
of the (blue) lotus; the Devas, e) the workl of men);
64. his eye-brorvs are extensive, 65' smootho 66' IIe enters orr
quite glossy, 67. with hairs of equal length; 2. the fourfold means of conversion:
68. his arms are long and muscularl 3. the understanding of defilement
and purification,
69. the tlvo ears are equal (in size), and 70' (his atri' (and uf)
lity to hear) is not impaired in any \'Yay; 4 . the true character of (his work
for) the weal of
71' his forehead is unwrinkled' (and) ?2' broad; beings, (which is carried out in the absenee
of truly real
73. his head is large; beings);
?4. the hair of his head is (as dark) as a black bee' 5. (the practice of) the six perfections;
?5. thick, ?6. smootb,77- not shaggy, ?B' not rough, 79' 6. the Buddha-path (which consists
of the l0 paths
with a fragrant smell r-hich captivates the hearts of men; of wholesome action);
80. (he has) the Srivatsa sign and the Svastika (on 7. (the practice of the insight into)
the emptiness
the palms of his hands and the soles of his feet)' of the essential nature (of all dliarmas),
B. (arrd of their) non-duality;
VIII 3. P 531c 1. 9. (the cognition of all dharmas) as
(being merely)
conventional symbols;
VIII, 4. The TransJormation'Body. (v' 33)' 10. (the iruight into) the absence
of the Sage is that (body) by of a basis in all
The Transformation-body dharmas;
which (in the shape of Sakyamuni, etc') he effects without ll.
the maturing of living beings (through
interruption his various benefits to the world (of living in means);
his skill
beings) until the end of (samsaric) becoming' 12' the pat' of a Bodhisatrva (as distinct
- from thar
of the Disciples);
VIII 4. P 536b 4.
13' (the systematic e{fort to) brock
. (all) incrination
VIII, 5. The Junctiorls of the Dhanna-body' (r'v' 3a-40)' (to make realistic assumptions);
Thereupon (the Sutra) considers his activity (i'"' that 14. the attainment of enlightenment;
of the Dharma-body which acts by means of the Transfor- 15. (a reside.nce in various) pure
mation-body, and) which (goes on) without irrterruption 16. (the condition where, as tied to
one more birth
as long as the samsaric world lasts. This work of the only, he is) bound to (win enJightenment
Dharma-body has been considered in 27 ways: 17. (working) the weal of countless
f. (He performs) the activity which appeases the IB. the virtuous acts which consist
in ten-rling, etc.,
(five difierent) places of rebirth (i'e. c) the hellso b) the the Buddhas;

ll02l l l o3l
EDWARD CONZ E . Abhisam ayilaikI r a

19. the limbs of enlightenmenq 74. 567a 9.

20. (a condition where the fruits of his) deeds are 15. 568c l.
never lost; t6. 570b 7. S ch. 68. Ail ch. 78
21. the vision of the true reality (of all the data of 17. 572a 6.
lB. 03.
19. 575a 2.
22. the forsaking of (all) the perverted viewso and 20. b 6. S ch. 69. Ail ch. ?9
23. (the cognition by which he knorvs) the method 21. 577a 4.
(which allows him to forsake the perverted views assum- to
578a 5.
ing) the absence of entities; 23. 5B4b 2.
24. a state of complete purity, 24. 586o 3. S ch. ?I. Ad cb. 82
25. 586 a
25. the equipment (which results from his pure con-
26. 592 a 5.
dition); .t4
593c 9-5936.
26. the compreheneion of the non-distinction bet-
ween Conditioned and Unconditioned; and (finally he
enters on)
27. Nirvana.

VIII 5,1o. P 526b

tb . czl a
lc. 527 b
L il. 527 b
1e. 528 a 2.
4. 546 b
J. 547 b
548 6 S ch. 65. Ail ch. 75
B. 553 b
9. J)/ O

t0. 558a S ch. 66. AiI ch. 76

11. 560 a
L2. 5 6rb
t3 . 566 a

l r04l l l Os l
EDIVARD CONZ E Abhisar nayI lar ikir a


vv. l-2. VOC ABU LAR Y

In one way, the meaning carr be sumrned up under A.

six headings: i.e.
l. (the description of the distinctive) marks (of the a k a n ig I h a - g a I 2 J , ' o g m i n ' g r o o n ew h o h a s g o n e
three kinds of omniscience) (: I-III); up to the Akanishtha Gods : akanigplw_paramah
2. the endeavour (or the practical training in the a -k a lp a t v a II I 1 4 , m i r t o g f i i i l a b s e n e oe f t h o u g h t _
development of the three forms of omniscience) (: IV)' construction
3. the culminating point (of the training in the triple
a -k a lp a n e IV 60, mi rtog_pa should not be con-
omniscienc") (: Y),
structed, auikalpah samatd_dtmakahH
4. (the rneditation on the elements which in) gra-
a -k a ik -s a 4 a IY 41, som fii med no hesitation
dual succession (constitute the path of training in the
triple ornniscience) (: Y11,
a-kara I23o byedmin, without e{Iort : anq,blisam-
5. the final conclusion (of thc training in the triple skdra-parinir ad.yin II
omniscienc") (: YII); and a -k rt a k a t v a I Y 2 0 , b y e i lm e d t h e f a c t t h a t h a s n o t
6. the reward (of the training) (: YIII). been made an agent.
In another wayo the meaning can be summed up under a - k o p a n e IV lB, rnam_par'khrug meil
tluee headings: ed,:uulkrrana II
l. The three ranges (of the three kinds of omniscience) a -k a u t ily a IV43, gyogyum,ed no crooketlness
1: I-III); akqa I 67, ilboi-po faculties (aksa_jfidna:diuya_
2. the four kinds of endeavour which are the cause cakgugonispauih H)
(of the attainment of re-union) (: IY-YII);
a k g a -g a IV 21, mftonsum mdzad ehow up :dsr-
3. and the fruit (of the endeavour; which is) the
Saka H
Dharma-body with its work (: YIII).
a - k g a 4 a IV 40, mi dal inauspicious rebirth
a -k g a t a YIII 25, marfioits u.marred:ablngnaH
a -k q a y a IV lS, mi zad-pa non-extinction

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