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ESP 478 1

“Preparing Professionals for Changing Educational Contexts”

Special Education
University of Nevada, Las Vegas

I. Prefix & Number: ESP 478

II. Title: Strategies for Students with Disabilities
III. Credit: 3 Hours
IV. Semester: Fall, 2003 T. 4-6:30 PM
V. Instructor: Susan D’Aniello, M.Ed.
VI. Office/Phone/email: 451-5908/ daniello@hotmail.com
VII. Class Location: TBE B174
VIII. Office Hours: By appointment
IX. Prerequisite Courses: ESP 200 or other Introduction to Special
Education Course

X. Course Description:

The purpose of this course is to present practical methods and learning

strategies for teaching students with or without disabilities who are at risk
for school failure. Content relevant to elementary, middle, and high
school teaching will be included. Course participants will receive training
in The Learning Strategies Instructional Model, The Paraphrasing
Strategy, The Test-Taking Strategy, The Word Identification Strategy, and
other strategies selected by students.

** General Curriculum (GC) **

GC4: Instructional Content & Practice

1. Varied test-taking strategies (CEC GC4:K7).

Performance (Skills)
1. Evaluate strengths and limitations of alternative instructional strategies
for individuals with disabilities* (CEC GC4:S7).
2. Use strategies for facilitating the maintenance and generalization of
skills across learning environments (CEC GC4:S26).

Council for Exceptional Children Program Standards Addressed in

this Course

• Instructional Content and Practice (Common Core 4)

• Planning and Managing the Teaching and Learning Environment
(Common Core 5)
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• Instructional Content and Practice (General Curriculum 4)

ISTE National Educational Technology Standard (NETS)

• Productivity and Professional Practice (Standard V)

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XI. Course Objectives:


Upon completion of this course, the student will have acquired knowledge
related to:

1. Curricula for the development of cognitive, academic, social, and

functional life skills for individuals with exceptional learning needs.
(adapted from CEC-CC4-K3)

2. Instructional and remedial methods, techniques, and curriculum

materials. (CEC-CC4-K4)

3. The 8-stage instructional process used in the University of Kansas

Learning Strategy Curriculum.

4. The instructional steps that are taught using the mnemonic devices

5. The purpose of teaching strategies to students who are at-risk for

school failure.

6. Modifying strategy instruction for younger students.


Upon completion of this course, the student will be able to:

8. Interpret and use assessment data for instruction. (CEC-CC4-S1)

9. Select, adapt, and use instructional strategies and materials

according to characteristics of the learner. (CEC-CC4-S8)

10. Use strategies for facilitating maintenance and generalization of

skills across learning environments. (CEC-CC4-S11)

11. Teach individuals with exceptional learning needs to use thinking,

problem solving, and other cognitive strategies to meet their
individual needs. (CEC-CC4-S13).

12. Implement learning strategy lessons from the Strategy Instruction

Model (SIM) Curriculum.

13. Score the "Controlled and Advanced Practice" lessons for the
Paraphrasing Test-Taking, and Word Identification Strategies.
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14. Prepare and organize materials to implement daily lesson plans.


15. Design a learning environment that encourages active participation

by learners in a variety of individual and group learning activities.

16. Use technology resources to engage in ongoing professional

development and lifelong learning. (NETS V-A)

17. Apply technology to increase productivity. (NETS V-C)

18. Use technology to communicate and collaborate with peers,

parents, and the larger community in order to nurture student
learning. (NETS V-D)


Upon completion of the course, the student will display the following

21. Promote and maintain a high level of competence and integrity in

the practice of the profession. (CEC-CC8-S3)

22. Exercise objective professional judgment in the practice of the

profession. (CEC-CC8-S4)

XII. Suggested Resources:

Required Texts / Readings

Schumaker, J. B., Denton, P. H., Deshler, D. D. (1991). The

strategy Lawrence, KS: The University of Kansas.
Hughes, C. A., Schumaker, J. B, Deshler, D. D., & Mercer, C. D.
(1988). The test-taking strategy. Lawrence, KS: Edge Enterprises.
Handout Packet - Academic Printing Services

Current & Classical References

Boudah, D. J., Lenz, B. K., Bulgren, J. A., Schumaker, J. B., &

Deshler, D. (2000). Don’t water down! ENHANCE content learning
through the unit organizer routine. Teaching Exceptional Children, 32(3),
ESP 478 5

Bulgren, J. (1993). Analogical anchoring: Part One. Strategram

5(4), 1-4.

Bulgren, J. (1993). Analogical anchoring: Part Two. Strategram

5(5), 1-4.

Bulgren, J. A., & Deshler, D. D. (2000). The use and effectiveness

of analogical instruction in diverse secondary content classrooms. Journal
of Educational Psychology, 92, 426-242.

Bulgren, J. A., Deshler, D. D., Schumaker, J. B. (1997). Use of a

recall enhancement routine and strategies in inclusive secondary classes.
Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 12, 198-208.

Bulgren, J. A., Hock, M. F., Schumaker, J. B., & Deshler, D. D.

(1995). The effects of instruction in a paired associates strategy on the
information mastery performance of students with learning disabilities.
Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 10(1), 11-21.

Bulgren, J. A., Schumaker, J. B., & Deshler, D. D. (1994). The

effects of a recall enhancement routine on the test performance of
secondary students with and without learning disabilities. Learning
Disabilities Research & Practice, 9(1), 2-11.

Crank, J. (1993). Looks do make a difference: Graphic organizers

for learning. Strategram, 6(5), 1-4.

De La Paz, S. (1997). Strategy instruction in planning: Teaching

students with learning and writing disabilities to compose persuasive and
expository essays. Learning Disability Quarterly, 20, 227-248.

Current & Classical References-continued

Deshler, D. D., & Schumaker, J. B. (1986). Learning Strategies:

An instructional alternative for low-achieving adolescents. Exceptional
Children, 52(6), 583-590.

Deshler, D. D., Schumaker, J. B., Lenz, B. K. (1984). Academic

and cognitive interventions for LD adolescents: Part I. Journal of
Disabilities, 17(2), 108-117.

Deshler, D. D., Schumaker, J. B., Lenz, B. K., Ellis, E. S. (1984).

Academic and cognitive interventions for LD adolescents: Part II. Journal
of Learning Disabilities, 17(3), 170-187.
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Duffy, G. C. (1993). Teachers' progress toward becoming expert

strategy teachers. The Elementary School Journal, 94(2), 109-121.

Hallenbeck, M. J. (1996). The cognitive strategy in writing:

Welcome relief for adolescents with learning disabilities. Learning
Disabilities Research & Practice, 11, 107-119.

Hollingsworth, M. (1993). Integrated learning: Explicit strategies

and their role in problem-solving instruction for students with learning
disabilities. Exceptional Children, 59(5), 444-456.

Kimball, W. H. (1992). Promoting effective strategy instruction.

Strategram, 4(6), 1-2, 8.

Laidlaw, E. N., Skok, R. L., & McLaughlin, T. F. (1993). The

effects of notetaking and self-questioning on quiz performance. Science
Education, 77(1) 75-83.

Lehman, H. G. (1992). Graphic organizers benefit slow learners.

The Clearing House, 66(1), 53-56.

Lenz, B. K. (1994). The lesson organizer routine. Strategram,

6(3), 1-5.

Lenz, B. K., Alley, G. R., & Schumaker, J. B. (1987). Activating the

inactive learner: Advance organizers in the secondary content classroom.
Learning Disability Quarterly, 10(1), 53-67.

Lenz, B. K., Ellis, E. S., & Scanlon, D. (1996). Teaching learning

strategies to adolescents and adults with learning disabilities. Austin, TX:
Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (1997). Using mnemonic
strategies to teach information about U. S. presidents: A classroom-
based investigation. Learning Disability Quarterly, 20, 13-21.

Mastropieri, M. & Scruggs, T. E. (1998). Constructing more

meaningful relationships in the classroom: Mnemonic research into
practice. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 13, 138-145.
Current & Classical References-continued

Rademacher, J. (1994). The quality assignment routine.

Strategram, 6(4), 1-5.

Scheid, K. (1993). Helping students become strategic learners.

Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.
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Schumaker, J. B., & Deshler, D. D. (1987). Implementing the

regular education initiative in secondary schools. Journal of Learning
21(1), 36-42.

XIII. Course Assignments and Grades:


1. Each student will participate in strategy training sessions.

3. Student teams will demonstrate one strategy lesson in class.

4. Students will form a teaching team or work independently to implement

one of the strategies that has been taught in class with a student(s)
outside of class. Student notebooks and teacher logs will be
maintained throughout the strategy implementation.

Each log entry should contain the date and start and finish time of
each teaching session, lesson taught, your impression of how it went,
changes you would make when teaching each lesson in the future.
Maintaining this log provides you with an opportunity to reflect on your
teaching. Each student will maintain his or her own log. The teacher
log is to be typed. The project will document a minimum of 20
instructional hours.

4. Students will complete two quizzes.

Course Grades

Training/Class Participation 50 points

Demonstration Lesson 50 points
Final Implementation Project 100 points
Quizzes 200 points (100 points each)

Points Earned Percentage Score Grade

368-400 92 or higher A
352-367 88-91.7 B+
328-351 82-87.7 B
312-327 78-81.7 C+
280-311 70-77.7 C
240-279 60-69.7 D
< 240 Below 60 F


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XIV. Instructional Methods

A variety of instructional methods will be used to teach the course content.

Included among these methods are lecture, class discussion, small group
application activities, demonstration lessons, and multimedia

XV. Class Schedule:

Dates Topic Assignments

8/26 Course Orientation Read Paraphrasing

Learning Strategy Overview Manual

9/2 Overview Continued

9/9 Paraphrasing Training

9/16 Paraphrasing Training Read Test-Taking


9/23 Demonstration Lessons Study for Quiz

9/30 Quiz 1

10/7 Test-Taking Training

10/14 Test-Taking Training

10/21 Demonstration Lessons

10/28 Modifying Instruction for Study for Quiz

Younger Students

11/4 Quiz 2 Read Word ID

11/11 Word Identification Strategy

11/18 Strategy TBD by class choice

11/25 Strategy TBD by class choice

12/2 Project Sharing and Implementation

Final Projects Due

12/9 Continued Project Sharing and Implementation/Suggestions

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Disability Resource Center

The Americans with Disabilities Act mandates accessibility in all aspects of the
learning environment. If you have a documented disability that may require
assistance, you will need to contact the Disability Services (DS) for coordination
in your academic accommodations. The DS is located within the Learning
Enhancement Services office in the Reynolds Student Services Complex, room
137. The DS phone number is 895-0866 or TDD 895-0866, or TDD 895-0652.
You may visit their website at: www.unlv.edu/studentlife/les

Academic Integrity Statement

UNLV and its College of Education demand a high level of scholarly behavior
and academic honesty on the part of students. Violations by students exhibiting
dishonesty while carrying out academic assignments and procedural steps for
dealing with academic integrity are delineated in the Handbook of Regulations
Governing Probation and Suspension Within The College of Education. This
publication may be found in the Curriculum Materials Library (CML 101) or the
Office of the Dean of the College of Education (CEB 301).

Religious Holidays
It is UNLV’s policy to give students who miss class because of observance of
religious holidays the opportunity to make up missed work. Students are
responsible for notifying the instructor no later than the last day of registration for
the semester or summer term of plans to observe the holiday.

Copyright Law
The University requires all members of the University Community to familiarize
themselves and to follow copyright and fair use requirements. You are
individually and solely responsible for violations of copyright and fair use laws.
The University will neither protect nor defend you nor assume any responsibility
for employee or student violation of fair use laws. Violations of copyright laws
could subject you to federal and state civil penalties and criminal liability as well
as disciplinary action under University policies. To help familiarize yourself with
copyright and fair use policies, the University encourages you to visit its copyright
web page at: http://www.unlv.edu/committees/copyright
ESP 478

Rubric for Demonstration Lessons

Proficiency Accuracy Thoroughness Organization Enthusiasm /
Levels Creativity
• Explains • Includes all • Uses • Uses voice
Target content without lesson advance to express
errors components organizers enthusiasm
• Demonstrates • Provides • Maintains • Uses facial
lesson detailed lively expressions to
components instruction to instructional express
without errors ensure pace without enthusiasm
student unnecessary • Uses visual
understanding pauses displays to
• Gives post enhance
organizer Student
• Knows who Learning
does what • Uses
when supplemental
throughout the materials
lesson • Adds
activities to
lesson that
are not
included in

14-15 points 14-15 points 9-10 points 9-10 points

Acceptable • Explains • Includes • Follows • Uses voice
content with most lesson teaching script or body
only 1 to 3 components in manual with language to
minor errors • Provides only a few express
• Demonstrates adequate pauses enthusiasm
lesson instruction for • Knows who • Uses visual
components most students does what displays or
with only 1 to 3 in the class when supplemental
minor errors throughout materials or
most of the motivating
lesson activities

11-13 points 11-13 points 7-8 points 7-8 points

Unacceptabl • Displays • Omits half or • • Uses
e major more than half Demonstrates monotone
misunderstand- of the lesson confusion voice
ings related to components regarding: • Uses facial
lesson content • Provides lesson expressions
ESP 478

• Demonstrates insufficient components, that indicate

many errors detail for most lesson boredom
when teaching students to sequence • Lacks ideas
the lesson understand and/or who that extend
the lesson does what beyond the
content when instructor’s
• Loses manual

< 11 points < 11 points < 7 points < 7 points

ESP 478

Rubric for Final Implementation Project


Proficiency Progress Thoroughness Organization &

Levels - Monitoring Appearance
Target • Scoring is free of ALL student • Dividers used to
errors materials are separate notebook
• Progress Chart included (goal into sections
is completed statement or • Notebook has
without errors contract, progress logical
chart, cue cards, organizational
assignment sheet, structure
pretest materials, • Notebook
posttest materials, materials are
verbal practice attractive and
checklist, have eye appeal
controlled practice • Notebook
materials, materials are
advanced practice improved from
materials, Report those provided.
of Strategy Use
Form, etc.

4-5 points 50 points 4-5 points

Acceptable • 1-2 scoring • Most but not all • Notebook has
errors of notebook logical
• 1-2 Progress materials are organizational
Chart errors included structure

2-3 points 20-45 points 2-3 points

Unacceptable • > 2 scoring • 5 or more • Notebook lacks
errors student notebook organizational
• > 2 Progress materials are structure
Chart errors missing • Unattractive

< 2 points < 20 points < 2 points

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Rubric for Final Implementation Project – continued


Proficiency Levels - Thoroughness Basic Writing Mechanics

Teacher Log
Target • Includes all log • Clear, concise writing
components for each that reflects accurate
teaching session (date, spelling, grammar, and
time, lesson, how it went, punctuation
ways to improve in • Reflects typing
future) proficiency with fewer
• High quality reflections than 5 typographical

35 points 5 points
Acceptable • Includes most log • Coherent writing with a
components for most few mechanical errors
sessions • 6-10 typographical
• Entries reveal reflective errors

28-34 points 3-4 points

Unacceptable • Includes 2 or fewer of • Poor writing mechanics
the log components make interferes with
• Little evidence of comprehension of log
reflective thinking entries
• More than 10
typographical errors

0-27 points 1-2 points