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Seismic Isolation Systems for Developing Coun-

tries
James M. Kellya, M.EERI.

ABSTRACT
This paper describes an experimental and theoretical study of the feasibility of using fiber
reinforcement to produce lightweight low-cost elastomeric isolators for application to hous-
ing, schools and other public buildings in highly seismic areas of the developing world. The
theoretical analysis covers the mechanical characteristics of multi-layer elastomeric isolation
bearings where the reinforcing elements, normally steel plates, are replaced by a fiber rein-
forcement. The fiber in the fiber-reinforced isolator, in contrast to the steel in the conven-
tional isolator (which is assumed to be rigid both in extension and flexure), is assumed to be
flexible in extension, but completely without flexure rigidity. This leads to an extension of the
theoretical analysis on which the design of steel-reinforced isolators is which accommodates
the stretching of the fiber-reinforcement. Several examples of isolators in the form of long
strips were tested at the Earthquake Engineering Research Center Laboratory. The tested iso-
lators had significantly large shape factors, large enough that for conventional isolators the
effects of material compressibility would need to be included. The theoretical analysis is
extended to include compressibility and the competing influences of reinforcement flexibility
and compressibility are studied.
The theoretical analysis suggests and the test results confirm that it is possible to produce a
fiber-reinforced strip isolator that matches the behavior of a steel-reinforced isolator. The
fiber-reinforced isolator is significantly lighter and can be made by a much less labor-inten-
sive manufacturing process. The advantage of the strip isolator is that it can be easily used in
buildings with masonry walls. The intention of this research is to provide a low-cost light-
weight isolation system for housing and public buildings in developing countries.

INTRODUCTION

The recent earthquakes in India, Turkey and South America have again emphasized the
fact that the major loss of life in earthquakes happens when the event occurs in developing

a. Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley 94720.

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countries. Even in relatively moderate earthquakes in areas with poor housing many people
are killed by the collapse of brittle heavy unreinforced masonry or poorly constructed concrete
buildings. Modern structural control technologies such as active control or energy dissipation
devices can do little to alleviate this but it is possible that seismic isolation could be adapted to
improve the seismic resistance of poor housing and other buildings such as schools and hospi-
tals in developing countries.

The theory of seismic isolation (Naeim and Kelly 1999) shows that the reduction of seismic
loading by an isolation system depends primarily on the ratio of the isolation period to the
fixed base period. Since the fixed base period of a masonry block or brick building may be
around 1/10 second, an isolation period of 1 sec. or longer would significantly reduce the seis-
mic loads on the building and would not require a large isolation displacement. For example,
the current UBC code for seismic isolation (ICBO 1997) has a formula for minimum isolator
displacement which, for a 1.5 second system, would be around 15 cm (6 inches).

The problem with adapting isolation to developing countries is that conventional isolators
are large, expensive and heavy. An individual isolator can weigh one ton or more. To extend
this earthquake-resistant strategy to housing and commercial buildings, the cost and weight of
the isolators must be reduced.

The primary weight in an isolator is that of the steel reinforcing plates used to provide the
vertical stiffness of the rubber-steel composite element. A typical rubber isolator has two large
end-plates around 25 mm (1 inch) thick and 20 thin reinforcing plates around 3 mm (1/8 inch)
thick. The high cost of producing the isolators reflects the labor involved in preparing the steel
plates and laying-up of the rubber sheets and steel plates for vulcanization bonding in a mold.
The steel plates are cut, sand blasted, acid cleaned and then coated with bonding compound.
Next, the compounded rubber sheets with the interleaved steel plates are put into a mold and
heated under pressure for several hours to complete the manufacturing process. Both the
weight and the cost of isolators could be reduced if the steel reinforcing plates were eliminated
and replaced by fiber reinforcement. As fiber materials are available with an elastic stiffness
that is of the same order as steel, the reinforcement needed to provide the vertical stiffness
may be obtained by using a similar volume of very much lighter material. The cost savings
may be possible if the use of fiber allows a simpler, less labor-intensive manufacturing pro-
cess.

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If fiber reinforcement were used, it would then be possible to build isolators in long rectan-
gular strips, with individual isolators cut to the required size. All isolators are currently manu-
factured as either circular or square. Rectangular isolators in the form of long strips would
have distinct advantages over square or circular isolators when applied to buildings where the
lateral-resisting system is walls. When isolating is applied to buildings with structural walls,
additional wall beams are needed to carry the wall from isolator to isolator. A strip isolator
would have a distinct advantage for retrofitting masonry structures and for isolating residen-
tial housing constructed from concrete or masonry blocks.

The vertical stiffness of a steel-reinforced bearing is approximated by assuming that each


individual pad in the bearing deforms in such a way that horizontal planes remain horizontal
and points on a vertical line lie on a parabola after loading. The plates are assumed to con-
strain the displacement at the top and bottom of the pad. Linear elastic behavior with incom-
pressibility is assumed, with the additional assumption that the normal stress components are
approximated by the pressure. This leads to the well-known pressure solution which is gener-
ally accepted as an adequate approximate approach for calculating the vertical stiffness. The
extensional flexibility of the fiber reinforcement can be incorporated into this approach, and
the resulting vertical stiffness calculated.

A number of carbon fiber-reinforced rubber strip isolators were tested on a small isolator
test machine. The tests show that the concept is viable. The vertical and horizontal stiffnesses
of the strip isolator are less than those for the equivalent steel-reinforced isolator but still ade-
quate and they proved to be easy to cut with a standard saw, in contrast to steel-reinforced iso-
lators which are difficult to cut and need special saws. They were light and in use could be put
in place without the use of lifting equipment.

Much recent discussion has focused on so-called smart rubber bearings or intelligent base
isolation systems as the new thrust in seismic isolation research. While there may be a role for
these adaptive systems for large expensive buildings in advanced economies, the development
of lightweight, low-cost isolators is crucial if this method of seismic protection is to be applied
to a wide range of buildings, such as housing, schools and medical centers in earthquake-
prone areas of the world.
VERTICAL STIFFNESS OF FIBER-REINFORCED BEARINGS

The essential characteristic of the elastomeric isolator is the very large ratio of the vertical

3
stiffness relative to the horizontal stiffness. This is produced by the reinforcing plates, which
in current industry standard are thin steel plates. These plates prevent lateral bulging of the
rubber, but allow the rubber to shear freely. The vertical stiffness can be several hundred times
the horizontal stiffness. The steel reinforcement has a similar effect on the resistance of the
isolator to bending moments, referred to as the bending stiffness. This important design quan-
tity makes the isolator stable against large vertical loads.

COMPRESSION OF PAD WITH RIGID REINFORCEMENT

A linear elastic theory is the most common method used to predict the compression and the
bending stiffness of a thin elastomeric pad. The first analysis of the compression stiffness was
done using an energy approach by Rocard (1937); further developments were made by Gent
and Lindley (1959) and Gent and Meinecke (1970). A very detailed description of the theory
is given by Kelly (1996).

The analysis is an approximate one based on a number of assumptions. The kinematic


assumptions are as follows:

(i) points on a vertical line before deformation lie on a parabola after loading

(ii) horizontal planes remain horizontal

We consider an arbitrarily-shaped pad of thickness t and locate a rectangular Cartesian


coordinate system, ( x, y, z ) , in the middle surface of the pad, as shown in Fig.1(a). Figure 1(b)

shows the displacements, ( u, v, w ) , in the coordinate directions under assumptions (i) and (ii):

u ( x, y, z ) = u 0 ( x, y )  1 – -------
4z 2- 
t2 
(1)
v ( x, y, z ) = v 0 ( x, y )  1 – -------
4z 2- 
t2 
w ( x, y, z ) = w ( z )

This displacement field satisfies the constraint that the top and bottom surfaces of the pad are
bonded to rigid substrates. The assumption of incompressibility produces a further constraint
on the three components of strain, εxx , ε yy, ε zz , in the form

ε xx + ε yy + ε zz = 0 (2)

4
and this leads to

( u 0, x + v 0, y )  1 – -------
4z 2-  + w = 0
t2 
,z

where the commas imply partial differentiation with respect to the indicated coordinate. When
integrated through the thickness this gives

Z, w
Y, v

X, u
A A

(a)

Z, w

∆/2 X, u
t
∆/2
(b)

Fig. 1 Constrained rubber pad and coordinate system

u 0, x + v 0, y = 3∆ 3
------- = --- ε c (3)
2t 2

∆ is the
where the change of thickness of the pad is ∆ ( ∆ > 0 in compression), and εc = ---
t
compression strain.

The other assumptions of the theory are that the material is incompressible and that the stress
state is dominated by the pressure, p, in the sense that the normal stress components can be
taken as -p. The vertical shear stress components are included but the in-plane shear stress is

5
assumed to be negligible. Linear elastic behavior is assumed.

These assumptions and the equations of stress equilibrium lead to the pressure solution
12G∆
= – 12G
2
p ,xx + p ,yy = ∇ p = – -------------- ---------- ε c (4)
t 3 t2

The boundary condition, p = 0, on the perimeter of the pad completes the system for the
pressure distribution, p ( x, y ) , across the pad.

The desired result is the effective compression modulus Ec of the pad. This is obtained by

computing, p ( x, y ) , in terms of the compression strain ε c , integrating, p ( x, y ) , over the area

A of the pad to determine the resultant load P. The effective compression modulus E c is then

given by

P
E c = -------- (5)
Aε c

The value of Ec for a single rubber layer is controlled by the shape factor, S, defined as

S = loaded area
---------------------------
free area

which is a dimensionless measure of the aspect ratio of the single layer of the elastomer. For
example, in an infinite strip of width 2b, and with a single layer thickness of t, S = b ⁄ t , and
for a circular pad of diameter φ and thickness t, S = φ ⁄ ( 4t ) , and for a square pad of side a

and thickness t, S = a ⁄ ( 4t ) .

The vertical stiffness, K v , of a rubber bearing made of n pads is given by

Ec A
K v = ---------
tr

where the t r = nt is the total thickness of rubber in the bearing.

6
..

Z
Y

dy=1 X

2b

Fig. 2 Infinitely long rectangular pad showing dimensions

In this paper we are only interested in the theory for and the testing of a bearing in the form
of a long strip when the effects of the ends can be neglected and the strip taken to be infinite.
For an infinite strip of width 2b (see Fig. 2), Eq. (3) reduces to

2
∇ 2 p = d--------p = – ---------- ε c
12G
dx 2 t2

which, with p = 0 at x = ± b , gives

p = 6G
------- ( b 2 – x 2 )ε c
t2

In this case the load per unit length of the strip, P, is given by

b
3
P = ∫ pdx = 8Gb
-------------ε c (6)
t2
–b

Since the shape factor, S = b ⁄ t , and the area per unit length is A = 2b,

P = 4GS 2
E c = -------- (7)
Aε c

7
This result is reasonably accurate for shape factors in the range 5 to 15, but for large shape
factors the predicted value of the compression modulus begins to approach the bulk modulus,
K, of the material which for natural rubber is usually taken as 2000 MPa (300,000psi). An
analysis that includes compressibility is reviewed in a later section.

COMPRESSION STIFFNESS WITH FLEXIBLE REINFORCEMENT

Developing the solution for the compression of a pad with rigid reinforcement is algebra-
ically simple enough to be treated in two dimensions and for an arbitrary shape. The problem
for the pad with flexible reinforcement is more complicated, however; for simplicity, the deri-
vation will be developed for the long, rectangular strip isolator. A very detailed derivation of
the solution is given by Kelly (1999) where the influence of the flexibility of the reinforce-
ment on the various quantities of interest is studied. In this approach as before, the rubber is
assumed incompressible and the pressure is assumed to be the dominant stress component.
The kinematic assumption of quadratically variable displacement is supplemented by an addi-
tional displacement that is constant through the thickness and is intended to accommodate the
stretching of the reinforcement. Thus in this case the displacement pattern given in Eq.(1) is
replaced by

u ( x, z ) = u 0 ( x )  1 – 4z
--------  + u1 ( x )
2

t2 (8)
w ( x, z ) = w ( z )

The constraint of incompressibility Eq. (2) remains, leading to

u 0, x + 3--- u 1, x = 3∆
------- (9)
2 2t

The only equation of stress equilibrium in this case is τ xx, x + τ xz, z = 0 , and the assumption of

elastic behavior means that

τ xz = Gγxz (10)

which with

8
γxz = – 8z
----- u 0 (11)
t2

from Eq. (8), gives

8Gu
τ xx, x = -------------0
t2

which with the assumption that τ xx = τ zz = – p provides the sole equation of equilibrium as

8Gu
p ,x = – ------------0- (12)
2
t

The individual fibers are replaced by an equivalent sheet of reinforcement of thickness t f . The

internal force, F ( x ) , per unit width of the equivalent reinforcing sheet is related to the shear
stresses on the top and bottom of the pad by

dF
------- – τ xz t
+ τ xz t
= 0
dx z = --- z = – ---
2 2

as shown in Fig. 3. The shear stresses on the top and bottom of the pad are given by

8Gu 0 8Gu
τxz t
= – -------------; τ xz t
= ------------0-
z = --- 2t z = – --- 2t
2 2

leading to

dF 8Gu
------- = – -------------0 (13)
dx t

The extensional strain in the reinforcement εf is related to the stretching force through the

elastic modulus of the reinforcement E f and the thickness t f such that

F-
ε f = u1, x = -------- (14)
Ef t f

9
z

t/2
x
t/2 τxz F(x)
tf
τxz

Fig. 3 Force in equivalent sheet of reinforcement

which when combined with Eq. (14), gives

8G - u
u 1, xx = – -----------
Ef t f t 0

The complete system of equations is

8Gu
p ,x = – -------------0 (15)
t2

u 0, x + 3--- u 1, x = 3∆
------- (16)
2 2t

8G
u 1, xx = – ------------ u 0 (17)
E f tf t

The boundary conditions used are the vanishing of the pressure, p, and the reinforcement
force, F, at the edges of the strip, x = ± b . The results for p and F from Kelly (1999) are

Ef t f  cosh αx ⁄ b ε
p = --------
- 1 – ------------------------- (18)
t cosh α  c

10
cosh αx ⁄ b ε
F ( x ) = E f t f  1 – ------------------------- (19)
cosh α  c

where
2
2 12Gb
α = -----------------
- (20)
Eftft

The load per unit length of the strip, P, is given by

b
Ef tf cosh αx ⁄ b dxε
- 2 ∫ 1 – -------------------------
P = --------
t cosh α  c
0
2Ef t f
= ------------ b ( α – tanh α )ε c
αt

This result can be interpreted as an effective compression modulus, Ec , given by

E f tf 
E c = -------- tanh α-
- 1 – -------------- (21)
t α 

We note that when α → 0 , i.e., Ef → ∞ , we have Ec → 4GS 2 as before. The formula also

shows that Ec < 4GS 2 for all finite values of E f .

The effect of the elasticity of the reinforcement on Ec can be illustrated by normalizing the

compression modulus, E c , by dividing by 4GS 2 , giving from Eq. (21)

Ec tanh α-
3-  1 – --------------
------------- = ----- (22)
4GS 2 α 2  α 

which is shown in Fig. 4 for 0 ≤ α ≤ 5 . Note how the stiffness decreases with decreasing Ef .

11
.

1.2

1.0

0.8
Ec / 4GS2

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0
0 1 2 3 4 5
αb

Fig. 4 Normalized effective compression modulus as a function of α = ( 12Gb 2 ⁄ E f t f t ) 1 / 2

It is worthwhile to note that α also depends on the shape factor, S, through

2 G 2t .
α = 12 ----
- S ---
Ef t f

2
In the case of carbon fiber reinforcement the ratio G ⁄ E f will be extremely small although S

and t ⁄ t f are certain to be large. If S is large and the influence of the stretching of the fiber is

significant it will be necessary to take compressibility of the elastomer into account.

COMPRESSION STIFFNESS WITH COMPRESSIBILITY OF THE ELASTOMER


When the estimated value of E c from Eq. (7) is comparable to the bulk modulus, K, of the

elastomer it is necessary to modify the approach described in the earlier section to include the
influence of compressibility. The modifications needed are detailed derivation for the single
pad of arbitrary plan-form is given in Kelly (1996). The essential features of the analysis for
the incompressible pad are retained but the constraint of incompressibility, Eq. (2) is replaced
by

12
p-
ε xx + εyy + ε zz = – --- (23)
K

and, as shown in Kelly (1996), the equation for the pressure becomes
2 12G ---
∇ p – ---------- p- = 12G
----------ε c
2 2
t K t
and this is solved as before with p = 0 on the edges of the pad.

For the infinite strip – b ≤ x ≤ b the solution is

cosh βx ⁄ b-
p = Kε c  1 – ------------------------
cosh β 
where
2
---------------- = 12G
β = 12Gb
2 2
----------S (24)
2 K
Kt

Integrating p over the area (per unit length) of the pad gives

tanh β
P = 2Kε c b  1 – --------------
β 

and

tanh β
E c = K  1 – --------------
β 
2
Normalizing this by 4GS gives

Ec tanh β
3  1 – --------------
------------- = -----
2 2 β 
4GS β
There are two points to note from these two formulas. When β → 0 i.e. either K → ∞ or

S → 0 we have
2 4 2
Ec 3β
------------- = ----- ----- – 2β
--------- = 1 – 24
------ GS
----------
2 2
4GS β 3 15 5 K

and as β → ∞ , i.e. S becomes very large


1
---
2
Ec = K 1 –  ----------
K  1---
12G S

13
showing that K is an upper bound to E c .

FLEXIBLE REINFORCEMENT AND COMPRESSIBILITY


In cases of large shape factors, to estimate Ec including compressibility in a manner con-

sistent with the assumptions of the previous analysis the equation of incompressibility Eq. (2)
is replaced by

p
ε xx + ε zz = – ---- (25)
K

where K is the bulk modulus. Integration through the thickness leads to the amended form of
Eq. (3)

2 p
--- u 0, x + u 1, x + ---- = ε c (26)
3 K

This is then supplemented by the same equation of stress equilibrium and by the equation
for the forces in the reinforcement, Eq. (14). The system of equations for the combined effects
of reinforcement flexibility and compressibility is now

8Gu
p ,x = – ------------0- (27)
2
t

8Gu
u 1, xx = – -------------0- (28)
Ef t f t

2--- u + u + ---
p- = ε
o,x 1, x c (29)
3 K

Two dimensionless parameters, α and β , as defined in previous sections, determine the


comparative significance of flexibility in the reinforcement and compressibility in the elas-
tomer.

In terms of α and β the Eqs. (27) and (28) become

( p ⁄ K ), x = 2--- β u 0 b
2 2
(30)
3

14
u 1, xx = – 2--- α u 0 ⁄ b
2 2
(31)
3

Differentiation of Eq. (29) once and substitution of p and u 1 from Eqs (30) and (31) gives

2 2
(α + β )
u 0, xx – ----------------------- u 0 = 0
2
b

from which we have

u 0 = A cosh λx ⁄ b + B sinh λx ⁄ b

where

2 2 2
λ = α +β

In turn using Eq. (27) and (28) gives solutions for p and u 1 in the forms

2 2
------ A cosh λx ⁄ b – 2--- α
u 1 = – 2--- α ------ B sinh λx ⁄ b + C 1 x + D
3 λ2 3 λ2

and

2 2
β β cosh λx ⁄ b + C
p ⁄ K = – 2--- ------ A sinh λx ⁄ b – 2--- ------B
3 λb 3 λb 2

The constants of integration are, of course, not independent of each other but are related
through the basic equations. Substitutions of the three solutions into Eq. (29) gives

2
2--- λ α ( A sinh λx ⁄ b + B cosh λx ⁄ b ) + C
--- ( A sinh λx ⁄ b + B cosh λx ⁄ b ) – 2--- ------
3b 3 λb 1

2
– 2--- β
----- ( A sinh λx ⁄ b + B cosh λx ⁄ b ) + C 2 = ε c

The coefficients of sinh βx ⁄ b and cosh βx ⁄ b vanish and the result is C 1 + C 2 = ε c .

For the particular problem of the compression of the strip it is useful to consider the obvi-
ous symmetries in the solutions. Thus u 0 and u 1 are anti-symmetric and p is symmetric on

– b ≤ x ≤ +b . It follows that A = 0 and D = 0 giving

15
u 0 = B sinh λx ⁄ b

2

u 1 = – --- ------ B sin λx ⁄ b + C 1 x
3 λ2

2
p- 2β
--- = – --- ------B cosh λx ⁄ b + εc – C 1
K 3 λb

The boundary conditions for B and C 1 are that the pressure p at the edges x = ± b is zero

and that the stress in the reinforcement E f u 1,x also vanishes at the edges. Thus

2
α B cos λ + C = 0
– 2--- ------
3 λb 1

2
β B cosh λ – C = – ε
– 2--- ------
3 λb 1 c

giving

3 λ 1
B = --- ------------------ b --------------- ε c
2 α2 + β 2 cosh λ

2
α
C 1 = ------------------ ε c
2 2
α +β

and the solution becomes

sinh λx ⁄ b- ε
u 0 = 3--- b -----------------------
2 α cosh λ c

2
α -  --x- – -----------------------
sinh λx ⁄ b- ε
u 1 = b -----------------
2 2b λ cosh λ  c
α +β

and

2
β cosh λx ⁄ b- ε
= ------------------  1 – ------------------------
p-
--- (32)
K α2 + β2  cosh λ  c

Integration of p from Eq. (32) above and use of Eq. (5) gives

16
2
β tanh λ
-  1 – --------------
E c = K ----------------- (33)
2 2 λ 
α +β

If the effect of compressibility is negligible then β → 0 and λ = α and we have

2
Kβ = 12Gb
2
----------------
2
t

giving

Eftf  tanh α-


E c = -------- 1 – -------------- (34)
t  α 

which is the same as the result in previous section. On the other hand if the flexibility of the

reinforcement is negligible then α → 0 and λ → β giving

tanh β
Ec = K  1 – -------------- (35)
 β 

2
If the compression modulus is normalized by 4GS then from Eq. (33) we have

1⁄2
Ec 3  tanh ( α + β ) 
2 2
------------- = ------------------  1 – ------------------------------------------ (36)
2 1⁄2 
α +β 
2 2 2 2
4GS (α + β )

which demonstrates how the vertical stiffness is reduced by both compressibility in the elas-
tomer and flexibility in the reinforcement.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

Several fiber-reinforced bearings were constructed and tested in compression and shear.
Six specimens manufactured by Dongil Rubber Belt Co., Ltd (Pusan, Korea) were shipped in
the form of strips with slightly varying dimensions as given in Table 1. The width to height
ratio was very close to 2 and length to height ratio was around 7.5. Each bearing had 99 mm of
rubber and was reinforced by 30 plane sheets of carbon fiber 0.27 mm thick.

The effective vertical stiffness of the bearing was obtained from a compression test con-

17
ducted in the following way. The specimen was monotonically loaded up to the target value of
vertical pressure and then three cycles of vertical loading with small amplitude about this tar-
get value were performed. The shear stiffness of a specimen was obtained from sets of shear
cycles with step-wise increasing amplitude. These shear tests were conducted for various val-
ues of vertical pressure and for three angles between the testing direction and the longitudinal
direction of the strip. All tests were conducted on bearings that were not bonded to the test
machine.

These tests were carried out on a test machine, shown in Fig. 5, designed to produce in-
plane vertical and horizontal cyclic loading. The vertical load was applied through a stiff
frame to the specimen by two hydraulic actuators. The horizontal load was applied by a
hydraulic actuator. The test machine had a displacement capacity of ±254 mm (10 inches) in
the horizontal direction and a load capacity of ±1,140 kN (260 kips) in the vertical direction.
The photograph in Fig. 6 shows a global view of a test in progress.

TEST PROGRAM

Specimen DRB1 was tested under vertical load control monotonically to 1.73 MPa (250
psi) of vertical pressure and three fully reversed cycles with ±0.35 MPa (50 psi) amplitude
were performed, then monotonically unloaded. A similar test at 3.45 MPa (500 psi) vertical
pressure with ±0.35 MPa (50 psi) amplitude was performed to study the vertical stiffness at
the greater vertical load.
The horizontal test was performed under horizontal displacement control. Specimen
DRB1 was tested in cyclic shear, with three fully reversed cycles at four peak strain levels of
25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% (based on 99 mm rubber thickness) applied at a vertical pressure
of 1.73 MPa (250 psi). The vertical pressure was increased to 3.45 MPa (500 psi) and the
shear test was repeated. The peak value of shear deformation was increased by 1.5 and the test
repeated. The shear tests were done for the following sequence of the angle between the test-
ing direction and the longitudinal direction of the strip: 0°, 90° and 45° .
Specimens DRB2 and DRB3 were tested under the same test program, but with a differ-
ent sequence of the angle between the testing direction and the longitudinal direction of the
strip. For specimen DB2 this sequence was 45°, 0° and 90° , and for specimen DRB3 it was
90°, 45° and 0° .

18
In order not to exceed the capacity of the testing machine a specimen was cut in two equal
halves, denoted as DRB4 and DRB5. The half-length specimens DRB4 and DRB5 were used
to study behavior at higher levels of vertical load and larger shear deformation. The value of
vertical pre-load was increased to 6.90 MPa (1000 psi) and the shear deformation was doubled
to study the behavior at a larger shear strains. The angle between the testing direction in shear
and the longitudinal direction of the strip was 0º for specimen DRB4 and 90° for specimen
DRB5.
The possibility of increasing of shear capacity of the bearings by stacking them (one on
top of the other) was studied by testing DRB8 and DRB9 in this way. The joint specimen was
vertically loaded up to 3.45 MPa (500 psi) vertical pressure and then was tested in shear at
50%, 100%, 150% and 200% peak shear strains based on the single bearing thickness.
Finally specimen DRB9 was cut in two equal halves, and these were designated as speci-
mens DRB6 and DRB7. They differed in that DRB6 had rubber cover at one end, whereas
specimen DRB7 had no side rubber cover. They were tested under the same test program at
three levels of vertical pressure: 0.87 MPa (125 psi), 1.73 MPa (250 psi), and 3.45 MPa (500
psi).
Figure 7 is a photo of specimen DRB6 under 100% shear deformation testing at 90° to
the longitudinal direction. The deformation with the same magnitude at 45° to the longitudi-
nal direction is shown in Fig. 8 and the specimen under 100% shear deformation in the longi-
tudinal direction is shown in Fig. 9.

DISCUSSION OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

Horizontal Test Results


The manufacturer of the test isolators gave the nominal shear modulus of this natural rub-
ber compound as 0.690 Mpa (100psi). The three full-length uncut specimens had an average
area of 0.140 m2 and a total rubber thickness of 0.099m. The horizontal stiffness, KH, of a con-
ventional isolator is given by

K H = GA ⁄ t r

and for these values KH is

19
K H = 970kN ⁄ m

At 100% shear strain and a pressure of 1.73 Mpa (250psi) the average horizontal stiffness in
the longitudinal loading direction is 1280 kN/m, in the lateral loading direction is 863 kN/m
and at 45º is 1120 kN/m.
The hysteresis loops for the longitudinal loading direction tend to stiffen when the shear
strain is increased from 100% to 150% whereas in the lateral direction the loops turn over so
that the instantaneous tangent stiffness is negative at the larger strains. However this effect is
reduced at higher pressure levels. The 45º degree loading does not produce either stiffening or
softening but gives values intermediate between the 0º and 90º loadings.
The value of the stiffness at 100% shear strain in the longitudinal direction is slightly
higher than would be expected from the nominal value of the shear modulus but in the trans-
versal loading direction the stiffness is lower. At 45º the stiffness is intermediate between the
other two. If we assume that the layout of the strip isolator is orthogonal with roughly the
same number in each direction the average between 0º and 90º is close to the value at 45º so
that the system will have the same period in any direction of movement.
The period, T, can be roughly estimated using the pressure and the effective shear modulus.
The period is given by

pt
T = 2π -------r
Gg

If the average pressure over the system is 3.45 Mpa (500 psi) as in the tests and the modulus is
0.690 Mpa (100 psi) with 99 mm of rubber we have a period of 1.4 secs. From the code for-
mula this would produce a displacement of 143 mm (5.64 inches) and a shear strain of 1.41.
Adjusting the values to correspond to the measured stiffness at γ=1.5 we find that the period
increases to 1.5 seconds and the displacement to 150 mm (6 inches).
This suggests that if the period of 1.5 seconds is acceptable as the target value for the
design of the building, the strip isolators as tested would be adequate providing that the aver-
age pressure can be at least 3.45 Mpa (500psi). A longer period can be obtained by having one
isolator on top of another as shown in Fig. 9. This leads to a period of 2 seconds and a code
displacement of 200 mm (8 inches) and a γ=1.0. It is clear that a wide range of practical objec-
tives is possible. If it is necessary to have an average pressure of less than 3.45 MPa (500 psi)
it is possible to use a softer compound. Compounds with shear moduli, at 100% strain, down

20
to 0.40 Mpa (60 psi) are available.
Vertical Test Results

The vertical test results are shown in Tables 2, 3 and 4. Since the dimensions of the bear-
ings are slightly different in each case it is useful to tabulate the vertical stiffness in terms of
the effective compression modulus, Ec , as defined by Eq. (5). The full-length bearings DRB1/

2/3 are quite consistent with E c at around 414 Mpa. The two sets of half length bearings have

lower values of E c at the same vertical pressures of testing. The pair denoted by DBR4/5 was

not tested at 1.73 Mpa (250 psi) but at 3.45 Mpa (500 psi), and 6.90 Mpa (1000 psi). The set
denoted by DBR6/7 was tested at 0.87 Mpa (125 psi), 1.73 Mpa (250 psi) and 3.45 Mpa (500
psi). At the common test pressure of 3.45 Mpa (500 psi) the average of the two values of Ec of

DBR4/5 was the same as that of DBR6/7 so that we can interpret the effect of variation of the
target pressure over a eight-fold range. The fact that at the same pressures the E c values for

the full-length bearings is higher than for the half-length bearings is most likely due to the
larger influence of free ends in the latter case. The theoretical analysis is developed for the
infinite length strip and for the full-length bearings the length to height ratio of 7.5 is large
enough that this assumption is valid. At half this value end effects can be expected to have
some influence. The vertical stiffness of an elastomeric isolation bearing is always difficult to
measure since the displacements at the vertical loads corresponding to practical use are
extremely small and a great deal of scatter is to be expected.

It is clear however that there is for all test specimens a systematic increase in stiffness and
E c when the central value of the pressure around which the load is cycled increases. As the

pressure is doubled the average value of Ec for the three full length isolators increases by 37%

2
to 565MN ⁄ m . The half length bearing tests show an increase in E c over the complete range

of pressure. The increase is not linear in pressure but tends to decrease with increasing pres-
sure from 55% at the lowest level to 15% at the highest. This is consistent with the type of car-
bon fiber used in the bearings. The fiber is woven, two directional and epoxied into a thin
sheet. As the pressure increases the in-plane fiber sheet tension increases and tends to
straighten out the fiber strands thus increasing the effective fiber modulus.

To assess the effect of the various parameters on the vertical stiffness it is necessary to esti-

21
mate the actual shear modulus from the tests on shear. At a vertical pressure of 3.45 Mpa
(500psi) the average shear stiffness of the first three bearings when tested in the longitudinal
2
direction 0° is 1.278 MN/m which with an average area of 0.140m and a thickness of rubber
of 99mm implies a shear modulus of 0.904 Mpa (131 psi) which is considerably larger than
the nominal modulus. This use of the longitudinal tests to provide an estimate of the modulus
is warranted by the fact that this case will have the least influence from the roll-off due to the
unbonded condition.

A steel-reinforced isolator with this shear modulus, this area of rubber and this thickness
would, if compressibility effects were ignored, have an effective compression modulus Ec

2
given by Eq. (5), of 3738MN/m . When compressibility is taken into account the effective

modulus is considerably reduced as given by Eq. (35). To estimate β we use K=2000Mpa


2 2
(290,000psi) giving β = 5.3 and from Eq. (35) we have 1150MN/m . The average mea-
2
sured value 563MN/m , can be used to deduce the effect of the extensibility of the carbon
2
fiber reinforcement. For this purpose we now turn to Eq. (33) and assume that β = 5.3 .

From the results we have Ec ⁄ K = 0.28 and from the equation we determine that

2 2 1⁄2 2
(α + β ) = 3.7 implying α = 8.4 . When the known values of the various parameters
2
are inserted into the definition of α we estimate E f as 14,000 Mpa (2,000,000 psi).

There is no equipment in the laboratory to measure modulus of the carbon fiber sheet
directly nor has the fabricator provided a value. The result is somewhat lower than others
quoted for carbon/epoxy sheets and the reason is not clear but the sheets appear to be a very
poor quality fiber with many spaces and the portion of the thickness that is fiber cannot be
determined from visual analysis. It is certainly possible that the quality of the reinforcing
could be improved but it is clear that even this poor quality sheet is adequate for these bear-
2
ings. An effective modulus E c of 563MN/m at an average pressure of 3.45 Mpa (500 psi)

implies a vertical vibrational frequency of 20 Hz which is more than is necessary in any isola-
tion application. The conclusion is that although the fiber is suspected to be very low quality,
and presumably low-cost, it has sufficient stiffness and strength for application to low-cost
isolators.

22
CONCLUSIONS

The test results show that the concept of the strip isolator reinforced with carbon fiber is
viable. The fact that the isolator can be made in long wide sheets and cut to the required width
means that the cost of the isolator can be reduced to a level that is acceptable for low-cost pub-
lic housing. The tests also show that loading in the direction of the strip across a cut surface
can be a source of delamination. In practice this should not be a problem since the width of the
manufactured sheet will be used as the length of the strip isolator and the ends will be finished
edges. Loading in the transverse direction (90º), where the edges are cut, is not so severe, as
the rolling of the strip tends to produce lower forces in this direction. The most vulnerable
direction of loading is at 45º which appears to put a very distorted pattern of displacement on
the isolator and for this reason it may be advisable to use either a better cutting method such as
water jet, that will leave a smoother finished surface than a steel saw, or to finish the edge by a
cold-bonded surface layer.
The carbon fiber appeared to be very poor quality. The fibers are laid out in only two direc-
tions 0° and 90° , in a woven sheet with many spaces. Nevertheless the isolators still func-
tioned acceptably. It would be possible to make a much better isolator with a better quality
carbon fiber at little increase in cost.
The unresolved issue from the test program is that of overall system behavior, namely, can
an isolation system made of strip isolators laid out in an orthogonal grid protect the masonry
wall superstructure above. Isolators loaded in the longitudinal direction stiffen with increasing
displacement and those loaded across the strip will soften with displacement above a certain
threshold. The question is can the unbalanced shear be accommodated by the wall system.
Further research is needed to study this effect and the best way to develop a reliable procedure
would be to have a masonry block house model on isolators on a large shake table.
It is important to recall that the benefit of isolation is achieved primarily through the ratio
of the isolated period of the building to its fixed-base period. For a constant velocity spectrum
the base shear of the fixed-base building is reduced by this factor when the same building is
isolated. A masonry wall structure will have an extremely short fixed-base period, in the range
of 0.10 second. A reduction of a factor of 10 can be obtained with an isolation period of 1 sec-
ond and this is not difficult to obtain. In fact the code formula for isolation system displace-
ment which has persisted through all versions of the seismic isolation codes in the USA since

23
the earliest in 1986 would predict a displacement of 15 cm. (6 inches) for a 1.5 second period
system and the isolators tested here were tested to displacements of 15 cm. (6 inches) and
more. However if larger displacements are needed the tests showed that stacking two isolators
on top of each other was possible which would allow even larger displacements.
A shake table test using a full size masonry block house would help clarify details of access
across the isolation interface, the disadvantages if any of not having the bottom floor slab-on-
grade isolated and the extent to which a concrete tie-strip is needed between the isolators and
the block wall. When these remaining uncertainties are resolved this valuable new technology
can be implemented in many highly seismic areas in the developing world.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The sample isolators were made by Dongil Rubber Belt Co. Ltd. of Pusan, Korea. The test
program was conducted at the Structural Test Facility of the Pacific Earthquake Engineering
Research Center, University of California, Berkeley. This research work was partly supported
by the Engineering Research Center for Met-Shape and Die Manufacturing of Pusan National
Univeristy, Pusan, Korea, which is gratefully acknowledged.

24
REFERENCES
Gent A.N. and P.B. Lindley, 1959. The compression of bonded rubber blocks. In: Proceed-
ings Institution of Mechanical Engineers 173(3):111-117.

Gent A.N. and E.A. Meinecke, 1970. Compression, bending and shear of bonded
rubber-blocks. Polymer Engineering and Science 10(2):48-53.

Int. Conf. of Building Officials, 1997. Eathquake regulations for seismic isolated
structures, Uniform Building Code, Appendix Chapter 16, Whittier, CA.

Kelly J.M., 1996. Earthquake-Resistant Design with Rubber, 2nd Edition,


Springer-Verlag, London.

Kelly J.M., 1999. Analysis of Fiber-Reinforced Elastomeric Isolators, Journal of Seismic


Engineering, 2(1):19-34.

Naeim F. and J.M. Kelly, 1999. Design of Seismic Isolated Structures, John Wiley, New
York.

Rocard Y., 1937. Note sur le calcul des proprietes elastique des supports en caoutchouc
adherent. J de Physique et de Radium 8:197.

25
Load Frame

Specimen DRB
Strong Reaction Frame

Hydraulic Actuator #3
with Load Cell Load Cell Load Cell
and Displacement Transducer

Hydraulic Actuator #1
Support Frame with Load Cell

Hydraulic Actuator #2
with Load Cell

East West

Strong Floor

Fig. 5 Testing setup.

Fig. 6 Test in progress.

26
Fig. 7 Specimen DRB6 at 100% shear deformation (90 degree).

Fig. 8 Specimen DRB6 at 100% shear deformation (45 degree).

27
Fig. 9 Specimen DRB6 at 100% shear deformation (0 degree).

28