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Functions 3

Graphing Techniques 8

Equations & Inequalities 16

Arithmetic & Geometric Progressions 20

Summation, Recurrence & Induction 25

Differentiation 32

Integration 43

Differential Equations 54

Power Series 61

Binomial Expansion 66

Vectors 72

Complex Numbers 84

Statistics Page

Permutations & Combinations 99

Probability 103

Distributions 109

Sampling & Testing 118

Correlation & Regression 124

Mathematics Revision Notes 2009

RI(JC) Mathematics Society

Acknowledgements

Members of RI(JC) Mathematics Society, batch of 2009, for their time and effort in

creating these notes;

o Bi Ran

o Hu Yi Jie

o Kan Wai Keong Desmond (Editor)

o Koo Cheng Wai (Editor)

o Kung Ying Xiang

o Liew Xiao Tian

o Ong Chin Hwee

o Samuel Lim Yong Peng

o Tan Chor Hiang

o Tan Jun Xian Gabriel

o Tan Wei Jie

Mr. Kok Chee Kean, teacher-in-charge, for his guidance and support;

Members of RJC Mathematics Society, batch of 2008, for pioneering this project;

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Functions

A function f is a relation which maps each element in its domain D f to one and only one

element in its range R f , e.g. f : x x 2 1 , x , where x2 1 is the rule of f and is

the domain of f . Use the Vertical Line Test to determine if a given relation f is a function.

Replace D f and R f below with the actual domain and range of f in interval notation.

One-one Functions

y y f ( x) y y g ( x)

any line y k ,

k R g [1, ) k

y2 2

1 x 1 x

0 0

Since the horizontal line y 2 , where Since any horizontal line y k , where

2 R f [1, ) , does not cut the graph of f k Rg 1, , cuts the graph of g at one

at one and only one point, f is not one-one. and only one point, g is one-one.

OR

where 1,1 D f , f is not one-one.

g is a restriction of f if f and g have the same rule and D g D f , i.e. g is f with its

domain restricted. Even if f is not one-one, a restriction of f which is one-one can be

defined. Use turning points or points where f is undefined to show that f is not one-one

or restrict its domain.

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Inverse Functions

f 1 y x if and only if f x y .

Domain of f 1 R f

Range of f 1 D f

1. Let y f x .

2. Express x in terms of y , such that x g y , where g y is a function of y .

3. Then f 1 x g x .

The rules of ff 1 and f 1 f are always x , but they usually have different domains.

D ff 1 D f 1 , but D f 1 f D f .

Composite Functions

Domain of gf D f

Range of gf R g , with the domain of g restricted to R f .

FAQ

A: Substitute the rule of f , then sketch the graph using GC.

A: Observe from the rule of f by substituting values, or from the graph using GC.

Q: What is the minimum value of k such that f , with its domain restricted to ( k , ) ,

is one-one?

A: Find the minimum value of k such that f , with its domain restricted, passes the

Horizontal Line Test. Usually, x k will be a turning point or point where f is

undefined on the graph of f .

Q: Solve f x f 1 x .

A: Solve f x x or f 1 x x instead, since the graphs of f and f 1 must intersect on

the line y x . (Example 2)

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Q: Solve ff 1 x f 1 f x .

A: The solution set is the intersection of the domains of f and f 1 , since both ff 1 and

f 1 f have rule x .

A: The graph of ff 1 is the section of the line y x , where x D 1 R f . Similarly, the

f

A: Show their geometrical relationship: the graphs of f and f 1 are reflections of each

other about the line y x .

1

A mapping f is given by f : x 1, x .

( x 1) 2

State the largest possible domain of f in the form , b , where b , such that the

inverse function of f exists. Hence define f 1 in a similar form.

h : x x 2 2 x 1, x

Give the rule and domain of the composite function hg and find its range.

Solution Comments

Observe a discontinuity at x 1 by

sketching the graph of f on the GC or

1

from . Restrict D f based on the

( x 1) 2

discontinuity instead of looking for

turning points.

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1

Let y f x 1 , x ,1 .

x 1

2

1

y 1

x 1

2

1

x 1

2

y 1

1

x 1

y 1

1

x 1

y 1

x 1

y 1 expressions for x to accept and which

1 to reject. Here, D f ,1 , so x 1 ,

or 1 (rejected)

y 1 and

1

0 for all y .

y 1

f 1 : x 1 , x 1,

x 1 down both its rule and domain.

(b)(i) h x x 2 2 x 1 x 1 2

2 h( x) has a minimum point at x 1 , and

its domain includes 1 .

Rh h 1 , 2,

Since 2, ( 1,1 ), Rh

Dg , hence gh exists if and only if Rh D g .

the composite function gh does not exist.

hg x h g x h ln x 2

since the question already assumes it.

hg : x ln x 2 2 ln x 2 1

2

,

x (1,1)

Rhg h 1 , h 0 2, 1 h( x) decreases from 0 to 1 , reaches its

minimum at h 1 2 , then increases

from 1 to ln 3 . Since h 0 h(ln 3) ,

h(0) is the larger endpoint of Rhg .

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Example 2 [HCI06/Promo/Q11 (Modified)]

1

f :x ,x 0

1 ex

Show the graphs of f ( x) , f 1 x and ff 1 x on a single sketch.

Solution Comments

D ff 1 D f 1 R f 0,

2 they may have different domains.

D f 1 f D f [0, )

Hence, ff 1 x f 1 f x if and only if x is

For ff 1 x f 1 f ( x ) ,

in the domain of both ff 1 and f 1 f , i.e.:

1 1

x 0, 0, 0, x D ff 1 D f 1 f R f D f

2 2

1

0 x

2

y y f 1 ( x)

yx rule of f 1 ( x) is unknown, key in

DrawInv( Y1 ) to draw the inverse of the graph

of Y1 .

1 1 1

,

2 2 2 GC syntax:

y f ( x)

Set Y1 1 / (1 e ^ ( X )) , then:

0

[2ND][PRGM] 8:DrawInv

1 x

[VARS] Y-VARS Function… Y1

2

[ENTER]

y ff 1 ( x)

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Graphing Techniques

Graphs of Conic Sections

The dotted lines represent lines of symmetry or asymptotes, not the axes.

( x h)2 ( y k )2

1

a2 b2

b

yk

Ellipse a (h, k )

xh

( x h) 2 ( y k ) 2 r 2

r

yk

Circle (h, k )

xh

x h b( y k )2 xh y k b( x h)2

Parabola yk

(h, k )

(h, k )

Hyperbola

( x h)2 ( y k )2 ( y k )2 ( x h)2

1 1

a2 b2 b2 a2

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Properties of Hyperbolas

Centre: h, k

Horizontal line of symmetry: x h

Vertical line of symmetry: y k

b

Oblique asymptote (sloping upwards): y k x h

a

b

Oblique asymptote (sloping downwards): y k x h

a

( x h)2 ( y k )2

If the x term comes first in the equation of a hyperbola, i.e. 1 , then the

a2 b2

graph looks like a handwritten x (with left/right parts) and always intersects the x axis.

There is a special case for each conic where its centre or vertex is at the origin (i.e. h 0 ,

k 0 ). To draw a conic with centre/vertex (h, k ) , translate this special case by replacing

x with x h and y with y k .

complete the square to convert it into the standard forms given in the table above.

When the equation of a conic is given in general form, to identify the conic:

Yes No

and y 2 term of same sign? Yes

Yes No

Yes No

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Graphs of Rational Functions

ax b

y , where c 0 , numerator and denominator have no common factor.

cx d

q

Using long division, express y as p , where p and q are constants.

cx d

d

Vertical asymptote: x

c

q

o When cx d 0 , is undefined, hence y is undefined.

cx d

a

Horizontal asymptote: y p

c

q

o As x , 0 , hence y p .

cx d

ax 2 bx c

y , where a, d 0 , numerator and denominator have no common factor.

dx e

r

Using long division, express y as px q , where p , q , and r are constants.

dx e

e

Vertical asymptote: x

d

r

o When dx e 0 , is undefined, hence y is undefined.

dx e

Oblique asymptote: y px q

r

o As x , 0 , hence y px q .

dx e

Translating Graphs

y a f ( x)

positive y -direction Replace y by y a

i.e. y f x a

y a f ( x)

negative y -direction Replace y by y a

i.e. y f x a

positive x -direction Replace x by x a y f ( x a)

negative x -direction Replace x by x a y f ( x a)

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Stretching & Reflecting Graphs

y

Stretch parallel to the y -axis by y f ( x)

Replace y by a

factor a , with x -axis invariant a

i.e. y af ( x)

Stretch parallel to the x -axis by x x

Replace x by y f

factor a , with y -axis invariant a a

y f x

Reflect in the x -axis ( y 0 ) Replace y by y

i.e. y f ( x)

Reflect in the y -axis ( x 0 ) Replace x by x y f ( x)

y f ( x) y y f ( x) y y fx y

0 x 0 x 0 x

x

Reflect the part of the graph Delete the part of the graph

of = ( ) where ( ) < 0 of = ( ) where < 0.

in the -axis.

Reflect the part of the graph

of = ( ) where > 0 in

the -axis.

Other Transformations

Assume the same graph of y f x as above, which is drawn with a dashed line below.

y f '( x)

1

y

f ( x)

y2 f ( x)

o Related to y f ( x ) or y f ( x )

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Increasing Positive

Decreasing Negative

0

Concave downwards Decreasing

1 Positive Positive

y

f ( x) y

Negative Negative

Increasing Decreasing

Decreasing Increasing

0 Approaches or Approaches 0

x

Approaches 0 Approaches or

1. Discard the part of y f x where f x 0 .

y f ( x) y

2. Look at x -intercepts of y f x to decide the

2

1 distinct real root: vertical tangent

2 equal real roots: sharp tangent

2 equal real roots: horizontal tangent

0 x 3. This is the graph of y f x .

4. Find the graph of y f x by reflecting the

5. Combine the graphs of y f x and

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Sketching a Transformed Graph

2. Identify critical features on the original graph.

3. On the new graph, label all corresponding coordinates of points, equations of asymptotes,

stationary points etc. which are given on the original graph.

For points, write ' , e.g. use A ' to denote point A after transformation.

4. Check your answer.

1

Use substitutions, e.g. when f ( x) 10 , y 0.1.

f ( x)

Use GC to graph normally or use its Conics application.

Solution: f ( x) f (2 x) f (2 x) f (2 3x) f 2 3 x

When x is involved, replace x by x last, to get a graph symmetric about the y -axis.

Solution: f ( x) f x f 2 x f 2 x f 2 3x

Here 2 3x is inside the modulus, hence replace x by x first, then transform x to 2 x 3 .

General Tips

Write the exact phrasing of the transformations when the question asks you to “describe”

them, e.g. write “translate by 3 units…”, not “translate for 3 units…”.

Example [YJC/I/Q8]

x2 kx 1

y , k .

2x 3

(i) Obtain the equations of the asymptotes of C .

(ii) Find the value of k for which the x -axis is tangent to C .

(iii) Sketch the case for k 3 . Hence, using a graphical method, find the range of values

of x that satisfy the inequality x 2 3x 1 4 x 6 .

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Solution Comments

(i) x2 kx 1 x k 3

y Use long division to get a quotient of

2x 3 2 2 4

x k 3 13 6k 13 6k

and a remainder of .

2 2 4 4(2 x 3) 4

Equations of asymptotes: ax 2 bx c

3 x k 3 Graphs of y usually have 2

x and y . dx e

2 2 2 4 asymptotes:

term in the denominator 0 , i.e. 2 x 3 0 .

2. To find the oblique asymptote, take y

13 6k x k 3

such that 0 and y .

4(2 x 3) 2 2 4

y 0 x 2 kx 1 0 discriminant D b2 4ac .

1 value of x where y 0 , D 0 : 1 (repeated) real root.

D k 2 4 11 0 D 0 : No real roots.

k2 4 Always try using the discriminant with quadratic

k 2 or 2 (rejected k ) equations in Graphing Techniques questions.

k 2

Differentiation is tedious and will result in a

complicated expression. Furthermore, if the

question states “algebraically”, differentiation

cannot be used.

your answer.

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(iii) y x 2 3x 1

x 2 3x 1 When k 3 , y .

y 2x 3

2x 3 x 3

y x2 3x 1 4 x 6

2 4

x 2 3x 1 2 2 x 3

x2 3x 1 x2 3x 1

y2 2

2x 3 2x 3

2.62 0

0.333

y 2

0.382 x

y 2 or y 2

From the graph,

y 2

3

3 x 5.79 or 1.79 x

x 2

2

3

or x 1.21 or x 2.79

2

Substitute k 3 into the equations of the graph and its asymptotes, and sketch it using

the GC. Label all axis intercepts (to 3 s.f.) and asymptotes.

1. Manipulate given inequality until 1 side, say LHS, resembles equation of graph.

2. Sketch graph of RHS on GC and your diagram.

3. The solution usually involves points of intersection of the 2 graphs.

e.g. the blue marks on the x -axis in the diagram above.

3

Exclude the values of x for which the function is undefined, e.g. x above.

2

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General Approach

1. Zero the inequality (bring all the terms to one side, such that the other side is 0).

2. Combine the terms to form a single fraction.

3. Factorize the terms as far as possible.

f x

Use 0 f x g x 0 to convert the inequality to a product of factors.

g x

Since g x is always positive, multiplying it on both sides preserves the

2

inequality sign.

4. Eliminate factors which are either always positive or always negative.

Complete the square, e.g. for all x , x 2 4 x 5 x 2 1 1 0 .

2

5. Draw number line and graph and shade the regions where the inequality holds.

6. Write the range of values of x (e.g. 1 x 2 ).

To write the set of values, use set-builder notation, NOT interval notation.

o e.g. {x :1 x 2} , NOT (1, 2]

Check for any values (especially endpoints) to be excluded

1

o e.g. x 2 when the inequality contains

x2

o e.g. whether the inequality is strict ( ) or not ( ).

Using the GC

o Find roots of a graph: [2ND][TRACE] 2:zero

Find stationary points of a graph: [2ND][TRACE] 3:minimum (or 4:maximum)

Solve system of linear equations: [APPS] 5:PlySmlt2

FAQ

Using the solution to an original inequality, solve a new inequality.

1

o Substitute x with some function of x , f ( x) (usually x , , ln x , e x , etc.) in

x

the original inequality, such that it becomes the new inequality. Then, substitute

x with the same function f ( x) in the original solution set to obtain the new

solution set.

Model a problem with a system of linear equations and solve the system.

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General Tips

denominators on both sides of the inequality are either both positive or both negative.

Use the GC if the question does not specify “exact” values. But be careful when using the

GC directly: some solution intervals are not visible at certain zoom levels! (Example 1)

f x a a f x a

f x a f ( x ) a or f ( x) a

2

o Multiply or divide both sides by a negative number

e.g. a b 2a 2b

o Take the reciprocal of both sides, if they are either both positive or both negative

1 1

e.g. a b , where a, b 0 (or a, b 0 )

a b

Example [N2006/II/Q1]

x9

Solve the inequality 1.

x2 9

Solution Comments

1

x2 9

1 0

x2 9

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x 9 x2 9 0 2. Combine the terms to form a single fraction.

x2 9

x x2

0

x2 9

x x x

2 2

9 0 3. Factorize the terms as far as possible.

here x 4 , positive, so that the graph in Step 5

will start as positive from the right.

when multiplying both sides by 1 .

3 0 1 3 regions where inequality holds.

x

Mark the roots 3 , 0 , 1, 3 of the equation

y x x 1 x 3 x 3 .

The graph has x -intercepts at the roots.

If f ( x) is a polynomial with the coefficient

of the highest power of x being positive,

the graph of f ( x) will start as positive

from the right.

The graph has a “wavy” shape.

any values (especially endpoints) to be

excluded.

x2 9 x 3 x 3 , exclude x 3 and

x 3 where the inequality is undefined.

x 3 . Write out “or” between every 2 adjacent

inequalities.

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Alternative method from this step Alternative method

(Sketch the graph of y 1)

x2 9 zero the inequality, then use the GC directly.

From the GC,

x 3 , 0 x 1 , or x 3 Always zoom in to check places where the

graph is near the x -axis, where the inequality

is near equality.

visible at some zoom levels, e.g. ZStandard and

ZDecimal.

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Below, AP denotes arithmetic progression and GP denotes geometric progression.

n th term, u n a n 1 d

n n

Sum of first n terms, S n 2a n 1 d a un

2 2

If a, b, c form an AP, then b a c b 2b a c

n th term, un ar n 1

n

a (1 r n ) a r 1

1 r r 1

a

Sum to infinity, S ( S exists only if r 1 )

1 r

b c

If a, b, c form a GP, then b 2 ac

a b

u k S k S k 1 , where k 0 .

u k u k 1 u m S m S k 1 , where m k 0 .

FAQ

A: 1. Write down a , d (or r ), n , any k th term u k , any sum of first k terms S k which is

given in the question.

2. Use the various AP & GP formulae to solve.

A: Show that the difference is common, i.e. u k u k 1 is constant for all k .

A: u

Show that the ratio is common, i.e. k is constant for all k .

uk 1

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Q: Model and solve a problem using an AP or GP.

A: 1. Identify if the sequence given is an AP or GP.

2. Write down a , d (or r ), n , any k th term u k , any sum of first k terms S k which is

given in the question.

3. Use the various AP & GP formulae to solve.

A: 1. Form an inequality in terms of n .

2. Solve manually OR use GC’s table of values/graph.

Example 1 [JJC/II/Q1]

An arithmetic progression of positive terms is such that twice the sum of the first nine terms

is equal to the sum of the next nine terms. Let Tn denote the n th term of the arithmetic

progression. Given that T1 , 20 , T16 forms a geometric progression, find the first term and the

common difference of the arithmetic progression.

Solution Comments

Let the arithmetic progression have first Define all variables that will be used. Interpret

term a , common difference d , and sum of the question in the context of the defined

first n terms S n . variables: find a and d .

3S 9 S18 terms of differences of sums of first k terms:

T10 T11 T18 S18 S 9

3 2a 8d (2a 17 d ) an equation in terms of a and d , which we

2 2

27a 108d 18a 153d want to find.

a 5d

T1T16 400

T1 20 another equation in terms of a and d .

a a 15d 400

d

5 the second equation. Simultaneous equations

a a 3a 4 a 2 400 are a common feature in AP & GP questions.

a 2 100

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a 10 or 10 (rejected a 0 as the Look for conditions given in the question

arithmetic progression is of positive terms) whenever you must choose a correct value.

a 10 , d 2

A bank has an account for investors. Interest is added to the account at the end of each year at

a fixed rate of 5% of the amount in the account at the beginning of that year. A man decides

to invest $x at the beginning of one year and then a further $x at the beginning of the

second and each subsequent year. He also decides that he will not draw any money out of the

account, but just leave it, and any interest, to build up.

(i) Show that, at the end of n years, when the interest for the last year has been added, he

will have a total of $21 1.05 n 1 x in his account.

(ii) After how many complete years will he have, for the first time, at least $12x in his

account?

Solution Comments

(i) Let u n be the amount of money in $ in the Define u n as this to avoid writing the

man’s account at the end of n years. same phrase repeatedly. Remember to

specify the units (in $).

u2 1.05 1.05 x x 1.05 1.05 x

2

u1 , u 2 , u 3 , and observe a pattern for

2 u n . Here, “replace” 3 with n .

u3

3 2

Do not simplify 1.052 , 1.053 etc., or

the pattern will be difficult to observe.

un 1.05n 1.05n 1 1.05 x

1.05 1.05n1 1 x Apply the formula for the sum of the

first n terms of a GP to simplify u n .

1.05 1

21 1.05n 1 1 x (shown)

21 1.05 n 1 1 x 12 x

Manipulate the inequality to solve for

21 1.05 n1

1 12 ( x 0 ) n.

12 11

1.05n1 1

21 7

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n 1 ln1.05 ln

11 When n is in the exponent, take ln on

both sides. Here, the sign of the

7

inequality of preserved when dividing

11

ln both sides by ln1.05 0 .

n 9.26 (3 s.f.)

7

ln1.05 Switch the sign when dividing both

least integer value of n 10 sides by ln x , where 0 x 1 .

At the beginning of the year, Xin Fu deposited $100,000 with a bank that pays 10% interest

per annum at the end of each year. After the interest is credited, he immediately withdraws

$12,000. Likewise, Xin Fu will again withdraw $12,000 at the end of each subsequent year,

immediately after the bank’s interest has been credited.

Express Xin Fu’s bank account balance in $ after his n th withdrawal in terms of n .

Solution Comments

Let u n be Xin Fu’s bank account balance in Define u n clearly, and specify the units ($).

$ after his n th withdrawal.

u2 1.1u1 12000 u 2 , u 3 , and observe a pattern for u n . Here,

1.12 100000 12000 1.1 1 “replace” 3 with n , 2 with n 1 , etc.

u3 1.1u2 12000 Do not simplify 1.12 , 1.13 etc., or the

1.13 100000 12000 1.12 1.1 1 pattern will be difficult to observe.

u n 1.1n 100000

12000 1.1n 1 1.1n 2 1

n

1 1.1n 1 Apply the formula for the sum of the first

n terms of a GP to simplify u n .

1.1 1

1.1n 100000 120000(1.1n 1) Count the number of terms carefully. Here,

(1.1n 1 1.1n 2 1) is a sum of powers

120000 20000 1.1n of 1.1 ranging from 0 to n 1 , so it has n

20000 6 1.1n terms (not n 1 ).

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Alternative methods

u n 1.1u n 1 12000

Now,

Use repeated substitution.

OR Use induction, especially if the result

to be proven: un 20000 6 1.1n is

already given.

& Induction.

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Summation

n

Definition: f r f m f m 1 f (n) , where m n .

r m

n n

o af r a f r

r m r m

n n n

o af r bg (r ) a f r b g r

r m r m r m

o Sum of AP: general term has the form a br .

o Sum of GP: general term has the form abr .

n

1

o r n n 1

r 1 2

n

1

o r 2 n n 1 2n 1

r 1 6

2

n

2

n

1 1

o r n 2 n 1 n n 1 r

3 2

r 1 4 2 r 1

Convert sums with r 1 to use those formulas above showing r starting from 1.

n n m 1

o f r f r f r

r m r 1 r 1

Use method of difference to find u r when consecutive terms cancel out. (Example 1)

Recurrence

For a sequence u1 , u 2

, ,a recurrence relation defines it recursively. Each term u n is

defined as a function of the preceding terms u1 , u 2 , , u n 1 .

AP can be expressed as u n u n 1 d , where the common difference d is a constant.

GP can be expressed as un run 1 , where the common difference r is a constant.

Mathematical Induction

“…”

When n 1 ,

L.H.S. …

R.H.S. …

L.H.S. R.H.S.

P1 is true.

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Step 2: Inductive step. Aim: Show that Pk 1 is true whenever Pk is true.

i.e. …

To prove Pk 1 is true,

i.e. …

Now, L.H.S. … R.H.S.

i.e. Pk 1 is true whenever Pk is true.

Since P1 is true, by Mathematical Induction, Pn is true for all n .

The assumption that Pk is true for some k is the induction hypothesis.

Make the necessary changes if the question specifies a base value of n other than 1.

Know where you’re going when performing the inductive step:

1. Convert L.H.S. of Pk 1 to involve L.H.S. of Pk .

2. Since we assume Pk is true, substitute L.H.S. of Pk with R.H.S. of Pk .

o The induction hypothesis must be used somewhere in the induction.

3. Convert the expression to R.H.S. of Pk 1 (proven).

2r

Express in partial fractions.

r 1 r 2 (r 3)

Hence, find the sum of the first n terms of the series

2 4 6

2 3 4 3 4 5 4 5 6

Find the sum to infinity of this series.

Solution Comments

2r A B C linear factors in the denominator (in MF15).

r 1 r 2 r 3 r 1 r 2 r 3 Substitute appropriate values of r to find

A, B, C .

for some constants A, B, C .

Check that the solution allows for cancelling

2 r A r 2 r 3 B r 1 r 3 out terms using method of difference in the

C r 1 ( r 2) later part: 1 4 3 0 .

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When r 1 , 2 2 A A 1

When r 2 , 4 B B 4

When r 3 , 6 2C C 3

2r

r 1 r 2 r 3

1 4 3

r 1 r 2 r 3

n

2r Observe that the terms of the given series are

Required sum

r 1 r 1 r 2 ( r 3)

2r

of the form , where

r 1 r 2 (r 3)

r 1, 2, .

n

1 4 3 If a sum cannot be found directly or you have

decomposed the term into partial fractions,

r 1 r 1 r 2 r 3

think of the method of difference.

1 4 3

2 3 4 Write out the lines where r 1, 2, 3at the top,

1 4 3

and r n 2, n 1, n at the bottom. Always

3 4 5

do this for the first 3 values and last 3 values

1 4 3

of r .

4 5 6

The terms should be in terms of n , not r .

Show the cancelling out of terms clearly,

1 4 3 leaving the fractions in their original form

n 1 n n 1 (do not simplify them).

1 4 3

n n 1 n 2

1 4 3

n 1 n 2 n 3

2 3 3 n2 n2 n3

1 1 3

2 n2 n3

1 4 3 The sum to infinity is the limit as n of

Sum to infinity 1

r 1 r 1 r 2 r 3 the sum to n terms. As n , 0

n 1 4 3 n2

lim 3

n

r 1 r 1 r 2 r 3 and 0 . Hence, the sum to infinity is

n3

1 1 3

lim

1

.

n 2 n2 n3 2

1

2

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Example 2 (Refer to first paragraph of Example 3 in Arithmetic & Geometric Progressions.)

(ii) Hence, find un in terms of n .

(iii) Prove your result in part (ii) for all n 1 by mathematical induction.

Solution Comments

(ii) u1 1.1 100000 12000 98000 Use repeated substitution. The recurrence

relation expresses un in terms of u n 1 . Use

un 1.1un 1 12000 the relation repeatedly to express un in

1.11.1un 2 12000 12000 terms of un 2 , un 3 etc.

Observe a pattern and express un in terms

1.12 1.1un 3 12000 12000 1.1 1 of u1 (which can be evaluated). Here, the

1.13 un 3 12000 1.12 1.1 1 general form for un is:

1.1k un k 12000(1.1k 1 1)

1.1n1 u1 12000 1.1n 2 1.1n 3 1 u n k u1 n k 1 k n 1 .

To express un in terms of u1 , substitute

k n 1 into the general form.

n 1

1 1.1n 1 1 (1.1n 2 1.1n 3 1) is a sum of powers

of 1.1 ranging from 0 to n 2 , so it has

1.1 1 n 1 terms (not n 2 ).

1.1n 1 98000 120000 1.1n 1 1

120000 22000 1.1n1

120000 20000 1.1 n

20000 6 1.1

n

“ u n 20000 6 1.1n ”.

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When n 1 ,

L.H.S. u1 98000 Show how the value 98000 is calculated.

R.H.S. 20000 6 1.11 98000

L.H.S. R.H.S.

P1 is true.

i.e. u k 20000 6 1.1k . Replace n by k in the statement of Pn .

To prove Pk 1 is true,

i.e. uk 1 20000 6 1.1k 1 , Replace n by k 1 in the statement of Pn .

u k 1 1.1u k 12000 , to convert L.H.S. of

Pk 1 to involve L.H.S. of Pk .

1.1 20000 6 1.1k 12000 Use the induction hypothesis that Pk is

(by induction hypothesis) true, i.e. u k 20000 6 1.1k , to substitute

132000 12000 20000 1.1k 1 L.H.S. of Pk with R.H.S. of Pk .

120000 20000 1.1k 1 Convert the expression to the R.H.S. of

20000 6 1.1k 1 Pk 1 . Manipulate the expression to be more

R.H.S. (proven) and more similar to R.H.S. of Pk 1 .

Induction, Pn is true for all n .

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Example 3 [N01/I/13b]

3 1! 7 2! 13 3! n 2 n 1 n ! n 1 n ! 1

2

Solution Comments

sum, for easier manipulation.

n

r 2 r 1 r !

r 1 n 2

n 1 n ! shows the general form.

Check that it works for the first 3 terms

given.

n

“ r 2 r 1 r ! n 1 n ! 1 ”.

2

r 1

When n 1 ,

L.H.S. 12 1 1 1! 3 Show how the value 3 is calculated.

R.H.S. 1 1 1! 1 3

2

L.H.S. R.H.S.

P1 is true.

k

Replace n by k in the statement of Pn .

i.e. r 2 r 1 r ! k 1 k ! 1.

2

r 1

To prove Pk 1 is true,

k 1

Replace n by k 1 in the statement of Pn .

r

r 1 r ! k 2 k 1! 1 ,

2 2

i.e.

r 1

k 1

Convert L.H.S. of Pk 1 to involve L.H.S. of

Now, L.H.S. r 2 r 1 r !

r 1 Pk .

k

r 2 r 1 r ! When L.H.S. of Pn involves a sum of n

r 1

terms, extract the ( k 1 )th term from the

k 1 k 1 1 k 1 !

2

k

r 2 r 1 r ! k 2 3k 3 k 1! obtain the sum of k terms in L.H.S. of Pk .

r 1

k 1 k ! 1 k 2 3k 3 k 1 !

2

Use the induction hypothesis that Pk is true

to substitute L.H.S. of Pk with R.H.S. of Pk .

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k 2 3k 3 [ k 1 !]

Manipulate the expression to be more and

more similar to R.H.S. of Pk 1 .

k 2

4 k 4 k 1 ! 1

k 2 k 1! 1

2

k 1 ! is the product of all positive integers

R.H.S. (proven) up to ( k 1 ), and k ! is the product up to k .

Hence:

i.e. Pk 1 is true whenever Pk is true. k 1! k 1 k !

k 1! k 1

Since P1 is true, by Mathematical Induction, k!

Pn is true for all n .

In general:

m ! m m 1 m 2 k 1 ( k !)

m!

m m 1 m 2 k 1

k!

where m k 0 .

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Differentiation

Basic Formulae

d du dv

u v

dx dx dx

d du dv

uv v u (Product Rule)

dx dx dx

du dv

u

v

d u dx dx (Quotient Rule)

dx v v 2

dy dy du

(Chain Rule)

dx du dx

NOT in MF15:

dy

y f x f ' x Range of validity/Comments

dx

d 1 1 d 1

xn nx n 1 Memorize 2 and dx x .

dx x x 2 x

ex ex

ax a x ln a

1

ln x x0

x

sin x cos x

cos x sin x

tan x sec 2 x

cot x cosec 2 x

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In MF15:

dy

y f x f ' x Range of validity/Comments

dx

secx sec x tan x

1

sin 1 x x 1

1 x2

1

cos 1 x x 1

1 x2

1

tan 1 x

1 x2

1 1

sin 1 x , while cosec x .

sin x sin x

1 1

cos 1 x , while sec x .

cos x cos x

1 1

tan 1 x , while cot x .

tan x tan x

Techniques of Differentiation

Let f x be any function and f ' x be its derivative given in the table above. To find

the derivative of f g x , use the Chain Rule with u g x and y f g x f (u ) :

(Example 1)

dy dy du

dx du dx

f g x f ' g x g ' x

d

dx

dy d

y f x , differentiating explicitly gives f x . However, if the equation cannot

dx dx

dy

be easily expressed as y f ( x ) , we can find by differentiating the equation term-by-

dx

term, with respect to x . (Example 2)

d d dy

g y g ( y)

dx dy dx

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Parametric differentiation: When a curve involving and is described by equations

of the form x f (t ) and y g (t ) , with t in some given range of values, each value of

the parameter t gives a point with coordinates ( x, y ) f (t ), g (t ) on the curve.

(Example 3)

dy dx dy

o Use the Chain Rule to find , after calculating and .

dx dt dt

dy dy dt dy dx

dx dt dx dt dt

Applications of Differentiation

a x b , f x is: Only if for all a x b : i.e. Gradient ( ) is:

dx

dy

Strictly increasing 0 Positive

dx

dy

Strictly decreasing 0 Negative

dx

d2y

Concave upwards 0 Increasing

dx2

d2y

Concave downwards 0 Decreasing

dx2

of it, then f x is concave Upwards. If it looks like an n ( ) or a part of it, then

f x is concave downwards.

dy

at a x value slightly less than and a x value slightly more than , and observe

dx

dy

whether these values of are positive or negative.

dx

d2 y dy d2y

o Use it when is difficult to find ( is difficult to differentiate) or 0.

dx2 dx dx2

dy

o In the following table, write the actual values of , , and at these

dx

values of x .

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x

dy

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

dx

Graph

Nature of

Maximum Minimum

stationary Stationary point of inflexion

turning point turning point

point

d2 y

at x and observe whether it is positive or negative.

dx2

d2 y

o In the following table, write the actual values of and at x .

dx2

d2 y

dx2 0 0 0

at x

Nature of

Maximum Minimum No conclusion

stationary

turning point turning point possible

point

A: Given the gradient m and a point on the line with coordinates x1 , y1 ,

y y1 m ( x x1 )

A: Given 2 points on the line with coordinates x1 , y1 and x2 , y2 ,

y2 y1

m

x2 x1

dy

m , where x

dx

dy

m 1 , where x

dx

since m1m2 1 , where m1 and m2 are the gradients of 2 perpendicular lines.

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Q: Find the axis intercepts of a curve.

A: x -intercepts: Let y 0 in the equation of the curve and solve for x .

y -intercepts: Let x 0 in the equation of the curve and solve for y .

Q: Find the value of x at which the tangent is horizontal (parallel to the x -axis).

A: dy

Let 0 and solve for x .

dx

Q: Find the value of x at which the tangent is vertical (parallel to the y -axis).

A: dx dy

Let 1 0 and solve for x .

dy dx

A:

d x2 x1 y2 y1

2 2

o Always show that a stationary point you have found is indeed a maximum point

(or minimum point), using either Derivative Test to determine its nature.

o Make sure that there is only 1 variable in the expression before differentiating the

expression with respect to that same variable.

Example 1

Solution Comments

x

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Let u x ln a , y e u . The details are unnecessary for actual working. Only write:

d x d x ln a dy

a e d x d x ln a

dx dx dx a e

dx dx

By the Chain Rule, e x ln a ln a

dy dy du a x ln a

dx du dx

d u d

e x ln a

du dx

e ln a

u

a x ln a

Example 2 [NJC06/Midyear]

dy

Find in terms of x and y .

dx

Solution Comments

cannot be easily expressed as y f x , use

Differentiating with respect to x , implicit differentiation.

3y2 x2 2 xy 6 x 2 0

dx dx d 3 d 3 dy dy

y y 3y2

dx dy dx dx

Using the Product Rule,

d d d

yx 2 x 2 y y x2

dx dx dx

dy

x2 2 xy

dx

3 y 2

x2 dy

dx

2 xy 6 x 2

0 Group the terms containing

dy

dx

by factoring

3 y 2

x2 dy

dx

2 xy 6 x 2

it out, then shift

dy

dx

to one side and factorize

dy 2 xy 6 x 2 2 x y 3x further.

dx 3y x

2 2

3 y2 x2

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Example 3 [SRJC08/Prelim/I/9i]

x e 2 t 2t and y e t , where 0 t 1 .

1

4

2

dy d y

Find and show that 0 for 0 t 1 .

dx dx2

Solution Comments

et

dt in terms of a parameter t , use parametric

dx 1 2t 1 1 differentiation.

e 2 (e 2t 1)

dt 4 2 2

dy dx

Find and first.

dt dt

dx dt dt

2et

2t

e 1

d 2 y d 2e t d 2 y d dy

dx 2 dx e 2t 1 dx 2 dx dx

2t expression involving t with respect to t .

dt e 1 dx

d et 1 dt

1

2 2t dx dx

dt e 1 dx

dt

dt

2

e2t 1 et et 2e2t 2

e 1

2 2t

e 2t

1

4

e 2 t 1 et

e 1

3

2 t

4et e 2t 1

e

3

2t

1

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For all t , 0 t 1 , Try to find an inequality satisfied by terms in

et 1 and e2t 1 . d2y d2y

to prove that 0 for 0 t 1 . Use

dx 2 dx2

the given range of values of t .

e2t 1 2 0 and

e2t 1 0 , Show that the factors in the numerator and

denominator of

et e 2 t 1

are all positive,

et e 2 t 1 0 (shown)

3

d2y e 2t 1

4

dx 2

e 2t 1 3

hence the whole fraction must be positive.

Example 4 [N1998/I/7]

A spherical balloon is being inflated and, at the instant when its radius is 3 m, its surface

area is increasing at the rate of 2 m2 s-1. Find the rate of increase, at the same instant, of

(ii) the volume.

4

[The formulae for the surface area and volume of a sphere are A 4 r 2 and V r 3 .]

3

Solution Comments

(i) Let A be the surface area of the balloon in Define all variables that will be used, with

m2 . their units.

Let r be the radius of the balloon in m.

dA Write down all given rates of change, and

2 any relations between the variables.

dt

A 4 r 2

When r 3 , dA

Substitute r 3 only in , and not in

dA dx

8 r 24

dr A 4 r 2 , since r is a variable which

takes a specific value of 3 in the question,

not a constant.

dr

Alternatively, find the expression for

dt

dr 1

first, , then substitute r 3 .

dt 4 r

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dr dr dA Identify what you need to find and what is

dr dA dA

dt dA dt given: given and . Connect

dA dA dt dt dr

1 them using the Chain Rule. You can think

dr dt

of the dA as being “cancelled out”.

1

2

24

1

12

1 dr

increasing at m s-1. answer. Do not write units in , since r

12 dt

and t are already in terms of m and s

respectively.

4

V r3

3

When r 3 ,

dV

4 r 2 36

dr

dV dV dr

36 2 72

dt dr dt

Hence, the volume is

increasing at 72 m3 s-1.

Example 5 [SRJC08/Prelim/I/6]

radius x that is inscribed in a sphere of fixed internal radius R .

area of the cylinder.

when the height of the cylinder is equal to its diameter.

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Solution Comments

section of the cylinder. Introducing right-

angled triangles is useful because it allows

R the use of Pythagoras’ Theorem and

trigonometric ratios.

2R h

R

2x

Let h be the height of the cylinder. Define all variables that will be used, and

are not already defined in the question.

2R h2 2 x

2 2

circumference height 2 rh 2 xh .

terms of R and x only, express h in terms

of R and x first.

A 2 xh

2 x 2 R 2 x 2

4 x R 2 x 2

A 2 16 2 x 2 R 2 x 2 (shown)

4 x R2 x2

dx dx A is to be maximized as x varies, so find

dA

2 x the appropriate derivative .

4 R 2 x 2 x dx

2 R x

2 2

x2 d 2

R 0.

4 R 2 x 2

Since R is a constant,

dx

R2 x2

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4

R 2

2 x2 Factorize

dA

by removing terms which

R2 x2 dx

dA you know are non-zero, such as constants

When 0,

and f x , f x , where f x 0 for

2

dx

R 2x 0

2 2

all x . e.g. x R here ( x R h 0 ),

so R 2 x 2 0 .

dA

is equated to 0 .

dx

x

2

dA

2 first let 0 , then solve for x .

R R dx

x or (rejected x 0 )

2 2

R

x

2

R R R dA

x point. Here, is difficult to differentiate,

2 2 2 dx

dA so use the First Derivative Test instead.

0 0 0

dx

Since there is only 1 value of x which

gives a stationary point, it must be the

R

Hence, x maximizes A . “maximum value” to be proven.

2

To carry out the test, choose some R 0 ,

e.g. R 1 .

When x , R 2x ,

2 for R in the equation h 2 R 2 x 2 .

h 2 R2 x2

2

2 2x x 2

2 x2

2x or 2x (rejected x 0 and h 0 )

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Integration

Basic Formulae

u v dx udx vdx

d

dx f x dx f x c Integration reverses differentiation.

d

f x dx f x

dx

Differentiation reverses integration.

f x dx F x c

then the definite integral of f x from a to b with respect to x is:

f x dx F x F b F a

b b

a a

Unless otherwise stated, the derivatives below hold for all x .

NOT in MF15:

f x f x dx f x f x dx

Range of

validity

xn1

xn n 1 cosx sin x

n 1

1

ln x sin x cos x

x

ex ex sec2 x tan x

x ax

a

ln a

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In MF15:

f x f x dx f x f x dx

Range of Range of

validity validity

1 1 x 1

tan 1 tan x ln sec x x

x a2

2

a a 2

1 x

sin 1 x a cot x ln sin x 0 x

a2 x2 a

1 1 xa

ln xa cosec x ln cosec x cotx 0 x

x a2

2

2a x a

1 1 ax 1

ln x a tan x ln sec x tan x x

a x2

2

2a a x 2

modulus around the expression within the logarithm, i.e. write ln g ( x) . This removes the

need to specify the range of validity.

Techniques of Integration

Let f x be any function and F x be its integral given in the table above. To find the

integral of f g x g ' x , where g x is a function of x , use the fact that by the

F g x f g x g ' x .

d

Chain Rule from differentiation,

dx

Hence,

f g x g ' x dx F g x c

Trigonometric Formulae: Used to integrate expressions with trigonometric functions.

tan2 x 1 sec2 x cos 2x cos2 x sin2 x

cot 2 x 1 cosec2 x 2cos2 x 1

1 2sin2 x

(and others)

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Partial Fractions: Used to integrate expressions with an algebraic fraction, which has a

denominator that can be factorized (or is already factorized). Splitting the fraction into

f ' x

partial fractions can help integrate it, since the partial fractions will be of the form .

f x

Partial fraction decomposition formulae are given in MF15.

dv du

u dx dx uv v dx dx

dv

Generally, choose u in the following order such that is easier to integrate:

dx

LIATE: Logarithmic, Inverse trigonometric, Algebraic, Trigonometric, Exponential.

dv

o To find f ( x ) dx when you can find xf '( x ) dx , let u 1 and f ( x) .

dx

o Use algebraic manipulation if f ( x ) dx becomes the only integral on both sides.

To find f ( x ) dx with the substitution x g u :

f x dx f g u du du

dx

f g u

x2 u2 dx

x1

f ( x ) dx

u1 du

du

where x 1 g u 1 and x 2 g u 2 .

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Applications of Integration

y

If f x 0 for all a x b , and R is the

y f ( x)

area between the curve and the x -axis from

x a to x b ,

sum of areas of n rectangles, as shown.

a 0 b x

of areas as n , i.e. the definite integral:

f x dx

b

If f x g x 0 for all a x b ,

y R y f ( x)

Area of R :

y g ( x)

f x g x dx

b

a

completely about the x -axis:

a 0 b x

f x g x dx

b 2 2

a

y If f y g y 0 for all a x b ,

a

Area of R :

0 x

f y g y dx

b

a

R

Volume of solid formed when R is revolved

b completely about the y -axis:

f y g y dy

b 2 2

a

x g ( y) x f ( y)

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If a function is defined in parametric form

y x f t , y g t as x f t , y g t , and y g t 0 for

R all a x b ,

Area of R :

dx

g t dt dt

q

a 0 b x where f p a and f q b .

y y f x

R components within the limits of integration,

split the area between the curve and the x -

axis into its positive and negative parts.

a x

0 c b If f x 0 for all a x c and

f x 0 for all c x b ,

Area of R :

f x dx f x dx

c b

a c

Or:

f x dx

b

y

R other within the limits of integration, split the

area between the 2 curves into where

f x g x and where g x f x .

f x g x 0 for all c x b ,

a 0 c b x

Area of R :

a g x f x dx c f x g x dx

c b

Or:

f x g ( x) dx

b

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R

yk Area of R : k b a

completely about the x -axis is a cylinder

with radius k , height b a , and volume:

a 0 b x

k 2 b a

Use the GC to check your answer, or find an integral if an exact answer is not required.

o [MATH] [9], then key in fnInt(<expression>, X , <lower limit>, <upper limit>)

x 2 dx , key in fnInt X 2 , X , 0,1 .

1

e.g. to find

0

Use the GC to sketch graphs of functions first before finding the areas or volumes

Θ,

required. For parametric functions, use [MODE] PAR and key in T using [ X , T , n ].

Example 1 [N08/I/5]

1

1

(i) Find the exact value of 0

3

1 9 x2

dx .

e

(ii) Find, in terms of n and e , 1

x n ln xdx , where n 1 .

Solution Comments

(i) 1

1 1 13 1 Recognize when the integral is of a form given

0

3

1 9 x2

dx

9 0 1

2

dx

in MF15, here 2

1 1

. Either extract to get

x2 x a 2

9

3

1

1 1 the x 2 term, as shown, or extract (since

3tan 3x 3

1

3

9 0

d

3x 3) to get:

1

tan 1 3 tan 1 0

3

dx

1 13 3

1

3 0 12 3x 2

dx

3 3

Then, apply the formula in MF15.

9

Check your answer using GC.

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(ii) dv Here, ln x is Logarithmic and x n is Algebraic,

Let u lnx , xn .

dx so by LIATE, choose u ln x . Write out u ,

du 1 x n1 dv du

Then , v . , , and v .

dx x n 1 dx dx

e

e x n 1 ln x e x

n

1

n

x ln xdx dx n is a constant, so treat it as a constant when

n 1 1 1 n 1 integrating.

e

x n 1 ln x 1 e n

n 1 1 n 1 1

x dx For definite integrals, remember to keep the

limits on every term (integrals and results of

e

x n 1 ln x x n 1

integrals).

n 1 n 1 1

2

Check your answer using GC by choosing some

e n 1 n , n 1 , e.g. n 2 .

e n 1 1

0

n 1 n 1 n 1

2 2

e n 1 e n 1 1

n 1 n 1 n 1 2

2

e n 1 n 1 e n 1 1

n 1

2

ne n 1 1

n 1

2

Example 2 [HCI08/Prelim/I/10]

x2

The diagram below shows the graphs of y and y x 4 , for x 0 . R is the region

2x2 1

bounded by the y -axis, both curves and y 1 .

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1

(i) By substituting y sin 2 , find the exact value of

2

1

y

04 1 2 y dy

1 1

(ii) Verify that the two curves intersect at the point , . Hence or otherwise find the

2 4

exact area of region R .

(iii) Find the volume of the solid generated when R is rotated through 2 radians about

the y -axis, giving your answer correct to 3 decimal places.

Solution Comments

(i) dy 1

2sin cos To find f ( y)dx with the substitution

d 2

y g , recall the general formula:

sin cos

When y 0 , sin 0 0 y2

f y dy

2 dy

f

y1 1 d

d

1 2

When y , sin where y1 g 1 and y2 g 2 .

4 2

2

or (rejected) For a definite integral, change 4 things from

2 4 the original integral:

1. Limits of integration.

2. The function to be integrated.

dy

3. Multiply by .

d

4. Integrate with respect to , not y .

sin

dy changes above at the same time. Simplify the

1

y

0

4

1 2 y

dy 4

0

2

1 sin 2

d

d

substituted integral.

1 2

sin

4 2 2 sin cos d

0 cos

1 4 sin

2 0 cos

sin cos d

1 4 2

2 0

sin d

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1 To integrate sin 2 x or cos 2 x , use the double-

2 2

1 cos 2 d

0

4

angle formula for cos 2x to convert them.

1 1 4 cos 2 x 1 2sin 2 x 2cos 2 x 1

sin 2

2 2 2 0 1

sin 2 x (1 cos 2 x)

2 1 2

0 0 1

4 4 2 cos2 x 1 cos 2 x

2

2( 2)

units2

16

When x ,

2 1 1

(NOT show) that at , , the curves

1 1

4

2 4

x

4

intersect. Hence, just show that the point lies

2 4

on both curves.

1

x2 2 1

If the question requires us to find all

2x 1

2

1 4 intersection points, you must use the equation

2 1

2 x2

Hence, the curves intersect x4 2 and solve for x .

2x 1

1 1

at the point , . (verified)

2 4

1

yx x y 4 4

x2

y

2 x2 1 R

2 yx 2 y x 2 0

1

2 y 1 x2 y

A

y 1

x

1 2 y 4

y 1 1

or (rejected x 0 )

1 2 y 2

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1

y 1

1 Look at the graph above to decide what to

Area of R 4 dy 1 y 4 dy 1

0 1 2 y 4 integrate. From y 0 to y , R is

4

y

bounded by the y -axis and x .

1 2 y

1

From y to y 1 , R is bounded by the y

4

1

-axis and x y . Hence, split the integral

4

respect to y , For each curve, express x in

terms of y , then integrate with the limits

from the y -axis.

1

4 5

y4 1

y

16 5 1

4

04 1 2 y dy , from part (i).

5

2 2 4 4 1 4

Alternative method

16 5 54

1

2 2 4 4 1 1 4 Let A be the region bounded by the axes,

x 1 and y 1 , as shown by the dotted

16 5 5 4 4

rectangle in the graph above. A is a rectangle

2 2 4 1 1

with area 1 .

16 5 5 14

4 Area of region R

2 2 4 1 Area of region A

Area of region outside R and inside A

16 5 5 2

1 x2 1

4 2 2 2 1 2 2 dx 1 x 4 dx

0 2x 1 2

5 16 8 10

4 2 9 2

2

units x2

5 16 40 Use long division on

2 x2 1

to get an

1

integral of the form 2 2 , then use MF15.

a x

to x . Each curve is already expressed as y in

terms of x , hence integrate with the limits

from the x -axis.

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(iii) Volume required Volume of revolution about y -axis is given

1 y 1

1

by x 2 dy . Again, split the integral into 2

4 dy 1 y 2 dy

1 2 y

0

4 regions, then express x 2 in terms of y for

1.984 units (3 d.p.)

3

each region.

“exact”, suggesting that you find the volume

directly using GC.

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Differential Equations

Below, DE denotes Differential Equation.

dy

f x

Integrate both sides with respect to x . y f x dx

dx

dy

f y Divide both sides by f y . 1 dy

1

dx

f y dx

f y dy x

You can imagine the dx ’s cancelling out:

1 dy 1

f y dx dx f y dy

dx

f x f ( x)dx

dx2

Say f ( x ) dx g x A , dy

g x A

where A is an arbitrary constant. dx

g ( x ) dx Ax

Say g ( x ) dx h x B , y h x B Ax

where B is an arbitrary constant.

general solution of this form.

Particular Solutions

1. Substitute the initial conditions into the general solution.

2. Find the value of the arbitrary constants.

3. Rewrite the general solution with the known values for the arbitrary constants.

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To draw a family of solution curves,

1. Substitute at least 3 distinct values for the arbitrary constant c .

Generally, ensure you include these 3 cases: c 0 , c 0 , and c 0 .

2. Draw the graphs using GC, indicating intercepts, asymptotes, turning points, etc.

dy

If a DE is given as f x, y and a substitution v g x, y is given to solve this DE,

dx

where f ( x, y ) and g x, y are functions of x and y , aim to express the DE in terms of v

and x only (without y ).

dy dv

1. Differentiate the given substitution with respect to x to get in terms of , v and x .

dx dx

dy dv

2. In the original DE, express y and in terms of , v and x .

dx dx

3. Convert the substituted DE into the form required or one of the 3 standard forms above.

4. Solve the DE.

5. Express v in terms of x and y , such that your final answer is in terms of y and x only.

Modelling

In modelling questions, focus on forming the DE correctly as a basis for your answer.

1. Define all variables that will be used, and are not already defined in the question.

dx dx

2. Identify the rate of change, say . Then the L.H.S. of the DE will be .

dt dt

3. Rate of change Rate of increase Rate of decrease,

where Rate of increase and Rate of decrease are both positive.

dx dx

If is proportional to something, e.g. x2t , then x2t . Write:

dt dt

dx

kx2t , where k is a positive constant.

dt

dx dx 1

If is inversely proportional to something, e.g. x2t , then 2 . Write:

dt dt x t

dx k

, where k is a positive constant.

dt x 2t

Look out for key phrases in the question such as “water flows out at a rate of …”, which

indicates a rate of decrease, or “is proportional to”, which indicates proportionality.

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Example 1 [N08/I/4]

(i) Find the general solution of the differential equation

dy 3x

2

dx x 1

(ii) Find the particular solution of the differential equation for which y 2 when x 0 .

(iii) What can you say about the gradient of every solution curve as x ?

(iv) Sketch, on a single diagram, the graph of the solution found in part (ii), together with

2 other members of the family of solution curves.

Solution Comments

(i) 3 2x dy

f x , so just

dy 3x

2 2 The DE is of the form

dx x 1 2 x 1 dx

3 2x integrate both sides. Remember the arbitrary

y 2 dx constant c .

2 x 1

3

ln( x2 1) c,

2

3 general solution.

c y ln( x2 1) 2. Find the value of the arbitrary constants.

2

3

2 ln1

2

2

y ln( x2 1) 2 known values for the arbitrary constants.

2

solution curve tends to 0 . dy 3x

2 , from the DE. As x ,

dx x 1

because the denominator x2 1 will “grow

dy

faster” than the numerator 3 x , 0.

dx

OR

3x

Use the GC to plot the graph of y .

x 1 2

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(iv) Choose 2 other solution curves which are

y ln x 2 1 2 , c 2

3

2 representative of all values of c . Since

y c 2 is a required curve, choose c 0 and

some c 0 , here c 2 .

2 solution curves.

0 When the general solution is of the form

y f x c , the solution curves are

x

2 translations of each other along the y -axis.

3

y ln( x 2 1) , c 0

2 The gradient is 0 at x 0 , since

3

y ln( x 2 1) 2 , c 2 dy 3x 0 . At some zoom levels on

2 dx x 2 1

the GC, e.g. ZStandard, the curve looks like

a “V” with sharp tangents at x 0 .

even though from part (iii), the gradient of

every solution curve tends to 0 as x .

dy

x2 2 xy 3 0

dx

du 3

4

dx x

Solution Comments

dy du

dy

dx

u 2x

dx

du 2

x respect to x to get

dx

in terms of

dx

, u

du and x .

2ux x 2

dx

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du

dy

x 2 2ux x 2 2 x ux 3 0

2

2. In the original DE, express y and in

dx dx

du du

x4 2ux3 2ux3 3 terms of , u and x .

dx dx

du 3 3. Convert the substituted DE into the form

4 (shown) required.

dx x

4

dx x

dy

3

u 4 dx 3x 4 dx The DE is of the form f x , so just

x dx

integrate both sides. Remember the arbitrary

x 3

3 c, constant c .

3

u c

x3 final answer is in terms of y and x only.

y

y ux 2 u

x2

y 1

2

3 c

x x

1

y cx 2

x

Example 3 [HCI08/Prelim/I/7]

A hospital patient is receiving a certain drug through a drip at a constant rate of 50 mg per

hour. The rate of loss of the drug from the patient’s body is proportional to x , where x (in

mg) is the amount of drug in the patient at time t (in hours). Form a differential equation

connecting x and t and show that

x

1

k

50 Ae kt ,

where A and k are constants.

1

Given that k ,

20

(i) Find the time needed for the amount of drug in the patient to reach 200 mg, if initially

there is no trace of this drug in the patient’s body.

(ii) When there is 80 mg of the drug in the patient’s body, the drip is disconnected.

Assuming that the rate of loss remains the same, find the time taken for the amount of

drug in the patient to fall from 80 mg to 20 mg.

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Solution Comments

50 kx, decrease is proportional to x , so write it as

dt

where k is a positive constant. kx , where k is a positive constant.

Rate of increase Rate of decrease

1 dx dy

1 The DE is of the form f y , so divide

50 kx dt dx

1 both sides by f ( y) , then integrate both

50 kx dx 1dt sides. Remember the arbitrary constant c .

1 k

dx 1dt

k 50 kx

ln 50 kx t c, arbitrary constant in 1 step.

k

where c is an arbitrary constant.

ln 50 kx kt kc

50 kx ekt kc

50 kx e kc e kt Ae kt , The modulus is eliminated by transferring it

to the arbitrary constant A e kc .

where A e kc is an arbitrary constant.

kx 50 Ae kt

1

x 50 Ae kt (shown)

k

(i)

t

1

x 20 50 Ae 20 Use the information given: k . Interpret

20

the question: “Initially” means t 0 , “no

When t 0 , x 0 ,

trace” means x 0 .

0 20 50 Ae 0

1. Substitute the initial conditions into the

general solution.

t

3. Rewrite the general solution with the

x 20 50 50e 20 known value for the arbitrary constant.

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When x 200 , Interpret the question: Find t when x 200 .

t

200 1000 1 e 20

t

1

1 e 20

5

t

4

e 20

5

t 4

ln

20 5

4

t 20 ln 4.46 hours (3 s.f.)

5

x is disconnected, hence the rate of increase is

dt 20

20 dx 0.

1

x dt

With the given value of k , rewrite the DE

1

20 dx 1dt and solve it.

x

arbitrary constant in 1 step.

where B is an arbitrary constant.

Remember the arbitrary constant, but since c

is already used, use another letter, say B .

B 20ln 80 mg of drug, so t 0 and x 80 . Find t

20ln x t 20ln80 when x 20 .

When x 20 ,

t 20ln80 20ln 20

20ln 4

27.7 hours (3 s.f.)

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Power Series

If a function f x can be expanded as a power series:

x2 x n ( n)

f ( x ) f (0) xf '(0) f ''(0) f (0) (In MF15)

2! n!

d n f ( x)

where f (n)

(0) is the n th derivative of f ( x) , i.e. , evaluated at x 0 .

dxn

The expression on the RHS is known as the Maclaurin’s series, a type of power series.

o 1 x for x 1 (This is the binomial expansion for rational index)

n

o ln(1 x ) for 1 x 1 (Note the range of valid x values)

xn n

f 0

n!

FAQ

necessary if the question states “By further differentiation of this result”).

d k f x

Find equations connecting all derivatives up to the k th derivative .

dx k

2. Evaluate f x and its derivatives at x 0 using the equations found. When x 0 ,

f ( x) f (0)

dy

f '(0)

dx

d2y d k f x

2

f '' 0 , etc. up to k

f k 0 .

dx dx

3. Substitute f (0) , f '(0) , f ''(0) etc. into the formula for Maclaurin’s series.

Write out each term in ascending powers of x , up to x k .

4. Check your answer by substitute a small value of x , e.g. x 0.01 into both the

original expression and the Maclaurin’s series.

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Small Angle Approximations

Using the Maclaurin’s series of sin x , cos x and tan x up to the term in x 2 ,

sin kx kx

(kx) 2

cos kx 1

2

tan kx kx

where k is a constant. The approximation is accurate when x is small, i.e. x is close to 0 .

To approximate e.g. sin x where x is small, do NOT write sin x x ,

4 4 4

since x is not small. Instead, use the addition formula for sin . Since x is small, the

4

approximations for sin x and cos x are valid.

sin x sin x cos cos x sin

4 4 4

2 x2 2

x 1

2 2 2

2 x2

1 x

2 2

Example 1 [HCI08/Promo/12]

d2y

1 x2 dx 2

dy

2x 2 y 2 0

dx

By repeated differentiation, show that the first two non-zero terms of the Maclaurin’s series

1

for y are x2 x4 .

3

x tan 1 x

Hence evaluate lim .

x 0

x3

Solution Comments

y x tan 1 x dy

Differentiate y to get .

dy x dx

tan 1 x

dx 1 x2

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2 2

x x

d2y

dx

d2y

1 x2

dx 2

, manipulate the equation to

1 x 2

dy

2 x 1 2 x tan 1 x 1

dy

2

dx dx contain 1 x 2 , then use implicit

2 dx

1 x2

dx

d y

2

dy

2 x 2 y 2 0 (proven)

dx

differentiation.

d3y d2y d2y Use the Product Rule and Chain Rule, and

1 x2 dx 3

2 x

dx 2

2 x

dx 2

dy

dx

dy

2 2 0

dx

remember:

d dy

3 2

y

1 x

2 d y

dx 3

d y

4x 2 0

dx

dx dx

d dy d 2 y

dx dx dx 2

d4y d3y d3y d2y

1 x2 dx 4

2 x

dx3

4 x

dx3

4

dx 2

0 d d2y d3y

, etc.

d4y d3y d2y dx dx 2 dx3

1 x

2

dx 4

6 x

dx3

4

dx 2

0

Since the question requires the series up to

x 4 , find equations connecting all

d4y

derivatives up to .

dx4

dy d2y d3y d4y using the equations found above.

y 0, 0, 2 2, 3 0, 4 8

dx dx dx dx

Substitute the resulting values into the

x

2

x4

y 0 0 x 2 0 x3 8 formula for Maclaurin’s series.

2! 4!

1

y x2 x4 (shown)

3

x tan 1 x . Substitute the series for

x3 x4

1 x tan 1 x which has been found into the

x 2 x 2 x 4 expression.

3

4

x

1 4

x

3

x4

x tan x 1

3 x 1 1

lim lim smaller faster than the x 4 term, thus the

x0

x3 x0 x4 3 3

1 4

x term dominates the numerator.

3

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Example 2 [NYJC08/Prelim/II/3 (Part)]

dy

A curve C is defined by the equation 2 y y 2 1 and (0, 2) is a point on C .

dx

d 3 y 57

(i) Show that at x 0 , .

dx3 256

Find the Maclaurin’s series of y up to and including the term in x 3 .

(ii) Hence find the series expansion of e y , up to and including the term in x 2 .

Solution Comments

2y y2 1

dx repeatedly. Since the question requires

d2y dy dy

2 the series up to x 3 , find equations

2y 2 2 2y d3 y

dx dx dx connecting all derivatives up to .

2 dx3

d 2 y dy dy

y 2 y

dx dx dx Since differentiation here is with respect

d y dy d y

3 2

dy d y

2

to x , by the Product Rule and Chain

y 2 2 2 Rule:

dx dx dx

3

dx dx

d 2 y dy

2

d dy

y y 2

2

d 2 y dy

y 2 dx dx dx dx

dx dx

dy d y

2

d3y 2

d 2 y dy Evaluate y and its derivatives at x 0 ,

y 3 3 2 y 2

dx dx dx dx dx using the equations found above.

When x 0 ,

dy 3

y 2,

dx 4

2

d2y 3 3 d 2 y 15

4 2 4

dx 2 4 4 dx 2 32

2

d3y 3 15 15 3

2 3 3 2

dx 4 32 32 4

d 3 y 57

(shown)

dx3 256

y 2 x formula for Maclaurin’s series.

4 32 2! 256 3!

3 15 19 3

y 2 x x2 x

4 64 512

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(ii) 3 15

2 x x 2 3 x 15 x2 Substitute the series for y which has

ey e 4 64

e 2 e 4 64

been found into the expression. e 2 must

be extracted. Otherwise,

3 15 2 1 3 15 2

2

e 1 x

2

x x x

4 64 2! 4 64 1 2 1 3

ey 1 y y y

3 2! 3!

15 2 1 3 2

2

e 2 1 x x x

4 64 24 will have infinitely many constant terms,

3 15 since each y contains a 2 . Hence, this

e2 e2 x e2 x2 series cannot be simplified.

4 64

Example 3 [YJC08/Prelim/I/4iii]

d 2 y dy

(i) Prove that 2

1 2ex y .

dx dx

(ii) Find Maclaurin’s series for y in ascending powers of x , up to and including the term

in x 3 .

sec2 e x 1

(iii) Deduce the first three terms of the Maclaurin’s series for .

ex

From part (i):

dy

dx

e x sec2 e x 1

1 1

From part (ii): y x x 2 x 3

2 2

Solution Comments

(iii) dy dy

e x sec2 e x 1 looks similar to . To obtain the series

dx dx ex

d 1 1 dy

x x 2 x3 of , differentiate both sides of

dx 2 2 dx

3 2 1 1

1 x x y x x2 x3

2 2 2

sec2 e x 1 sec2 (e x 1)

x

e sec e 1

2

x

ex

Since

e x

has an e x term, substitute x with

3 –x .

1 x x

2

2

Questions on binomial expansion or power series

3

1 x x 2 commonly include differentiation and integration

2 concepts.

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Binomial Expansion

Binomial Expansion for Rational Index

n n 1 2 n n 1 n r 1 r

1 x

n

1 nx x x (In MF15)

2! r!

where is either a non-integer rational number or a negative integer, and x 1 .

Use the GC to check your answer by substituting some within the range of validity. The

actual value and the value given by the expansion should be approximately equal.

1 x 1 x x 2 x 3 x r

1

1 x 1 x x 2 x 3 1 x r

1 r

1 x 1 2 x 3 x 2 4 x 3 r 1 x r

2

FAQ

Q1: Expand a bx c n in ascending powers of x up to the term in x k ,

n

bx c

a bx

c n

a 1

n

a

2. Use the binomial expansion for rational index, including only terms up to x k .

Use the above “shortcut” expansions if possible to save time.

Write out the entire expression before simplifying to reduce careless mistakes.

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Q2: State the range of values of x for which the expansion of a bx c n is valid.

A2: 1. Look at the expression immediately before the binomial expansion was used.

It should be of the form [1 f ( x )]n .

2. For the expansion of [1 f ( x )]n ,

the range of validity is f ( x ) 1 , i.e.

1 f ( x ) 1

3. Simplify the inequality to give a range of values of x.

A3: 1. Express the expression as a product (or sum) of terms of the form a bx c ,

n

2. For each factor, follow the 3 steps in Answer (1) above.

3. Multiply (or add) the expansions for each term together.

4. Discard any terms which have a power of x greater than k.

Q4: State the range of values of x for which the expansion of an expression is valid.

A4: 1. Using Answer (2) above, find the range of values of x for which the expansion of

each term of the form a bx c is valid.

n

2. The set of values of x for which the entire expression is valid is then the

intersection of the sets of values of x for each term.

Q5: Expand a bx c n in descending powers of x up to the term in x k .

Extract bx c instead of a n to convert each factor such that it contains 1 as a term.

n

n

a

a bx bx

c n c n

1 bx c

Q6: Find the r th term (or its coefficient) in the expansion of an expression.

th

n n 1 n r 1 r

x

r!

where a and b are constants.

A7: 1. Ensure a is within the range of values of x such that the expansion is valid.

2. Substitute x a into both the original expression and the expansion.

3. Manipulate the equation to obtain an approximation for b .

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(i) Express

1 x 2x2

f ( x)

2 x 1 x 2

in partial fractions.

(ii) Expand f ( x) in ascending powers of x, up to and including the term in x 2 .

(iii) Find the set of values of x for which the expansion is valid.

(iv) Deduce the equation of the tangent to the curve y f ( x) at the point where x 0 .

Solution Comments

1 x 1 for a non-repeated quadratic factor in the

f ( x)

1 x 2

2 x denominator (in MF15).

f ( x ) 1 x 1 x 2 2 x

1 1

(ii) Express f ( x) as a sum of terms of the

form a bx c .

n

x

1 x 1 x 2 21 1

1

1. Extract a n to convert the expression

2

1

such that it contains as a term.

1 x

1 x 1 x

2 1

1

2 2

rational index, including only terms

1 1

2

1 up to x 2 .

1 x x

2 2 2

Use the “shortcut” expansions of

1 x and 1 x to save time.

1 1

1 1 1

x x 2 ...

2 4 8

1 1 1

1 x 2 x x x 2 Ignore x x 2 x 3 when simplifying,

2 4 8 since the expansion should be up to x 2 .

x x2 expansion (after any expansion in any

2 4 8

step).

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(iii) 1 Immediately before the binomial

x 1 and x 2 1 expansion was used, the expressions were

2

1

1

x 2 and x 1 and 1 x 2 .

1

1 x

2 x 2 and 1 x 1 2

For the expansion to be valid, For the entire expansion to be valid, both

binomial expansions involved must be

Set of values of x {x : 1 x 1}

1

valid, i.e. x 1 and x 2 1 .

2

values, and give the final answer in set

notation, since the question specified “set

of values”.

notation i.e. 1,1 .

y x x 2 dy

2 4 8 when x 0 . To find the point of

dy 3 9 dx

x tangency, find y when x 0 .

dx 4 4

1 dy 3

When x 0 , y and . A straight line with gradient m and

2 dx 4

Equation of required tangent: passing through a point with coordinates

1 3 x1 , y1 has equation:

y x 0 y y1 m ( x x1 )

2 4

3 1

y x Questions on binomial expansion or

4 2

power series commonly include

differentiation and integration concepts.

Example 2 [HCI08/Prelim/I/6]

1 x

n

2

Expand in ascending powers of x up to and including the term in x .

1 x

State the set of values of x for which the series expansion is valid.

19 p

Hence find an approximation to the fourth root of , in the form , where p and q are

21 q

positive integers.

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Solution Comments

1 x

n

Express f x as a product of terms of

1 x 1 x

n n

1 x the form a bx c .

n

1 n x x

2

index, including only terms up to x 2 .

2!

1 n x

n n 1 x 2 Write out the entire expression before

2! simplifying to reduce careless mistakes.

n n 1 2

1 nx x

2

n n 1 2

1 nx x

2

1 nx x2 nx n2 x2 x2 n n 1 2

2 2 multiply it with 1, nx , and x

1 2nx 2n2 x 2 2

in the second bracket in turn. Do the

same with the other 2 terms in the first

bracket.

have a power more than 2, since the

expansion should be up to x 2 .

expansion was used, the expressions

Set of values of x {x : 1 x 1}

were 1 x and 1 x .

n n

binomial expansions involved must be

valid, i.e. – x 1 and x 1 , but both

inequalities are equivalent to x 1 .

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1 1 1 19 1

Let x and n . n , since raised to the power

20 4 4 21 4

1 19

Since x 1 , the expansion is valid. is the fourth root of . It remains to

20 21

1 make

1 4 19 1 x

1

1 x 20

n

,

21 1 x

1 x 1 1 with x 1 for the expansion to be valid.

20

1

20 1 4 1

Solve for x directly to get x .

20 1 20

19

4 OR

21

19

Try to write in a similar form as

21

1 x 20 1

. You may come up with ,

1 x 20 1

which suggests dividing both top and

bottom by 20 to get

1

1

20

1

1

20

1

Hence, x .

20

2

1 1 1 1

2 1

1 2 2 Substitute x back into the

4 20 4 20 20

expansion. Since only the first few terms

3121

, where p 3121 and q 3200 . are taken, write “ ” instead of “ ”

3200 where the approximation occurs.

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Vectors

When representing vectors as single letters, write a squiggle underneath: a .

Basic Formulae

Distance between a1 b1

2 points

If 2 points have position vectors a a2 and b b2 , then:

a b

3 3

AB a1 b1 a2 b2 a3 b3

2 2 2

Unit vector A unit vector is a vector with modulus 1, usually used to specify

direction. The unit vector â of a vector a is given by:

a

aˆ

a

OA OB

OP

OA OB

In particular, if P is the midpoint of AB , then OP .

2

Angle, , between: a b

2 vectors a and b : cos 1

a b

2 lines

b1 b 2

l1 : r a 1 b 1 , cos 1

l2 : r a 2 b 2 : b1 b 2

2 planes

n1 n 2

1 : r n 1 p1 , cos 1

2 : r n 2 p2 : n1 n 2

a line l : r a b and b n

sin 1

a plane : r n p : b n

angles, 1 acute and 1 obtuse. The modulus around the dot product in

finds the acute angle.

modulus around the dot product.

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Equations of Lines & Planes

r a b , x a1 y a2 z a3

b1 b2 b3

Make the subject for each

of the 3 equations, then

combine them to get the a1 b1

Cartesian form. Use a a2 and b b2 to get vector form.

a b

3 3

Plane Vector Cartesian Scalar Product

r a b c , , n1 x n2 y n3 z p r n an p

Use b c n to find a normal Set special conditions, e.g. Expand the dot product

to the plane, then a n p to x y 0 to find 3 points to get the Cartesian

get the scalar product form. equation.

A , P , Q on the plane.

The vector form is then

r OA AP AQ .

Output Scalar Vector perpendicular to both a and

b

Formula a b a b cos , where is the Magnitude: a b sin

angle between a and b . Direction: Right-Hand Grip Rule

Calculation a1 b1 a1 b1 a2b3 a3b2

a2 b2 a1b1 a2b2 a3b3 a2 b2 a3b1 a1b3

a b a b a b a b

3 3 3 3 1 2 2 1

a a a

2

A you know the vectors a and b . You can then find the lengths AC

and BC .

Let A .

b a

Length AC Length BC

Length of projection Perpendicular distance

of AB onto b from B to b

c B

C AB cos AB sin

a bˆ a bˆ

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Let the points A and B have position vectors a

A C and b respectively. Let C be the point such that

OACB is a parallelogram.

a

1

Area of triangle OAB ab

2

O b B

Area of parallelogram OACB a b

P From P to l :

Since F lies on l , f a b for some .

Since PF and l are perpendicular, f p b 0 .

a b p b 0

Solve for to find f .

F A l : r a b

Perpendicular distance, PF PF :

Say a point P has position vector

p , and a line l has equation Use any of these 3 methods.

r a b , as shown. Say point A 1. Find f as above.

lies on l . PF f p

2. Find AP and AF .

By Pythagoras’ Theorem, PF AP2 AF 2 .

3. PF AP b

P From P to :

Since PF is perpendicular to , PF is parallel

to n . Also, since P lies on PF :

l PF : r p n , .

Since F lies on l PF , f p n for some .

F A Since F lies on , f n p

: r n p p n n p

Solve for to find f .

Say a point P has position vector p , Perpendicular distance, PF PF :

and a plane has equation r n p ,

as shown. Say point A lies on . PF AP n

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SLE denotes system of linear equations. Use PlySmlt2 on the GC to solve SLEs.

2 Vectors, a and b

Perpendicular: ab 0

The SLE given by a1 b 1 a 2 b 2 has a unique real

solution for and .

OP a1 0b1 (or a 2 0b 2 ).

The SLE given by a1 b 1 a 2 b 2 has no real solution

for and .

3 Points, A , B , C

Collinear AB , AC , BC are all parallel.

(on the same line): You may pick any 2 and show that they are parallel (see above).

q1

Point, Q , with position vector q q2

q

3

for .

solution for and .

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Line & Plane, l : r a b and : r n p

l lies on : b n 0 AND a n p

l is parallel to , b n 0 AND a n p

but does not lie on :

the solution is 0 ,

OP a 0b

n1 m1

2 Planes, 1 : r n p and 2 :r m q , where n n2 and m m2

n m

3 3

Cartesian equations to obtain the SLE:

n1 x n2 y n3 z p

m1 x m2 y m3 z q

x1 a1 b1 x3

x2 a2 b2 x3

x3 x3

a 2 , b1 , b2 are constants,

a1 b1

l a2 b2 ,

0 1

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3 Planes

at any common point or line:

x0 , y 0 , z 0 ,

x

0

OP y0

z

0

intersect along a line.

Example 1 [TJC06/Prelim/I/14]

6

x8 5 y

The lines l1 and l 2 have equations z 1 and r 4 respectively, where

2 2 1

.

Find

(ii) the position vector of the foot of the perpendicular, N , from the origin to l1 .

(iii) the point of intersection of l1 and l 2 .

Solution Comments

Let z 1. vector equations, which are usually much

2 2

more useful.

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x 8 2 Express x , y , z in terms of .

Then: y 5 2

z 1

8 2

l1 : r 5 2 ,

1 1

z -axis: r 0 , do not, and the z -axis passes through the

1 origin, explaining its vector equation.

Let be the acute angle between l1 and For the acute angle between 2 lines, use:

the z -axis.

2 0 b b

cos 1 1 2

2 0 b1 b 2

1 1

cos 1 70.5 (1 d.p.) Since we are finding the acute angle, place

2 0 a modulus around the dot product.

2 0

1 1

ON 5 2 , for some .

1

2 8 2 2 (Since ON is perpendicular to l1 )

ON 2 5 2 2 0

1 1 1

3

ON 5 2 3 1 ON .

1 3 2

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(iii) Let P be the point of intersection

between l1 and l 2 .

8 2 6

Then OP 5 2 4 ,

1

for some , .

that LHS has and in that order, and

2 4 5

1 RHS has a constant.

From the GC, 0.5 , 1.5 . Then, solve using PlySmlt2 on the GC.

the coordinates of the required point

OP 4 1.5 6

instead of its position vector.

1.5 1.5

Hence, P is 9,6, 1.5 .

O question, and label the points clearly.

from previous parts. With reference to the

diagram, part (ii) gives ON and part (iii)

P N l1

gives OP .

A

l3

4 can find 2 points which lie on l3 . 1 point is

OA 2ON 2 P , and part (ii) gives OP .

4

From the diagram, we can use ON from

4 9 5

part (ii) to find the position vector of A ,

PA 2 6 8 another point on l3 , since ON AN .

4 1.5 5.5

Now PA is a direction vector of l3 .

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1 l : r a b , choose the simplest vector

PA 16

2 for a (here, choose OA over OP ) and

11 leave b in the simplest integer form. This

4 10 makes your working easier in any later

l3 : r 2 16 , parts.

4 11

Example 2 [N08/I/11]

2 x 5 y 3z 3

3x 2 y 5z 5

5x y 17 z

respectively, where and are constants. When 20.9 and 16.6 , find the

coordinates of the point at which these planes meet.

(ii) Given that all three planes meet in the line l , find and .

(iii) Given instead that the three planes have no point in common, what can be said about

the values of and ?

(iv) Find the Cartesian equation of the plane which contains l and the point 1, 1,3 .

Solution Comments

2 x 5 y 3z 3

Use the Cartesian equations of the 3 planes

3 x 2 y 5 z 5 to obtain a SLE with 3 equations in 3

5 x 20.9 y 17 z 16.6

variables: x , y , z .

From the GC, Solve it using GC, then the unique solution

4 4 7 for x , y , z gives the coordinates of the

x , y , z

11 11 11 point of intersection.

Coordinates of the point at which p1 , p2 Give the coordinates of the point, not its

and p 3 meet: position vector.

4 4 7

, ,

11 11 11

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(i) 2 x 5 y 3z 3 Use the Cartesian equations of the 2 planes

to obtain a SLE with 2 equations in 3

3x 2 y 5z 5 variables: x , y , z .

From the GC,

x 1 Solve it using GC. If the GC gives the

y 1 , where . solutions for x and y in terms of z , the 2

z planes intersect along a line.

Write z as a parameter, say , to get the

1 1 vector equation of the line.

l : r 1 1 ,

0 1

p3 : r with equation found in part (i). If all 3

17 planes intersect in l , l must lie on p3 .

The method shown here uses the fact that

Since l lies on p3 , every point which

for each value of ,

lies on l also lies on p3 . 1 1

1 1 5

s 1 1

0 1

1 1 , for all .

0 1 17

gives the position vector of a point on l .

5 5 0 17

22 5

Since the above equation is true for all Consider 22 5 to have

, comparing coefficients,

as variable, with and constant. Since

22 0

every point on l lies on p3 , every value of

5 fulfils the equation.

22

5 17

22 , 17

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(iii) p1 , p2 and p 3 have no point in common p1 and p2 already intersect in the line l .

if and only if l is parallel to p3 and l

does not intersect p3 . Case 1: l is not parallel to p3 , then l and

p3 will intersect. This intersection point

will be a point in common to p1 , p2 and

p3 .

will be a point in common to p1 , p2 and

p3 .

intersect p3 , then since p1 and p2 only

intersect in l , p1 , p2 and p 3 have no point

in common.

1 5 direction vector of l is perpendicular to the

normal to p3 , i.e. their dot product is 0.

1 0

1 17

5 17 0

22

l intersects p3 if and only if: on l or no point on l lies on p3 . Hence, it

1 5 is enough to check if a point on l lies on

p3 .

1

0 17

5

must be true. parallel to p3 and l does not intersect p3 .

22 and 17

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(iv) Let be the required plane. To get the scalar product equation of the

1 1 2 plane in the form r n p ,

1 1 0 1. Find the normal n by taking the cross

0 3 3

product of 2 vectors which lie on the

1 2 3 plane.

1 0 1 Since l lies on , the direction vector

1 3 2

of l also lies on . Use a point which

lies on l and the given point 1, 1,3

to find another vector which lies on .

using

p4 : r 1 1 1 2

2 3 2

r n an p

where a is the position vector of any

point on .

equation of , as required.

y 1 2

z 2

Cartesian equation of :

3x y 2 z 2

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Complex Numbers

z a bi

Z a, b consists of a real part a and an imaginary

b

part bi , where a, b and i 1 .

represented geometrically as a point on the

arg z complex plane.

the real axis, and the vertical axis is the

imaginary axis.

On an Argand diagram, let Z and Z * be the points representing z and z* respectively.

o Re z a

o Im z b (not bi )

o Re z is the x -coordinate of Z

o Im z is the y -coordinate of Z

Modulus, z

o z a2 b2

o Distance of Z from the origin (length of OZ )

Argument, arg z Im

arg z A arg z A

o Angle that OZ makes with the positive

real axis, in an anticlockwise sense

o arg z

o arg 0 is undefined A A

b A 0 A Re

o Calculate the basic angle, A tan 1

a

o Draw the Argand diagram: arg z

depends on both A and the quadrant arg z A arg z A

which the point Z is in.

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Conjugate, z * a bi

o Re z * Re z

o Im z * Im z

o z* z

o arg z * arg z

zz * z

2

o

o z z* 2 Re z

o z z* 2i Im z

o The conjugate distributes over addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division:

*

z z*

zw z w , * , z w z * w* , z w z * w*

* * * * *

w w

o To simplify a fraction with a complex number in its denominator, multiply both

numerator and denominator by the complex conjugate of the denominator.

o Z is Z * reflected about the x -axis.

Cartesian form

o z a bi

o Useful for addition and subtraction of complex numbers

o z r cos i sin

o Convert from polar to Cartesian or exponential forms, which are more useful.

Exponential form

o z re i

o Useful for multiplication, division and exponentiation of complex numbers

o z r

o arg z

o z* rei r cos i sin

o Cartesian to Polar or Exponential: r z , arg z

o Polar or Exponential to Cartesian: a r cos , b r sin

o Between Polar and Exponential: Use the same r and

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Operations on Complex Numbers

i1

Let z1 a1 b1i re

1 and z2 a2 b2i r2ei2 .

On an Argand diagram, let Z 1 and Z 2 be the points representing z1 and z2 respectively.

Im

A

Z1

Z2

0 Re

o z1 z2 a1 a2 b1 b2 i

o z1 z2 a1 a2 b1 b2 i

o Complex numbers can be represented as vectors on an Argand diagram. Hence,

addition and subtraction of complex numbers can be represented as addition and

subtraction of vectors.

o OZ1 OZ 2 OA , the position vector of the point representing z1 z 2 .

o OZ1 OZ 2 OB , the position vector of the point representing z1 z 2 .

o z1 z2 z1 z2 r1r2

z1 z r

o 1 1

z2 z2 r2

o arg z1 z2 arg z1 arg z2 1 2

z

o arg 1 arg z1 arg z2 1 2

z2

o Starting from O Z 1 ,

An anticlockwise pivot by 2 radians about the origin and scaling by a

factor of r2 gives the position vector of the point representing z1 z 2 .

A clockwise pivot by 2 radians about the origin and scaling by a factor of

z

r2 gives the position vector of the point representing 1 .

z2

An anticlockwise pivot by radians about the origin gives the position

vector of the point representing z1ei . In particular, when , the

2

position vector of the point representing iz1 is given.

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Complex Roots of Polynomial Equations

Non-real complex roots of a polynomial equation with real coefficients occur in conjugate

pairs. If is a root of a polynomial equation with real coefficients, then * is also a root of

the equation.

coefficients and z 2 3i is a root, z * 2 3i is also a root. Equivalently,

since z 2 3i is a factor of the polynomial, z 2 3i is also a factor.

De Moivre’s Theorem

z n r n ei n r n cos n i sin n

Z is a variable point which can move, while A and B are fixed points.

arg z a is the angle made by the vector AZ with the positive real axis.

Im za r za r

What it means:

r A The distance between Z and A is a constant, r

Locus of Z :

0 Re A circle with centre A and radius r

za r

Im za r

The distance between Z and A is less than r .

Locus of Z :

r

The area inside the circle with centre A and radius r .

za r

0 Re The distance between Z and A is more than r .

Locus of Z :

The area outside the circle with centre A and radius r .

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Im z a z b za zb

A What it means:

Z is an equal distance from each of A and B

B

Locus of Z :

The perpendicular bisector of

0 Re the line joining A and B

Im z a z b za zb

Z is closer to A than it is to B .

A

za zb

Z is closer to B than it is to A .

B

Locus of Z in each case:

0 Re z a z b separates the plane into 2 areas:

z a z b is the area containing A .

z a z b is the area containing B .

Im arg z a arg z a

The angle made by AZ with the positive real axis is a

A constant,

0 Re

Locus of Z :

The half-line starting at (but not including) A and

making an angle with the positive real axis

Im 1 arg z a 2 1 arg z a 2

The angle made by AZ with the positive real axis is

between 1 and 2 .

2 Locus of Z :

A 1

The area bounded from the locus arg z a 1 ,

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FAQ

where z and w are complex numbers, is a constant, and n is a positive integer.

z rei

n

2. Introduce 2k to .

z re 2 k i , where k .

n

1

3. Raise both sides to the power of .

n

1 1

z r n e 2k i n

4. By De Moivre’s Theorem,

1 2 k

i

z r e n n

5. Solve for z .

1 2 k

i

z r e n n

However, if the roots must be given in the form rei with , substitute

values of k to check if is in the required range. There will be n consecutive

integer values of k .

Example [PJC07/Prelim/I/1]

iw z 1 i ----- (A)

40

2 z 1 i w ----- (B)

6 2i

giving each answer in the form a bi , where a and b are real.

A: Method 1

1. Multiply (A) by 2 such that the coefficient of z in (A) and (B) are both 2.

2. Use (A) (B) to eliminate the 2 z term from both equations.

3. Solve for w , then solve for z .

Method 2

1. Using (A), express z in terms of w : z 1 i iw .

2. Substitute z in (B) with the expression in terms of w .

3. Solve for w , then solve for z .

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Q: Find the complex (real and non-real) roots of a polynomial equation.

the coefficient of z n is k , the equation can be expressed as a product of k and n

linear factors of the form z .

Given that is a non-real complex root of the equation, * is also a root.

2. Using any given roots or factors, long division or comparing coefficients, express

the polynomial as a product of its factors.

4. When the equation is in this form with n linear factors of the form z :

k z 1 z 2 z n 0

then 1 , 2 , , n are the n (possibly repeated) roots of the equation.

A: Draw all circles, lengths and angles accurately and to scale using a compass, ruler

and protractor. Ensure the real and imaginary axes are to the same scale.

For loci of the form arg z a , draw a small circle at the point representing a

to show that it is excluded, since arg a a arg 0 is undefined.

For strict inequalities, draw the loci of the equality cases as dashed to show that

they are excluded, e.g. for z a r , draw the locus z a r as a dashed circle.

Label all loci with their equations, and label required regions/sets of points.

OR Find the points of intersection of the loci of points representing z and w ,

where z and w are variable while a is fixed.

A: Interpret what expressions mean geometrically on the Argand diagram, rather than

interpret them algebraically. e.g. minimum value of z w is the minimum distance

between any point on the locus of points representing z and any point on the locus

of points representing w .

As a last resort for finding points of intersection, find the Cartesian equations of the

lines or circles and solve the equations simultaneously.

Find lengths using the formula for the distance between 2 points.

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Find right-angled triangles to use trigonometric ratios.

represented by the point A outside the circle,

o Draw a line from point A through the centre of the circle. The line and

circle will have 2 points of intersection. Use the distance from A to these 2

points to find the min./max. values of z a .

Example 1 [SRJC08/Prelim/II/3]

1 ei

(i) Show that i

can be reduced to i cot .

1 e 2

1

(ii) Find all the roots of the equation z

8

1 i , giving each root in the form rei

2

where r 0 and .

w 1

8

1

(iii) Hence deduce all the roots of 1 i .

w 1 2

Solution Comments

(i)

i

i

1 ei e 2 e 2 “Factoring out ” is a common theme in

2

1 ei i

i Complex Numbers proving questions.

e 2

e 2

2 i

2 Re e Here, it takes the form of factoring out e

i

2

i

2i Im e 2

The aim is to create expressions of the form

z z* or z z* , which can be written as Re z

2cos or 2i Im z respectively.

2

2i sin

2

cos cos

cos

2 sin sin

i sin

2

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1 1 i i

2 i

cot

i 2 i i 1

i cot

2

(ii) 1

z

8 1 i

1 i e 4 1. Convert 1 i to exponential form.

2 2

8 k 1

i

e 4

2 k i

e 4

, where k . 2. Introduce 2k to .

4

By De Moivre’s Theorem, 1

8 k 1

3. Raise both sides to the power of , and

i 8

ze 32

, 4. Use De Moivre’s Theorem.

5. Write out the possible values of k . Since

the question requires , there will

be exactly 8 consecutive integer values of k

which will give in the required range.

values are valid.

(iii) w 1 1

8

1 i

w 1 2

8k 1

Let .

32

w 1 w 1

z ei Since corresponds with z in part (ii),

w 1 w 1

zw z w 1 equate the two. To deduce the roots of the

1 z w 1 z equation in w , express w in terms of z .

1 z 1 ei

w

1 z 1 ei

w i cot i cot , values of k are for the roots of the equation in

2 64 z from part (ii).

where k 3, 2, 1, 0,1 , 2,43,

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Example 2 [AJC08/Prelim/I/6]

Hence find the roots of the equation w3 1 3i w2 3i 2 w 2 0 .

Solution Comments

Let z 3 1 3i z 2 2 3i z 2 Let P z z 3 1 3i z 2 2 3i z 2 .

z i z 2 az b ,

for some complex numbers a and b . Not all of the coefficients of P z are real.

Hence, though i is a root, i i may not be

*

z 3 1 3i z 2 2 3i z 2 a root.

z 3 az 2 bz iz 2 aiz bi

z 3 a i z 2 b ai z bi After P z (degree 3) is divided by z i

(degree 2), it should leave a quadratic factor

Comparing coefficients, (degree 2). Expand z i z 2 az b and

1 3i a i a 1 2i compare the coefficients.

2

2 bi b 2i

i Do NOT write P z in terms of linear factors

z az b z 1 2i z 2i

2 2

first: z i z a z b , since it will be

difficult to compare coefficients.

Alternative method

P z is divided by z i .

the quadratic factor.

1 2i 4 1 (2i)

2

(1 2i)

z Use the GC to perform calculations with

2(1)

complex numbers, including square roots, to

2i 1 3 4i avoid careless mistakes.

2

2i or 1

Hence, the other roots are 2i and 1 .

z 3 1 3i z 2 2 3i z 2 0*

*

the conjugates of the coefficients of z in P z .

Hence, convert the coefficients of z in P z to

their conjugates.

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* * * * *

3 2 *

*

3 2

* * *

z z z z

3 *

z* z* z* z*

* 3

w3 1 3i w2 3i 2 w 2 0 Since the equation in z* is now similar to the

are the conjugates of the roots of equation in w , each root of Q w corresponds

z 3 1 3i z 2 2 3i z 2 0,

to the conjugate of a root of P z .

i.e. i , 2i , and 1 .

Example 3 [AJC07/Prelim/II/3]

In an Argand diagram, the point A represents the fixed complex number a , where

0 arg a . The complex numbers z and w are such that

2

z 2ia a and w w ia

Sketch, in a single diagram, the loci of the points representing z and w .

Find:

1

(ii) the range of values of arg in terms of arg a .

z

Solution Comments

Let C be the point representing –ia .

w w ia

z 2ia a

If 0 arg a , A is in the first

B 2

a A quadrant of the complex plane. Plot any

a such point A .

D a

The locus of points representing z is a

0 Re circle centred at B with radius a .

C

The locus of points representing w is the

perpendicular bisector of the line

segment joining the origin and C .

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From OA , an anticlockwise pivot about

the origin by radians and a stretching

2

by factor 2 gives OB .

From OA , a clockwise pivot about the

origin by radians gives OC .

2

1 z w is the minimum distance between

OD OC a point on the locus of points

2

1 representing Z and a point on the locus

a a of points representing W .

2

3

a Since the locus of points representing w

2 is a bisector of OC , it divides OC into

1

2 segments of equal length, a .

2

arg arg 1 arg z arg z

z known variable, arg z .

part of it is copied here for easier

reference.

a M

B

A

a

D

a a

N

0 Re

Let M and N be the points at which the Using tangents to the circle is a

tangent to the locus of z passes through the common technique to find the min./max.

origin, as shown. value of arg z a when the locus of

points representing z is a circle.

Let M and N represent the complex

numbers m and n respectively.

If Z is the point representing z , arg z

Then arg(m) arg z arg n . is the angle made by the vector OZ

with the positive real axis.

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BOM BON sin 1

2a the final answer to be in terms of

6

arg a .

arg m arg a BOM

2

The line OB passes through the centre

arg a of the circle. Hence, use the angle OB

2 6

makes with the positive real axis as a

arg a reference, and add/subtract from it.

3

OA makes an angle of arg a with the

arg n arg a BON

2

positive real axis, and BOA .

arg a 2

2 6

Hence, OB makes an angle of

2

arg a

3 arg a with the positive real axis.

2

arg a arg z arg a

3 3 1

to the range of values of arg .

z

arg a arg z arg a 1 , and flip the inequality signs.

3 3

2 1

arg a arg arg a

3 z 3

Example 4 [NJC08/Prelim/I/6]

(i) The set of points P in an Argand diagram represents the complex number z that

satisfies z 2 i 2 . Sketch the locus of P .

arg w 2 3i where . Give a geometrical description of the locus of

Q.

(a) Find the range of values of such that the locus of Q meets the locus of P

more than once.

3

(b) In the case where tan 1 , find the least value of z w in exact form.

4

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Solution Comments

(i) Im z 2 i 2

z 2i 2

2 with radius 2 .

tangent to the imaginary axis. Examiners

will look out for the relative position of

lines and circles to the axes.

(but not including) 2, 3 and making

an angle with the positive real axis. Remember to write “(but not including)”.

technique as in Example 3, part (ii).

(2,1 )

2 2

0 4 Re

2

1

(2, 3)

1 sin 1

2 4 2 6 3 circle makes an angle of with the

2

2 2

2 sin 1 positive real axis. Hence, use this angle as

2 4 2 6 3 a reference, and add/subtract from it.

1 2

2

3 3

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(ii)(b) Im z 2i 2 The locus of Q (which represents w )

should have gradient

A(2,1 ) arg w 2 3i 3 3

2 tan tan1

6 4 4

0 4 D Re

Geometrically, the least value of

3

C z w is the minimum distance

between a point on the locus of P

B(2, 3) 4 and a point on the locus of Q .

tan 1

4 distance is DC , where DCB and

ACB are right angles.

3 is ABC . Since DC AC 2 , aim to

ABC tan 1 find AC first.

2 4

AC

sin ABC Knowing AB and ABC , AC can

AB be found using trigonometric ratios

AC AB sin ABC on the right-angled triangle ABC .

3

4sin tan 1

2 4

4 16 3

AC 4 Let tan 1 .

5 5 4

Least value of z w DC

AC 2

6

5 5 2

3

4

To calculate sin in exact

2

form, draw a right-angled triangle

3

involving . Since tan , the

4

side opposite and the side adjacent

to have lengths in the ratio 3: 4 .

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Basic Counting Principles

Addition Principle: If there are a ways to do something and b ways to do another thing,

and the two things cannot be done simultaneously, then there are a b total ways to do

exactly one of the things.

thing, then there are a b ways to do both things in succession.

o Important: arrange, order, in a row, around a table

o Not Important: choose, select, form groups/committees/teams

Yes No

Can each object be repeated any number of times? No. of ways to choose r

objects from n distinct

Yes No objects:

No. of arrangements of r objects (possibly n!

n

Cr

repeated) from n distinct objects: r ! n r !

nr

e.g. Choose 2 monitors

e.g. Form a string of 4 letters using the English

from a class of 24

alphabet: n 26 , r 4 , No. of ways 26 4 students: n 24 , r 2

Yes No

distinct) from n distinct objects: n1 are of type 1,

n2 are of type 2, …

n!

n

Pr nk are of type k :

n r !

n!

e.g. Choose 1 monitor, 1 treasurer, 1 n1 !n2 !nk !

secretary (all distinct) from a class of e.g. Arrange 2 red balls, 3 green balls, 5

24 students: n 24, r 3 , blue balls in a row. Since 2 3 5 10 ,

No. of ways 24 P3 10 !

No. of ways

2 ! 3! (5 !)

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Useful Techniques

assuming the positions around the circle are identical.

Grouping adjacent objects: If some objects must be adjacent, group them and treat them

as a single object. When arranging all the objects/groups, remember to also arrange the

grouped objects within each group.

Slots: e.g. If 3 women and 5 men are to be seated in a row such that no 2 women are

adjacent, arrange the 5 men first. There are 6 ‘slots’ (denoted | ) between and beside the 5

men (denoted M):

|M|M|M|M|M|

Then, arrange the 3 women in 3 distinct ‘slots’. Hence, the number of ways is 5! 6 P3 .

phrases like ‘at least one’ appear in the question.

If A is a condition, the number of objects with A equals the total number of objects,

minus the number of objects without A :

n A n total n( A ')

Case-by-case method: Use it if all else fails. Check that each possibility is counted in

one and exactly one case, such that no possibilities are double-counted or missed out.

Find the number of permutations of all eight letters of the word BELIEVED in which

(i) there is no restriction;

(ii) the three letter ‘E’s are next to each other;

(iii) the three letter ‘E’s are always separated.

Solution Comments

(i) 8! The letters in BELIEVED are 3 ‘E’s and 1 each of ‘B’, ‘L’,

6720

3! n!

‘I’, ‘V’, ‘D’. Since only ‘E’ is repeated, use

n1 !n2 !nk !

with n 8 and n1 3 ( n2 , , n8 1 ).

(ii) 6! 720 Group the 3 ‘E’s as 1 object. Arrange the 6 resulting objects.

‘slots’ between and beside these 5 letters: | B | L | I | V | D |.

Place the 3 ‘E’s in 3 of these 6 slots. Since the order of the

‘E’s does not matter, use 6C3 instead of 6 P3 .

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Example 2 [RJC08/Tutorial 12/Section D/12]

3 boys, 2 girls, and a dog sit at a round table. How many ways can they be arranged if

(i) there is no restriction?

(ii) the dog is to be seated between the 2 girls?

(iii) the dog is to be seated between any 2 boys?

Solution Comments

(ii) (4 1)! 2 12 Group the 2 girls and the dog as 1 object. Arrange the 4

resulting objects, then multiply by 2 as the objects within the

group can be arranged in 2 ways.

can be G1 DG2 or G2 DG1 in clockwise order.

(iii) 4 1! 3! 36 Group some 2 boys and the dog as 1 object. Arrange the 4

resulting objects to get 4 1! . Since the 3 boys are distinct,

multiply by 3! to arrange them.

Example 3 [HCJC01/I/7]

Thirteen cards each bear a single letter from the first thirteen letters A, B, …, L, M of the

alphabet. Seven cards are selected at random from the thirteen cards, and the order of

selection is not relevant. How many selections can be made if the seven cards

(i) contain at least two but not more than four of the letters A, B, C, D and E?

(ii) contain four but not five consecutive letters, e.g. A, B, C, D, G, H, I?

Solution Comments

(i) 5

C 2 8C 5 5C 3 8C 4 5C 4 8C 3 Use a case-by-case method.

1580

The 7 cards chosen contain:

Case (2): exactly 3 of those letters.

Case (3): exactly 4 of those letters.

choose those 2 first to get 5C 2 . We are left with 5

letters to choose and 8 letters to choose from, to get

8

C5 .

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(ii) 8

C 3 2 7 C 3 8 392 Since there are only 7 cards, they can contain at

most 1 string of 4 consecutive letters. Use a case-by-

case method.

and:

Case (1):

Contain A, B, C, D or J, K, L, M (2 sub-cases)

Case (2):

Contain any other 4 consecutive letters (8 sub-cases)

fixed, 1 other letter cannot be chosen, since it would

form 5 consecutive letters, i.e.:

If J, K, L, M are fixed, I cannot be chosen.

choose from, to get 8C3 for each sub-case.

letters are fixed, 2 (not 1) other letters cannot be

chosen, e.g.:

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Probability

Definitions

P A B is the probability that only A occurs, only B occurs, or both A and B occur.

Equivalently, P A | B is the probability of A occurring, given that B has occurred.

P A B

o P A | B , where P B 0 .

P B

Mutually exclusive: A and B are mutually exclusive if A and B cannot both occur.

o P A B 0

o P A B P A P B

event has no influence on the occurrence or non-occurrence of the other.

o P A | B P A

o P B | A P B

o P A B P A P B

Useful Techniques

phrases like ‘at least one’ appear in the question.

P A 1 P A '

Case-by-case method: Use it if all else fails. Check that each possibility is counted in

one and exactly one case, such that no possibilities are double-counted or missed out.

P A B P A P B P A B

P A B P A P B

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To find the probability of A occurring given that B has occurred,

P A B

o Calculate P A | B , or

P B

o Consider the reduced sample space given that B has occurred, then calculate

n A B

P A | B , where n X is the number of outcomes for X to occur.

n B

o P&C, when objects are chosen without replacement.

o The Binomial distribution, when objects are chosen with replacement.

events are given.

Probability tree:

1 B

A

1 1 B'

2 B

1

A'

1 2 B'

general, the probabilities on the first level of the diagram are for only 1 event, while those

on the second level are conditional probabilities.

probabilities.

e.g. P A ' B P A ' P B | A ' 1 1

To find P B or P B ' , add the probabilities of the branches which lead to B or B ' .

e.g. P B P A P B | A P A ' P B | A ' 1 1 2

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Example 1 [D90/II/6]

A bag contains 4 red counters and 6 green counters. 4 counters are drawn at random from the

bag, without replacement. Calculate the probability that:

(i) all the counters drawn are green,

(ii) at least 1 counter of each colour is drawn,

(iii) at least 2 green counters are drawn,

(iv) at least 2 green counters are drawn, given that at least 1 counter of each colour is

drawn.

State with a reason whether or not the events ‘at least 2 green counters are drawn’ and ‘at

least 1 counter of each colour is drawn’ are independent.

(i) 6 5 4 3 1 6

C4 1

10 9 8 7 14 10

C4 14

Let G be the number of green counters out Assume the counters are distinct, so that

of the 4 counters drawn. Then, this is each of the 10C4 combinations of 4

P(G 4) . counters have an equal probability of

being chosen. Out of these, 6C4

There is no need to multiply by anything

combinations are all green.

else to account for order, since all 4 counters

are the same type (green).

(ii) 1 4 3 2 1 97 1 4

C 97

1 1 10 4

14 10 9 8 7 105 14 C 4 105

P G 1, 2, 3

1 P G 0 P (G 4)

1 P G 0 (i)

(iii) 1 97 6 4 3 2 4! 37

1 97 6C1 4C3 37

10

14 105 10 9 8 7 3! 42 14 105 C4 42

P G 4 P G 1, 2, 3 P G 1 There are 6C1 combinations of 1 green

4

(i) (ii) P(G 1) counter, and C3 of 3 red counters,

giving 6C1 4C3 total combinations of 1

4! green and 3 red.

Multiply by when finding P(G 1) , to

3!

account for order when there are different

types of items (green and red).

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Solution Comments

for ways to use your answers to earlier parts, even

42 14 105 97

though the question may not require it explicitly.

G 2,3, 4 given that G 1, 2,3 . Since the

intersection of these 2 events is G 2,3 , using the

formula for conditional probability:

P (G 1, 2,3) P (G 1, 2,3) (ii)

Let A be the event that at least Since P ( B ) , P ( A) , and P( A | B) are known from

2 green counters are drawn. Let parts (ii), (iii), and (iv) respectively, choose the

B be the event that at least 1 condition P A P ( A | B ) to check if A and B are

counter of each colour is drawn.

independent.

85

Since P A | B

97

37

and P A ,

42

P A|B P B , thus A and B

are not independent.

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Example 2 [J88/II/6]

4 girls, Amanda, Beryl, Claire, and Dorothy, and 3 boys, Edward, Frank, and George, stand

in a queue in random order. Find the probability that:

(i) the first 2 in the queue are Amanda and Beryl, in that order,

(ii) either Frank is first or Edward is last (or both),

(iii) no 2 girls stand next to each other,

(iv) all 4 girls stand next to each other,

(v) all 4 girls stand next to each other, given that at least 2 girls stand next to each other.

(i) 1 1 1 5! 1

7 6 42 7 ! 42

1 each with equal probability. 5! of these

, then once there are 6 positions

7 permutations have Amanda in position 1

remaining, Beryl is in position 2 with and Beryl in position 2.

1

probability .

6

(ii) 1 1 1 1 11 6! 6! 5! 11

7 7 7 6 42 7! 42

Let F be the event that Frank is first, Similar to the probability approach.

and E be the event that Edward is last.

Use

P F E P F P E P(F E ) .

(iii) 4 3 2 1 1 4! 3! 1

7 6 5 4 35 7! 35

The 7 people must be in the order Since we are counting permutations with

‘gbgbgbg’, where ‘g’ denotes a girl and this approach, we must permute both boys

‘b’ a boy. and girls in the ‘gbgbgbg’ order, then

divide it by the total of 7! permutations.

Position the girls first, then the positions

of the boys are fixed and the condition is

satisfied.

(iv) 4 3 2 1 4 4! 3! 4 4

4

7 6 5 4 35 7! 35

This is similar to part (iii), except there Similar to the probability approach.

are 4 possible positions of ‘gggg’ within

or beside ‘bbb’.

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Solution Comments

(v) 4 Again, in probability questions with many parts, look out for

35 2 ways to use your answers to earlier parts, even though the

1 17 question may not require it explicitly.

1

35

Let A be the event that all 4 girls stand next to each other. Let B

be the event that at least 2 girls stand next to each other. Then

A B A , since B is a subset of A .

P( B' ) is given by the answer to (iii), since ‘at least 2 girls stand

next to each other’ and ‘no 2 girls stand next to each other’ are

complementary events. Using the formula for conditional

probability:

P ( A B ) P ( A) P ( A) (iv)

P A | B

P( B) P ( B ) 1 P ( B ') 1 (iii)

Example 3 [N01/II/11a]

1 1 1

Events A and B are such that P A , P B | A , and P A ' B ' .

3 3 6

Find

(i) P A B ,

(ii) P B .

Solution Comments

P A B 1 P A ' B '

6 or both of A and B , and A ' B ' is the area not

within either A or B .

P A B P A P A B P ( B ) , and P( A B) for easier manipulation.

P A B P A P A P ( B | A) Use

5 1 1 1 P A B P A P B P A B

6 3 3 3 then

11 P( A B)

P B | A

18 P ( A)

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Distributions

Expectation

Since the expectation is a summation, you can apply summation rules to it.

E a a

E aX aE X

E aX b aE X b

E aX bY aE X bE Y

Variance

The variance is always positive. When combined, 2 variances are always added together.

Var aX a 2 Var X

Var aX b a 2 Var X

If X and Y are independent,

Var aX bY a 2 Var X b 2 Var Y

Standard deviation Var X

Var 2 X 4 Var X , but Var X 1 X 2 2 Var X . (Example 2)

Properties of Distributions

Binomial: X ~ B n, p

n

P X x p x 1 p (In MF15) for x 0,1, 2,..., n

n x

o

x

o Mean, E X np

o Variance, Var X np 1 p

o Assumptions:

n independent trials

Constant probability of success

Each outcome is either success or failure

Occur randomly

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Poisson: X ~ Po

x

o P X x e

(In MF15) for x 0,1, 2,...

x!

o Mean, E X

o Variance, Var X

o Assumptions:

Occur independently

Uniform rate of occurrence

Occur singly

Occur randomly

Normal: X ~ N , 2

o Mean, E X

o Variance, Var X 2

GC Syntax

If you forget GC syntax, use CtlgHelp. For example, to find the syntax for normalcdf(,

2. [2ND][VARS], then press the down key until normalcdf( is highlighted.

3. Press the [+] key to display the syntax.

If X ~ B n, p ,

P X a is given by binompdf n, p , a

P X a is given by binomcdf n, p , a

If X ~ Po ,

P X a is given by poissonpdf , a

P X a is given by poissoncdf , a

If X ~ N , 2 ,

P X a is given by normalcdf E 99, a , ,

P X a is given by normalcdf a , E 99, ,

P a X b is given by normalcdf a , b, ,

P X a P X a

P X a P X a

P a X b P a X b P a X b P a X b

For Z ~ N 0,1 , the standard normal random variable, and can be omitted in the

GC syntax. The GC will assume that 0 and 1 .

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FAQ

X is continuous and follows a normal distribution.

If X can have any integer value from 0 onwards with no upper limit,

X follows a Poisson distribution.

X follows a binomial distribution.

or “Find the approximate number of…”

or “Estimate…”

A: Show that the original distribution fulfills the conditions for approximation.

n is large

such that np 5

and n 1 p 5

Binomial Normal

X ~ B n, p Continuity X ~ N np , np 1 p

correction

Normal

X ~ N ,

n is large ( 50 ),

p is small ( 0.1 ), Continuity

such that np 5 correction

10

Poisson Poisson

X ~ Po np X ~ Po

whether to approximate to a Poisson or normal distribution.

If p is moderate (close to 0.5), approximate X to a normal distribution.

If p is close to 0, define a new variable Y which has p close to 1, and approximate

Y to a Poisson distribution.

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Q: Sum random variables.

If X ~ Po 1 and Y ~ Po 2 ,

X Y ~ Po 1 2

Subtraction ( X Y ) is not allowed.

If X ~ N 1 , 12 and Y ~ N 2 , 2 2 ,

o X Y ~ N 1 2 , 12 2 2

o aX b ~ N a 1 b, a 2 12

o aX bY ~ N a 1 b 2 , a 2 12 b 2 2 2

X

1. If X ~ N , 2 , then let Z .

X

2. Then Z ~ N 0,1 and P X x P Z

.

3. Since for Z , both mean (0) and standard deviation (1) are known,

X

use InvNorm on the GC to find an equation for .

4. Solve simultaneous equations if necessary.

Example 1 [N01/II/8]

The random variable X has a normal distribution with P X 7.460 0.01 and

P X 3.120 0.25 . Find the standard deviation of X .

(i) Using a Poisson approximation, find the probability that at least 197 of these

observations are less than 7.460.

(ii) Using a suitable approximation, find the probability that at least 40 of these

observations are less than -3.120.

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Solution Comments

x cannot immediately use InvNorm, and

Let Z , then Z ~ N (0,1) . standardization is necessary.

7.460

P X 7.460 P Z 0.01

PZ 0.99 InvNorm can be used as and are

known for Z .

7.460 specify and , the GC will assume

2.3263 (5 s.f.)

0 and 1 , as with the standard

normal distribution.

for the other equation from the question,

From the GC, P X 3.120 0.25 .

3.120

0.67449 (5 s.f.)

use PlySmlt2 on the GC to solve for

0.67449 3.120

and .

From the GC, 3.53 (3 s.f.)

(i) Let Y be the number of observations not We define Y with “not less than” rather

less than 7.460 out of 200 observations. than “less than”, because p must be

Then Y ~ B(200, 0.01) . small for a Poisson approximation.

Since n 200 is large (>50) and p 0.01 Remember to write “out of 200

is small such that np 2 5 , observations”.

Y ~ Po(2) approximately.

less than 7.460, as required.

P Y 3 0.857 (3 s.f.)

(ii) Let W be the number of observations less Z is reserved for the variable with the

than 3.120 out of 200 observations. standard normal distribution, so define the

Then W ~ B(200, 0.25) . variable as W instead.

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Since n 200 is large such that To approximate a binomial variable with

np 50 5 and n 1 p 150 5 , moderate p e.g. 0.25 , use a normal

W ~ N 50, 37.5 approximately. approximation. If p is extreme e.g. 0.01 ,

use a Poisson approximation.

(by continuity correction) normalcdf on the GC, not 2 37.5 .

0.957 (3 s.f.)

Example 2 [AJC05/II/27]

The weights of large eggs are normally distributed with mean 65 grams and standard

deviation 4 grams. The weights of standard eggs are normally distributed with mean 50

grams and standard deviation 3 grams.

(a) One large egg and one standard egg are chosen at random. Find the probability that

4

the weight of the standard egg is more than the weight of the large egg.

5

(b) Standard eggs are sold in packs of 12 while large eggs are sold in packs of 5.

(i) Find the probability that the weight of a pack of standard eggs differs from

twice the weight of a pack of large eggs by at most 5 grams.

(ii) A customer bought two packs of large eggs. Find the value of m (to the nearest

0.1 gram) if there is a probability of 0.03 that the average weight of the eggs in

one pack is more than the average weight of the eggs in the other pack by at

least m grams.

Solution Comments

Let Y represent the weight of a standard egg, in grams.

Then X ~ N 65, 42 and Y ~ N 50,32

4

Required probability is P Y X

5

4 4

E Y X 50 (65) 2

5 5

4 16

Var Y X 32 4 19.24

2

5 25

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4

Y X ~ N 2,19.24

5

4 4

P Y X P Y X 0 0.324 (3 s.f.)

5 5

P Y1 Y2 ... Y12 2 X 1 ... X 5 5 contains 12 different eggs,

hence each egg is an

E Y1 ... Y12 2 X 1 ... X 5 independent observation of

Y.

50 12 2 5 65

50

Var Y1 ... Y12 2 X 1 ... X 5

12 32 4 5 16

428

Y1 ... Y12 2 X 1 ... X 5 ~ N 50, 428

P Y1 Y2 ... Y12 2 X 1 ... X 5 5

P 5 Y1 ... Y12 2 X 1 ... X 5 5

0.0109 3 s.f.

~ N 0, 6.4 more than the other, use the

5 5

X ... X 5 X 6 ... X 10 modulus sign because either

Let Q 1 pack could be the heavier

5 5 one.

P | Q | m 0.03 P Q m 0.015

From G.C., m 5.5 g nearest 0.1g

Example 3 [NJC05/II/30]

A Geography student is studying the distribution of bullfrogs in a large rural field where there

is an average of 500 bullfrogs per 400 km2. One part of the field is identified and divided into

50 equal squares, each with sides measuring 2 km. The student wishes to model the

distribution of bullfrogs in each square by using the Poisson distribution with mean .

(i) State the value of and one assumption made in using the Poisson distribution.

(ii) Four squares are selected at random. Find the probability that two of these squares

contain no bullfrogs and each of the other two squares contains at least 2 bullfrogs.

(iii) Using a suitable approximation, find the probability that, out of 50 squares, there are at

least 35 squares that contain at most 5 bullfrogs each.

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(iv) Determine the approximate probability that the total number of bullfrogs in 10 randomly

selected squares is between 40 and 60 (not inclusive).

(v) The student suggests using the same model on another rural field in another country.

Comment on the suitability of the model in this situation.

Solution Comments

400 a bullfrog lies in a square is

Total squares in field 100. independent. Use the word

4

“event”.

500

5

100 Alternative assumption

Assumption: The event that a bullfrog lies in a Average rate of occurrence of

square is independent of other bullfrogs. bullfrogs in the field is constant.

Then X ~ Po 5 There are

4!

permutations of 4

2!2!

Required probability objects where 2 objects are of type

A and the other 2 are of type B.

[ P X 0 ]2 1 P X 1

2 4!

2!2!

0.000251 3 s.f.

binomial to normal. Otherwise, try

Let Y be the number of squares that contain at

binomial to Poisson, since these

most 5 bullfrogs, out of 50.

are the only two possible cases.

Y ~ B 50, 0.61596

Since n 50 is large,

np 30.8 5, n 1 p 19.2 5,

Y ~ N 30.798,11.828 approximately.

P Y 35

P Y 34.5 (by continuity correction)

0.141 3 s.f.

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(iv) Let Q denote number of bullfrogs in 10 squares.

Then Q ~ Po 50

Since ,

Q ~ N 50,50 approximately.

P 40 Q 60

P (40.5 Q 59.5) (by continuity correction)

0.821 3 s.f.

distributed in another country. Therefore, the

model may not be suitable.

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Sampling Methods

Example: Say we want to select a sample of 50 workers from a company with 200 workers.

40 workers are under 30 years old, 100 are 30 to 40 years old, and 60 are above 40 years old.

Random Random

Method Assign each worker a number from 1 to 200.

Select a sample of 50 workers 200

using a list of random As 4 , randomly select one worker from

50

numbers. the first 4. If say the 3rd worker is chosen, include

every 4th worker from the 3rd worker in the

sample, i.e. the 3rd, 7th, 11th, …, 199th workers.

Pros Even spread over population

Cons Requires sampling frame Requires sampling frame

Cannot replace unavailable Cannot replace unavailable sampling units

sampling units Biased if members of the population have a

Time-consuming to locate periodic or cyclic pattern

selected units

Random Non-random

Method Select random samples from the age Same as stratified, except:

groups with sample size proportional to the Sample size need not be (but can

relative size of each age group, i.e.: be) proportional

Non-random samples are drawn

Age Sample size from each age group

30 20

30 – 40 50

40 30

Pros Likely to give more representative Lower cost

sample Less time-consuming

Does not require sampling frame

Cons Requires sampling frame Non-random

Cannot replace unavailable sampling Likely to give less representative

units sample

Strata may not be clearly defined Biased as researcher may just pick

members who are easier to collect

data from

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FAQ (Sampling)

Questions on sampling methods Use the context of the question in your answer.

Identify type of sampling method used

Explain why:

o Method is inadequate: list cons

o Method is biased/unbiased

o Sample is likely to be representative or not

Suggest a better method if required

Describe your suggested method

Given x and x 2

, 1

x x

n

x x

2

or ,

x

2

1 1 x x

Find unbiased estimate x of

2

s

2

x

2

population mean n 1 n n 1

Find unbiased estimate s 2 of

population variance 2

Find x and s 2 , Let y x b .

given ( x a) and x b . y

2

x a b a

x a n(b a)

y x b

2 2

x y b , sx2 s y2

Find x and s 2 , GC gives sx , square the value to get s x2 .

given a list of data. Individual data

o Values in L1

o Key in: 1-Var Stats L1

Grouped data

o Values in L1 , frequencies in L2

o Key in: 1-Var Stats L1 , L2

Testing

Use t -test instead of z -test sample is small ( n 50 ), and

2 is unknown

Use s 2 instead of 2 2 is unknown

Use Central Limit Theorem sample is large ( n 50 ), and

population distribution is unknown

Assume population distribution is normal sample is small ( n 50 ), and

population distribution is unknown

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If the sample is large, population is normal, and 2 is unknown, Central Limit Theorem is

not required. However, since s 2 must be used as an unbiased estimate of 2 , write

“approximately” after the distribution of X .

FAQ (Testing)

% significance level’ in the

context of the question concluding that H 0 is rejected given that H 0 is true is .

100

probability of concluding that the mean mass of a chicken is

greater than 1.75kg when it is actually 1.75kg is 0.05.

any o Central Limit Theorem holds, hence the

population follows a normal distribution

approximately, and no assumptions about its

distribution are needed.

o Assume the distribution of the population is

normal

Compare outcomes of z -test Since the graph of the t -distribution has “thicker tails” than

and t -test, given same data that of the z -distribution about 0 , given the same

significance level, the t -test would be lead to a conclusion

of H 0 being rejected for more values of x .

significance level, sample If p value P X x P Z ,

/ n

mean, or population mean on

x 0

outcome o If increases, p value increases

/ n

x 0

If p value P X x P Z ,

/ n

x 0

o If increases, p value decreases

/ n

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s , or n such that H 0 is o 1-tailed: P X x or P X x

rejected (or not rejected) at a o 2-tailed:

% significance level. If x 0 , 2P X x

If x 0 , 2P X x

State the condition on the p -value for the outcome (For

e.g. a 5% significance level, value 0.05 )

o If H 0 is rejected, p value value

o If H 0 is not rejected, p value value

s2

Standardize, only if the mean 0 or variance of X

n

is unknown, i.e. when finding the range of 0 , s , or n

Use InvNorm to find the range of , x , or 0 that

satisfies the condition on the p -value

Conclude in the context of the question

The manufacturer of the ‘Genius’ brand of cigarettes claimed that the average tar content of a

‘Genius’ cigarette is not more than 14mg per cigarette (mg/cig). A surveyor from a rival

company took a random sample of 8 ‘Genius’ cigarettes and lab measurements of the tar

content yielded 14.2, 14.5, 13.9, 14.1, 14.0, 14.1, 14.2, 14.4 mg/cig. Will he be able to reject

the manufacturer’s claim at 5% level of significance? State any necessary assumption made

by the surveyor in carrying out the test.

To confirm his findings, the surveyor took another random sample of 50 ‘Genius’ cigarettes

and measured the tar content x in mg/cig. The following results were obtained:

x 10 208.2515 , x 14 5.2455 .

2

(i) Find unbiased estimates of the population mean and variance of the tar content in

mg/cig.

(ii) Find the range of values for the average tar content per cigarette that the manufacturer

should claim in order that it will not be rejected as an underestimate at the 1% level of

significance if a z -test is carried out.

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Solution Comments

Let X be the tar content of a cigarette in Always define X if the question does not.

mg/cig. Specify its units, if any (mg/cig).

Since n 8 is small, the surveyor must Since the sample is small and the

assume that X follows a normal distribution of the population is unknown, it

distribution. must be assumed to be normal.

alternative hypothesis H1 .

Perform a 1-tailed test at the 5% 2. Write down 1-tailed or 2-tailed test, and

significance level. the level of significance α% .

Under H 0 , T ~ t (n 1) , used and determine its distribution.

s/ n

where x 14.175 , 0 14 ,

x and s 2 will appear on the GC screen

s 0.19821 , n 8 . with the p -value, so we do not need to

calculate them.

X μ0 X μ0

T , not , since σ is

s/ n σ/ n

unknown and we estimated it with s .

sample mean, which can have many values.

x is the mean of a particular sample,

usually given in the question.

Since p value 0.0206 0.05 , the 5. Conclude in the context of the question.

surveyor will be able to reject H 0 and

conclude that there is sufficient evidence

at the 5% significance level that X 14

and the manufacturer’s claim is false. █

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(i) Let y x 14 . Always let y be the expression which is

y x 14 squared in the summary statistics, e.g. let

y x 14 when x 14 is given.

2

x 10 50 4 8.2515

y x 14 5.2455

2 2

Give values which will be used in later

8.2515 parts of the question to 5 s.f. first, then to 3

x y 14 14

50 s.f.

14.165 (5s f. .) 14.2 (3s f. .)█

1 8.25152

sx2 5.2455

50 1 50

0.079260 (5s f. .) 0.0793 (3 s f . .)

█

Perform a 1-tailed test at the 1% terms: What is the range of μ 0 such that

significance level. H 0 is not rejected when a z-test is carried

Under H 0 , by the Central Limit Theorem out at the 1% significance level?

since n 50 is large,

s2 The manufacturer’s claim is H 0 : μ μ 0 ,

X ~ N 0 , approximately, where

n and if

μ it μwere “rejected as an underestimate,

H1 : 0 would be true.

x 14.165 , s 0.079260 , n 50 .

Let Z . Then Z ~ N (0,1) .

s/ n immediately use InvNorm, and

If H 0 is not rejected, p value 0.01 . standardization is necessary.

x 0

P X 14.165 P Z 0.01

s/ n

PZ 0.99 InvNorm can be used as μ and σ are

s/ n

known for Z .

From the GC,

14.165 0

2.3263 (5 s.f.)

0.079260 / 50

Solving, 0 14.1 (3 s.f.) █

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Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PMCC)

(Note that no linear correlation does not

imply no relation)

The closer the absolute value of r is to 1, the stronger the linear correlation between 2

variables.

Limitations of PMCC

Does not necessarily prove that there is a linear relationship between two variables

o e.g. there may be an outlier

Unable to prove any non-linear relationship between variables using the coefficient

o e.g. points on a parabola can be chosen to give a PPMC of close to zero

Therefore, use BOTH the scatter diagram and the r-value together when making

judgements/statements/comparisons.

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Relevant Formulae (In MF15)

xy n

x y

r

( x x)( y y )

( x x 2

) ( y y )

2

x

2 x

2

y

2 y

2

n n

y y b( x x )

b

( x x)( y y)

( x x) 2

Although not in MF15, the formula for the regression line of x on y can be obtained by

swapping x with y in the above formula for the regression line of y on x)

Linear Regression

The least square regression line is the line which minimises the sum of squares of the

residuals. (Note that the a residual is the difference between the observed & predicted values.)

Scatter Diagrams

Ensure the relative position of the data points is correct.

Display the origin at the correct relative position. If the data is far away from the origin,

use a jagged line to indicate an omitted range of values.

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2. When a question requires me to plot ln y against x, but it only provides data set for x

and y, what can I do other than manually evaluating each value of ln y?

For example, if the data given is a list of values of y, but the question requires you to plot

ln y against x, you can do so using GC. For example, y values are in L2. Key all your

values into the lists, with x values in L1, y values in L2. Then, key ln(L2) STO L3

on x?

The intersection point of regression lines of x on y and y on x is ( ̅ , ).

First, we look at the r-value. If it is close to 1 or – 1, then the estimate would be reliable.

Next, we look at whether it is an interpolation or an extrapolation. Assuming r is close to

1 or – 1, an interpolation would be very reliable.

In the case of an extrapolation, we would look the amount of extrapolation. If it is close to

the experimental range of values, then that estimate is reliable. Otherwise, it is not

reliable.

Note that you should use the scatter plot in line with the r-value.

Example 1 [SAJC08/Prelim/II/6]

Each of a random sample of 10 students are asked about the average number of minutes

spent on doing mathematics tutorials in a week (x), and their percentage score for the

mathematics final examination (y). The results are tabulated below:

y 16 25 35 50 60 65 70 75 80 85

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(i) Find the equation of the regression line of y on x.

The question is indirectly saying that y is the dependent variable and x is dependent.

Key all the values into the lists in GC. Remember to turn on the diagnostic function.

From G.C.,

y 0.591x 10.0 3s. f .

[Whether you use LinReg(ax+b) or LinReg(a+bx), linear regression should be done with L1,

L2 where L1 is the independent variable and L2 is the dependent variable.]

(ii) Find the linear product moment correlation coefficient between y and x, and

comment on the relationship between x and y.

r 0.972 3s. f .

(iii) Use the appropriate regression line to estimate the percentage score of a student

who spends 10 minutes doing mathematics tutorial in a week. Comment on the

reliability of the estimate.

Using G.C, y 15.9

However, the estimate is not reliable as 10 minutes is well outside the given range of x values

so the approximation would be unreliable.

Mathematics and Physics. She selected 5 students at random and recorded their scores,

x and y, in Mathematics and Physics tests respectively. She found that, for this set of

data, the equation of the regression line of y on x was y 18.5 0.1x and the equation of

the regression line of x on y was x 16.6 0.4 y .

Remember that the intercept of the

Show that x 125 and y 105 . regression lines (y on x and x on y)

is x, y .

18.5 0.1x y

Combination of concepts from

16.6 0.4 y x

sampling

x 25 and y 21

x 5 25 125 and y 5 21 105

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(i) The Physics score of a sixth student was mislaid but his Mathematics score was

known to be 26.

Use the appropriate line of regression to estimate this student’s Physics score,

and give a reason for the use of the chosen equation.

y 18.5 0.1x

When x 26, y 21(nearest integer)

Since x is given, y is the dependent variable and therefore we use the regression line of y on x.

The estimate is not reliable because | r | is small, i.e. it is close to 0, hence the linear

correlation between x and y is very weak, indicating that the linear model is not suitable.

Example 3 [NYJC08/Prelim/II/11]

A student wishes to determine the relationship between the length of a pendulum, l, and the

corresponding period, T. After conducting the experiment, he obtained the following set of

data:

T/s 2.45 2.31 2.22 2.07 1.91 1.74 1.56 1.35 1.10 0.779

A : T a b ln l

B : T 2 a bl

Calculate the product moment correlation coefficients for both models, giving your

answer to 4 decimal places. Determine which model is more appropriate. [3]

(iii) Using the model determined in part (ii), estimate the value of l when T = 3s to 1

decimal place. Comment on the suitability of this method. [3]

(iv) Find a value of l and its corresponding value of T such that the equation of the

regression line for the chosen model will remain the same after the addition of this pair

of values. [3]

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Solution Comments

to scale. This means that your

points should be relatively correct

to each other.

r for model A is 0.9871. (4 d.p.) decimal places.

r for model B is 0.9996. (4 d.p.)

For appropriateness of model,

Since the value of r for model B is closer to 1 as look at r values.

compared to model A, model B is more

appropriate.

(iii) Since T is given, we should use the regression line Even though it is in the Physics

of l on T2. mindset that the period depends

on the length of the pendulum, it

is NOT the regression line of T2

From G.C., the value of l is 223.9 (1d.p.)

on l.

well outside of the range of the T values used to instead of T.

plot the regression line. Hence it is not a good

estimate of l.

(iv) The values to be used are l and T 2 . Use G.C. to evaluate the values.

l l 82.5 and T 2 3.3301 5 s.f.

regression lines for both l on T2

T T 1.82 3 s.f. and T2 on l. The intersection of

the two lines will obviously be the

point you are looking for.

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