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Overview

With the exclusion of very excessive price electric areas, absorption chillers cost
more to run compare to electric chillers. The price also twice as much to buy. So, a
reason other than regular electric cost is required to substantiate a base-loaded
absorption method, except the chiller is fired by "waste heat". Steam-fired absorption
is a suitable application where there is a low cost of steam such as waste energy
plant. Absorption chillers don’t use a CFC or HCFC refrigerant; so, some users buy
absorption chillers for this environmental benefit. Larger tonnages (500 tons above)
have a more constructive first cost after matched to electric technologies. So, larger
capacity units are more regular for absorption applications. Absorption chiller also is
used in residences like campuses. This might be the circumstance where residences
either did not have chillers or used previous single-effect absorption units and have
advanced to double-effect or direct fired absorption technology.

Applications
• Large Tonnage Space Cooling
• Industrial Process Cooling
• Cogen Waste Heat utilization
• Waste-to-Energy utilization[1]
1.0 Waste Heat Fired Absorption Chillers

Most of the absorption chillers usage whichever steam or fuel (petroleum gases) for
heat input. But, heat waste from process, gas turbine and cogeneration system can
be exhausted in the absorption process. The exhaust must produce a minimum
temperature of about 550 F and a maximum of 1,500 F. The most conventional
application is consuming the exhaust from a gas turbine to deliver cooling for the
intake air. The existing cooling is a purpose of the exhaust gas temperature and
mass flow rate, using this formula: [1]

Chilling capacity in tons = m x (Tg - 375) / 40,950


Where m = mass flow rate in pound per hour
Tg = exhaust gas inlet temp (F) to absorption chiller
40,950 = conversion factor

209750.40 kg/hour (10490F – 375)/ 40950


= 3452.50 ton/hour
2.0 Absorption chillers are available in two types:
Single Effect (Stage) Units operating on low pressure (less than 20 psig) as the
propelling force. The units normally have a COP of 0.7 and need about 18pph per
ton of 9 psig steam at the generator flange. [2]

Double Effect (2-Stage) Units are available as gas-fired (either direct gas firing, or
hot exhaust gas from a gas-turbine or engine) or steam-driven with high pressure
steam (40 to 140 psig). These units typically have a COP of 1.0 to 1.2. Steam driven
units require about 9 to 10 pph per ton of 114 psig input steam at ARI standard rating
conditions. Gas-fired units require an input of about 10,000 to 12,000 Btuh HHV per
ton of cooling at ARI standard rating conditions. [2]

3.0 ABSORPTION MACHINE PERFORMANCE


As with other refrigeration technologies, the thermal performance of an absorption
machine is defined in terms of a coefficient of performance as

Where Qe is the evaporator heat (i.e., the refrigeration effect), ga is the absorber
heat, QC is the condenser heat, Qd is the desorber heat (i.e., the high temperature
heat transfer), and W is the compressor work input.
4.0 Recommended chiller

[2]

Waste heat - Double Effect (2-Stage) absorption chiller is the recommended


chiller for the 60MW Gas Turbine

Reference:

1. www.adszorpcio.hu/index.php/adsorption-chiller
2. http://cipco.apogee.net/ces/library/tcac.asp