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of statistical response surface method

F. Bayramov, C. Tasßdemir *, M.A. Tasßdemir

Department of Civil Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, 80626 Istanbul, Turkey

Received 29 October 2002; accepted 25 June 2003

Abstract

The objective of this research is to optimise the fracture parameters of steel ﬁbre reinforced concretes to obtain a more ductile

behaviour than that of plain concrete. The eﬀects of the aspect ratio (L=d) and volume fraction of steel ﬁbre (Vf ) on fracture

properties of concrete in bending were investigated by measuring the fracture energy (GF ) and characteristic length (lch ). For

optimisation, three-level full factorial experimental design and response surface method were used. The results show that the eﬀects

of ﬁbre volume fraction and aspect ratio on fracture energy and characteristic length are very signiﬁcant.

2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Fibre reinforced concrete; Steel ﬁbre; Fracture energy; Characteristic length; Response surface method; Mix optimisation

of the post-cracking behaviour of concrete material is

In this study, steel ﬁbre reinforced concretes (SFRCs) essential. The main contribution of steel ﬁbres to con-

are used as cement-based composite materials. These crete can mainly be observed after matrix cracking. If a

materials are reinforced with steel ﬁbres. The ﬁbres used proper design is made, after the matrix cracking, ran-

are short, and their aspect ratio (length/diameter), vol- domly distributed, short ﬁbres in the matrix arrest mi-

ume fraction, and distribution as well as their matrix crocracks, bridge these cracks, undergo a pull-out

properties mainly inﬂuence the performance of SFRC. process and limit crack propagation [3,4]. Debonding

As a result of the rapid developments in concrete tech- and pulling out the ﬁbres require more energy, therefore,

nology, concretes of strength over 100 MPa can be easily a substantial increase in toughness, and resistance to

produced using ordinary materials and applying con- cyclic and dynamic loading occurs [5]. ASTM C 1018

ventional mix design methods [1]. The main concern proposes a method for evaluating the toughness indices

about high strength concrete is its increasing brittleness and JSCE-SF4 recommends determining the ﬂexural

while its strength is being increased. The higher the toughness factor [6,7]. These two toughness parameters

strength of concrete, the lower is its ductility. This in- are not suﬃcient to deﬁne the tensile strain-softening

verse relation between strength and ductility is a serious law [8], which simulates the behaviour of the damaged

drawback when using high strength concrete is of con- region ahead of a continuous crack, which is referred to

cern. A compromise between these two conﬂicting as the fracture process zone [5]. To deﬁne the softening

properties of concrete can be obtained by adding short behaviour, Hillerborg et al. [9] introduced the concept of

ﬁbres [2]. Therefore, it becomes a more signiﬁcant fracture energy GF . The standard test for the evaluation

problem to improve the ductility of concrete. Steel ﬁbre of this property was established by RILEM 50-FMC

reinforcement greatly increases the energy absorption Technical Committee [10].

and ductility of concrete. For a better understanding of Until recently, the optimisation of SFRCs has been

generally made by maximising the fracture energy (GF ).

*

Corresponding author. Tel.: +90-212-285-3771; fax: +90-212-285-

Li et al. [11] solved what was essentially an optimisation

6587. problem and also obtained approximate optimal values

E-mail address: tasdemir@itu.edu.tr (C. Tasßdemir). of ﬁbre aspect ratio (L=d) and of the frictional bond

0958-9465/$ - see front matter 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/S0958-9465(03)00161-6

666 F. Bayramov et al. / Cement & Concrete Composites 26 (2004) 665–675

strength between the ﬁbre-matrix by ﬁrst relating the analyse how certain factors inﬂuence the measurement

objective function GF to these ﬁbre parameters. In an- system. To optimise a process or to ﬁnd the best-ﬁtting

other work, Brandt [12] addressed to the issues about function of a number of experimental points, a model

the simultaneous maximisation of GF , compressive has to be found ﬁrst; after this, the optimisation pro-

strength (fc0 ), and the ﬁrst cracking strength of FRC. cedure is performed using the response surface of the

These objective functions were related empirically to the model as the basis for ﬁnding the best solution. Without

mix, and the ﬁbre variables. Lange-Kornbak and Kar- a model, optimisation does not lead to a general solu-

ihaloo were the ﬁrst to use mathematical optimisation tion of the problem. In order to build a model, it is

techniques for the maximisation of GF and fc0 (either necessary to have some experimental data.

separately or simultaneously) of SFRC [13,14]. They The main aim of this research is to provide the

developed rigorous micromechanical relations between optimisation by maximising the characteristic length

tensile strength and fracture energy, and the mix and (lch ), splitting tensile strength (fst ) and ﬂexural strength

ﬁbre parameters. at the minimum steel ﬁbre volume fraction. For this

In this study, a multiobjective simultaneous optimi- purpose, a statistical RSM has been used. RSMs are

sation technique is used to optimise SFRC with special tools for the modelling and analysis of problems where

emphasis on ductility, in which response surface method one or more measured responses are inﬂuenced by sev-

(RSM) is incorporated. RSM, has been widely used to eral factors and the objective is to optimise the response,

optimise products and processes in manufacturing, such as the characteristic length (lch ). RSM combines

chemical and other industries, but it has had limited use statistical and mathematical methods of experiment

in the concrete industry. In one study, Simon et al. [15] design, regression analysis and optimisation to provide

optimised High Performance Concrete mixtures using useful approaches to the problem development,

this method. The use of RSM to optimise SFRC mix improvement, or optimisation. It provides a compre-

design variables can signiﬁcantly increase not only hensive, statistically based procedure for planning, exe-

ductility (lch ), but also splitting tensile strength (fst ). cuting, and evaluating batch [15].

These two responses are of a conﬂicting nature, as can A response surface can simultaneously represent two

be seen from the following expression proposed by or more independent and one dependent variable when

Hillerborg et al. [9]: the mathematical relationship between the variables is

GF E known, or can be assumed. In this study, the dependent

lch ¼ ð1Þ variables, or responses are compressive strength (fc0 ),

ft02

splitting tensile strength (fst ), ﬂexural strength (fflex ),

where ft0 , E, and GF are direct tensile strength, modulus modulus of elasticity (E), fracture energy (GF ), and

of elasticity, and fracture energy, respectively. characteristic length (lch ). Two factors (or independent

xk design variables) that can be selected to describe this

1.1. Research signiﬁcance system are ﬁbre aspect ratio (x1 ¼ L=d), and ﬁbre vol-

ume fraction (x2 ¼ Vf ). Reasonable ranges can be given

For improving the mechanical behaviour and fracture as follows:

properties of SFRC with respect to aspect ratio and

volume fraction of steel ﬁbre, optimum design is needed. 55 6 L=d 6 80

ð2Þ

The eﬀects of aspect ratio and volume fraction of steel 0:26% 6 Vf 6 0:64%

ﬁbre on the fracture energy and ductility were deter-

mined. Using the experimental results, splitting tensile The additional limitations on the ﬁbre properties given

strength, characteristic length and ﬂexural strength were in the set of Eq. (2) are as follows:

maximised simultaneously at the minimum steel ﬁbre For 55 6 L=d 6 65, L ¼ 3ðL=dÞ 135 and the ranges

volume fraction. Thus, optimal values for the design of L and d are 30 6 L 6 60 mm and 0:55 6 d 6 0:92 mm,

parameters (L=d and Vf ) were found while the brittleness respectively. For 65 6 L=d 6 80, L ¼ 60 mm and 0:75 6

of concrete is minimised. d 6 0:92 mm are speciﬁed, respectively.

A common response surface experimental plan which

can be used to ﬁnd optimal settings is a three-level, two

2. Response surface modelling variable full factorial experimental design. The full fac-

torial design for k ¼ 2 independent variables consists of

Analysis of response surface over the simplex region 32 ¼ 9 points, that is 2k ¼ 22 ¼ 4 factorial points, 2k ¼

involves the collection of experimental data, choosing a 2 2 ¼ 4 axial points and 1 centre point as plotted in

proper model that ﬁts that data, and testing the ade- Fig. 1.

quacy of the ﬁtted model. A response surface is the For the use of a three-level, the two variable full

graph of system response as a function of one or more factorial experimental design allows estimation of a full

variables. These graphs oﬀer an opportunity to visually quadratic model for each response (i.e. fc0 , fst , fflex , E, GF ,

F. Bayramov et al. / Cement & Concrete Composites 26 (2004) 665–675 667

nated with the following codes: A and ﬁrst two digits

75 show the ﬁbre aspect ratio, and V and the last two digits

Fibre aspect ratio (L/d)

70

indicates a mix with a ﬁbre aspect ratio of 80 and a ﬁbre

65 volume fraction of 0.64%. NC denotes the control mix.

Details of the mixtures are given in Table 2. This table

60 also shows some properties of fresh concretes.

55

0.26 0.45 0.64

3.2. Specimen preparation

Fibre volume fraction (Vf),%

In mixing, cement, siliceous sand, limestone ﬁnes and

Fig. 1. Experimental design points according to three-level full fac- crushed limestone were blended ﬁrst and then, high-

torial design. range water reducing admixture and water were added

to the mix. Steel ﬁbres were scattered on the mixture and

and lch ). The full quadratic model for two independent carefully mixed to achieve a uniform distribution of the

variables, which has 6 coeﬃcients that are b0 , b1 , b2 , b3 , ﬁbres in the concrete. Orientation of the ﬁbres is gen-

b4 , and b5 , is shown below: erally random.

y ¼ b0 þ b1 x1 þ b2 x2 þ b3 x21 þ b4 x22 þ b5 x1 x2 ð3Þ The specimens were cast in steel moulds and com-

pacted on a vibration table. All the specimens were de-

The quadratic terms in (Eq. (3)) account for curvature in moulded after about 24 h, stored in water saturated with

the response surface, which is often present when a re- lime, at 20 C until 28 days old. At least three specimens

sponse is at a maximum or minimum in the selected of each concrete mix were tested under each type of

region [15]. loading condition at the 28th day. The beams prepared

for the fracture energy tests were 500 mm in length and

100 · 100 mm in cross-section. Three cylinders were used

3. Experimental details for compressive tests; and for the splitting test, six disc

specimens were prepared. Details of the tests and di-

3.1. Materials and mix proportions mensions of the specimens are given in Table 3.

A total of 10 concrete mixes were cast for this 3.3. Test procedure

investigation. In all the mixes, the volume fractions of

cement, siliceous sand, limestone ﬁnes, crushed lime- Standard strength tests were conducted in accordance

stone, and water were kept constant. Water to cement with European Standards (EN 206 and EN 12390). For

ratio was 0.36. Cement used was ordinary Portland ce- all the beams, the tests for the determination of the

ment with a density of 3.16 g/cm3 and the cement con- fracture energy (GF ) were performed according to the

tent of concrete was 400 kg/m3 . Siliceous sand (0–0.25 recommendation of RILEM 50-FMC Technical Com-

mm) and limestone ﬁnes (0–4 mm) were used as ﬁne mittee [10]. Since the ratio of compressive strength to

aggregates; their densities were 2.63 and 2.65 g/cm3 , tensile strength of the SFRC tested in this work is in the

respectively. As coarse aggregate, crushed limestone was range of 5 to 10, the method suggested by Hillerborg [16]

used. The maximum particle size of aggregate was 16 and also pointed out by Barros and Figueiras [5] has

mm. The density of coarse aggregate was 2.65 g/cm3 . been used. The eﬀective cross-section, however, was re-

The amount of high-range water reducing admixture duced to 60 · 100 mm by sawing in order to accommo-

varied between 0.75% and 1.5% by weight of cement for date both large aggregates and steel ﬁbres used. The

diﬀerent concrete mixtures to maintain suﬃcient work- notched beam specimen tested is shown in the inset of

ability. The volume fractions of steel ﬁbres were 0.26%, Fig. 2. SFRC beam specimens were tested at the loading

0.45%, and 0.64%, and the aspect ratios of ﬁbres (L=d) rate of 0.3 mm/min up to a deﬂection of 2 mm, and then

were 55, 65, and 80. The properties of the steel ﬁbres at 1.5 mm/min up to a 5 mm deﬂection. As schematically

Table 1

The properties of the hooked-end steel ﬁbres

Length (L), mm Diameter (d), mm Aspect ratio (L=d) Density, g/cm3 Tensile strength, N/mm2

60 0.75 80 7.85 1050

60 0.92 65 7.85 1000

30 0.55 55 7.85 1100

668 F. Bayramov et al. / Cement & Concrete Composites 26 (2004) 665–675

1.45 (5.8)

neously by using two linear variable displacement

A80V64

transducers (LVDTs). The load was applied by an MTS

2454

0.36

0.64

0.51

397

281

627

950

143

6.5

80

of 250 kN maximum capacity. The load versus dis-

placement curve for each specimen was obtained by

1.33 (5.3)

recording the average of two measurements taken at the

A80V45

mid span.

2430

0.36

0.45

1.08

395

280

625

946

143

80

5

1.23 (4.9) 4. Experimental results

A80V26

2430

0.36

0.26

0.71

398

282

629

952

144

80

The tests were carried out to investigate the eﬀec-

8 tiveness of steel ﬁbre in the improvement of fracture

0.97 (3.9)

A65V64

2450

0.36

0.64

0.79

396

281

627

949

143

65

6

1.04 (4.2)

A65V45

2447

0.36

0.45

0.47

398

283

630

953

144

5.5

65

volume fraction of steel ﬁbre seems to be more signiﬁ-

1.09 (4.2)

A65V26

2430

0.36

0.26

0.74

398

282

629

953

144

65

7

signiﬁcant change occurs when the ﬁbre volume fraction

A55V64

1.0 (4)

2450

0.36

0.64

0.78

396

281

627

949

143

55

8

orientation may have played an important role in

0.85 (2.4)

A55V45

2446

0.36

0.45

0.65

398

283

630

953

144

55

9

compressive strength.

0.8 (3.2)

A55V26

2415

0.36

0.26

1.41

396

281

626

947

143

55

5

0.75 (3)

2398

0.36

1.57

NC

396

281

627

948

143

–

–

7

High-range water reducing admixture, % (kg/m3 )

2P

fst ¼ ð4Þ

phd

where P , h, and d are the ultimate load, height and

The details of mix concrete proportions

Limestone ﬁnes (0–4 mm), kg/m3

Fibre volume fraction (Vf ), %

Fig. 3. It is seen that the splitting tensile strength in-

Fibre aspect ratio (L=d)

Siliceous sand, kg/m3

Unit weight, kg/m3

3

Cement (C), kg/m

Air content, %

Slump, cm

Mix code

Table 2

W/C

24%, respectively. Thus, it can be concluded that more

F. Bayramov et al. / Cement & Concrete Composites 26 (2004) 665–675 669

Table 3

Test methods and specimen size

Test type Specimen Dimensions (mm) Parameters

Compression Cylinder £150, h ¼ 300 Compressive strength (fc0 ), MPa

Modulus of elasticity (E), GPa

Splitting Disc £150, h ¼ 60 Splitting tensile strength (fst ), MPa

Three-point bending Beam 100 · 100 · 500 Fracture energy (GF ), N/m

Flexural strength (fflex ), MPa

Fig. 2. Schematic representation of the evaluation of fracture energy (a), and test setup (b).

Table 4

Strength and fracture properties of concrete tested

Mix code NC A55V26 A55V45 A55V64 A65V26 A65V45 A65V64 A80V26 A80V45 A80V64

Compressive strength MPa (fc0 ), 60.5 46.1 48.4 45.4 57.3 69.3 74.4 51.4 54.3 55.4

Flexural strength (fflex ), MPa 6.1 6.04 7.0 8.1 6.7 6.9 9.5 6.4 7.3 12.1

Splitting tensile strength (fst ), MPa 5.3 5.6 5.71 6.52 6.36 6.83 7.55 5.92 5.95 6.58

Modulus of elasticity (E), GPa 52.2 49.7 46.7 44.6 51.7 49.5 49.1 45.4 46.4 48.1

Fracture energy (GF ), N/m 91 1011 1851 3368 957 1939 3724 1024 1793 4371

Characteristic length (lch ), mm 169 1599 2650 3537 1224 2056 3207 1327 2352 4845

Splitting tensile strength (fst), MPa

8 were examined. In most cases, the ﬁbres with the aspect

ratio of 65 ðL=d ¼ 65Þ did not break but were pulled out

of the matrix. However, the ﬁbres with the aspect ratio

7

of 80 ðL=d ¼ 80Þ were broken into two parts. The results

obtained for the ﬁbres with L=d ¼ 65 might be due to

6 their larger cross-sections compared to that of ﬁbres

with L=d ¼ 80. Similar results were obtained by Eren

5

and C ß elik [17]. The cylinder compressive strength of

0.26 0.45 0.64 plain concrete used in this study is about 60 MPa, so for

Fibre volume fraction (Vf), % the steel ﬁbres of L=d ¼ 80, the mechanical mismatch

between steel ﬁbres and concrete may have also played a

Fig. 3. Splitting tensile strength versus ﬁbre volume fraction with role in this behaviour. For high strength concrete, high

diﬀerent aspect ratio. (In NC, fst ¼ 5:3 MPa.)

strength steel ﬁbre with a tensile strength of 2000 MPa is

suggested [18,19].

signiﬁcant results were obtained in SFRCs with the ﬁbre

aspect ratio of 65. 4.3. Flexural strength

Along the fracture plane, the opening and propaga-

tion of the crack are controlled by the steel ﬁbres. The ﬂexural strength of a notched beam subjected to

During the crack propagation some ﬁbres are broken three-point bending test can be evaluated using the fol-

but some of them are pulled-out of the matrix. After lowing equation:

670 F. Bayramov et al. / Cement & Concrete Composites 26 (2004) 665–675

13 4500

Flexural strength (fflex), MPa

11 3500

9 2500

7 1500

5 500

0.26 0.45 0.64 0.26 0.45 0.64

Fibre volume fraction (Vf), % Fibre volume fraction (Vf), %

Fig. 4. Flexural strength versus ﬁbre volume fraction with diﬀerent Fig. 5. Fracture energy versus ﬁbre volume fraction with diﬀerent

aspect ratio. (In NC, fflex ¼ 6:1 MPa.) aspect ratio. (In NC, GF ¼ 91 N/m.) Note that GF for normal concrete

was calculated from the mesomechanical relationships [21].

fflex ¼ 2

ð5Þ

2bðh aÞ tained here are based on the area under the complete

where P is the ultimate load, and S, b, h, and a are span, load–deﬂection curve up to a speciﬁed deﬂection. The

thickness, height, and notch depth, respectively. Here, cut-oﬀ point was chosen as 5 mm deﬂection. It is seen

a=h ¼ 0:4 and S=h ¼ 4. from the schematic curve that, the energy at this

Flexural strengths of notched beams subjected to deﬂection (i.e. 5 mm), however is not totally dissipated.

three-point bending tests are shown in Table 4. The ef- As shown in Fig. 2, this property was determined using

fects of the aspect ratio and volume fraction of steel ﬁbre the following expression [10]:

on ﬂexural strength are plotted in Fig. 4. The ﬁgure W0 mð1 a2 Þgd ðaÞ ðbÞ

shows that, ﬂexural strength increases as the ﬁbre vol- GF ¼ þ ¼ GF þ GF ð6Þ

bðh aÞ bðh aÞ

ume fraction increases. As seen in Fig. 4 and Table 4, for

the ﬁbre aspect ratio of 55, an increase in the ﬁbre vol- where b, h, a, m, and S are the width, depth, notch depth,

ume fraction from 0 (i.e. normal concrete) to 0.64%, has weight of the beam between the supports, and span,

resulted in an increase of 33.5%. For the ﬁbre aspect respectively. g is the gravity acceleration, a ¼ LS 1, d is

ðaÞ ðbÞ

ratios of 65 and 80, the increases were 56.5% and 100%, the deﬂection of the beam (5 mm) and, GF and GF are

respectively. The fracture process of steel ﬁbre rein- the fracture energies supplied by actuator and the beam

forced concrete consists of progressive debonding of weight, respectively.

ﬁbre, during which slow crack propagation occurs. Final GF of the mixes are shown in Fig. 5, and also in Fig.

failure occurs due to unstable crack propagation when 9, expressed as a function of the aspect ratio and volume

the ﬁbres are pulled out and the interfacial shear stress fraction of steel ﬁbre. It can clearly be seen that fracture

reaches the ultimate strength. The reason for the in- energy increases as the ﬁbre volume fraction increases.

crease in ﬂexural strength is that, after matrix cracking, As seen in Fig. 5 and Table 4, these SFRCs allow

ﬁbres carry the load subjected to concrete until the obtaining high values of fracture energies and as a result

cracking of interfacial bond between ﬁbres and matrix a high ductility; depending on their aspect ratios and

occurs. At higher aspect ratios, the advantage of using volume fractions of ﬁbres used. The ductility is more

ﬁbres for increasing ﬂexural strength of concrete seems than about 40 times greater than that of normal con-

to be more signiﬁcant [20]. crete. The increase in the fracture energy is because of

the high energy of ﬁbre pull-out and ﬁbre debonding in

4.4. Fracture energy the fracture process. The reason for the increase in

fracture energy with increasing ﬁbre volume fraction

One of the major roles of ﬁbre in concrete is to pro- and its aspect ratio stems from a great number of ﬁbres

vide an increase in the energy required for fracture by forming a bridge in the crack forming tortuous crack

the resultant crack arresting process. Fracture energy propagation.

(GF ) is the energy needed to develop one crack com-

pletely. For a notched beam in three-point bending, the 4.5. Characteristic length

procedures recommended by RILEM TC 50-FMC

Technical Committee were applied to measure GF . The Characteristic length ðlch Þ should be taken into con-

load–deﬂection curves were used for evaluating the sideration in the design of concrete mixes, because it

fracture energy. The area under the load versus deﬂec- controls the nominal strength, failure mode, and crack

tion at mid span curve (W0 ) was described as a measure growth (crack pattern) [13]. In order to obtain the

F. Bayramov et al. / Cement & Concrete Composites 26 (2004) 665–675 671

L/d=80 L/d=65 L/d=55 accept or reject a certain explanation term is to test its

5000

signiﬁcance in order to ensure that the additional term

Characteristic length (lch), mm

The procedure to specify an appropriate model is pre-

3000 sented below:

2000

1. Fit the full quadratic model and for each coeﬃcient,

1000 calculate the t-statistic for the null hypothesis that

the coeﬃcient is equal to zero.

0

0.26 0.45 0.64

2. Perform the regression again with a partial model

Fibre volume fraction (Vf), % containing only those terms that are statistically sig-

niﬁcant (i.e. those terms that had a t-statistic greater

Fig. 6. Characteristic length versus ﬁbre volume fraction with diﬀerent than that of the chosen signiﬁcance level, in this study

aspect ratio. (In NC, lch ¼ 169 mm.) a ¼ 0:05). Calculate t-statistics again and eliminate

any insigniﬁcant terms, and repeat this procedure

ductility of the mixes, lch was calculated using the until the partial model contains only signiﬁcant terms.

measured GF , E and ft0 according to (Eq. (1)) introduced

in the ﬁctitious crack model by Hillerborg et al. [9]. In Thus, nine experimental data were ﬁtted to a poly-

this study the direct tensile strength (ft0 ) term in this nomial type of mathematical model by adjusting pa-

relation was replaced by splitting tensile strength (fst ). rameters until calculated values were in close agreement

The variation of lch with L=d and Vf is shown in Fig. 6. with the experimental values. Model ﬁtting results for

As seen in Fig. 6 and Table 4, as both aspect ratio and each response are shown in Table 5.

volume fraction of the steel ﬁbre increase, the charac- For fracture energy (GF ), the ﬁtted regression model

teristic length which is a measure of ductility of the mix, was

increases signiﬁcantly. Hence, it can be concluded that GF ¼ 3542:1 33:64ðL=dÞ 11514Vf

the results obtained give a clear picture of how a quasi-

brittle concrete transforms into a ductile composite with þ 13468:16Vf2 þ 103:41ðL=dÞVf ð7Þ

the addition of steel ﬁbres.

In this case ðL=dÞ, Vf , Vf2 , and ðL=dÞVf are the signiﬁcant

terms. In the analyses of each response, only signiﬁcant

terms (a < 0:05) were included in the model. Using the

5. Regression analysis same procedure described above for GF , the following

models (Eqs. (8)–(12)) were used for compressive

It is very important to choose an appropriate model strength (fc0 ), splitting tensile strength (fst ), modulus of

for describing the shape of the surface for each response. elasticity (E), ﬂexural strength (fflex ) and characteristic

Each mechanical response of SFRC is analysed indi- length (lch ):

vidually by examining summary plots of the data, ﬁtting

2

a full quadratic model using ANOVA, validating the fc0 ¼ 530:12 þ 17:26ðL=dÞ þ 17:75Vf 0:13ðL=dÞ ð8Þ

model by examining the residuals for trends and out- 2

fst ¼ 21:68 þ 0:84ðL=dÞ 2:91Vf 0:01ðL=dÞ

liers, and interpreting the model graphically. A full

quadratic model can be estimated with a three-level full þ 5:98Vf2 ð9Þ

factorial design, but some of the terms may not be sig- E ¼ 15:89 þ 2:48ðL=dÞ 74:42Vf 0:02ðL=dÞ

2

niﬁcant. The full quadratic model was simpliﬁed by

using a backward stepwise technique. The only way to þ 17:15Vf2 þ 0:82ðL=dÞVf ð10Þ

Table 5

Model ﬁtting results for each response

Responses Coeﬃcients

b0 b1 b2 b3 b4 b5

fc0 )530.12 17.26 17.75 )0.13 – –

fst )21.68 0.84 )2.91 )0.01 5.98 –

E )15.89 2.48 )74.42 )0.02 17.15 0.82

fflex 16.67 )0.12 )44.64 – 30.22 0.40

GF 3542.1 )33.64 )11514 – 13468.16 103.41

lch 21687.6 )600.43 )5080.32 3.95 – 173.53

672 F. Bayramov et al. / Cement & Concrete Composites 26 (2004) 665–675

Table 6

Fitted values for each mechanical properties of SFRC

Fibre aspect Fibre volume Fitted values

ratio (L=d) fraction (Vf ), %

Compressive Splitting tensile Flexural Modulus of Fracture en- Characteristic

strength (fc0 ), strength (fst ), strength (fflex ), elasticity (E), ergy (GF ), N/m length (lch ), mm

MPa Mpa MPa GPa

80 0.64 57.1 6.7 11.8 48.1 4251 4523

80 0.45 53.7 6.0 7.9 46.2 2084 2841

80 0.26 50.3 5.8 6.2 45.6 900 1159

65 0.64 71.7 7.5 9.7 49.1 3767 3286

65 0.45 68.3 6.8 6.9 49.6 1896 2101

65 0.26 64.9 6.6 6.4 51.3 1009 917

55 0.64 50.0 6.5 8.3 44.5 3445 3448

55 0.45 46.6 5.8 6.3 46.6 1772 2595

55 0.26 43.2 5.6 6.5 49.9 1082 1742

(fflex), MPa

þ 0:4ðL=dÞVf ð11Þ

lch ¼ 21687:6 600:43ðL=dÞ 5080:32Vf 11.8

10.4

þ 3:95ðL=dÞ2 þ 173:53ðL=dÞVf ð12Þ

9.0

By using the Eqs. (7)–(12), the ﬁtted values that were 7.5

obtained for each of the mechanical properties of SFRC 6.1

are shown in Table 6. Response surfaces of the

mechanical properties, fst , fflex , GF , and lch as a function

of the aspect ratio and volume fraction of steel ﬁbre are

plotted in Figs. 7–10, respectively.

0.64

80

6. Optimisation 0.45

65 Fibre aspect

Fibre volume

fraction (Vf), % ratio (L/d)

After building the regression model and establishing 0.26 55

relationships between mix design variables and the re-

sponses expressed in Eqs. (7)–(12), all independent Fig. 8. The variation of fflex with L=d and Vf .

Splitting tensile

strength (fst),MPa Fracture energy

(GF), N/m

7.5 4251

7.1

3413

6.6

2575

6.1

1738

5.6

900

0.64 0.64

80 80

Fibre aspect

0.45 65 ratio (L/d) 0.45

65 Fibre aspect

Fibre volume Fibre volume ratio (L/d)

fraction (Vf), % fraction (Vf), %

0.26 55 0.26 55

Fig. 7. The variation of fst with L=d and Vf . Fig. 9. The variation of GF with L=d and Vf .

F. Bayramov et al. / Cement & Concrete Composites 26 (2004) 665–675 673

(lch), mm the optimisation, respectively. The power value wtj is a

weighting factor of the jth response.

4523

In this work, for optimisation, a commercially avail-

3592

able (Design-Expert) software package was used.

2662

To attain a less brittle concrete, a concrete with the

1731 highest splitting tensile strength (fst ), the highest char-

917 acteristic length (lch ) and also the highest ﬂexural

strength (fflex ) is to be obtained. So it is necessary to

maximise fst , lch and fflex , simultaneously. Thus, these

three responses (fst , lch and fflex ) are considered to be of

0.64 equal importance, i.e. wtj ¼ 1 and maximised simulta-

80 neously. For n ¼ 3, Eq. (13) takes on the form:

1

0.45 65 D ¼ ðd1 d2 d3 Þ3 ð16Þ

Fibre volume

fraction (Vf), % Fibre aspect where d1 , d2 and d3 are the desirability functions of fst ,

0.26 55 ratio (L/d)

lch and fflex , respectively.

Fig. 10. The variation of lch with L=d and Vf . The solution of this multiobjective optimisation is

shown in Fig. 11. The ﬁgure shows that, the optimal

variables are varied simultaneously and independently values of design variables are Vf ¼ 0:64% and L=d ¼

in order to optimise the objective functions. The objec- 76:44. Since 65 6 L=d 6 80, the limitations of L and d

tive of optimisation is to ﬁnd the ‘‘best settings’’ that are: L ¼ 60 mm and 0:75 6 d 6 0:92 mm, thus L ¼ 60

maximise a particular response or responses. Optimi- mm and d ¼ 0:785 mm, which shows that d is between

sation usually involves considering several responses 0.75 and 0.92. The predicted response values and asso-

simultaneously. A numerical optimisation technique ciated uncertainties (at 95% conﬁdence level) are lch ¼

using desirability functions (dj ), which are deﬁned for 4068 415 mm, fst ¼ 7:1 0:2 MPa, fflex ¼ 11:3 0:7

each response, can be used to optimize the responses MPa, GF ¼ 4136 237 N/m, E ¼ 49:2 0:4 GPa and

simultaneously [22]. A desirability function (dj ) varies fc0 ¼ 65:7 4:7 MPa.

over the range of 0 6 dj 6 1. By using the single compos- The cost of the steel ﬁbres used in the production of

ite response (D) given in Eq. (13), which is the geometric composites is also important from the application is of

mean of the individual desirability functions, the mul- concern. Therefore, the volume fraction of steel ﬁbre

tiobjective optimisation problem is solved. D is maxi- must be minimised to get an economical mixture. Nu-

mised over the feasible region of the design variables merical optimisation can optimise any combination of

given in Eq. (2) [23]: either factors or responses. Thus, fst , lch , fflex and volume

fraction of steel ﬁbre (Vf ) are also considered to be of

1

D ¼ ðd1 d2 d3 dn Þn ð13Þ

where n is the number of responses included in the Composite

optimisation. If any of the responses or factors falls desirability (D)

outside their desirability range, the overall function be-

comes zero. 0.808

In cases of the maximising and minimising of indi- 0.606

vidual responses, the desirability will be deﬁned by the 0.404

formulas given in Eqs. (14) and (15), respectively. 0.202

8 0

>

> 0 Yj 6 min fj

< h Yj min fj iwtj

>

and 0 < dj < 1;

dj ¼ max fj min fj ð14Þ

>

> min fj < Yj < max fj

>

:

1 Yj P max fj

8 0.64

>

> 1 Yj 6 min fj 80

< h max fj Yj iwtj

>

and 0 < dj < 1; 0.45

dj ¼ max fj min fj ð15Þ 65

>

> min fj < Yj < max fj Fibre volume

>

: fraction (Vf),%

Fibre aspect

0 Yj P max fj 0.26 55 ratio (L/d )

where dj , Yj , min fj and max fj are the desirability Fig. 11. Response surface plot of the composite desirability (D) when

function, the ﬁtted value, and minimum and maximum fst , lch and fflex are maximised simultaneously.

674 F. Bayramov et al. / Cement & Concrete Composites 26 (2004) 665–675

equal importance, i.e. wtj ¼ 1 and optimised simulta- uncertainties (at 95% conﬁdence level) are lch ¼ 3359

neously, i.e. fst , lch and fflex are maximised and Vf is 310 mm, fst ¼ 6:8 0:1 MPa, fflex ¼ 9:4 0:5 MPa,

minimised. In this case Eq. (13) takes on the form: GF ¼ 3125 165 N/m, E ¼ 48:6 0:3 GPa and fc0 ¼

1

65 3:8 MPa.

D ¼ ðd1 d2 d3 d4 Þ4 ð17Þ

fst , lch , fflex and Vf , respectively.

The solution of this multiobjective optimisation is

Response surface method is a promising approach for

shown in Figs. 12 and 13. These ﬁgures show that, the

optimising SFRCs to meet several performance criteria

optimal values of design variables are Vf ¼ 0:558% and

such as minimum brittleness. The experimental design

L=d ¼ 75:87, i.e. L ¼ 60 mm, d ¼ 0:791 mm, and Vf ¼

made by using RSM provides a thorough examination

0:558%. The predicted response values and associated of SFRC properties over the selected range of ﬁbre

volume fraction and aspect ratio. In order to provide an

Composite

adequate representation of the responses, ﬁtting qua-

desirability (D) dratic models that are usually assumed to represent each

concrete property of interest, can be done in identifying

0.457 optimal mixes. The results show that the predictiveness

0.343 of the polynomial regression model is satisfactory.

The addition of steel ﬁbre improves fracture properties

0.229

signiﬁcantly.

0.114

When the mechanical properties (fst , lch and fflex ) are

0 concerned, the optimal values of design variables ob-

tained are as follows: a steel ﬁbre volume fraction of

0.64% and an aspect ratio of 76.44. For both mechanical

properties (fst , lch and fflex ) and cost optimisation the

0.64 optimal values of design variables obtained are as fol-

80 lows: a steel ﬁbre volume fraction of 0.558% and an

aspect ratio of 75.87.

0.45

Fibre volume

65 Compatibility of the matrix with the steel ﬁbre should

Fibre aspect be investigated and an optimisation based mixture de-

fraction (Vf),%

ratio (L/d )

0.26 55 sign is to be used as a future work.

Fig. 12. Response surface plot of the composite desirability (D) when

fst , lch and fflex are maximised and steel ﬁbre volume fraction (Vf ) is

minimised simultaneously. Acknowledgements

0.64 and Technical Research Council of Turkey)––BAYG is

0.246 greatly appreciated by the ﬁrst author. The second and

0.46 third authors wish to acknowledge the grant of The

British Council (Britain–Turkey Partnership Program

0.436 for the academic link between ITU and Cardiﬀ Uni-

Fibre volume fraction (Vf),%

0.381

versity), and the ﬁnancial supports of TUBITAK (Pro-

ject: ICTAG 1665) and DPT (State Planning

0.45 0.322

Organization, Project: 2002K120340). The support

0.246 given by BEKSA is also gratefully acknowledged.

0.152

0.152

0.076 References

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