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ORGANIC CHEMISTRY the defined physical state under standard

Enantiomers conditions.
Stereoisomers which rotate plane-polarized ½H2(g)  H(g)
light in opposite directions ∆Hөr = ∆Hөatom [H2(g)]

Racemic mixture Standard enthalpy change of solution - ∆

A mixture of equal proportions of Hөsoln
enantiomers where there is no net optical The heat change when 1 mole of solute is
activity completely dissolved in enough solvent so
that no further heat change takes place on
Meso compound adding more solvent (infinite dilution) at
An optically inactive compound with a plane standard conditions.
of symmetry and more than one chiral center. CuSO4(s)  Cu2+(aq) + SO42-(aq)
∆Hөr =
Electrophile [CuSO4(s)]
Electron-deficient species
Standard enthalpy change of hydration -
Nucleophile ∆Hөhyd
Electron-rich species The heat energy evolved when 1 mole of the
gaseous ion is dissolved in a large amount of
ENERGETICS water at standard conditions
Hess’ Law states that the enthalpy change Na+(g)  Na+(aq)
of a reaction is determined by the initial and ∆Hөr = ∆Hөhyd [Na]
final state of the system and is independent
of the pathway taken. Bond energy - BE
The average energy absorbed when 1 mole
Standard enthalpy change of reaction - ∆ of X-Y bonds are broken in gaseous state
H өr CH4(g)  C(g) + 4H(g)
The heat change when molar quantities of ∆Hөr = 4BE [C-H]
reactants as specified by the chemical
equation react to form products at standard Bond dissociation energy - BDE
conditions The energy required to break 1 mole of that
particular X-Y bond in a particular compound
Standard enthalpy change of formation - in gaseous state.
∆Hөf CH4(g)  CH3(g) + H(g)
The heat change when 1 mole of a pure ∆Hөr = BDE [C-H]
compound in a specified state is formed from
its constituent elements in their standard
First ionization energy - 1st IE
states at standard conditions.
The energy required to remove 1 mole of
H2(g) + ½O2(g)  H2O(l) electrons from 1 mole of gaseous atoms in
∆HrӨ = ∆HfӨ [H2O(l)] the ground state to form 1 mole of gaseous
unipositive charged cations.
Standard enthalpy change of Na(g)  Na+(g) + e-
combustion - ∆Hөc Hөr = 1st IE [Na]
The heat evolved when 1 mole of a
substance is completely burned in oxygen at Second ionization energy - 2nd IE
standard conditions. The energy required to remove 1 mole of
C(s) + O2(g)  CO2(g) electrons from 1 mole of gaseous X+ ions to
∆HrӨ = ∆HcӨ [C(s)] form 1 mole of gaseous X2+ charged cations.
Na+(g)  Na2+(g) + e-
Standard enthalpy change of Hөr = 2nd IE [Na]
neutralization - ∆Hөneut
The heat change when an amount of acid First electron affinity – 1st EA
neutralizes a base to form 1 mole of water (in The energy change when 1 mole of electrons
dilute aqueous solution) at standard are added to 1 mole of atoms in the gaseous
conditions. state to form 1 mole of gaseous X- ions
KOH(aq) + HNO3(aq)  KNO3(aq) + Cl(g) + e-  Cl-(g)
H2O(l) ∆Hөr = ∆Hөneut Hөr = 1st EA [Cl]

Standard enthalpy change of Second electron affinity – 2nd EA

atomization - ∆Hөatom The energy change when 1 mole of electrons
The heat change when 1 mole of atoms in are added to 1 mole of gaseous X- ions to
the gas phase is formed from the element in form 1 mole of gaseous X2- ions

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Cl-(g) + e-  Cl2-(g) change which disturbs the equilibrium, the
Hөr = 2nd EA [Cl] system responds in such a way as to
counteract the effect of the change.
Lattice energy - |LE|
The heat change when 1 mole of pure solid IONIC EQUILBRIA
ionic compound is formed from its Brønsted-Lowry theory of acids and
constituent gaseous ions under standard bases
conditions A acid is a proton donor. A base is a proton
Mg2+(g) + 2Cl-(g)  MgCl2(s) acceptor. An acid-base reaction involves the
Hөr = |LE| [MgCl2(s)] transfer of a proton from an acid to a base.

Strong acid
An acid which undergoes complete
KINETICS dissociation in aqueous solution
Rate Equation
A mathematical equation that shows how the Weak acid
rate of reaction is dependent on the An acid which undergoes partial dissociation
concentrations of the reactants. It relates the in aqueous solution
rate of reaction to the concentrations of the
reactants raised to the appropriate power.

Rate constant – k Strong base

A proportionality constant in the rate A base which undergoes complete ionization
equation of the reaction in aqueous solution

Order of reaction w.r.t. a reactant Weak base

The power to which the concentration of that A base which undergoes partial ionization in
reagent is raised in the rate equation aqueous solution

Overall order or reaction Degree of ionization – α

The sum of all powers to which The fraction of molecules which is ionized at
concentrations of reactants are raised in the equilibrium
rate equation
Buffer solution
Half-life – t½ A solution which is able to resist a change in
The time required for the concentration of a pH upon the addition of a small amount of
limiting reagent to decrease to half of its acid or base
initial concentration
CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIA Standard electrode potential – Eө
Reversible reaction The potential of a half-cell relative to a
Reactions that take place in both directions at standard hydrogen half-cell under standard
comparable rates conditions

Static equilibrium Standard cell potential – Eөcell

A state in which there is no change in both The potential difference between two half-
macroscopic and microscopic properties in a cells under standard conditions
Dynamic equilibrium Transition metal
A reversible reaction in which the rate of the A metal which forms one or more stable ions
forward and backward reactions are equal which have incompletely filled d-subshells
and nonzero.
Degree of dissociation – α A complex contains a central metal ion linked
The fraction of a reactant that has to one or more surrounding ligands.
dissociated at a particular temperature
Apparent molecular mass – Mapp An anion or a molecule which contains at
The weighted average of the relative least one atom bearing one lone pair of
molecular masses of all gases present in electrons which can be donated into the low-
equilibrium lying vacant orbital of the central metal
atom/ion forming a dative bond.
Le Chatelier’s Principle states that if a
system in equilibrium is subjected to a

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